The  Loss  of  Materiality  
The  Canon    
Senior  Project    

Lindsay  Wold    
Presented  to:   Professor  Rocio  Aguilar-­‐Nuevo   Professor  Elisa  Lanza  

S t .   J o h n   I n t e r n a t i o n a l   U n i v e r s i t y  





There  are  many  people  who  have  dedicated  their  time  and  effort  in  to  the   completion  of  this  thesis  through  seemingly  endless  support,  guidance,  and  advice.         Firstly,  I  would  like  to  thank  my  advisor,  Rocío  Aguilar-­‐Nuevo,  for  the  support  she   gave  and  the  push  to  always  reach  beyond  the  boundaries.    The  seamless  guidance   and  attentiveness  led  me  to  challenge  myself,  and  the  direction  of  this  project.         I  would  also  like  to  thank  Elisa  Lanza  for  her  guidance  through  the  research  phases   of  my  project,  and  the  feedback  and  leading  she  gave  throughout  my  Bachelor   studies.       Lastly,  I  would  like  to  thank  the  institutions  that  were  accessible  for  the  core  of  my   research:  St.  John  International  University,  Moorpark  College,  and  California  State   University  of  Northridge.  





 reading  my  blog.     4   .     My  Family  –  who  stood  by  me  as  I  embarked  on  the  adventure  of  studying  abroad  and   encouraged  every  step  I  have  taken  in  my  studies.  and  mostly  staying  up  till  odd  hours  of  the  night  so  I  could   read  them  my  ideas  for  this  project.  letting   me  bounce  ideas  off  them.     My  friends  –  all  those  who  have  diligently  been  there  for  me.This  thesis  is  dedicated  to:     My  Grandparents  -­‐  who  collectively  created  the  passion  and  drive  that  led  me  to   study  the  beauty  of  art  and  complete  this  project.

 the  ideas  behind  the  limits  of  the  material  body.  which  lead  to  a  classification  of   separation  within  the  history  of  art.     Keywords   Canon.  Aesthetics.   Romanticism.  Materiality.   Each   canon   from   the   given   divisions   mentioned   prior  offers  their  own  distinct  traits  of  development.    Human  figures  are  one  of  the  most  commonly  represented   subjects   in   compositions.   First  is  to  examine  and  study  the  canons  that  determine  the  outcome  of  the   compositions   that   were   produced   with   special   attention   to   Egyptian.    The  nucleus  will  put   weight   on   the   ideas   concerning   the   origin   of   the   canon   and   its   development   throughout  art  history.    The  new  sense  of  the  body  is  no  longer  a  reflection  of  culture.       Ending  with  exact  focus  on  the  reboot  that  is  taking  place  in  the  Contemporary  art   canon.   Greek.Abstract   Covering  the  span  of  art  history  focus  will  be  given  to  the  main  movements  in   order  to  track  the  progression  of  the  canon  of  the  human  body.   Renaissance.   and   the   idealization   evolves   and   changes   throughout   the   history  of  art.     This   sense   of   space   is   something   that   has  been  consistently  destroyed  and  rebuilt  over  the  past  century.   Impressionism.  but  a  sense  of   cultural  consumption.   and   the   beginnings   of   Modernism   and   Post-­‐modernism.  Consumption     5   .   Photography.  Culture.  becoming  the  movements  of  Art  History.  and  how  a  new  sense  of  the   body   is   being   created   will   be   brought   to   light.  and  will  continue   to  follow  this  trend  in  parallel  to  the  Post-­‐Modern  lifestyles  that  are  consuming  the   earth.

The  Canon     a. Sexuality   ii. The  Deconstruction  of  the  Canon   Conclusions   List  of  Images   Bibliography         6   . The  Canon  of  Symmetry   a. Perfection   iii. Movement   8. Beauty   6. The  Canon  of  Proportion   a. Reality   7. The  Canon  of  Destruction   a. Time   ii. The  Canon  of  Anatomy   a. Science   ii. Who  creates  the  canon?   2. Power   3. The  Canon  of  Reality   a. Modernism   b. The  Romantics   i. Impressionist  Creation   i. Strength   ii. Time   ii. The  Canon  of  Exoticism   a. The  Canon  of  Emotions   a. The  Development  of  Photography   i.   Table  of  Contents     Acknowledgements   Introduction   1. The  Egyptian  Canon   i. Masculinity   4. Expectation   5. Aesthetics   ii. The  Rebirth  of  Art   i. What  is  the  Canon?   b. The  Greek  Artists   i. What  does  the  canon  mean  in  art?   c.

 “a     7   .   idealization.   -­‐Ernst  Gombrich     The   Canon   is   the   reality   of   the   culture   in   which   it   developed.     The   artistic   representations   bring   the   viewer   in   to   the   world   it   was   created   in.   and   eroticism.   conformity.   when   the   actuality   of   the   matter   is   that   it   is   a   precept   that   has   lasted   for   the   course   of   history.   a   variation   on   the   guidelines   in   portraying   the   human   form.     They   display   power.   the   more   the   following   movement   challenged  it  with  their  own  cultural  view  of  the  body.     The   more   realistic   the   canon   became.     Each   era   of   artistic   creation   is   a   new   era   of   the   canon.  as  Zygmunt  Bauman  believes.   with   developments   and   variations   in   the   views   of   materiality.     We   try   to   define   the   canon   through   examples   of   procedure   of   complexity.  there  became  liquidity  in  life  resulting  in.   time.       Introduction     Justification  and  Bounds   All   artistic   discoveries   are   discoveries   not   of   likenesses   but   of   equivalencies.   beauty.   which   enable   us   to   see   reality   in   terms   of   an   image   and   an   image   in   terms   of   reality.    As  Modernity  hit  in  the  19th   century.   each   disparity   being   the   influence   of   the   culture   in   the   presence   of   bodily   form.

  2).    The  bounds  of  the  canon  are  evident  within  the  movement  they  were   created  in.     This   liquidity   is   directly   translated   to   the   canon  of  art.         Degree  of  Innovation   The   “Canon”   is   a   term   that   has   been   used   across   the   span   of   history.    The  remarkable  nature  of  these  given  movements  is  the  essence  of  the   canon   throughout   each.     Artists.  offering  the  modern  viewer  a  peek  in  to  its  world  created.   and   critics   have   used   this   to   define   the   structures   in   which   the   compositions   of   human   figures   have   been   created.   and   embraced  in  other  ways.       The   canon   stands   as   one   of   the   most   important   links   between   all   of   art   and   culture   over   time.   the   idea   of   the   canon   was   rejected   in   form.   We   classify   compositions   in   to   movements  with  some  covering  the  extent  of  a  thousand  years  while  others  last  for   under  five.  and  in  turns  becomes  the  destruction  of   the  past  creations  of  the  body.     At   the   point   of   the   20th   century.  and   consumed  under  through  culture  and  tradition.     It   is   an   idea   that   has   developed   personally   for   the   various   cultures.   yet   precisely   for   that   reason   there   are   swift   and   painless   endings”   (Bauman   2005.  developed.succession   of   new   beginnings.    This  created  a  wreckage  of  the  canon  that  had  developed     8   .  and  it  is  important  to  note  that  the  series  of  codes  and  regulations  remains   evident   for   the   artists   to   maintain   throughout   the   developments   of   various   art   movements.   The   new   generation   of   the   canon   no   longer   serves   as   a   window  to  view  the  world  surrounding  it.   historians.  which  reaches  a  point  of  destruction  with  the  new  concepts  of  time  and   space   that   flood   culture.   being   further   developed   and   enhanced   by   the   culture   the   encompass.

    The   canonical   forms   have  become  consumption  based  rather  then  purely  based  on  the  cultural  body.     This   is   where   the   separation   from   the   previous   development   of   the   canon   begins.   constantly   destroying  itself.   To  offer  the  reader  a  clearer  view  of  the  concepts  that  surrounds  the  creation   of  the  canons  over  the  span  of  Art  History.     We   are   interpreting   these   ideas   of   what   the   body   is.     The   ideas   surrounding   the   cultural   body   were   in   turn   thrown   away.   while   destroying   the   past   canon.   -­‐ To  focus  on  those  who  create  the  canon  and  the  view  of  the  body  through  the   course  of  art.     -­‐ To   create   a   link   between   the   expectations   created   through   the   canon   and   the   consumption  of  art.     The   new   interpretations   of   the   body   are   creating   the   new   canon.         Objectives     -­‐ -­‐ To  show  the  evolution  of  the  canon  in  Art  History.  and   the   idea   of   the   body   turned   from   pure   materiality   to   concepts   of   what   the   body   could   become   and   the   space   that   it   consumed.   and   the   viewer   has   been   left   without   the   observation   of   the   present   cultures   via   artistic   production.so   consistently   over   the   preceding   centuries.    The   liquidity   of   the   post-­‐modern   world   has   left   a   void   in   the   canon.   and   how   far   it   can   spread   outside   the   material   object.    The  complete  destruction  of  the  canon  as  it  has  been  preciously  known.     9   .   -­‐ To  learn  more  about  the  societies  and  cultures  that  lie  behind  the  canonical   construction.

    There   are   articles   that   will   be   used   for   research   regarding   interpretations   of   different   texts.  will  be  used  as  well.     The   texts   utilized   range   from   art   history   textbooks   for   basic   knowledge   of   the   topic.   both   primary   and  secondary  sources  will  be  used.    The  research  that  took  place  over  the  course  of   the   Fall   2012   semester   revolved   around   reading   various   texts   taken   from   the   St.     In   terms   of   online   resources.  I  will  focus  the  research  on     10   .    After  the  research  of  the  different  representations  of  the  body   and  how  it  has  been  conveyed  onto  the  artists’  canvas.     Methodology   For   the   Project   Title   The   Canon:   Creation.         Research  Structure   In   this   text   the   canonical   evolution   will   be   evaluated   with   focus   to   the   specific   movements  chosen.   Expectation.   art  journals.     Lectures   and   videos   from   different   institutions.   John   International   library   as   well   as   libraries   in   the   California   University   system.  namely  museums  as  well  as  universities.    The  secondary  sources  will  be  used  only  as   support   for   the   primary   sources.    My  goal  is   to  combine  this  all  in  an  organized  way  in  order  to  follow  my  ideas  and  concretely   support  them  through  these  sources.   Consumption.   gathered   from   the   two   library   systems   mentioned   above.  and  published  articles  regarding  the  concepts  of  various  canons  of  the   body.   articles   and   excerpts   from   texts   have   been   collected   and   organized  in  order  to  aid  the  research.

  concluding   with   the   wave   of   Modernism   and   Post-­‐ Modern   notions   of   time   and   space   that   directly   destruct   the   canon   constructed   over   the  past  thousands  of  years.       The  content  will  be  displayed  following  the  different  classifications  of  the  canon  that   become   the   separations   of   art   movements.the   ideas   of   materiality   that   make   up   the   human   figure.     The   chapters   remain   divided   by   these   movements  that  are  described  with  compositions  supporting  the  chapters  research   and  finally  the  drawn  conclusions.                                                   11   .     The   aesthetics   of   cultural   tradition   will   be   researched.

                                      12   .

    The   story   transcends   alongside   the   body.                     THE  CANON   Art  is  a  story  that  is  timeless  with  the  artist  as  the  creator.  to  learn  about  the   story   that   has   began   to   unfold   before   them.    It  serves  as     13   .  with  a  longing  to  see  more.   developing   a   newfound   language.    There  is  a  personal  nature  to  this  tangible  object.    A  desire  sprouts.  there  to  open  the   eyes  of  the  viewer.   one   called   the   Canon.     This   story   budding   from   the   artist’s   hands   revolves   around   the   design   and   conceptions   of   the   human   body.  something  interpreted  by  the  owner  as  their  own   singular  sense  of  self.    The  body  is  where  the  Canon  begins  and  ends.     The  human  body  is  unique.

 in  turn  creating  the  movements     14   .     The   cultural   body   emerges.   but   a   cultural   body.     The   personal   existence   that   an   individual  feels  concerning  their  own  tangible  self  is  not  distinctly  apparent  in  the   compositions   of   the   Masters   in   art.       Globally   culture   varies.       As   the   sentience   of   the   body   expands.     The   different   ideals  and  values  coincide  with  the  art  production.  all  while  being  under   the   inevitable   umbrella   of   temporality.   develop.  one  that  must  follow  the  guidelines  in   order   to   fit   into   this   cultural   body  that   surrounds   the   artist.   idealizations   shift   and   change.  feelings.  becoming  an   essence   of   a   new   medium.     Art   gives   elasticity   to   the   boundaries  of  the  body.     Idealization   directs  the  body  into  an  object  to  be  viewed.  and  actions.   evolves.  the  sense  of  expansion  consumes  the  body.    The  desire  to  change.     Depiction   of   the   body   is   merely   an   imagined   imitation   of   the   evolving   cultures.     These   artists   did   not   simply   create   a   unique   body  on  the  canvas  or  through  sculpture.  but  rather  mirror  the  conceived  ideals  of   their   culture.  but  something  almost  seemingly  foreign.   it   becomes   evident   that   this   is   not   singular.   and   grows.    Politics  and  religious  values  snake  their  way  through  the   creator   into   the   art.   and   societies   face   prominence  and  decline.     No   longer   being   the   flesh   of   the   body   known   to   the   individual.  expressions.     While   temporality   lounges   in   the   not   so   distant  horizon.     Culture   naturally   proposes   an   idealization   of   the   body.   contained   within   itself.   and   relocate   devours   the   tangible   object.    It  leaves  its  temporary  existence  in  the  world.     The   pieces   of   artworks   portraying   the   objectified   human   body   exist   commonly   as   subject   matter   because   the   body   remains   recognized   as   something   worthy   of   being   imitated   and   immortalized.the  container  of  our  souls.

   A  sense  of  longing  to  complete  the  story  flourished.  and   the   Greeks   became   adamant   about   creating   a   symmetry   concerning   the   human   body.    The  art  and  structural  ideas  that  reached  the  city-­‐states  of  Greece   from  Egypt  were  valued  greatly  in  the  Archaic  Period.   and   these   constructions   of   the   cultural   body   seek   to   be   portrayed  and  given  a  timeless  existence.     Beginning   with   a   sense   of   mathematical   Canon.  but  also  a  sense  of  the  standing  aesthetics  of  the   culture   that   it   emerged   from.   essentially   dealing   with   the   creation   and   appreciation   of   objects   of   splendor1.  from  http://www.   and   the   canonical   representations   that   developed   in   Egypt   through  the  artist’s  hands.   Retrieved  March  20.utm.    This  strength  correlated  to  those  who  were  in  power.   The   Canon   of   the   human   body   is   something   that   has   been   present   in   the   production  of  art  continuously  over  time.   cultural   values   were   traded   with   the   budding   Greek   civilization   that   was   just  a  sea  away.  2013.   which   can   be   defined   as   the   theory   of   beauty.  (2005.   the   Egyptian   artists   focused   on   a   body   that   portrayed   greatness.     Aesthetics.    Artists  on  these  shores  saw   the   strength   of   the   body.  The  guidelines  that  create  the  criterion  for   the   depiction   of   the   human   body   within   art   are   defined   collectively   as   a   Canon.  July  25).  the  ideal  bodies.that   make   up   the   timeline   of   Art   History.  B.  H.  Aesthetics.  the  Gods  and  the   Pharaohs.     Artists   face   a   series   of   procedures   in   their   creation   of   the   human   body.     The   canon  becomes  not  only  a  standard.     As   the   power   of   the   civilization   dispersed   up   through   modern   day   Europe.   influence   spread                                                                                                                   1  Slater.iep.  Internet  Encyclopedia  of  Philosophy.  The  guidelines  of  the  Canon  differentiate   the   art   movements   that   envelop   the   study   of   art.edu/aestheti/#H6     15   .  play  an  important  role  in  the  cultural  body  that  enveloped  the  artists  and   the  creators  of  the  canon.   thus   a   new   aesthetic   was   formed.   Hundreds   of   years   later.

 but  what  lies  beneath.     An   expansion   of   art   blossomed   as   the   Roman   Empire   spread   throughout   Europe.     A   body   became   more   an   object   of   sexuality.  as     16   .     Impressionists   created   realistic   time  and  movement  with  the  bodies  they  constructed.  resulting  in  the  first  change  of  the  sense  of  the  Canon.  the  aesthetic  faded   out.     The   body   had   reached   its   boundary.  but  an  object  with  a  purpose.  An  expectation  began  to  arise  culturally.    Ideas  of  what  a  body  could  be  were   growing.   and   anatomy   were   completed   in   a   tangible   sense.    A  body  was  no  longer   just  the  exterior  nature  that  everyone  could  perceive.   as   Roman   emperors   copied   the   symmetrical   beings   of   beauty   the   Greek   sculptors   erected.   and   was   not   evident   through   the   Middle   Ages.  but  also  a  complex  anatomical   system.   until   the   artists   of   the   Renaissance  uncovered  the  beauty  of  the  art  that  had  once  filled  the  great  Empires   that   had   ruled   in   the   centuries   before.   and   became   limited   by   its   skin.     Culture   wanted   more.    Eroticism  became  reality  globally.     As   the   political  powers  that  dominated  the  Roman  Empire  began  to  fall.   and   the   Renaissance   developed   into   Romanticism.    An  artist  could  therefore  play  with  the  way  a  body  could  affect  the  viewer.west.    Ideals  of  proportion.     They   uncovered   the   Canon   of   the   Greek   civilization  in  correlation  to  scientific  adventures  focused  in  anatomy  that  the  artists   were   beginning   to   carry   out.   still   maintaining   the   Greek   Canon   of   the   human   body.    The   cultural   body   became   obsessed   with   the   compositions   of   the   body.    Movement  was  essential.     The  Canon  was  therefore  no  longer  a  system  of  guidelines  that  concerned  the  basic   construction.     The   cultural   body   that   created   the   guidelines   of   the   Renaissance   was   influenced   by   these   developments.   and   the   different   ways   that   this   object   could   be   placed   on   display.     The   focus   on   the   body   was   not   just  what  was  seen  through  the  skin.   symmetry.

   Different  cultures   intermixed.                             17     .     Artists   dispelled   the   systems   of   proportions.   and   symmetry.     The   body   was   space.    The  Canon  of  the  human  body  was   in  the  age  of  destruction.   inevitably  resulting  in  the  dispelling  of  a  Canon  at  the  turn  of  the  20th  century.     Aesthetics   evolved   from   beauty   to   feeling.   and   branched   in   to   eroticism   and   emotional   realism.   and   to   the   creator   eternal.   time.   This   embryonic  Canon  in  art  supplies  the  way  to  deconstruct  these  compositions  of  the   body.   or  a  vast  emptiness  of  feeling.  which  has  remained  the  most  fervently  portrayed  object  of  desire.  expanding  in  a  way  it  had  never  before.    The  art  world  became  a  world  of  consumption.   anatomy.  The  Canon   offers  the  basis  for  understanding  constructions  of  the  human  body  in  Art  History.  and  globalization  made  one   singular   body.                 Each   culture   that   has   grown   to   prominence   in   art   production   has   created   a   standard   by   which   the   human   body   would   be   portrayed.  the   cessation  in  the  story.art  was  moving  globally.  one   where  the  cultural  body  was  almost  inexistent.  bringing  different  ideals  of  the  body  to  view.     This   body   of   the   20th   century   is   seemingly   nothing   like   the   bodies   that   had   been   canonically   represented   by   the   Egyptians.     They   each   varied   with   subjects   of   proportion.   symmetry.

   Technologies  became  advanced.         18   .  the  beginnings  of  trade.   communities   began   to   develop  and  flourish  along  the  riverbanks  of  the  Nile.  and  with  that.   eventually   integrating   into   each   other.  The  Nile  River  was  a  lush  area.     Agriculture   of   staple   items   such   as   wheat   and   animal   husbandry   began   to   thrive.   which   drew   these   Paleolithic   tribes   looking   for   permanent   settlements   that   would   provide   them   with   sustainable   living.                       CANON  OF  PROPORTION   As   migration   turned   in   to   year-­‐round   settlements.   subject   to   variations   in   the   water   level   that   could   destroy   a   settlement   and   displace  the  people.  but  the  settlers  evolved  quickly  to  the  luscious  area  and  utilized   these  natural  occurrences  to  their  advantage.  and   the   communities   expanded.   creating   mini   cities  within  the  villages.   The   Nile   was   known   to   be   a   temperamental   area.

uk/chronology/index.                                                                                                                       2  Egyptian  Chronology.Figure  1     As  the  cultures  assimilated  with  each  other  through  interactions  trading  offered  and   the   basic   needs   each   faced.   a   new   world   emerged   for   the   settlements.     The   focus   on   an   individual   sense   of   the   body   derived   from   this   realization  that  they  were  now  a  unified  force.  Retrieved  March  22.html         19   .  (n.  The  first   beginnings   of   a   Canon   came   at   this   point   of   consciousness   of   the   individual   tangible   body.  from  http://www.   undertaken  by  Pharaoh  Narmer.2     The   inscribed   slate   of   the   Narmer   Palette   (FIGURE   1)   displayed   this   fusion   of   North   and   Southern   Egypt.   2013.ucl.  Digital  Egypt  for  Universities.     The   first   recognition   of   a   unified   society   was   under   the   rule   of   the   first   Pharaoh   in   3150   BC.d.ac.    This  palette  presents  the  first  perceptible  image  of   strength   through   the   body.   and   at   this   point.   that   of   what   is   now   known   as   the   Egyptian   civilization.   one   standing   culture   began   to   emerge.digitalegypt.).  and  the  body  was  embraced.

   People  were  growing  and  expanding  in  the  sense  of  their  being. 3     The   body   became  a  new  vessel  for  an  ideal  power.    Egyptians  wanted  to  secure  the  cultic  and  magical  functions  of  the   body.   The  art  of  the  Egyptians  was  heterogeneous.legon.   in   direct   correlation   to   the   new   sensations   being   expanded   about  materiality  of  the  physical  body.  becoming  each  other.  The  Cubit  and  the  Egyptian  Canon  of  Art.  (n.   An   essence   of   the   cultural   body   began   to   emerge   as   the   structures   of   the   society   were  built.  which  lied  hand  in  hand  with  the  religious   values  of  the  society.uk/canon.     The   idea   of   the   body   was   not   of   upmost   importance   to   the   traveller’s   survival.  Retrieved  March  22.   being   represented   as   the                                                                                                                   3  Legon.     The   Pharaohs   were   even   brought   to   status   of   divine   nature.  2013.   and   the   cult   Deities.     The   fusion   of   the   various   cultures   led   the   outstanding   artists   a   chance   to   develop   individually.  and  with  that  came  a  conglomerate  story  of   art.  It  stemmed  from  the  numerous   cultures   that   had   once   depended   on   forms   of   cave   painting   to   describe   various   activities.  an  amalgamated   sense  of  power.html       20   .  with  the  most  important  figures  represented  being  the  Pharaoh.  Egyptology  and  the  Giza   Pyramids.  from   http://www.       The  story  of  the  Egyptian  body  began  with  the  Deities  the  culture  worshiped.   while   the   ruling  family  took  the  form  of  their  Deities.demon.     The   Deities   took   a   human   form.     Every  aspect  of  the  everyday  life  was  based  on  the  various  divinities.  J.     The   Egyptian   culture   that   was   rising   changed   this   outlook   to   that   of   the   tangible  body.  who  had   united   them   all.    They  were  the   strongest   beings   and   affected   the   outcome   of   prosperity   to   the   civilization.d.    This   body   was   an   object   of   extreme   care   and   focus   that   transcended   through   their   culture.   which   essentially   distinguished   their   art   from   cave   painting.).co.

html       21   .     The  Canon  that  developed  for  the  artists’  hand  to  follow  under  the  Egyptian   civilization   was   the   Modular   Grid.   “Art   played   a   vital  role  in  asserting  and  activating  the  divine  powers  of  kingship  and  in  defining  in   visual  terms  the  king’s  awesome  responsibilities”5.   but   these   bodies   were   sizably   larger   than   the   civilians.    The  Pharaoh  was  considered  a  “living  Horus.     The   Curator   of   Egyptian   Art   at   the   Metropolitan   Museum   of   Art.  Egyptian  art  becomes  a  principal  view  of  the  body  that  remains  an  example   of  being  repeated  and  documented  under  the  guidelines  that  made  up  the  cultural   representation   of   the   body.  Measure  for  Measure:  what  the  Palaikastro  Kouros  can  tell  us   about  Minoan  Society.ac.   Web.  around  52  cm.metmuseum.  2013.     The   body   stood   as   a   symbol   of   power   for   the   great   civilization  that  was  arising.be/archgrec/aegaeum12.org/pubs/bulletins/1/pd   6  Weingarten.  Metropolitan  Museum  of  Art.ulg.).  following  the  proportions  given  by   the   Canon."  MET  Bulletins.    Art  was  interwoven  into  the  everyday  aspects  of  the  Egyptian   culture.  "Egyptian  Cubit  Rods.  there  to  protect  and  rule   the   Egyptian   civilization”.  22  Mar.  each  representing  a  cubit.   and  this  power  was  displayed  through  his  size.d.                                                                                                                   4  Gods  and  Goddesses.   Nora   Scott.  2013.  (n.  Retrieved  March  23.  from   http://www2.4     The   Pharaoh   was   the   most   important   next   to   the   deities.  Retrieved  March  22.ancientegypt.  2013.).  and  the  Canon  was  formed.   used   between   the   5th   and   26th   Dynasties.  from   http://www.God  Horus.uk/gods/explore/main.  Université  de  Liège.d.co.  n.  Nora.html       5  Scott.  (n.    The  strength  and  power  that  the   civilization  placed  on  the  Pharaoh  and  Deities  was  only  a  drop  in  the  ocean  of  the  art   that  was  produced.d.   states.  Horus.6     This   Canon   first   revolved   around   the   creation   of   a   system   of   horizontal   guidelines   that   divided  the  body  into  three  portions.  J.  <www.   Being   one   of   the   first   movements   to   be   encountered   in   the   study   of   Art   History.

[4]    The  lowest  portion  of  the   horizontal  guidelines  was  the  measurement  from  the  sole  of  the  foot  to  the  knee.   being   a   seven-­‐palm   measurement.    From  the   shoulder   to   the   hairline   was   a   third   cubit.     In   the   case   of   the   canon.    In   the   middle   section   of   the   grid.Figure  2     In  turn.  the  most  upper   cubit   in   the   modular   grid   system   was   divided   in   three.   it   was   divided   in   two.3   cm.    In  wall  painting.   which   was   considered   virtually   universal   among   the   artists.  there  is  proof  of  the  grid  lines  being  placed  prior  to  the   actual  composition.    Lastly.     The   upper   torso   to   the   armpit  was  a  half  cubit.  as  seen  in  the  wall  painting  of  the   Woman  Kneeling.   roughly   52.     The   Canon   that   came   from   the   horizontal     22   .  (FIGURE  2)   The   cubit   was   the   form   of   measurement   in   the   Egyptian   times.[2]     The   royal   cubit   was   a   means   of   measurement   using   the   body   of   the   creator.   leaving   each   half   of   the   royal   cubit  to  create  the  placement  of  the  thighs  and  lower  torso.  these  three  sections  were  divided  in  order  to  maintain  a  uniform  depiction   of  the  body.  the  royal  cubit  was  used  for  the  division  of  the  modular  grid.  from  elbow  to  fingertip.   being  the  length  of  the  forearm.  as  recorded  by   the   archeologist   Karl   Richard   Lepsius.  while  the  armpit  to  the  shoulder  was  a  quarter.

lines   only   guided   the   space   from   the   sole   of   humans’   feet   to   the   hairline.     Figure  3     The   horizontal   guidelines   were   the   first   essence   of   the   materiality   of   power   in   the   Egyptian   Canon   of   Proportion.     This   newfound   addition   to   the   guidelines   of   the   Canon   of   Proportion   was   equally   fixed.          Vertical   lines   were   a   creation   of   a   visible   grid-­‐like   system.    The  scholar  John  Legon  recreated  the  division   of  the  horizontal  guidelines  that  made  up  the  Canon  of  Proportions  (FIGURE  3).  lined  up  with  key  features  of  the  body.  intermixing  a  series  of  vertical  lines  with  the   horizontal  guidelines  that  had  created  the  first  Canon.     The   measurements   ended   at   the   hairline   due   to   the   fact   that   figures   were   frequently   portrayed   with   a   headdress   or   crown   as   a   way   to   distinctively   display   the   various   deities  or  the  figures  place  in  society.  becoming  a  series  of  18  unit  divisions  from  the  sole  of     23   .   and   like   the   horizontal   lines.     These   structural   elements   developed   through   the   3000  years  the  civilization  prevailed.   which   became   the   true   modular   grid   of   the   Egyptian   Canon.    The  original  horizontal  line  divisions   were  broken  up  even  further.

 (n.  Metropolitan  Museum  of  Art.the   feet   to   the   hairline.pdf>       24   .     A   sense   of   balance   began   to   extend   even   further   with   the   vertical   axis   presence.).  Retrieved  March  24.com/Proportions.   evolving   from   2D   depictions   to   sculpture   renderings   of   the   body.                                                                                                                   7  The  Canon  of  Proportions  and  Egyptian  Figures  from  Egypt's  Old  Kingdom.   Pyramid  of  Man  -­‐  The  House  of  Going  Forth  by  Day."  Media.  22  Mar.  from   http://www.org/~/media/Files/Learn/For%20Educators/Publicatio ns%20for%20Educators/The%20Art%20of%20Ancient%20Egypt.8   The   proportions   remained   the   same.   2013.   <http://www.pyramidofman.  2013.htm   8  "The  Art  of  Ancient  Egypt.  Web.metmuseum.     “The   result   of   such   measured   proportions   and   relationships   was   an   art   of   remarkable   order   and   uniformity   that   maintains   the   same   balance   whether   in   a   colossal   statue   or   a   figure   in   hieroglyphic   script”.  seemingly  simplistic  with  the  use  of  the  modular  grid.   and   the  vertical  line  axis  in  turn   was  lined  up  with  the  ear  of  each  body  (FIGURE  4).d.7  The   horizontal   guidelines   that   were   originally   followed   became   divided   equally   with   six   units   in   each   cubit.  n.d.     The   expansion   of   the   story   grew.       Figure  4     The   grid   became   the   step   further   in   a   logistical   approach   to   art   production.

      Figure  5     Despite   the   horizontal   addition.    A  new  conversation  was  started.   the   vertical   axis   remained   the   same.[2]    This  seemingly  minute  change  created   an   even   greater   sense   of   power   that   was   conveyed   to   the   viewer   through   the   expansion  of    language  shown  through  the  body.  as  previously  seen  (FIGURE  5).     There  were  common  basic  gestures  that  the  body  was  displayed  presenting  through   the  compositions.  such  as  the  subject  of  worship.   creating   19  horizontal  units  and  resulting  in  the  upmost  horizontal  line  of  the  first  Canon  to   cross  the  eye  rather  than  the  hairline.   Adding   vertical   guidelines   to   the   already   established   horizontal   structuring   allowed   for   more   uniform   depictions   of   gestures   in   which   the   body   could   exhibit.   which   was   further   obtained   by   the   developed   grid     25   .    These  various  gestures  had  to  maintain  the  balance   and   sense   of   proportions.The   final   Canon   that   developed   under   the   Egyptian   civilization   was   just   a   slight   alteration   of   the   grid   pattern.   crossing   the   ear  and  preserving  the  balance  of  the  body.     The   Proportional   Body   grew   by   a   unit.   and  the  story  of  the  body  broadened.   and   the   compositions   became   objects   by   which   the   society  worshiped  the  Deities.  which  dominated  the  gestures  of   the   body   that   were   depicted.

guidelines.  The  idea  of  creating  a  body  for  the  people  to  view  and  in  turn  worship   through  the  expressions  of  power  and  strength  dominated  the  art  production.       The   Egyptian   canon   was   a   creation,   not   necessarily   a   rendition   of   clear,   accurate   size.9     An   image   was   not   just   based   on   the   proportions   that   had   been   so   carefully   constructed   under   the   Egyptian   Canon,   but   the   placement   and   overall   message   that   the   body   produced.     Artists   had   to   remain   within   the   guidelines   for   all   the  creations  of  the  body.    Using  the  grid  measurements,  which  were  measurements   based  on  realistic  objects,  the  body  was  created,  but  not  to   a  realistic  scale  of  what  a   human   being   would   appear   as   in   the   time   of   Egyptian   civilization.       It   was   a   theoretical  idea,  a  concept  of  the  cultural  body  structured  out  of  proportion,  power,   and   strength.     They   longed   to   create   something   more   human   than   human.     This   newfound   vessel   for   a   tangible   body   followed   extreme   consistency   and   uniformity   that   the   artist   coincided   with   in   all   factions   of   art   production.   For   the   Egyptians,   uniformity  displayed  power.    The  classifications  of  the  Canon  were  meant  solely  to   bring   a   sense   of   power   to   the   art,   not   only   as   a   means   to   present   the   prominent   members  of  the  society  to  the  civilization,  but  also  to  those  from  other  cultures  who   sought  out  to  conquer  the  Egyptians.       The  Canon  of  the  Egyptian  body  was  focused  on  giving  power  materiality,  but   the  power  was  commonly  exclusive  to  the  male  body.    This  was  the  standing  figure   of  strength  in  the  culture.10     Thus,  the  Canon  of  Proportions  that  began  in  the  early                                                                                                                   9  Iversen,  E.,  &  Shibata,  Y.  (1975).  Canon  and  Proportions  in  Egyptian  Art  (2nd  ed.).   Warminster:  Aris  and  Phillips.     10  Egyptian  Life.  (n.d.).  Introduction.  Retrieved  March  24,  2013,  from   http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/life/index.h     26  

ages  of  the  Egyptian  society  was  based  on  the  depiction  of  the  male,  the  patriarchal   society  being  represented,  but  as  the  culture  developed  behind  the  production  of  art   women  began  to  be  found  in  the  position  of  such  strength  the  men  displayed  prior.     Strength   was   at   the   forefront   of   every   body.     The   story   was   the   body   with   the   symbol  of  power  displayed  as  the  most  important  aspect  of  the  Canon  of  Proportion.   The   Egyptians   were   focused   on   creating   a   sense   of   strength   that   was   conveyed   solely  in  the  depiction  of  the  human  body,  and  one  that  remained  a  prominent  detail   in  the  composition  of  the  human  body  in  the  Canons  to  come.                    


                    THE  CANON  OF  SYMMETRY    
Symmetry  and  Balance  filled  the  Canon  of  Proportion  developing  out  of  the   Egyptian  cultures.    The  exchange  of  art  became  common,  as  trade  expanded  north  to   the  shores  of  Greece.    The  Greek  civilization  began  to  grow  stronger  as  the  period  of   Egyptian  prominence  was  coming  to  a  close.    Over  a  course  of  around  500  years,  a   diverse  group  of  people  had  migrated  to  the  coastal  areas  of  Greece.11  The  mixture   of  various  migrating  cultures  was  the  basis  for  the  start  of  Greek  civilization.    As  the                                                                                                                   11  Ancient  Greece  -­‐  History  of  Ancient  Greek  World,  Time  Line  and  Periods,  Archaic,   Classical,  Hellenistic.  .  (n.d.).  Ancient  Greece  -­‐  History,  mythology,  art,  war,  culture,   society,  and  architecture.  .  Retrieved  March  25,  2013,  from   http://www.ancientgreece.com/s/History/     28  

 the  groups   that  made  up  the  Greek  peninsula  joined  forces  for  a  winning  strength.   Society   grew   closer   and   began   to   separate   from   the   concept   of   being   entirely   separate   entities   to   being   a   group   coming   from   the   same   cultural   roots.   in   turn.   but   the   settlements   that   had   been   created   by   various   migrants   from   Northern   Europe   had   established   a   basic   Greek   language.   the   strongest  ethnos.  who  had  watched   the   great   powers   of   Egypt   come   to   a   standstill   because   of   the   Persian   expansion   along  the  Mediterranean.   which   derived   from   the   similar   cultural   values.     29   .    The  Greeks  were  not  only  unified  under  the  defeat  of  the   Persians.  the  age  of  intellectuality  was  born.   using   an   alphabet   created   from   the   Phoenician   Alphabet.threat  of  invasion  from  the  Persian  Empire  became  more  and  more  real.  What   would   become   known   as   the   Greek   state   slowly   began   to   form.   with   regional   dialects.  there  was  a  durable  unification  established.     And   from   this   common   spoken  language.  and  even  though  they   were  divided  in  conceptual  form.     The   Greek   Civilization.   became   a   unified  cultural  body.  while  facing  minute  interactions  with  each  other.    The  power  behind  the  cultures  grew  as  each  developed  their   own  art.    The  defeat   of  the  Persians  created  confidence  among  all  the  city-­‐states.   with   its   beginning   forms   simply   a   Greek   ethnicity.     A   philosophy   on   the   way   that   life   should   be   lived   out   was   a   starting   point   in   the   shift   from   Egyptian   cultural   views.     The   defeat  of  the  Persians  was  a  huge  step  for  the  different  factions.  Language  took  the  culture  to  a   new   level   as   they   began   to   view   themselves   as   the   most   civilized   people.       Cultural   viewpoints   began   to   form.   and   ideas   blossomed   under   the   intellectuals.

   Years  were  no  longer  determined  by  Dynasties.aspx       30   .     The   Greek   civilization   fully   believed   that   they   carried   humanistic   aspects   and   their   behavior   was   entirely   human.  information.     Establishment   of   trade   had   given  them  a  window  into  the  societal  structures  that  lasted  for  almost  6000  years.   When   it   came   to   the   Greeks.   the   cultural   body   was   focused   on   the   objects   that   represented   a   masculine   aesthetic.  Retrieved  April  2.12     Each   four   years   the   Olympic   games   would   take   place.com  |  Free  Online  Encyclopedia.   being   an   important   structural   element   in   the   view   of   the   body   in   a   cultural   and   singular  sense.   2013.    Athletes  and  warriors  became                                                                                                                   12  Ancient  Greece  Facts.   and   battled   in   a   great  tournament  that  led  to  the  formation  of  the  Olympiad  games.   The   ideal   developed  as  a  body  within  its  prime  state  of  being.  Encyclopedia.  pictures.  now  known  as   the  Olympics.   they   had   a   series   of   Gods   and   Goddesses   that   were   worshipped.com  articles  about   Ancient  Greece.   complete   opposite   of   the   Egyptian   traditions   where   the   Gods   were   superhuman  and  believed  to  be  a  being  rather  than  a  physical  human  presence.   and   the   division   of   time   also   came   from   this   idea.  Encyclopedia.       Athleticism   dominated   the   everyday   life   of   the   Greek   society.  but  by  Olympiads.   developed   the   system   of   time   through   Dynasties.  from  http://www.   or   the   ruling   of   Kings.     Between   the   creation   of   the   Olympic   games   and   the   unification   under   a   mass   war.    The   anthropomorphic   Gods   were   imagined   to   live   on   Mount   Olympus.   One   of   the   main   differences   in   the   view  of  the  Gods  between  the  Egyptians  and  the  Greeks  was  the  fact  that  the  Greek   Gods   were   depicted   in   the   same   form   as   humans.encyclopedia.  a   grouping   of   four   years.     Egyptians.The   Greeks   had   learned   from   the   Egyptians.   who   lived   in   a   world   revolving   around   the   Pharaoh   and   Deities.com/topic/Ancient_Greece.

    In   the   societal   makeup.    The  Canon  allowed  for  them  to  appear  at  the  same  level.  from   http://www.     31   .  (2011).     They   were  not  even  allowed  to  represent  their  own  rights  in  the  court  of  law.  R.  Retrieved  April  3.   but   did   not   have   the   same   rights   that   the   men   had   gained.   but   the   Greeks   had   an   interest   in   the   symmetry   that   could   be   found   through   the   body.   one   that   was   to   defend   himself  for  the  highest  prize.  Cambridge:  Cambridge  University  Press.d.).   The   distortion   and   seemingly   unbalanced   composition   was   mastered   through   the   Greek   aesthetical   idea   of   symmetry.  The  Citizen  Body.eyelid.13     As   the   Greeks   continued   to   develop   an   individual   body.  Egypt  Pyramids  Pharaohs   Hieroglyphs  -­‐  Mark  Millmore's  Ancient  Egypt.htm   14  Osborne.14    A  woman.  the  woman’s  body  had  grown  to  an  equal  stance  among   the  men.   and  the  Greek  ideal  became  obsessed  with  the  masculine  identities.    The  idea  of   the   individual   body   came   from   this   concept   of   athleticism   in   conjunction   with   the   intellectual   ideals   that   were   generated.    Reflection  of  what  it  meant  to  be  an  individual  came  into  focus.  (n.  2013.uk/Hatshepsut.co.    It  was  a  body  presented  in  a  singular  form.   this   strength   in   the   presence   of   a   woman   was   vanishing.  89).    A  new  story  was  played  out  in  art  through  the  body.   a   woman   was   viewed   as   a   citizen.     A   prime   example   of   the   rise   in   female   power   is   the   Pharaoh   Hatshepsut   who   took   the   power   of   Egypt   after   her   husband   passed.the  objects  to  fill  the  spectrum  of  this  ideal.    Strength  grew  in  the  presence  of  these   two  valued  members  in  society.     The   Egyptians   had   put   the   focus   in   the   proportions   in   order   to   create   a   powerful   representation   of   the   body.  since  they  were   obtaining   a   high   level   of   power   in   society.     Individuality   was   a   robust   power   of   the   Greek  civilization.     An   Athlete   was   the   example   of   a   singular   being   in   society.  The  history  written  on  the  classical  Greek   body  (p.                                                                                                                   13  Hatshepsut  -­‐  The  Woman  Who  Was  King.       In  the  Egyptian  art.

 was  beginning  to  turn  into  an  object.    The  pose  and  placement  of  her  hands   is  what  determines  that  this  sculpture  is  an  object  purely  present  in  the  culture  for   that   reason.    At  the  start  of   the   production   of   Greek   art.   display   the   woman   as   an   object   (FIGURE   6).   the   male   body   was   the   only   body   to   be   viewed   in   the   nude.    The  artists’  presented  the  females  as  a  completely  clothed  body.   Although   the   figure   is   displayed   with   her  chest  bare  and  open  to  the  viewer.       Figure  6     It  was  not  until  Praxiteles  erected  the  first  life-­‐size  statue  of  the  unclothed  woman  in   4th   century   B.in  the  eyes  of  the  Greek  culture.  one  that  was   there  to  be  viewed.  but  in  a  way  that  appears  hidden  from  the  viewer.     The   masculine   body   was   the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 32   .   Although   the   original   Greek   sculpture   is   no   longer   available.   There   was   no   individuality   fashioned   from   the   body   of   a   woman   that   could   be   seen   in   the   composition   of   the   male   body.  she  is  covering  her  genitalia  and  gazing  to  the   side.   the   numerous  Roman  copies  of  the  Aphrodite  of  Knidos  originally  sculpted  by  Praxiteles.C.  not  approaching  the  viewer  straight  on.

    The   Canon   came   from   one   of   these   scholars.   achieved   through   the   balance  executed  by  Polykleitos.   named   Polykleitos.body  to  be  consumed  by  the  viewer.com/topic/Polykleitos.15    It  was  a  more  technical  form  of  separation  that  what  is  seen  in  the   modular  grid.    This  Canon  created  by  Polykleitos  in  450  BC  was  a   mathematical  formula  which  separated  the  body  into  measured  parts  that  all  related   to  one  another.    Today.  and  due  to  this.       Intellectuality   of   the   Greek   scholars   became   a   leading   factor   in   the   formation   of   the   body.    The  body   shifted   from   being   of   a   static   nature   to   a   sense   of   liquidity.  masculinity  became  the  heart  of   the  Canon  of  Proportions.encyclopedia.  pictures  |  Encyclopedia.   but   the   standing   example   of   his   work   comes   in   his   sculpture   of   Doryphoros   (FIGURE   7).com  articles  about   Polykleitos.  Encyclopedia.aspx#1-­‐ 1G2:3404705195-­‐full     33   .     He   viewed   the  images  of  the  Egyptian  body  and  saw  the  balance  they  were  able  to  capture  with   the  guidelines  provided.  (n.  Retrieved  April  2.  this  set  of  rules  that  were  mapped  out  by  Polykleitos  is  lost.com  |  Free  Online  Encyclopedia.  from  http://www.   Figure  7                                                                                                                     15  Polykleitos  Facts.   2013.).    Balance  began  to  evolve  and  take  a  new  form.d.  information.   who   had   studied   the   different   ideals   of   the   culture   around   the   5th   century   BC.

    There   had                                                                                                                   16  Landlow.  2013.  and  Ideal  Form.     The   container   for   the   ideal   human   being   that   the   Greek   culture   was   creating.   a   modern   art   historian   from   Britain.   who   had   shifted   the   main   interests   of   art   from   the   Deities   to   the   human   beings.html   17  Gonzalez.d.     He   showed   that   beauty   lied   in   the   naturalistic   approach   to   proportion  and  symmetry.    Naturalism  began  to  take   form  in  the  story  of  the  body.  and  sculptural  concepts  such  as  ratio.  from  http://www.victorianweb.  from   http://www.  Retrieved   April  2.     The   beginnings   of   anatomical   research   began   with   the   focus   on   the   makeup   of   the   boundaries   of   the   body.       The   ideal   under   the   Greek   Canon   was   a   body   that   could   reach   a   sense   of   symmetry   with   these   naturalistic   proportions.  (n.17     All  these  elements  combined  created  a  tangible  body  for  the  Greek   theoretical   aesthetic   that   had   been   produced   culturally.”16     Polykleitos   combined   Greek   geometric.   or   philosophers.  an  athlete.d.  2013.  Polykleitos  began  to  put  the  concept  of  man  being  the  measure  for  all   things   into   a   realistic   body.com/tagged/polykleitos       34   .  The  Victorian   Web:  An  Overview.  Polykleitos  .  Nude.  and  became  the  ideal.   isonomia   (“equilibrium”).  Kenneth  Clark  on  Naked.  and  it  was  not  limited  to  a  grid.  Retrieved  April  2.  (n.     The   concept   of   realism   through   the   body   was   not   Polykleitos’   original   purpose.org/sculpture/nudes/naked.    With  this  set   of  guidelines.   Polykleitos  designed  the  guidelines  based  on  a  “male  nude.     He   adopted   these   thoughts   from   the   Sophists.  The  Legacy  of  Polykleitos  and  the  Canon  .tumblr.   rhythmos.).  anatomical.).  G.  proportion.  J.  who   was   standing   in   a   moment   of   movement   and   repose.   and   contrapposto.     It   was   a   naturalistic   body   that  in  a  way  reached  beyond  the  idea  of  human.Based   on   observations   made   by   Kenneth   Clark.  symmetria   (“harmonious   proportions”).

  and   they   wanted   to   recreate   that   naturalism   in   order   for   it   to   remain  and  represent  the  culture  behind  the  creation.  resulting  in  a  portion  of  the   Greek  Aesthetic.   resulting  in  a  reevaluation  of  the  naturalism  concerning  recreation.   while   glorifying   the   beauty   of   the  men  that  made  up  the  great  civilization.       35   .     There   was   a   heightened   sense   of   realism.already   been   an   early   start   in   the   naturalistic   representation   of   the   body   in   the   production  of  the  Kritios  Boy  (FIGURE  8).  they  viewed  the  world  as   such   a   beautiful   place.   Figure  8     Erected   in   the   late   Archaic   Style.    The  objective  in   creating   a   body   was   to   commemorate   the   originals.    Collectively.   one   that   almost   startled   the   Greeks.   this   piece   reached   beyond   the   standards   of   naturalism  of  the  Archaic  Period  creations  and  the  commonly  known  Archaic  Smile.

18     The  body  is   based   on   the   cultural   consumption.  a  unified  being.     The   world   of   the   Greeks   was   seemingly  harmonious.  2013.  Retrieved  April  2.d.  but  an  idealistic  equality  throughout  the  body.   the   Discobolus  of  Myron.     The   symmetry   of   the   body   was   a   way   to   express   the   balance   in   a   culture.).     The   beauty   of   the   athlete   was   the   concept   that   there   was   no  overdevelopment.britishmuseum.  British  Museum  –   Explore/Highlights.aspx       36   .  there   is   a   harmonious   interaction   in   terms   of   the  muscular  definition  displayed  that  can  be  compared  to  the  unified  being  of  the   Greek   society   (FIGURE   9).    When  it  came  to  the  sculptural  composition   of   the   athlete.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/gr/d/discus-­‐ thrower_discobolus.  from   http://www.Figure  9     Masculinity   filled   the   culture   of   the   Greek   Aesthetic.  (n.   and   it   is   molded   to   be   the   object   of                                                                                                                   18  British  Museum  -­‐  Discus-­‐thrower  (discobolus).

                                      37   .  Together  they  were  attempting  to   find  the  most  powerful  and  everlasting  form  outside  of  their  tangible  bodies.    Romans  artists  dedicated  their  art  to  a  series   of  reproductions  of  Greek  sculptures.  the  art  remained  their  story.representation.   which   was   in   essence   unobtainable.   leaving   the   story   in   art   of   the   Greek   Aesthetic   strong   for   centuries  to  come.    The  interest  in  the  body  of   symmetry   was   maintained.       As   the   Greeks   began   to   face   a   decline   in   power   with   the   rise   of   the   Roman   Empire.     The   Greek   aesthetic   was   an   example   of   the   cultural   body   that   longed   to   produce   an   ideal.    The  copies  embraced  the  purity  of  the  body   that  the  Greek  artists  encompassed  in  the  productions.     The   artists   were   looking  for  something  more  human  than  human.

  but   also   the  techniques  shifted  from  the  majority  of  works  being  sculpture.     The   symmetry.   and   masculinity   that  dominated  the  human  body  for  the  past  6000  years  were  replaced  by  elongated   and   somber   depictions   of   the   body.  like  we  see  in  the   Greek   artworks.     The  aesthetics  that  had  been  built  up  over  time  were  broken  down  and  replaced  by   the   religious   ideology   of   the   medieval   art.                       CANON  OF  ANATOMY   After  the  fall  of  the  Western  Roman  Empire  in  476  the  world  of  art  changed.   power.   to   the   majority   of   art   depicting   the   body   being   paintings   and     38   .     Not   only   did   the   view   of   the   body   shift.

  which   were   not   as   well   preserved   or   studied   under   the   scrutiny   of   Renaissance   arts.     The   ideal   image   of   the   body   was   a   view   of   the   Renaissance.   the   image   of   the   body  began  to  shift  away  from  the  dismal  views  at  the  turn  of  the  15th  century.    A  revival  began  to  take  place.   and   with   this.   the   structure   of   Greek   society   began  to  take  form  once  more  throughout  the  Italian  peninsula.         These   new   intellectuals   rediscovered   the   Greek   aesthetics   that   had  been  lost  through  the  medieval  art  with  treks  through  the  ruins  of  the  Roman   Empire.   particularly   focusing   on   the   newly   elected   international   religion   of   Christianity.mosaics.       Masculinity   continued   to   grow   in   focus.   With   the   demise   of   another   great   empire.    Groupings  of  city-­‐ states  developed.     It   was   the   rebirth   of   an   aesthetic   that   had   mastered   the   Egyptian   proportions   and   taken   symmetry   one-­‐step   further.     This   new   view   of   the   body   was   based   in   the   transitions   that   were   taking  place  throughout  the  Byzantine  Period  politically  and  religiously.     The   sense   that   the   body   had   faced   a   setback   in   terms   of   the   predecessor   Canons   was   addressed   remarkably   quickly.  and  the  Greek  aesthetics  of  the  body   made   their   way   through   the   remnants   and   relics   of   the   Roman   Empire   into   these   Italic   states.   and   a   new   set   of   intellectuals   began   to   arise.   developing   the   movement   of   the   Renaissance.     They   are   the   ones   that   longed   to   create   a   new   sense   of   being   with   the   expansions  of  the  mind.     The   Renaissance   intellects   followed   the   idea   the   “Man   is     39   .    The  body   that   became   of   the   upmost   importance   in   artworks   remained   the   rulers   and   religious   idols.   The   destructions   of   a   series   of   crippling   wars   brought   the   Byzantium   Empire’s   standing   in   the   world   to   a   close   in   1453.

   The  artists  wanted  to  create  something  beyond  the  beauty  that  could  be   comprehended.     Of   course   they   could   not   support   themselves   based   entirely   on   the   art   production.     The   concept   of   patron   to   artist   derived   from   the   Renaissance.    The  artist  became  a  sole  being.   or   a   man   who   could   do   all   things.   in   a   sense.     Rather.    The  Past   framework  of  proportion  and  symmetry  was  in  turn  devoted  to  what  lied  beneath   the   exterior   of   the   human   body.   As   the   revival   commenced   through   the   artists’   hands   a   new   concept   of   creation  took  place.   the   artists   were   beginning   to   grow   to   a   different   level   in   society.  (2005.utm.     Because   the   arts   were   growing   to   be   such   a   common   way   of   life.   direct   examples   of   a   “Renaissance   Man”.   so   the   concept   of   patrons   arose   in   order   for   the   artists   to   be   able   to   create.    Studies  were  carried  out  focusing  on  the  human  body  specifically.  recognized  and  named  for  the   works   they   created.    This  idealization  represented  the  concepts  that  ruled  the  various   city-­‐states.iep.  April  27).  but  they  were  the   artists   too.     The  art  was  not  just  based  on  the  statements  of  the  intellectuals.  based  on  the  idea  of  the  Greek  philosopher  Protagoras.edu/protagor/       40   .  but  rather  a  new  challenge  that  the  artists  could  overcome  in  creating   an  idealized  body.   Internet  Encyclopedia  of  Philosophy.19     There  became  an  interplay  played  out  between  the  intellectuality  and  the  creators.  Protagoras  [Internet  Encyclopedia  of  Philosophy].  2013.     The   body   was   expanding   to   a   point   of   unrealism   with   mass   perfection.   freely.  C.   but   they   did   not   create   solely   for   their   own   interests.the  measure  of  all  things”.     We   do   not   mean   freely   in   terms   of                                                                                                                   19  Poster.  Retrieved  April  13.   the   artists   were   subject   to   the   interests   of   the   patron   who   supported   them.     The   skin   was   no   longer   the   limiting   factor   in   the   compositions.  from   http://www.

medschool.  which  they  were  supporting.  in  Bologna.  (n.edu/history/IntroCourseIPDF/Wilson_Harvey.  2013.    An  artist  was   chosen   by   a   patron.d.   then   financially   supported   and   commissioned   to   produce   the   works   of   art.     More   importantly.  one  that  would  lead  the  artists  to  a  new  level  in  the  Canon.  Retrieved  February  11.    Professor  Mondino  de’   Luzzi  was  one  of  the  first  to  use  the  act  of  dissection  in  a  public  sense.ucsf.   we   find   that   his   acts   of   dissection   were   a   public   spectacle   viewed   by   various   members   of   the   university   and   students.    The  philosophies  that  were  born  in  the  age   of  the  Greeks  by  Protagoras  were  taken  a  step  further.     Man   was   now   seen   as   the   all-­‐powerful   creature   in   the   world.subject  matter  hearsay.  from   www.  but  rather  just  in  the  amount  of  production.    The  power  of  man  was  an   ever-­‐growing  concept.     The   act   of   dissection   became   part  of  the  cultural  everyday  life.  had  to  uphold.     The   patrons   had   an   expectation  that  the  artist.   the   body   remained   to   be   the   most   prominent   of   the   subject   matter   chosen   for   artworks.  L.    This  set  of   expectations  that  were  set  forth  by  the  Patrons  was  a  reflection  to  the  viewpoint  of   the  society.  William  Harvey's  Prelectiones:  The  Performance  of  the  Body  in   the  Renaissance  Theatre  of  Anatomy.     The   idea   that   man   was   the   measure   of   all   things   created   a   link   through   the   past   two   Canons   that   were   carried   out.       Artists  began  to  uncover  studies  that  had  been  taken  out  on  the  body  by  the   Professor  of  surgery.pdf     41   .dahsm.  like  the  focus  on  the  dominating  masculine  body  in                                                                                                                   20  Wilson.     For   the   majority   of   the   patrons.  JSTOR.).20         He   created   a   new   view   of   the   body   in   terms   of   anatomy.   Mondino   de’   Luzzi.  Italy.   leading   the   body   that   was   created   to   be   a   representation   of   this  power  expelling  from  their  lifestyle.    He  studied   the   interior   of   the   human   body   while   writing   extensively   about   it   in   Anathomia   Corporis  Humani  (1316).

  is  noted  by   Giorgio   Vasari   as  “one  of  the  first  artists  to  skin  the  human  bodies  in     42   .   alighting   itself   in  the  hands  of  the  Renaissance  scholars  who  viewed  the  body  as  something  more   than   what   could   be   viewed   by   the   everyday   eye.the  Greek  civilization.     His   text   became   a   handbook   that   was   referenced   medically   for   the   following   250   years.     It   is  presumed  that  the  first  dissection  was  performed  on   a   woman   cadaver.  a  printmaker  working  in  the  mid  15th  century.     A   woman   remained   to   be   viewed   as   the   vulnerable   body   of   society.       Figure  10     Artists   of   the   Renaissance   were   forbidden   to   take   part   in   dissections.   but   the   expectations   that   were   set   forth   by   the   patrons   led   them   to   study   the   interior   of   the   body  in  secrecy.   instilling   the   viewpoint   that   the   male   was   the   principal   being.    Antonio  Pollaiuolo.     The   cultural   body   of   anatomy   began  to  form  years  before  it  melded  together  with  the  art  production.

).   displays   the   human   bodies   practically   devoid   of   skin   altogether.  from   http://www.     Although   he   was   trained   as   a   painter   and   sculptor.21     Battle   of   the   Naked  Men.  (1965).order   to   obtain   a   view   of   the   muscular   system   in   its   pure   state”.                                                                                                                     21  Vasari. 22     His   notebooks   that   he   comprised   throughout   his   lifetime   were   filled   with   sketches   that   depicted   the   bodies   he   dissected.    The  dissections  allowed  the  skeletal  system  to  be  examined  as  well   as  the  muscular  and  circulatory  systems  of  the  body  (FIGURE  11).     He   sought   to   replicate   the   body   by   observing   every   layer   that   the   human   body  contained.   engraved   by   Pallaiuolo   in   1465.   Leonardo   da   Vinci.  (n.  G.org/toah/hd/leon/hd_leon.  Retrieved  April  7.  C.  Heilbrunn  Timeline  of  Art   History.   grasping   the   representation   of   the   musculature   that   lie   just   beneath   what   the   everyday   viewer   would   see   (FIGURE   10).  Leonardo  da  Vinci  (1452 1519).  we  are  not  focusing  on  ideal  in  terms  of  the  Greek  aesthetic.d.     These   poses   caused   the   musculature   to   take   various   configurations   that   were   more   intricate   than   what   would   be   seen   in   the   relatively   static   poses   of   the   Greek  sculptures.   but   the   new   aesthetic   that   was   formed   in   the   eyes   of   the   Renaissance   artists.  England:   Penguin  Books.  Middlesex.   masculine   in   nature.  Lives  of  the  artists.  2013.  Harmondsworth.   there   was   a   drive   for   scientific   research   that   consumed   his   life.metmuseum.     The   extreme   action   poses.    When  the  ideal  of   da  Vinci  is  addressed.   began   a   series   of   experimentations   with   the   anatomy   of   the   human   body   that   greatly   influenced   his   work.   22  Bambach.     A   later   visionary   in   the   Renaissance.htm       43   .   became   a   portion   of   the   guidelines   in   the   Canon   of   anatomy.

Realism   of   what   the   body   was   as   a   whole   was   developing   through   the   anatomy   that   was  being  scrutinized  through  the  explorations  of  the  tangible  body.   Michelangelo  di  Lodovico  Buonarroti  Simoni  erected  the  17-­‐foot  marble  sculpture  of   David.     The   men   asserted   they   were   the   great   power.     In   1501.     Figure  12                                                                                                              Figure  13       44   .   Figure  11     The   interior   of   the   body   turned   in   to   an   interest   that   was   of   upmost   importance  to  artists  who  wanted  to  perfect  the  body  as  a  whole.    The  Canon  that   began  to  configure  itself  into  the  story  of  the  body  in  the  Renaissance  was  not  based   in   sensible   perfection.  displaying  the  fervent  masculinity  that  the  Greek  sculptors  exploited  (FIGURE   12).

Shifting   from   a   symmetrical   sense   of   perfection   that   was   mastered   under   the   Canon   created  by  Polykleitos,  Michelangelo  created  a  body  that  was  disproportional  by  the   past  two  Canons  standards.    The  hands  were  distorted,  being  sculpted  larger  than  a   realistic   scale   in   order   to   appear   proportional   to   the   viewer,   who   would   observe   from  below.23     Concerning  Michelangelo’s  sculpture  of   David,   Lois   Fichner-­‐Rathus   states  in  the  text   Understanding   Art   that  “no  longer  does  the  figure  remain  still  in  a   Classical   contraposto   stance,   but   rather   extends   into   the   surrounding   space   away   from  a  vertical  axis.  This  movement  outward  from  a  central  core  forces  the  viewer   to   take   into   account   both   the   form   and   the   space   between   and   surrounding   the   forms—in   order   to   appreciate   the   complete   composition”. 24     As   an   artist,   Michelangelo   took   in   to   account   a   new   aesthetic,   one   of   the   cultural   body.   The   grandeur   of   the   sculpture   was   not   just   in   its   heroic   presence   that   captures   the   viewer,  but  also  found  in  the  anatomical  focus  that  Michelangelo  utilized  with  great   subtlety.    When   David  is  viewed  in  an  intimate  proximity,  the  viewer  can  recognize   an   anatomical   focus   in   the   sculpted   body.   The   circulatory   system   and   skeletal   structures  show  through  the  skin,  while  the  musculature  shows  guidance  from  the   Greek   masculinity   in   assimilation   to   the   research   of   Professor   Mondino   de’   Luzzi’s   text   demonstrating   the   dissections   (FIGURE   13).     This   masculine   body   was   in   a   way   an  imperfect  being  that  became  one  of  the  standing  examples  of  perfection  in  Canon   of  Anatomy.                                                                                                                     23  MD,  S.  S.  (2005).  The  Deviating  Eyes  of  Michelangelo's  David.  Jornal  of  the  Royal   Society  of  Medicine,  28(2),  75-­‐76.  Retrieved  April  7,  2013,  from   http://jrsm.rsmjournals.com/content/98/2/75.full     24  Fichner-­‐Rathus,  L.  (1986).  Understanding  art.  Englewood  Cliffs,  N.J.:  Prentice-­‐Hall.     45  

The   past   two   Canons   faced   limits   that   were   created   by   the   cultural   body.     Artworks   of   both   the   Egyptian   and   Greek   civilizations   were   based   on   an   idealized   form   of   the   body   that   was   entrenched   in   the   superior   beings   that   were   venerated.   The  Canon   was   formed   in   order  to  obtain  a  true  sense  of  aesthetical  pleasure.  In  the   Renaissance,   the   patrons   were   a   reflection   of   the   true   cultural   body,   offering   the   guidelines  for  the  artists  to  follow.    This  gave  the  artist  freedom  from  the  entirety  of   the   society,   while   at   the   same   time   limiting   them   to   the   expectations   of   their   sponsor.    The  cultural  body  was  not  universal  throughout  the  city-­‐states  of  Italy  and   Northern  Europe,  but  partial  to  a  singular  city-­‐state,  and  each  remains  a  reflection  of   their  own  societies.       The  development  of  the  Canon  in  the  Renaissance  was  not  a  series  of  drawn   out   guidelines   that   can   be   observed   in   the   Canon’s   produced   by   the   Egyptian   and   Greek   civilizations,   but   more   of   a   standard   in   scientific   innovations   that   led   the   artists  to  develop  a  body  in  entirety.    The  dissections  that  were  performed  created  a   more   distorted   view   of   the   body,   one   that   would   develop   into   an   even   more   passionate   view   of   the   power   that   man   held,   and   in   turn   resulting   in   the   new   Baroque   body.     The   sense   of   interior   space   of   the   body   offered   a   new   window   to   the   artists,  and  the  view  of  the  body  began  to  shift.    The  interchange  and  playing  around   with   space   was   something   that   the   Baroque   artists   began   to   experiment   with   in   their  compositions,  and  a  new  series  of  Canons  took  form.            




The   Baroque   artists   led   the   body   in   a   new   direction,   one   that   was   focused   on   a  new  sense  of  space.    The  proportions  and  symmetrical  nature  of  the  human  body   had   been   structured   by   two   Canons,   the   Egyptian   modular   grid   and   the   Canon   of   Polykleitos,  while  a  new  Canon  formed  around  the  interior  structures  that  make  up   the   body   as   a   whole   in   the   Renaissance   studies   of   anatomy.     The   limit   of   what   the   body  could  be  slowly  began  to  expand  outside  to  the  space  exterior  of  the  skin.    It   was   taken   to   a   new   sense   of   extremes   in   terms   of   the   gestures   that   could   be  



    Artists   had   developed   a   Canon   for   each   element   concerning   the   makeup   of   the   body.      Although   the   focus   of   the   body   had   shifted   from   one   sex   to   the   other.  At  this  point  in  the  story  of  art  man  had  been  perfected  in   a   bodily   form.   and   perfection.   artists   placed  the  body  of  the  woman  on  a  level  separate  from  men  in  the  majority  of  the   compositions.     Masculine   bodies   were   the   cultural   body.     The   artist   who   ventured   away   from   the   placing   the   woman   in   a   state   of  vulnerability  to  the  viewer  was  Eugène  Delacroix.     Exploring   the   erotic   state   that   woman’s   body   could   display   on   the   canvas.     The   sense   of   extension   and   distortion   began   to   fuse  with  the  preceding  Canons.  being  the  first  of  its  kind.   the   artists   who   were   creating   the   compositions   were   predominantly   male.     This   was   a   philosophy   that   would   remain   dominant   until  the  start  of  Modernism.encompassed  by  the  body.   beauty.  and  a  new  vantage  point  of  the  body  commenced.    Men  had  shifted  from  being  the  focal  point  in  the   compositions   to   just   being   the   secondary   objects   of   desire.   The   artists   were  choosing  the  subject  matter.  but  rather  creating  a  new  viewpoint  of  the  body   of  a  woman  fixated  in  exoticism.       When   the   movement   of   Romanticism   began   men   were   still   viewed   as   the   significantly   superior   beings.     Series   of   standards   emerged   focusing   on   the   woman   as   a   pure   objectified   and   idealized  body.  who  chose  to  use  the  woman’s   body  as  the  strongest  point  in  his  painting  Liberty  Leading  the  People  (FIGURE  14).     A   Canon   was   formed   with  a  feminine  nature  behind  it.     48   .    At  this  point  in  the  production  of  art  the  Canon  was   not  focused  on  idealizing  the  men.  and  began  to  adventure  into  the  world  of  women.   one   that   represented   strength.

    Even   the   gesture   that   the   body   is   acting   out   is   something   that   generates   the   sensation   of   power.     Under   the   Greek  Canon  this  placement  of  the  woman  as  the  powerful.Figure  14     The  woman  is  placed  as  the  focal  point  personifying  liberty.      This  strength  that  was  placed   in  the  body  of  the  woman  in  Delacroix’s  painting  created  a  portion  of  the  new  Canon     49   .   is  entirely  clothed.  surrounded  by  soldiers.    Not  only  did  David  keep  the  body  covered  in  entirety.  signifying  the  purity  she  held.    The  Neoclassical  interpretation  of  the  body  is  much   differently  portrayed  due  to  the  fact  that  Hersilia.   in   1799.   but   her   chest   is   partially   exposed   for   the   spectator   to   see.     Just   thirty   years   prior.  but  he  also   used  a  white  drapery.   using   the   body   of   a   woman   as   the   central   figure   among  various  Roman  soldiers.  for  the  body  of  the  warrior  was  the  desirable  object  for  the   spectator.   Jacques   Louis   David   painted   The   Intervention  of  the  Sabine  Women.  body   would   have  been  unheard  of.  yet  erotic.  the  woman  depicted  in  the  center.

    “The   other”   is   a   term   we   use   to   describe   the   curiosity  that  the  Romantic  artists  had  with  interweaving  the  Eastern  traditions  in   to   their   compositions.that  developed  in  to  the  power  that  the  body  of  the  woman  contained.   and   an   exchange   of   the   Romantic   artists   between   portraying   strength   and   the   concepts   of   eroticism  developed  into  the  Canon.  painted  an  incongruous  figure  and  placed  it  above  the  woman     50   .     The   artists   best   utilized   the   interest   of   “the   other”   focusing   on   creating   an   image   of   women   based   solely   on   her   body.   appearing   so   realistic   to   the   spectator  as  an  almost  palpable  addition.   but   also   a   sense   of   erotic   nature   that   could   derive   from   mystical   and   grotesque   figures   that   encompass   the   canvas   alongside   the   body.   and   the   power   that   her   body   contained.  Henry  Fuseli.    The  strength   of   the   eroticism   overpowered   the   depiction   of   the   all-­‐powerful   men.  The  sense  of  the  skin  on  the  woman’s  bodies  became  in  a  way  touchable   as  it  was  viewed.         “The   other”   was   not   solely   a   display   of   eroticism.     The   different   silks   and   patterns   that   were   brought   to   Europe   at   this   point   in   history   are   found   in   the   paintings.     In   the   series   of   paintings   entitled   The   Nightmare.    This  idea  is  an  infatuation  that  formed  from  the  exoticism  that   was   being   explored   in   the   Eastern   world.    This  newfound  textural  aspect  that  came   across  in  the  drapery  within  the  compositions  also  began  to  cross  in  to  the  textures   of  the  body.   the   artist.    The  body  became  a  tool  created  by  the  artist  entirely  revolving  around   the   figure   of   the   erogenous   women.     A   new   language   of   the   body   was   established.   but   rather   a   form  of  “the  other”.   and   the   focus   on   “the   other”   became   a   basis   in   the   Canon   of   Romanticism.             The   Woman’s   body   was   not   seen   as   a   singular   unique   being.

25     Between   the   imagery   created   through  the  wet-­‐drapery  technique  and  the  depiction  of  the  woman  in  ecstasy.       Figure  15     The  cultural  body  became  focused  on  the  forms  of  sensuality  that  were  being   explored   through   the   interests   of   the   mythical   grotesque-­‐like   creatures   that   had   filled  the  world  of  the  Gothic  art  and  the  striking  indigenous  principles  of  the  East                                                                                                                   25  Koda.     This   form  of  “the  other”  offers  a  new  view  in  to  the  eroticism  that  the  body  of  a  woman   could   display   through   the   addition   of   figures   that   if   presented   as   a   singular   being   would  be  disturbing  for  the  spectators.who  lies  at  the  central  point  of  the  composition  (FIGURE  15).   Fuseli   utilized   a   technique   common   in   the   Greek   Classical   and   Hellenistic   sculptures   called   wet-­‐drapery   technique.   which   the   body   is   covered   by.htm       51   .  The  Metropolitan  Museum   of  Art.  Classical  Art  and  Modern  Dress  Thematic  Essay  Heilbrunn   Timeline  of  Art  History  The  Metropolitan  Museum  of  Art.d.  from   http://www.  the   body   becomes   a   figure   that   is   in   between   the   realistic   and   mythical   worlds.metmuseum.    Although  the  woman   is   painted   completely   clothed.).org/toah/hd/god2/hd_god2.  and  new  qualities  are  added   to   the   garment.     This   stylization   allows  for  the  body  to  be  viewed  through  the  garments.  H.  Retrieved  April  9.  (n.  2013.

   She  lies  on  her  side.     In   La   Grande   Odalisque.  but   this  offered  a  more  appealing  view  of  the  body  as  a  whole.    This   new   form   of   distortion   to   the   body   was   overly   appealing   and   unnoticeable   to   the   viewer.  is  anatomically  unbalanced  with  this  addition  by  Ingres.  and  her  face  is  turned  towards  the  viewer  causing   the  right  arm  to  lift  ever  so  slightly.  Ingres  explored  the  erotic  language  that  the  woman’s  body  could     52   .  purely  placed  in  the   painting   as   an   object   in   juxtaposition   to   multiple   items   that   exemplify   the   infatuation  of  exoticism.   Jean-­‐Auguste-­‐Dominique   Ingres   added   an   extra   vertebra  to  the  body  that  he  painted  (FIGURE  16).    With  La   Grande  Odalisque.    The  woman.       Figure  16     The   sense   of   perfection   created   in   the   previous   Canons   was   in   a   way   forgotten  as  the  body  of  the  woman  lost  the  means  of  anatomical  correctness.  with   her  back  exposed  to  the  viewer.that  were  making  their  way  to  Europe  through  Orientalism.  in  turn  exposing  a  portion  of  the  breast.    The  artist  was  a  driving   force  in  creating  the  link  between  the  body  and  the  eroticism  that  these  two  entities   had  in  the  cultural  perspective.

    The   Canon   was   no   longer   the   guidelines   that   dictated   the   exact   proportion   and  symmetrical  anatomy  that  previous  artists  had  dedicated  the  compositions  to.   and   that   is   what   sets   the   Canon   shaped   in   the   Romanticism   movement   apart   from   the   proceeding  three  Canons.  It   was   a   Canon   created   by   a   feeling.       The   Canon   of   Exoticism   was   more   a   language   concerning   the   body   rather   than   a   mathematical   structure   by   which   the   body   would   be   displayed   in   a   composition.    Like  in  all  art  movements  that  are  examined  over  history.   and   the   new   ideals   of   the   body   were   born.   but   it   is   unnoticeable.  and  the  woman  as  the  central  body  for  consumption  by  the  viewer.     The   guidelines   were   subjectively   adapted   by   the   artist.  and  creates  an  extension  of  the  body  that  was  more  appealing.     Imperfection   was   executed   in   the   compositions.   which   the   cultural   body   led   to   be   dominated   by   exoticism.             53   .be   used   to   display.    The  artists  commonly  used  the  body  to  display  the  new  sense  of  being  that   had   come   out   of   the   Baroque   compositions.   we   see   that   there   is   an   evident   reflection   into   the   past   compositions   that   were   created.    Adding   directly  to  the  Canon  of  Eroticism  in  the  artworks  of  Romanticism.

    The   longing   to   represent   the   culture   that   surrounded   the   artist   was   a   driving   force   behind   the   compositions.    This  realism  was  played  out   in   both   the   male   and   female   bodies   as   the   artists   structured   new   viewpoints   around   the   natural   world.         54   .     The   Realists   wanted   to   provide   the   spectator   with   the   most   accurate   and   truthful   representation   of   the   every   day   lives   in   which   they   lived.                           CANON  OF  REALITY   The  feelings  that  remain  in  the  story  of  the  art  dictated  the  Canon  began  to   branch   away   from   the   eroticism   that   the   female   body   displayed   through   sensual   poses  and  gestures  into  the  realistic  nature  of  the  body.   especially   those   concerning   the   body.     The   body   was   viewed  as  something  natural  and  linked  to  the  world  surrounding  it.

  View  From   His  Window  at  Le  Gras.  was  a  surreal  advancement  (FIGURE  17).The  natural  world  has  always  been  something  that  was  of  interest  to  artists.    In  1827  the  first  photograph  by  Joseph  Nicéphore  Niépce.       It   was   not   long   before   the   images   being   reproduced   through     55   .     The   depictions   of   the   body   in   the   earliest   Canons   were   focused   on   mathematical   formulations   that   were   created   by   those   who   longed   to   reproduce   the   beauteous   nature   that   it   held.  became  the  purest  form  in  representing  the  natural  world  for  the   artist.    The  concept  that   there   was   now   a   completely   realistic   representation   available   for   artists   to   work   from   was   the   starting   point   for   the   newfound   Canon   that   the   human   body   would   begin   to   expand   from.   The  body  in  turn.    In  the  case  of  Realism.     These   formulations   were   the   standing   examples   of   recreation   concerning   the   original   beauty   that   was   derived   from   the   universe   around   them.     There   was   a   true   sense   of   actuality   that   was   being   produced   through   the   new   forms   of   high   art.  the  age  in  which  the  artists  were  creating  in  opened  up   new  opportunities  that  led  them  to  create  the  Canon  that  was  focused  on  capturing   the  moment  in  time  that  new  advancements  allowed  them  to  recreate.   specifically   photography.   Figure  17     The   art   of   realism   lies   in   the   age   of   technology.

  painted   in   1866.  specifically  through  the  body  of  the  woman.       Figure  18     Courbet   opened   the   spectator   to   the   idea   that   the   origin   of   the   world   emanated   through  the  female  genitalia.this   concept   that   the   body   is   where  the  world  has  come  from  is  completely  evident  (FIGURE  18).  the  measure   of   all   things   still   at   this   point   in   history.    In  Gustav  Courbet’s   L’origine   du   Monde   (The   Origin   of   the   World).the   new   technique   switched   the   focus   onto   the   human   body.    Man  was  the  superior  being.     Portraiture   in   turn   developed   into   a   hyper-­‐realistic   representation   that   the   artists   would   utilize   to   broaden   their   compositions   and   create   a   more   natural   sense   of   the   world   through   them.  which  altered  the  notion  that  the  body  of  a  woman  was     56   .       Technological   advancements   that   were   taking   place   in   the   late   18th   to   mid   19th   centuries   created   a   newfound   focus   on   the   idea   of   what   man   could   achieve   through  the  use  of  the  body  and  the  mind.   and   this   was   only   achieved   through   the   body.

      There   was   no   dramatization   in   the   Canon   of   Realism.  created  a  new  subject  matter.   but   shifting   into   a   body   of   people   that   represented   the   society.   while   the   scientific   research   brought   various  advancements  that  shaped  the  outcome  of  the  Industrial  Revolution.  Retrieved  April  11.  who  studied  the  natural   world  in  order  to  grasp  an  understanding  of  the  subject.).  masculinity.    The  world  that  he  refers  to  is  the  cultural   body  that  had  formed  around  him.    The  body  was  not  created  to   show  power.    A  body  was   no   longer   simply   the   singular   object.     The   everyday   people   were   recognized   as   the   bodies   that   should   be   represented   as   the   cultures   began   to   shift   politically   and   economically   as   philosophers   such   as   Karl   Marx   and   Friedrich   Engels   began   to   publish   their   thoughts.  or  the  exotic  power  one  body  could   have.d.    Through  the  intellectuals  and  philosophers  ideas   had   been   spread   through   the   decades   prior.   specifically   The   Manifesto  of  the  Communist  Party  in   1848.26     There   were   more   interactions   that   took   place   on   a   global   level.  anatomical  research.html     57   .   one   that   was   pragmatic.  specifically  the  body.all-­‐art.   and  the  exotic  that  once  led  the  focus  of  the  body  became  the  every  day.  2013.   which   called   for   an   international   working   class   revolution.  which  was   focused  on  the  materiality  of  this  realistic  world.constructed  appearing  utterly  vulnerable.  from   http://www.     The   ideal   was   the   straightforward  nature  of  what  was  examined  in  the  life  of  the  artist.   but   rather   created   to   display   a   meaning.  (n.  presenting  a   direct  link  to  the  artists  Leonardo  da  Vinci  and  Polykleitos.     Jean   Francois   Millet   completed   the   oil   painting   Des                                                                                                                   26  History  of  Art:  Realism.    The   most  basic  ideal  regarding  the  body  of  the  art  in  Realism  was  that  every  ounce  of  the   body  was  given  to  the  viewer.org/history458-­‐1.    This  in  turn  represented  the  cultural  body.  in  terms  of  how  it   had  been  known  before.  History  of  Art.    The  lack  of  ideal.

27     Millet   chooses   to   present   a   body   that   is   unable   to   achieve   amendment   in   the   world   that   they   are   now   living.   Figure  19     The  three  women  depicted  at  the  forefront  of  the  canvas  represent  the  lower  rural   classes   that   worked   to   better   their   place   in   society.     The   Canon   of   Realism   was   about   the   realistic   non-­‐ideal.).   which   through   the   analysis   of   Millet’s   painting   we   derive   that   this   is   unobtainable.fr/index.  (n.  Musée  d'Orsay:   Accueil.  Retrieved  April  11.  from  http://www.  Musée  d'Orsay:  Jean-­‐François  Millet  Gleaners.Glaneuses   (The   Gleaners)   around   ten   years   after   the   French   Revolution   of   1848   (FIGURE  19).php?id=851&L=1&tx_commentaire_pi1%5BshowUid%5D=341       58   .  J.   representing   the   fact   that                                                                                                                   27  Schormans.d.  2013.musee-­‐ orsay.

   Space  became  the  world  of  the  in-­‐between.           Time  begins  to  play  an  important  role  in  the  cultural  body.  and  captures  the  moment  it  was   taken  in.  and  void  of  any  perception  to  cover  her  nudity  as  she  lies  on  the  wave  that  is   bringing   her   to   the   spectator.   Alexandre   Cabanel   painted   The   Birth   of   Venus   in   1863   (FIGURE   20).    The  people  had   become   obsessed   with   the   idea   of   time.dramatization  was  the  source  of  alteration.   Cabanel   depicts   Venus   on   an   ocean   of   waves.  being  brought  in  to  the  space  of  the  viewer  in  a  way.   where  the  viewer  would  be  brought  into  the  photo.     The   artists   of   Realism   mastered   the   sense  of  space  intermixed  with  “the  other”.  and  this  gave  the  artists  an  object  by  which  they  could   clearly  represent  that  moment  in  time.    The  lack  of  dramatization  was  what   set   this   Canon   apart   from   the   previous   two.     There   is   no   exaggeration   to   the   way   her   body   is   presented.     It   was   a   present   conversation   that   became   interwoven   with   the   production   of   art.     Her   hands   are   placed   in   an   erotic   gesture   that   was   commonly   presented   in   the   Romantic   paintings   of   women.    Venus  is  still  presented   nude.  and  the  realistic  force  behind  the  body   was  in  this  lack  thereof.   while   her   eyes   are   in   a   way   half   opened.    Drawing  from  a  common  subject  matter   present   in   the   mythical   interest   of   the   Greek   and   Renaissance   artists.   especially   since   there   now   was   more   of   it   available   due   to   the   ever-­‐growing   advances   in   technology.    What  was  started  to  be  on  display  in  the  Baroque  bodies  ideals  of  space   became  more  and  more  present  in  the  body  of  the  Realist  artists.     Photography   captured  a  moment  in  time.  as  they  mixed  in   the  space  surrounding  the  body  of  exoticism.     Cabanel   did     59   .   as   if   accepting   the   fact   that   her   body   is   being   there   as   the   object   to   be   viewed.     Similar   to   The   Birth   of   Venus   painted   by   Sandro   Botticelli   in   1486.

     She  was  a  realistic  body.     The   essential   makeup   of   what   the   Canon  was  in  the  early  art  movements  were  at  the  start  of  being  broken  down.  and  in  turn  lead  to  its  complete  disruption.    It  was  no  longer  a  scientific  approach  that  would  dictate  the  outcome  of  the   tangible  body  in  the  compositions.   that   was   presented   taking   over   the   space  inside  and  outside  of  the  canvas.  something  that  would  inevitably  create  the   following  Canon  of  the  body.             60   .  but  rather  a  sense  that  the  realistic  portrayal  of   the   body   to   the   spectator   was   the   beautiful.     Figure  20     As   technology   developed   the   body   started   to   take   on   a   new   form   to   the   spectator.     The   Canon   examined   in   Romanticism   was   already   skimming   into   the   waters   of   sensation   concerning   the   guidelines   that   were   executed   to   portray   the   body.   or  hide  the  anatomy  that  clearly  presents  her  as  a  woman.   although   in   a   state   of   eroticism   and   ecstasy.not  utilize  a  technique  of  distortion  in  order  to  make  her  appealing  for  the  audience.

  the   early   Impressionists  utilized  the  fine  lines  that  surrounded  the  body  as  a  way  to  display   the   lack   of   ideal.                                       CANON  OF  EMOTIONAL  REALITY   Fine  lines  were  an  essence  of  real  time  and  space.     Feeding   straight   off   their   compositions.  still  predominately  male.    No  drama  and  a   lack   of   the   perfected   ideal   was   an   idea   that   started   to   develop   through   the   body   represented   in   Realism.  field  of   artists   were   faced   with   the   active   woman.    The  limit  that  the  outline   gave  to  the  body  was  the  representation  of  the  limits  of  the  body.  who  were  creating  in  the  age     61   .   while   also   creating   a   conflict   in   the   depiction   of   the   body   of   a   woman  with  the  ways  of  the  Romantic  artists.   or   the   woman   who   worked   and   did   not   hide  her  face.    The.    In  the  case  of  the  Impressionist  artists.

of  Cabaret  dance.  whether  male  or  female.    A  body   was  no  longer  an  object.    In  the  case   of   Edouard   Manet’s   painting   Le   déjeuner   sur   l'herbe   (Luncheon   of   the   Grass).     This   was   not   power   in   the   sense   of   the   Egyptian   representations   of   women   or   the   woman’s   erotic   power   in   the   Romanticism   compositions.       Figure  21     62   .    The  women  welcomed  “the  other”   and   the   exotic   nature   that   had   surrounded   their   bodies   in   the   creations   of   the   Canons  in  the  past.    There  was  a  greater  assertion  of  power  that  the  woman  of  the   Impressionist   painting   acquired.   but   rather   they   asserted   power   as   they   began   to   convey   a   sense   of   awareness  to  the  spectator.  one  what  welcomed  their  body  to  be  viewed.   two   women   present   are   both   nude   while   the   men   are   lost   in   conversation   completely   clothed  (FIGURE  21).  the  women  played  a  huge  role  in  their  production  of  art.

fr/index.).     Mary   Cassatt.   which  invites  the  painting  as  a  whole  to  be  viewed.    Manet  experimented  with  the   ideals  of  exchange  of  space  between  the  spectator  and  the  subjects  of  the  painting   like   what   was   developed   from   the   technology   of   photography   through   her   gaze.  (n.”[1]  This  is  the  start  of  the  shift  in  the  cultural  body.     Her   art   was   relatable   for                                                                                                                   28  Lewandowski.  Musée  d'Orsay:  Edouard  Manet  Luncheon  on  the  Grass.  Retrieved  April  12.php?id=851&L=1&tx_commentaire_pi1%5BshowUid%5D=7123       63   .The  clothing  lies  in  the  left  corner  of  the  painting.  sex.  which   shifts   the   Canon   of   emotional   reality   in   to   the   lack   of   a   Canon   as   the   presence   of   materiality  fades.    This  is   a  key  aspect  in  the  sense  of  time.   a   model   by   the   name   of   Victorine   Meurent.  H.   The  Canon  of  the  Impressionist  movement  created  a  body  around  the  every   day   people   that   filled   the   society.   and  race.  from  http://www.  there  became  an  ever-­‐present  awareness  of  the  variety  of  people  that  were   in  the  world  as  well  as  the  roles  that  each  sex  no  matter  the  age  played  in  society.   Musée  d'Orsay:  Accueil.    As  artists  were  able  to  paint  people  of  all  ages.   an   American   painter   was   known   for   the   subject   matter   that   displayed   the   body   completing   everyday   acts   in   common   settings.  in  close  proximity  to  the  woman  at   the  forefront  who  looks  straight  on  to  the  spectator.musee-­‐ orsay.  2013.d.   Eduoard   Manet   challenged   the   idea   of   a   Canon   as   he   refused   “to   conform  to  convention  and  [initiated]  a  new  freedom  from  traditional  subjects  and   modes  of  representation.28     This   painting   was   met   with   shock   from   the   ideals   of   the   cultural   body   that   had   readapted   to   the   body   that   had   been   painted   through   the   eyes   of   the   Realism   artists.  but  focused  on  covering  the  span  of  people.     This   every   day   did   not   just   represent   idealized   figures  of  the  prime  age  and  sex.    But  Manet  also  used  a  familiar   face   in   the   Parisian   society   for   this   woman.

   There  was  a  focus  on   all  that  the  body  was  represented  as  in  terms  realism  to  the  subject  while  also  giving   focus   to   the   generational   aspect   that   the   body   carried.the   spectator.       Figure  22     Displaying  the  body  of  a  woman  and  her  young  child  was  a  not  commonly  explored   throughout  art  compositions  unless  it  was  in  a  religious  sense.   showing  a   male  figure  in  a  bleak  setting  painted  by  a  seemingly  monochrome  palate  (FIGURE     64   .  the  body  being  presented  in  multiple  stages  of  life  offered  a  hope  to  the   spectator.     There   are   examples   of   everyday   subjects  being  represented  alone.     Being   an   object   that   faced   temporality.  like  in  Paul  Cezanne’s  painting   Bather.   This   was   also   a   step   away   from   depicting   the   body   alone   and   in   a   placement   that   suggested   an   enticing   nature.     The   painting   Mother  and  Child   painted   in   1905   portrayed   a   subject   that  Cassatt  explored  in  multiple  paintings  (FIGURE  22).

23).    His  eyes  are  forever  downward.     Painted   in   1885.     Although   in   the   previous   Canons   these   displays   faced   the   dramatization   and   idealized   nature   that   the   cultural   body   set   forth.     By     65   .    This  can  give  a  recollection  to  the  loss  of  time   that  is  occurring  in  every  individual’s  life.     The   Impressionist  artists  shifted  away  from  the  ideal  of  the  cultural  body.   but   the   techniques   that   he   used   to   present   the   sense   of   movement   in   the   body   are   captivating   because   of   the   fact   that   the   male   moves   towards   the   viewer.   giving   the   exchange   of   space.   while   he   will   never   meet   their   gaze.    This  sense  of  the  multicultural  was  new  and  brought  on  by  the   heightened   globalization   that   had   been   taking   place   through   the   19th   century.   Cezanne   placed   the   body   in   movement   offering   the   idea   of   time   for   the   viewer.   and   showed   the   body   of   the   everyday   in   terms   of   a   new   multicultural  body.  which  was  not   exactly   welcomed.   Figure  23     Each  Canon  that  has  developed  created  a  body  that  represented  the  everyday   lives   of   the   people.

d.  but  it  was  a  literal  representation  of  these   figures  in  the  everyday  setting.29     With   an   itch   to   view   what   he   could.  Gauguin  had  an  interest  in  the  world   outside   the   limits   of   the   French   border.    Artists  not  only  could  view  photographs  of  the  far   away.  Retrieved  April  12.  Peru.     He   represented   the   rituals   and   cultural   traits   of   the   Polynesian   tribes.   when   the   Impressionist   movement   began.   the   global   interchanges   were   increasingly   growing.  C.    The  titles  are  what  represent  the  European  presence  that  he  carried.  or   Nativity.  The  Metropolitan  Museum  of  Art  -­‐   Home.   he   traveled   the   French   Polynesia.   a   French   Post-­‐Impressionist   painter.  which  they   could   then   paint.     Te  Tamari  No  Atua.  from   http://www.    It  was  a  body  that  represented  figures   that  were  purely  exotic.   was   one   of   the   leading   artists   to   represent   the   idea   that   the   body   was   a   multicultural   one.the   end   of   the   19th   century.metmuseum.     The   multicultural   body   that   appeared   was   different   from   “the   other”   ideal   that   was   exploited   with   artists   like   Jean-­‐Auguste-­‐ Dominique  Ingres  in  the  early  19th  century.org/toah/hd/gaug/hd_gaug.  France  but  raised  in  Lima.     Being   born  in  Paris.  Paul  Gauguin  (1848 1903)  Thematic  Essay  |  Heilbrunn  Timeline   of  Art  History  |  The  Metropolitan  Museum  of  Art.  but  they  also  had  the  opportunity  to  travel  and  witness  subjects.     Paul   Gauguin.).htm       66   .   where   he   erected   artworks   that   were   a   pure   representation   of   the   multicultural   body.  painted   in   1896   by   Paul   Gauguin   shows   the   multicultural  body.  (n.    The  concept  of  Nativity  is  a                                                                                                                   29  Kang.  2013.  covered  in  a  native  dress  and  surrounded  by  furniture  covered   with  patterns  linked  to  Polynesian  culture  (FIGURE  24).   while   intermixing   some   European   traits   in   terms   of   subject  matter.   while   the   compositions   of   the   bodies   are   unmistakably   a   view   of   the   Polynesian   villages.    The  body  was  not  just  surrounded  by  materials  and  objects   that  were  linked  to  the  trade  exchanges.

  but  globalization  affects  the  whole  world.   Pierre  Auguste  Renoir  painted  in  this  way.    It  was   not   a   rebirth   that   led   to   exact   regulations   and   guidelines   to   create   a   clear   concise   Canon  once  more.  specifically  with  the  painting  The  Bathers   and   the   Crab  (FIGURE  25).   but   they   did   experiment   with   the   sensuality   that   was   portrayed   through   Goddesses   and   Gods   bodies.  but  the  rebirth  in  the  interest  of  the  way  that  the  subject  matter   surrounding  the  body  was  presented.   Figure  24       Globalization  also  leads  to  a  new  interest  in  the  body  of  fantasy.western   religious   ideal   that   had   been   brought   to   Polynesia   through   colonization.     One   artist   in   particular.   a   common   mythical     67   .   and  Gauguin  is  stating  that  the  global  exchange  does  not  just  happen  within  Europe.    There  was  a   rebirth  of  the  Greek  and  Renaissance  pieces  through  the  global  interactions.   recall   the   softness   and   beauty   that   one   can   find   in   a   depiction   of   the   Three   Graces.    This  creates  a  fantasy  body  that  was  of  great   interest  to  the  spectators.    The  four  women  that  are  depicted  nude  in  the  painting   and   void   of   any   personal   traits   that   sets   them   from   each   other.    We  assume  the  artists  were  not  necessarily  painting  the   mythical   subject   matter   that   interested   prior   artists   due   to   the   fact   that   the   compositions   were   not   titled   as   such.

subject.    The  link  in  the  gestures  that  each  artist  applied  to  the  women   creates  a  new  sense  of  the  fantasy  body.   a   common   subject   that   was   presented   the   exotic   nature   of   “the   other”   in   the   paintings   of   Ingres.   Figure  25                                                      Figure  26     The  link  is  drawn  specifically  through  the  three  women  in  Renoir’s  painting  that  are   intertwined  through  simple  gesture.  which  contains  the  image  of  the  three  graces  in  the  upper  right  portion  of   the  composition  (FIGURE  26).    Fantasy  was  left  on  the  border  of  reality  as   the  bodies  that  were  produced  began  to  lose  the  fine  line  that  determined  the  limit   of  the  body  in  the  eyes  of  the  viewer.1482.    Choosing  to  paint   an   everyday   scene   focusing   on   the   act   of   bathing.  bringing  to  mind  the  hands  of  Botticelli’s  graces   that  are  interlocked.         The   role   of   fantasy   in   the   compositions   of   the   body   was   also   found   in   paintings  that  depicted  the  body  of  a  woman  as  the  sole  subject.    Specifically  recalling  the  painting  Primavera  by  Sandro  Botticelli  completed   ca.   the   artists   of   Impressionism   experimented   with   the   space   that   surrounded   the   body   and   the     68   .    This  placement  of  the  fantasy  differed  from   the   dramatized   mythical   body   essentially   due   to   the   fact   that   the   bodies   that   are   presented  are  realistic  for  the  spectator.

.  Gardner's  Art  through  the  ages   (12th  ed.  S.  Degas  utilized  the  fine  line  to  limit  the  shape  of  the  body.  (2006).   Edgar   Degas   presents   a   perplexing  situation  for  the  spectator  (FIGURE  27).                                                                                                                       30  Gardner.  H.  C.     Playing   with   the   fine   outlining   of   the   body   in   the   print   The   Tub.  F.       69   .  Kleiner.emotional   reality   that   it   offered   rather   than   focus   on   its   alluring   nature.  Belmont.   Figure  27     Displaying   his   “specialized   studies   of   figures   in   rapid   and   informal   action”   in   juxtaposition   to   objects   that   are   inept   from   motion..    The  body  was  more  an  essence  of  fantasy   of   what   the   spectator   would   be   able   to   create   through   what   the   artist   had   given   them.).30     Within  the   boundaries  of  the  line  there  is  no  clear  sense  of  the  details  and  textures  that  were   once  present  along  the  view  of  the  body.  CA:  Wadsworth/Thomson  Learning.   like   the   counter   and   the   items   placed  on  it.  J.  &  Mamiya.

 erected  multiple  sculptures  that  focused  on  the  movement   and  space  that  the  body  could  encompass.     The   lack   of   the   definitive   line   is   part   of   the   shift   that   leads   to   the   disappearance   of   the   Canon   overall   in   the   representations  of  the  body.     The   fantasy   was   the   outcome   in   the   eyes   of   the   viewer.  based  in  France.   especially   when   we   look   at   the   techniques   of   pointillism   executed   by   Georges  Seurat.    In  the  painting   Poseuse  de  profil  (model  in  profile).   there  was  also  a  loss  of  the  idea  of  where  the  body  began  and  would  end.    In  the  world  that  was  being  created  through  sculpture.  there  is  no  clear   sense   of   where   the   body   begins   or   ends   (FIGURE   28).    Most  of  his  sculptures  were  not  finished     70   .    Auguste   Rodin.Figure  28     Impressionist  artists  were  interested  in  what  the  collective  action  of  light  and   color   could   offer   to   a   painting.

  but   a   part   of   the   element   it   was   composed   from.     Eternal   Spring   shows   two   lovers   intertwined   with   each   other   while   both   bodies   appear  to  be  consumed  by  the  marble  (FIGURE  29).  being  able  to  be  viewed  in   the  round.    The   body   was   not   simply   the   body.    The  incomplete  body  became  the  Canon.               71   .   Figure  29     The   intoxication   that   is   felt   between   the   two   minds   that   they   would   humanly   possess   is   just   as   strong   as   the   feeling   that   Rodin   employed   through   the   engulfment   of  the  two  figures.in  the  sense  that  the  Greek  and  Roman  sculptures  were.  but  rather  he  used  the  stone  as  the  blurred  boundary  of  the  body.

   Skin  is  the  variable  artists  sought  to   master   throughout   the   ages   of   art.     This   natural   boundary   is   the   skin.     In   art   this   boundary  was  with  the  fine  line  that  traced  the  body.   and   most   created   a   sort   of   perfected   sense   of   the   way   skin   is   recognized   through   the   anatomical   correctness   fused   together   with   a   palate   that   made   the   body   appear   palpable.     Compositions   that   were   focused   on   the   body   still   encountered   the   limitation   through   the   idea   of   human   skin.                     CANON  OF  DESTRUCTION     Becoming  aware  of  our  own  body  creates  the  realization  that  there  is  a  limit   that   separates   us   from   the   world   that   surrounds   us.  the  most  outer  layer  of  our  tangible  self.  which  at  the  start  of  the  20th     72   .

 changing  the  view  of  the  Canonical  representations.  but  was  adapting  and  merging  in  to  the  space   that  surrounded  it.       The   story   of   the   body   led   artists   to   experimentations   of   how   far   they   could   extend  the  limits  of  the  skin.     Through   the   act   of   blurring   the   edges.       Figure  30       73   .century   was   beginning   to   disappear   in   correlation   to   the   newfound   ideals   of   time   and  space.   artists   could   show   the   expansive   area   the   body  could  acquire  within  the  space  of  the  adjacent  areas  on  the  canvas.  artists  fill  the  expanse  of  what   would  have  been  the  entirety  of  the  body  with  a  new  set  of  paradigms.    The  Canon   becomes  a  lack  of  a  Canon.    The  space   that   surrounds   the   body   says   a   lot   about   the   body   itself.     The   body   is   no   longer   subject  to  what  was  contained  by  skin.    By  disrupting  the  flow  of  the  fine  line  that  dictated  the   body  as  a  separate  entity  from  its  surroundings.    As  this  shift   we  see  in  the  view  of  the  body  begins  to  take  place.  this  boundary  began  to  break  down.

        The  sense  of  bringing  a  body  to  the  point  outside  of  its  limits  also  fed  into  the   concepts   of   gender.   or   transform   the   ideas   of   the   body   that   is   inhabited.   and   in     74   .   and   artists   faced   the   sense   of   limitation  seen  in  the  body  as  a  challenge  for  them  to  overcome.     The   only   portion   of   the   body   that   is   clearly   evident   for   the   spectator   is   the   face   to   the   mid   abdomen.The  Canon  began  to  deconstruct  at  the  start  of  the  20th  century  when  artists   played   with   new   concepts   of   space.     Although   the   technique   presented   derived   from   the   early   11th   century   compositions.   the   positioning  of  the  body  is  almost  directly  linked  to  the  sculptures  of  Auguste  Rodin   produced   in   the   30   years   prior.   and   this   was   challenged   as   the   artists   placed   more  weight  on  the  value  that  a  woman  held.   as   seen   in   the   painting   Adele   Bloch-­‐Bauer   I   (FIGURE   30).     One   artist   in   particular.   almost   achieving   the   state   of   equal   in   terms   of   representation   of   the   body.     Creating   the   sense   of   engulfment   on   the   two-­‐ dimensional   surface   was   a   challenge   that   Klimt   met   with   the   use   of   patterns.   An   artist   could   create   the   body   they   wanted   to   show.     The   social   conventions   that   shaped   art   had   placed   the   woman   as   the   object   in   a   sexual   sense.     Adele’s   body   is   consumed   by   the   extensive   patterns   that   Klimt   covered   the   canvas   with.   Gustav   Klimt   used   various   techniques   that   recall   a   feature   typical   of   Byzantine   production   of   art   using   gold   leaves.   appearance.   scale.   the   Canon   is   met   with   the   confliction   of   guidelines   against   the   desire   to   extend   the   body   outside   of   its   container   that   the   Impressionist  artists  had  delved  into  through  the  expressions  of  time  they  emitted.   creation.   and   again.    The  conventions  of   what   each   gender   should   abide   by   were   being   recognized   through   the   heightened   awareness   of   gender   roles.   and   the   collective   nature   concerning   the   body.    The  woman  became  an  active  figure.

   Still.  Modernization  and  Postmodernization:  Cultural.31     One  artist   in  particular  saw  that  as  the  push  to  represent  himself  with  an  alter  ego.    Marchel  Duchamp  masked  himself  as  a   woman   by   the   name   of   Rose   Sélavy.  and  into  a  cultural  body  based  in  a  sense   of  uniqueness  in  terms  of  what  could  be  created.  Retrieved  April  2.  Canadian  Journal  of  Political  Science.  R.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=6296 900       75   .  (1998).  31(02).    The  viewpoint  that  “gender  is  not  simply  what  one  is.    The  cultural  body  was  shifting  away  from   the  guidelines  that  had  created  limitation.  there  was  no  crossing  of  the  two  roles   that  was  entirely  present.   391-­‐392.some  cases  surpassing  the  body  of  man.  from   http://journals.  namely  one   that  took  on  the  identity  of  the  opposite  sex.                                                                                                                   31  Inglehart.  but   what  one  does”  was  what  carried  the  artists  at  the  start  of  Modernism.   embracing   the   newfound   idea   that   the   body   could  be  what  the  artist  wanted  it  to  be.  2013.   and  Political  change  in  43  Societies.  Economic.cambridge.

  Woman.   produced   a   series.Figure  31     Identity   was   an   important   aspect   that   the   world   of   Modernism   was   developing  in.    Willem   de   Kooning.     Identity   was   explored   through   past   a  sense  of  idealistic  nature  into  the  grotesque  forms  of  what  the  body  was.     There   was   an   exaggeration   that   was   produced   in   the   portrayal  of  the  body  through  extreme  gestures  and  focus  on  the  anatomical  aspects   that   dictate   the   sexes   separate   from   each   other.    The  Canon  was  no  longer  the  source  of   limitation   of   the   body.   I.   an   Abstract   Expressionist.    He  outlines  the  body  with  a  series   of   thick   and   thin   black   lines   that   seem   to   create   a   sensation   of   the   unknown     76   .   which   he   entitled  Woman.     The  first  of  the  series.    The  conflict  of  gender  roles  and  the  loss  of  what  we  know  as  the  limit   of  the  body  were  hitting  the  compositions.   reversed  the  identity  that  women  had  obtained  at   this  point  through  the  cultural  body  (FIGURE  31).

    The  body   is   something   that   can   be   picked   out  in  the  abstraction  of  Pollock’s  paintings.  1950-­‐52.php?object_id=79810       77   .moma.   and   the   body   can   be   derived   from   these   repetitive   and   active   lines   that  fill  the  space  of  the  canvas.  Woman.   massive  breasts.  and  the  majority  of  the  works  display  an  unrealistic  scale  of  the   human   body   in   terms   of   height   as   well   as   size.  Pollock  used  the  thick  black  lines  that  can  be  seen  in  de  Kooning’s   Woman   series.     Expanding   from   the   canvas.org/collection/object.d.  but  that  is  left  up  to  the  viewer.   sculpture   that   focused   on   the   portrayal   of   the   body   began  to  formulate  as  an  expansion  of  space  through  the  exaggeration  that  the  body   could   be   comprised   of.     The   exaggeration   of   identity   and   gender   became   limited   by   the   techniques.).     As   he   was   creating   this   series.     The   guidelines   of   scale   and   proportion   were   confronted   through  sculptors  like  Alberto  Giacometti.  2013.  Retrieved  April  13.  who  created  the  body  as  a  figure  void  of   obvious  anatomical  references  to  gender.   the   portrayal   of   the   human   body   in   art   was   being   challenged  and  seen  as  obsolete  in  comparison  to  the  Abstract  motion  paintings  that   were   being   taken   out   by   Jackson   Pollock.  I.   de   Kooning   “paints   this   woman   with   gigantic   eyes.boundaries   the   woman’s   body   has.  32  The  woman  was  no  longer  viewed  as  an  idol.   but   also   he   cast   a   three-­‐dimensional                                                                                                                   32  MoMA  |  The  Collection  |  Willem  de  Kooning.    He  was  able  to  depict  the  body   in  the  way  he  chose.  (n.      The  canvas  became  as  limiting  as  the  body  itself.  MoMA  |   The  Museum  of  Modern  Art.    In  the   painting   Mural.  and  a  toothy  grin”.     Not   only   did   Giacometti   confront   the   body   in   a   three-­‐dimensional   sculptural   form.     Challenging   the   ideals   that   had   been   built   up   over   the   whole   of   art   history.    The  expanse  of  his  works  also  dealt  with   the  limit  that  a  body  had  on  canvas  in  terms  of  scale.  from   http://www.

 Every  sculpture  made   on  the  assumption  that  space  exists  is  wrong..  especially  concerning  an  object  that  is   so   familiar   to   each   individual.   and  manipulating  the  size  is  seen  to  Mueck  as  interesting.surface  and  then  created  a  two-­‐dimensional  figure  on  it  as  seen  in   Woman  (FIGURE   32).  M.  Brüderlin.  &  Boehm..     Ron   Mueck.   Figure  32     To  Giacometti.  and  the  body  became  the   object   that   was   placed   in   observation   because   it   was   the   object   that   each   artist   would   be   the   most   aware   of.   a   contemporary   Australian   sculptor   is   known  for  the  play  in  scale  that  he  incorporates  in  to  each  piece.    He  states  that  “we  meet                                                                                                                   33  Giacometti.  A.  Alberto  Giacometti:   the  origin  of  space."33     The  idea  of  what  space  actually  was.  was  under  analysis.  Ostfildern:  Hatje  Cantz.  G.  there  is  only  the  illusion  of  space.     The   play   of   scale   of   the   human   body   creates   a   new   variation  of  how  the  viewer  will  take  the  art..  Stooss.  T.    Taking  the  figures.     78   ..  space  did  not  exist  but  “it  has  to  be  created..  (2010).

 Retrieved  April  13.     It   was   an   active                                                                                                                   34  Tanguy.     The   body   was   now   beyond   technology.life-­‐size   people   everyday.).   ever-­‐changing   space.   especially   when   it   came   to   what   the   human   body  contained  and  entailed  in  the  area  around  it.  S.  and  it  was  challenged  as  artists  wanted  to  show  that  there  was   more   than   just   the   concept   of   space.    Space  became  a   new  Canon  in  itself.   International  Sculpture  Center  -­‐  Publisher  of  Sculpture  Magazine.  The  Progress  Big  Man  A  Conversation  with  Ron  Mueck.   and   gives   an  uncanny  feeling  as  it  is  viewed  because  of  the  massive  size  (FIGURE  33).   so   it   has   never   interested   me   to   make   them”.org/documents/scmag03/jul_aug03/mueck/mueck.sculpture.  from   http://www.       The   uncanny   feeling   that   could   be   displayed   in   the   body   became   an   ever-­‐ present  reminder  of  the  Canons  that  had  limited  the  artworks  prior.d.   2013.     Ideas   of   space   created   a   new   view   of   what   the   body   could   produce.34     The   sculpture   Untitled  (Big  Man)   is   so   realistic   through   the   material   of   resin.  (n.   Figure  33     Since   the   turn   of   the   20th   century   the   ideas   of   space   have   shifted   from   the   important   innovations   that   were   glanced   back   at   during   the   19th   century   to   the   idea   of   overlapping.shtml       79   .

   Each  body  played  an  important  role.   where  its  gender  or  size.    The  guidelines  of  the  body   disappear  as  new  bodies  of  a  liquid  society  based  in  a  networking  culture  develop.     Representing   the   cultural   body.    The  exaggerations  were  the  longing  to  free  oneself  from   the   world   that   was   weighing   down   on   the   artists   as   globalization   expanded   even   more   than   what   the   Impressionists   could   have   imagined.     The   lines   of   a   body   are   blurred   and   sometimes   even   completely   non-­‐ existent.  the  lack  of  boundary  is  continuing  to  grow.   Figure  34     The   new   body   that   can   be   seen   is   nothing   like   what   has   been   experienced   before.    Our  body   and   the   bodies   that   surround   us   are   faced   with   an   illusion   that   there   can   be   alteration  and  adaption  that  is  presented  in  the  sense  of  liquid  society  that  is  lived   in.   which   has   become   a   mix   of   bodies   so   multicultural  and  globalized.    The  body  is  extended  and  consumed  at  such  a  rapid  rate  that  not  only  has  the   tangible  sense  of  the  body  been  lost  in  art.machine  that  was  essential  to  the  civilization.  and  in  turn  became  the  Canon.     Space   became   the   idea   behind  the  body  in  art.  but  it  has  been  lost  in  the  individuals  as     80   .

  one   that   the   Post-­‐modern   world   has   embraced   fully.well..  The  visual  culture  reader   (2nd  ed.  London:  Routledge.  like  in  the  case  of  the  sculpture  Rupture  by  the   British  artist  Antony  Gromley  (FIGURE  34).     It   is   a   growth.       81   .  The  anatomical  perfection  that  was  once   valued  is  disappearing  as  the  body  is  seen  as  a  destructive  element  that  is  attached   to   the   earth.   is   essential   for   civilization.  but  yet  void  of  the  interior  because  there  is  a  constant  need   for  change.  the  reality  of  the  cultural  body  that  view  itself   as  an  all-­‐powerful  body.  237-­‐244).  Michel  Foucault  -­‐  Of  Other  Spaces.   even   if   it   is   not   reality   that   keeps   the   body   ever   changing.     Michel   Foucault   says   in   the   essay   Of   Other   Spaces   that   this   idea   of   space.  (2002).35     There  is  reality  present.    The  body  can  be  seen  as  empty.  pp.                                                                                                                               35  Mirzoeff.  N.

   At  the  start  of  the  20th  century  the  Canon  faced  the  need  to  expand     82   .      It   was  one  that  was  no  longer  focused  on  the  aesthetics  of  perfection.  but  rather  on  the   aesthetics  regarding  the  way  that  the  body  would  be  consumed  and  the  feelings  that   would  emerge.     As   the   story   of   art   developed   it   focused   on   the   desire   of   the   artists   to   unfold   the   perceptions   of   the   body.                                       THE  BODY  OF  THE  FUTURE   The   Canon   of   the   body   is   something   that   has   transcended   through   time   becoming   the   guidelines   that   have   created   the   body   of   today.     The   idea   that   the   body   could   be   expanded   past   the   limits   that  were  created  by  the  barrier  of  skin  was  met  with  a  new  sense  of  the  Canon.   and   embrace   the   limitations   that   were   seen   through   the   tangible   object   that   each   individual   related   to.

      The   boundaries   that   culture   once   had   disappeared   alongside   the   confines   that  at  one  point  limited  the  Canons  of  the  body.   and   the   societal  influence  that  has  naturally  been  woven  into  the  productions  representing   the  body  in  art.   and   in   regards   to   art.   but   also  can  be  seen  as  not   being   a   body.   Romanticism.   one   of   the   most   desirable   objects   to   portray.   Realism.     83   .   but   from   the   representations   that   emerge   through   the   cultural   views   that   have   found   their   way   through   the   artists’   hand   onto   the   canvas.     This   cultural   body   is   the   sense   of   expansion   regarding   the   body.           The   body   remains   one   of   the   most   outstanding   objects   in   creation.   The   Canons   that   were   created   throughout   Art   History   as   a   means   to   display   the   aesthetics   that   were   formed  around  the  human  body  have  been  molded  and  adapt  to  the  flows  of  culture.  and  with  that  came  the  expansion  of  the   body  in  art.  shifting  the  ideals  that  once  filled  the  Canon  into  guidelines  focused  on   the  newfound  perception  of  the  body  as  the  boundaries  slowly  began  to  disappear.    As  culture  faced  globalization  and   series   of   multiple   ideals   that   could   be   picked   and   chosen   by   the   individual.the   body   from   a   sense   of   singularity   and   embraced   the   cultural   body   that   had   formed   through   the   art   movements   of   the   Egyptian   and   Greek   civilizations   to   the   Renaissance.   creating   the   cultural   body.    Classifications  of   the   movements   in   Art   History   do   not   just   derive   from   the   variations   of   the   Canon.    The  body  is  no  longer  the  limit.     The   representations   of   the   cultural  body  began  to  grow  and  expand.   representing  the  changes  that  have  occurred  throughout  history.   the   cultural   body   was   reinvented   as   a   body   that   constantly   was   going   through   transition.     The   cultural   body   became   one   of   the   most   important   aspects   of   the   Canon.   and   Impressionism.

   The   Canon   became   instead   a   sense   of   external   space.according  to  the  Canons  that  were  met  in  the  past.  and  the  body  now  faces  emptiness.  The  guidelines  were  abandoned.     Lines   that   separated   the   body   from   the   world   around   them   vanished.   which   utilized   uniformity   to   display   power.  and  the   body  has  become  a  lack  of  the  body.   it   was   focused   on   perfecting   the   makeup   of   the   human   body   as   a   means   of   idealization.     The   cultural   body   has   created   two   main   shifts   that   have   occurred  over  the  course  of  Art  History  and  are  evident  in  the  analysis  of  the  Canon.     As   the   body   was   first   displayed   in   art.     Slowly.    In  most   cases.  which  are  more  or  less  empty.  the  body  is  currently   in  the  transition  point  that  has  led  it  to  be  void.       The   lack   of   the   Canon   in   the   Contemporary   constructs   of   art   are   directly   linked   to   the   Canon   of   Egyptian   art.   the   body   that   was   composed   focusing   on   appearance   shifted   to   the   sense   of   feeling   that   could   be   experienced   through   the   spectators’   consumption   of   the   body   as   was   analyzed   in   detail   beginning  in  Chapter  5.   tangible  body  because  there  is  a  lack  of  knowledge  in  perceiving  the  body.    At  this  point  in  the  production  of  art.  as  it  was  previously  seen.  are  the  need  of     84   .       The   obliteration   and   brutality   that   faced   civilization   in   the   21st   century   has   been  interpreted  by  the  artist  as  a  sense  of  destruction  of  the  body  that  they  know   and   inhabit.     The   guidelines  have  disappeared  as  the  cultural  body  faces  a  lack  of  existence.  the  new  constructs  of  the  body.   and   the   artists   of   the   20th   and   21st   centuries   rejected   this   due   to   the   mass   terror   seen   through  uniformity  that  had  been  experienced  first  hand  in  both  World  Wars.   the   Canon   has   always   been   merely   the   imitation   of   how   we   collectively   view   ourselves.   not   focusing   on   the   individual.   and   how   the   body   would   be   received   and   consumed.     Throughout   Art   History.

 in  turn  becoming  the  cultural   body   of   Post-­‐Modernism.    Although  there  truly  is  a  strong   feeling   of   being   lost   in   the   ever-­‐changing   world.    The  body  will  no  longer   be  created  through  a  set  of  guidelines  focused  on  displaying  aesthetic  perfection.     The   individual   searches   for   a   sense   of   the   singular  body  through  the  ideals  of  the  cultural  body.  the  liquidity  of  modern  society.     The   lack   of   Canon   is   a   means   to   create  a  new  sense  of  the  body  for  every  individual.  which  is  faced  with  temporality.   and   the   lack   of   limitation   that   once   filled   the   cultural   body   creates   chaos   as   the   individual   tries   to   create   a   perception  of  the  body.     The   body   in   art   faces   a   void   in   the   means   of   materiality   as   it   becomes   lost   in   the   progressing   world   that   surrounds   it.  but     85   .   Embracing   movement   with   time.     They   created   mirrors   that   the   spectator   would  be  drawn  into.  creating  a  new  world  away  from  the  reality.   reaching   beyond   the   limits   it   emitted.   and   incorporating   the   newfound   terms   of   space   led   artists   to   expand   the   canvas.       The  body  has  become  a  body  that  has  been  completely  focused  on  the  idea  of   time   and   the   space   around   the   body.   is   the   representation   of   a   body   that   has   survived   the   destruction   of   the   limits   faced   by   past   Canons.    This  mirror  in  the   Canon  was  met  with  pleasure  through  the  need  to  constantly  change  and  shift  in  the   world.the   artist   to   escape   the   body   that   they   are   contained   in.   the   liquidity   that   destructed   the   Canon  is  the  one  that  will  recreate  every  individuals  view.    Lack  of  a  consistent  cultural   body   creates   such   strong   divergences   for   the   individual.   The  body  that  has  been  found  and  developed.   and   one   that   embraces   change   in   every   day   life.   and   embrace   this   expansion   of  the  realistic  materiality.    The  world  that  surrounds  the  human  body  is   one   of   constant   movement.

 one  that  has  no  boundaries.be  one  that  shows  the  individualistic  perceptions  of  the  tangible  body.    The  loss  of   materiality  is  a  loss  that  will  create  a  new  being.                 86   .

List  of  Images     Chapter  2   Narmer  Palette  (FIGURE  1)   Woman  Kneeling.  I  (FIGURE  31)     87   .  (FIGURE  2)   Egyptian  Canon  Cubit  Example  (Figure  3)   Horizontal  guidelines  with  cubit  (Figure  4)   Last  shift  in  cubit  (Figure  5)     Chapter  3   Aphrodite  of  Knidos  (Figure  6)   Doryphoros  (FIGURE  7)   Kritios  Boy  (FIGURE  8)   Discobolus  of  Myron  (FIGURE  9)     Chapter  4   Battle  of  the  Naked  Men  (FIGURE  10)   Leonardo  Sketchbooks  (FIGURE  11)   David  (FIGURE  12)   Closeup  of  David  Hand  (FIGURE  13)     Chapter  5   Liberty  Leading  the  People  (FIGURE14)   The  Nightmare  (FIGURE  15)   La  Grande  Odalisque  (FIGURE  16)     Chapter  6   View  From  His  Window  at  Le  Gras  (FIGURE  17)   L’origine  du  Monde  (FIGURE  18)   Des  Glaneuses  (FIGURE  19)   The  Birth  of  Venus  (FIGURE  20)     Chapter  7   Le  déjeuner  sur  l'herbe  (FIGURE  21)   Mother  and  Child  (FIGURE  22)   Bather  (FIGURE  23)   Te  Tamari  No  Atua  (FIGURE  24)   The  Bathers  and  the  Crab  (FIGURE  25)   Primavera  (FIGURE  26)   The  Tub  (FIGURE  27)   Poseuse  de  profil  (FIGURE  28)   Eternal  Spring  (FIGURE  29)     Chapter  8   Adele  Bloch-­‐Bauer  I  (FIGURE  30)   Woman.

Woman  (FIGURE  32)   Untitled  (Big  Man)  (FIGURE  33)   Rupture  (FIGURE  34)           88   .

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