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Content: • Composition of gas mixture • P-v-T behavior of gas mixture • Properties of gas mixture: Ideal and real gases
Composition of gas mixture
Gravimetric analysis Molar analysis
Conservati on of mass : mm = ∑ mi
Conservati on of mass : N m = mole fraction : therefore, yi =
mass fraction: therefore,
mm ∑ mi = = Nm Nm
= ∑ yi M i
N= mole number, M = molar mass
Ru=Universal gas const. = 8.313 kJ/kmolK
023kmol 3 kg O2 5 kg N2 12 kg CH4 R 8.6kg / kmol 2 .175 and N m 1.424kJ / kgK Mm 19.092. (b) the mole fraction of each component. N m = N O 2 + N N 2 + N CH 4 = 1.023kmol yO 2 = N O 2 0. y N 2 = 0.733 (c) the average molar mass and gas constant of the mixture Mm = then mm 20kg = = 19. mf N 2 = 0. and (c) the average molar mass and gas constant of the mixture.314kJ / kmolK Rm = u = = 0. N N 2 = 0.750kmol M O 2 32kg / kmol b) To find the mole fractions. Determine (a) the mass fraction of each component. Solution a)The total mass of the mixture is mm=mO2+mN2+mCH4= 3+5+12 kg 3 kg O2 5 kg N2 12 kg CH4 The mass fraction of each component becomes: mf O 2 = mO 2 3kg = = 0.094kmol .60 b) To find the mole fractions.094kmol = = 0. and 12 kg of CH4 .023kmol yCH 4 = 0.Example1 Consider a gas mixture which consists of 3 kg of O2.6kg / kmol N m 1.179kmol and N CH 4 = 0.15.25 mm 20kg and mf CH 4 = 0. NO2 = mO 2 3kg = = 0. 5 kg of N2 .
Pm = ∑ Pi (Tm .P-v-T Behavior of Gas Mixture Dalton’ Dalton’s law of additive pressure : The pressure of a gas mixture (Pm) is equal to the sum of the pressures each gas would exert if it existed alone at the mixture temperature and volume. Vm ) i =1 k where Pi is component pressure of gas i Pi is pressure fraction of gas i Pm P-v-T Behavior of Gas Mixture Amagat’ Amagat’s law of additive volumes : The volume of a gas mixture (Vm) is equal to the sum of the volume each gas would occupy if it existed alone at the mixture temperature and pressure. Pm ) i =1 k where Vi is component volume of gas i Vi is volume fraction of gas i Vm 3 . Vm = ∑ Vi (Tm .
I) The deviation of actual gas from idealideal-gas behavior can be corrected by the compressibility factor. Z Z= where Pv or Pv = ZRT RT Z= The Z factor for all gases is approximate the same at the same reduced pressure. PmVi = N i RuTm Then Therefore. Component pressure) = yiPm partial volume of gas i (Vi. PR and TR can be found in Table AA-15 and Tcr and Pcr from Table AA-1 P T and TR = Pcr Tcr 4 . Then partial pressure of gas i (Pi. Component volume) = yiVm Ideal Gas and Compressibility Factor (Background from Thermo. of State PV = NRuT for the mixture.8) for gas i (Amagat's law).Ideal Gas Mixtures Ideal Gas Eqn. PmVm = N m RuTm (a) (b) for gas i (Dalton' s law). PR and reduced temperature. TR vactual videal and videal = RT / P PR = Z. PiVm = N i RuTm Then Pi N = i = yi (mole fraction) Pm N m (c) Vi N = i = yi (mole fraction) Vm N m Pi Vi N = = i = yi Pm Vm N m (12.
PmVm = Z m N m RuTm Pm = ∑ Pi i =1 k k for gas i (Dalton' s law).Real Gas Mixtures Ideal Gas Eqn. Z m = ∑ yi Z i i =1 Vm = ∑ Vi i =1 k Zm can be determined from both Dalton’s and Amagat’s Law. Compressibility Factor of Gas Mixture (Zm) • Amagat’s law find Zi (table A-15) for each gas from in the mixture from their TR and PR and Z m = ∑ yi Z i i =1 k • Dalton’s law find Zi (table A-15) for each gas in the mixture from their VR and PR and Z m = ∑ yi Z i i =1 k Then Zm are different from different Laws. PiVm = Z i N i RuTm and Therefore. Amagat’s law is more accurate because intermolecular forces already consider. of State PV = ZNRuT for the mixture. 5 .
m and PR. Zm is easily to determined by using these psueocritical properties TR. m Then.i W here: Pcr.330 m3 0.m (Table A-15).i and Tcr. 0. m and PR = Pm Pcr .652 m3 (c) Z and Amagat’s law 0. (b) Key’ Key’s Rule. and (d) compressibility factor and Dalton’ Dalton’s law.11b) ∑ yT i =1 i k cr. Solution (a) the ideal gas . 1.m = Pseudocritical T em perature T hen. (b) Key’s Rule.Compressibility Factor Approached K ey's R ule: Pcr.m = ∑yP i =1 i k cr.m = Pseudocritical Pressrue Tcr. Estimate the volume of the tank on the basis of (a) the ideal gas equation of state. Example 2 A rigid tank contains 2 kmol of N2 and 6 kmol of CO2 gases at 300 K and 15 MPa.11a) (12. T R = Tm Tcr .648 m3 6 .i can be determ ined in T able A-1 Pcr.m = Tcr. MPa.i (12. (c) Compressibility factor and Amagat’ Amagat’s law.638 m3 (d) Z and Dalton’s law.
i = ∑ N i c p .m = ∑ cv .m dT i T1 T2 _ ΔH m = ∑ ΔH i = ∑ mi Δh i = ∑ N i Δ h i or ( H 2 − H1 ) m = ∑ mi (h2 − h1 ) i = ∫ C p .1 pi .i d (ln T ) − ∑ mi Ri ln i T1 i pi . 2 7 .m dT i T1 T2 _ or ( S 2 − S1 ) m = ∑ mi ( s2 − s1 ) i i T2 ΔS m = ∑ ΔSi = ∑ mi Δs i = ∑ N i Δ s i _ = ∑ mi ∫ C p .i = ∑ mi cv .m = ∑ c p .Properties of Ideal Gas Mixtures Extensive properties of gas mixtures U m = ∑ U i = ∑ mi u i = ∑ N i u i H m = ∑ H i = ∑ mi h i = ∑ N i h i S m = ∑ Si = ∑ mi s i = ∑ N i s i Heat capacities of gas mixtures _ _ _ c p .i = ∑ N i cv .i cv .i Properties Change of Ideal Gas Mixtures ΔU m = ∑ ΔU i = ∑ mi Δu i = ∑ N i Δ u i or (U 2 − U1 ) m = ∑ mi (u2 − u1 ) i = ∫ C v .i = ∑ mi c p .
70m 3 ⎜ P ⎟ ⎟ = 100 ⎝ 1 ⎠O 2 Pm = N m RuTm = 114. Now the partition is removed.314)(293) = 2.314)(313) =⎜ = 5.Example 3 An insulated rigid tank is devided into two compartments by a partition.362kmol VO 2 ⎛ NRuT1 ⎞ (0.219)(8.4kPa Vm ⎛ NRuT1 ⎞ (0.143)(8. Determine. and (b) the mixture pressure after equilibrium has been established.143kmol M N 2 28kg / kmol Then. (a) the mixture temperature.2 o C 0 = ΔU = ΔU N 2 + ΔU O 2 (b) the mixture pressure can be calculated from ideal-gas relation: PmVm = N m RuTm NO2 = NN2 = mO 2 7 kg = = 0.219kmol M O 2 32kg / kmol mN 2 4kg = = 0. and the two gases are allowed to mix. and the other component contains 4 kg of nitrogen gas at 20oC and 150 kPa. One compartment contains 7 kg of oxygen gas at 40oC and 100 kPa.32m 3 VN 2 = ⎜ ⎜ P ⎟ ⎟ = 150 ⎝ 1 ⎠N 2 Vm = VO 2 + VN 2 = 8. N m = N O 2 + N N 2 = 0. Solution a) The energy balance for the system (no heat transferred to/from the tank): Ein − Eout = ΔEsystem [mcv (Tm − T1 )]N 2 + [mcv (Tm − T1 )]O 2 = 0 Tm = 32.02m 3 8 .
4 kmol mm = = PmVm RmTm 15 103 kJ .314 ( kJ / kg ⋅ K ) = kJ kmol ⋅ K = 0.4 yi mfi = yiMi /Mm kgi/kgm 0.242 kJ / ( kg ⋅ K ))(30 + 273) K m3 MPa = 20.45 kg 9 .6 Mm = Σyi Mi = 34. For ideal-gas mixtures. Recall yi = vi / vm Component N2 CO2 Mi yiMi kg/kmol kg/kmol 0. the percent by volume is the volume fraction.512 (b) What is the mass of 1 m3 of this gas when P = 1.40 44 17.488 0.5 MPa and T = 30oC? Rm = Ru Mm 8. MPa (1m3 ) (0.242 kJ kg kg ⋅ K 34.Example 4 An ideal-gas mixture has the following volumetric analysis Component % by Volume N2 60 CO2 40 (a) Find the analysis on a mass basis.60 28 16.8 0.
039 kJ/kg⋅K and Cp CO2 = 0.940 − 0. m = C p . Using Table A-2.i = (0. Cp N2 = 1. m (T2 − T1 ) = mC The heat transfer per unit mass flow is qin = & Q in = C p .940 kJ kgm ⋅ K Cv . ) + (0.488)(1039 .940 (120 K ) kgm ⋅ K = 112. The conservation of mass and energy for steady-flow are &1 = m &2 = m & m & in = m & 1h1 + Q & 2 h2 m & =m & (h − h ) Q in 2 1 & p .(c) Find the specific heats at 300 K. m (T2 − T1 ) & m kJ = 0.242) = 0. m − Rm = ( 0. m = ∑ mf i C p .8 kJ kgm 10 .512)(0.846 kJ/kg⋅K C p .846) 1 2 = 0.698 kJ kgm ⋅ K kJ kgm ⋅ K (d) This gas is heated in a steady-flow process such that the temperature is increased by 120oC. Find the required heat transfer.
30oC. to 0.m = 0.m Assuming constant properties for the isentropic process C 0.(e) This mixture undergoes an isentropic process from 0.940 (f) Find ΔSm per kg of mixture when the mixture is compressed isothermally from 0.1 Then. the compression process is isothermal. So. 11 . yi .698 = 1347 v .1 MPa. .1 MPa to 0. The ratio of specific heats for the mixture is k = Cp. Find T2.2 MPa. T2 = T1. But. 2 = yi .2 MPa. The partial pressures are given by Pi = yi Pm The entropy change becomes For this problem the components are already mixed before the compression process.
kgCO2 kJ kJ ) + (0512 . Determine the entropy change due to the mixing process per unit mass of mixture. = (0488 . ) kgN2 ⋅ K kgm kgCO2 ⋅ K kJ kgm ⋅ K Why is Δsm negative for this problem? Find the entropy change using the average specific heats of the mixture. = −0167 kgN2 kgm )(−0206 . The resulting mixture has the composition as given in part (a). 12 . Is your result the same as that above? Should it be? (g) Both the N2 and CO2 are supplied in separate lines at 0. )(−0131 .Δsm = ∑mfi Δsi i =1 2 .2 MPa and 300 K to a mixing chamber and are mixed adiabatically.
3 = 0. So.1 = 1 and in the mixture state 3. But the mixing process is isothermal. y N 2 .Take the time to apply the steady-flow conservation of energy and mass to show that the temperature of the mixture at state 3 is 300 K. 3 = 0. T3 = T2 = T1.4 13 . yCO2 .6 yCO2 . Then. The partial pressures are given by The entropy change becomes Pi = yi Pm But here the components are not mixed initially. 2 = 1 y N 2 .
589. kJ kgCO2 ⋅ K ) kJ kgm ⋅ K If the process is adiabatic. the speed of sound is given by C = kRT Mixture N2 and CO2 NOZZLE C = 500 m/s T = 500oC Answer: yN2 = 0. From Chapter 17.Then. Determine the required mole fractions of the nitrogen and carbon dioxide to produce this mixture. kJ kg N 2 ⋅ K ) + (0.512 kgCO2 kgm )(0173 .488 = 0163 . kg N 2 kgm )(0152 . why did the entropy increase? Extra Assignment Nitrogen and carbon dioxide are to be mixed and allowed to flow through a convergent nozzle.411 14 . Δsm = ∑ mf i Δsi i =1 2 = (0. yCO2 = 0. The exit velocity to the nozzle is to be the speed of sound for the mixture and have a value of 500 m/s when the nozzle exit temperature of the mixture is 500°C.