You are on page 1of 34

AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T.

Groth c 2010
2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows
Coverage of this section:

Review of Navier-Stokes Equations for Incompressible and

Compressible Flows

Closure Problem and Turbulence Modelling

1
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.1 Review of Tensor Notation
Tensor notation is used extensively throughout the textbook and
this course and is therefore briey reviewed before moving to a
discussion of the conservation equations for turbulent ows.
2
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.2 Navier-Stokes Equations for a Compressible Gas
The Navier-Stokes equations describing the ow of compressible
gases are a non-linear set of partial-dierential equations (PDEs)
governing the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy of the
gaseous motion. They consist of two scalar equations and one
vector equation for ve unknowns (dependent variables) in terms
of three independent variables, the postion vector, x or x
i
, and
time, t.
We will here review briey the Navier-Stokes equations for a
polytropic (calorically perfect) gas in both tensor and vector
notation. Integral forms of the equations will also be discussed.
3
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.2 Navier-Stokes Equations for a Compressible Gas
2.2.1 Continuity Equation
The continuity equation is a scaler equation reecting the
conservation of mass for a moving uid. Using vector notation, it
has the form

t
+

(u) = 0
where and u are the gas density and ow velocity, respectively.
In tensor notation, the continuity equation can be written as

t
+

x
i
(u
i
) = 0
4
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.2.1 Continuity Equation
For the control volume and control surface above, the integral
form of the continuity equation can be obtained by integrating the
original PDE over the control volume and making using of the
divergence theorem. The following integral equation is obtained:
d
dt
_
V
dV =
_
A
u n dA
which relates the time rate of change of the total mass within the
control volume to the mass ux through the control surface.
5
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.2 Navier-Stokes Equations for a Compressible Gas
2.2.2 Momentum Equation
The momentum equation is a vector equation that represents the
application of Newtons 2nd Law of Motion to the motion of a gas.
It relates the time rate of change of the gas momentum to the
forces which act on the gas. Using vector notation, it has the form

t
(u) +

_
uu + p

_
=

f
where p and

are the gas pressure and uid stress dyad or tensor,
respectively, and

f is the acceleration of the gas due to body forces
(i.e., gravitation, electro-magnetic forces). In tensor notation, the
momentum equation can be written as

t
(u
i
) +

x
j
(u
i
u
j
+ p
ij

ij
) = f
i
6
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.2.2 Momentum Equation
For the control volume, the integral form of the momentum
equation is given by
d
dt
_
V
u dV =
_
A
_
uu + p

_
n dA+
_
V

f dV
which relates the time rate of change of the total momentum
within the control volume to the surface and body forces that act
on the gas.
7
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.2 Navier-Stokes Equations for a Compressible Gas
2.2.3 Energy Equation
The energy equation is a scalar equation that represents the
application of 1st Law of Thermodynamics to the gaseous motion.
It describes the time rate of change of the total energy of the gas
(the sum of kinetic energy of bulk motion and internal kinetic or
thermal energy). Using vector notation, it has the form

t
(E) +

_
u
_
E +
p

u +q
_
=

f u
where E is the total specic energy of the gas given by
E =e +u u/2 and q is the heat ux vector representing the ux
of heat out of the gas. In tensor notation, it has the form

t
(E) +

x
i
_
u
i
_
E +
p

ij
u
j
+ q
i
_
= f
i
u
i
8
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.2.3 Energy Equation
For the control volume, the integral form of the energy equation is
given by
d
dt
_
V
E dV =
_
A
_
u
_
E +
p

u +q
_
n dA+
_
V

f u dV
which relates the time rate of change of the total energy within the
control volume to transport of energy, heat transfer, and work
done by the gas.
9
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.2 Navier-Stokes Equations for a Compressible Gas
The Navier-Stokes equations as given above are not complete
(closed). Additional information is required to relate pressure,
density, temperature, and energy, and the uid stress tensor,
ij
and heat ux vector, q
i
must be specied. The equation set is
completed by
thermodynamic relationships;
constitutive relations; and
expressions for transport coecients.
When seeking solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations for either
steady-state boundary value problems or unsteady initial boundary
value problems, boundary conditions will also be required to
complete the mathematical description.
10
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.2 Navier-Stokes Equations for a Compressible Gas
2.2.4 Thermodynamic Relationships
In this course, we will assume that the gas satises the ideal gas
equation of state relating , p, and T, given by
p = RT
and behaves as a calorically perfect gas (polytropic gas) with
constant specic heats, c
v
and c
p
, and specic heat ratio, , such
that
e = c
v
T =
p
( 1)
and h = e +
p

= c
p
T =
p
( 1)
where R is the gas constant, c
v
is the specic heat at constant
volume, c
p
is the specic heat at constant pressure, and =c
p
/c
v
.
11
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.2 Navier-Stokes Equations for a Compressible Gas
2.2.5 Mach Number and Sound Speed
For a polytropic gas, the sound speed, a, can be determined using
a =
_

=
_
RT
and thus the ow Mach number, M, is given by
M =
u
a
=
u

RT
12
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.2 Navier-Stokes Equations for a Compressible Gas
2.2.6 Constitutive Relationships
The constitutive relations provide expressions for the uid stress
tensor,
ij
, and heat ux vector, q
i
, in terms of the other uid
quantities. Using the Navier-Stokes relation, the uid stress tensor
can be related to the uid strain rate and given by

ij
=
__
u
i
x
j
+
u
j
x
i
_

2
3

ij
u
k
x
k
_
(
ii
= 0, traceless)
where is the dynamic viscosity of the gas. Fouriers Law can be
used to relate the heat ux to the temperature gradient as follows:
q
i
=
T
x
i
or q =

T
where is the coecient of thermal conductivity for the gas.
13
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.2 Navier-Stokes Equations for a Compressible Gas
2.2.7 Transport Coecients
In general, the transport coecients, and , are functions of
both pressure and temperature:
= (p, T) and = (p, T)
Expressions, such as Sutherlands Law can be used to determine
the dynamics viscosity as a function of temperature (i.e.,
=(T)). The Prandtl number can also be used to relate and
. The non-dimensional Prandtl number is dened as follows:
Pr =
c
p

and is typically 0.70-0.72 for many gases. Given , the thermal

conductivity can be related to viscosity using the preceding
expression for the Prandtl number.
14
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.2 Navier-Stokes Equations for a Compressible Gas
2.2.8 Boundary Conditions
At a solid wall or bounday, the following boundary conditions for
the ow velocity and temperature are appropriate:
u = 0 , (No-Slip Boundary Condition)
and
T = T
wall
, (Fixed Temperature Wall Boundary Condition)
or

T n = 0 , (Adiabatic Wall Boundary Condition)

where T
wall
is the wall temperature and n is a unit vector in the
direction normal to the wall or solid surface.
15
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.3 Navier-Stokes Equations for an Incompressible Gas
For low ow Mach numbers (i.e., low subsonic ow, M<1/4), the
assumption that the gas behaves as an incompressible uid is
generally a good approximation. By assuming that
the density, , is constant;
temperature variations are small and unimportant such that
the energy equation can be neglected; and
the viscosity, , is constant;
one can arrive at the Navier-Stokes equations describing the ow
of incompressible uids.
16
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.3 Navier-Stokes Equations for an Incompressible Gas
2.3.1 Continuity Equation
Using vector notation, the continuity equation for incompressible
ow reduces to

u = 0
In other words, the velocity vector, u, is a solenoidal vector eld
and is divergence free. In tensor notation, the solenoidal condition
can be expressed as
u
i
x
i
= 0
17
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.3 Navier-Stokes Equations for an Incompressible Gas
2.3.2 Momentum Equation
Using vector notation, the momentum equation for an
incompressible uid can be written as
u
t
+u

u +
1

p =
1

In tensor notation, the incompressible form of the momentum

equation is given by
u
i
t
+ u
j
u
i
x
j
+
1

p
x
i
=
1

ij
x
j
18
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.3 Navier-Stokes Equations for an Incompressible Gas
2.3.3 Constitutive Relationships
For incompressible ows, the Navier-Stokes constitutive relation
relating the uid stresses and uid strain rate can be written as

ij
=
_
u
i
x
j
+
u
j
x
i
_
=
_
u
i
x
j
+
u
j
x
i
_
= 2S
ij
where =/ is the kinematic viscosity and the strain rate tensor
(dyadic quantity) is given by
S
ij
=
1
2
_
u
i
x
j
+
u
j
x
i
_
As in the compressible case, the uid stress tensor for
incompressible ow is still traceless and
ij
=0.
19
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.3 Navier-Stokes Equations for an Incompressible Gas
2.3.4 Vorticity Transport Equation
The vorticity vector,

, is related to the rotation of a uid element
and is dened as follows:

=

u or
i
=
ijk
u
k
x
j
For incompressible ows, the momentum equation can be used to
arrive at a transport equation for the ow vorticity given by

t

u

=
2

20
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.3.4 Vorticity Transport Equation
Using

u

=

u u

, the vorticity transport

equation can be re-expressed as

t
+u

u =
2

Using tensor notation, this equation can be written as

i
t
+ u
j

i
x
j

j
u
i
x
j
=

2

i
x
j
x
j
21
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.4 Reynolds Averaging
As discussed previously, turbulent ow is characterized by irregular,
chaotic motion. The common approach to the modelling of
turbulence is to assume that the motion is random and adopt a
statistical treatment. Reynolds (1895) introduced the idea that the
turbulent ow velocity vector, u
i
, can be decomposed and
represented as a uctuation, u

i
, about a mean component, U
i
as
follows:
u
i
= U
i
+ u

i
Develop and solve conservation equations for the mean quantities
(i.e., the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations) and
incorporate the inuence of the uctuations on the mean ow via
turbulence modelling.
22
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.4 Reynolds Averaging
2.4.1 Forms of Reynolds Averaging
1. Time Averaging: appropriate for steady mean ows
F
T
(x) = lim
T
1
T
_
t+T/2
tT/2
f (x, t

)dt

2. Spatial Averaging: suitable for homogeneous turbulent ows

F
V
(t) = lim
V
1
V
_
V
f (x, t)dV
3. Ensemble Averaging: most general form of averaging
F
E
(x, t) = lim
N
1
N
N

n=1
f
n
(x, t)
where f
n
(x, t) is nth instance of ow solution with initial and
boundary data diering by random innitessimal
perturbations.
23
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.4.1 Forms of Reynolds Averaging
For ergodic random processes, these three forms of Reynolds
averaging will yield the same averages. This would be the case for
stationary, homogeneous, turbulent ows.
In this course and indeed in most turbulence modelling approaches,
time averaging will be considered. Note that Wilcox (2002) states
that Reynolds time averaging is a brutal simplication that loses
much of the information contained in the turbulence.
24
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.4 Reynolds Averaging
2.4.2 Reynolds Time Averaging
In Reynolds time averaging, all instantaneous ow quantities,
(x
i
, t) and a(x
i
, t), will be represented as a sum of mean and
uctuating components, (x
i
) and

(x
i
, t) and A(x
i
) and a

(x
i
, t),
respectively, such that
(x
i
, t) = (x
i
) +

(x
i
, t) or a(x
i
, t) = A(x
i
) + a

(x
i
, t)
For the ow velocity, we have
U
i
(x

, t) = U
i
(x

) + u

i
(x

, t)
25
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.4.2 Reynolds Time Averaging
The time averaging procedure is dened as follows and yields the
time averaged quantities:
(x
i
, t) = (x
i
) = lim
T
1
T
_
t+T/2
tT/2
(x
i
, t

)dt

a(x
i
, t) = A(x
i
) = lim
T
1
T
_
t+T/2
tT/2
a(x
i
, t

)dt

By denition, time averaging of mean quantities merely recovers

the mean quantity:
U
i
(x

) = lim
T
1
T
_
t+T/2
tT/2
U
i
(x

)dt

= U
i
(x

)
26
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.4.2 Reynolds Time Averaging
Similarly by denition, time averaging of time-averaged quantities
yields zero:
u

i
(x

, t) = lim
T
1
T
_
t+T/2
tT/2
_
u
i
(x

, t

) U
i
(x

dt

= 0
27
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.4 Reynolds Averaging
2.4.3 Separation of Time Scales
In practice, the time period for the averaging, T, is not innite but
very long relative to the time scales for the turbulent uctuations,
T
1
( i.e., T T
1
).
This denition of time averaging and T works well for stationary
(steady) ows. However, for non-stationary (unsteady ows), the
validity of the Reynolds time averaging procedure requires a strong
separation to time scales with
T
1
T T
2
where T
2
is the time scale for the variation of the mean.
28
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.4 Reynolds Averaging
2.4.3 Separation of Time Scales
t
u
(
x
,
t
)
T
1
T
2
T
1
T T
2
29
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.4.3 Separation of Time Scales
Provided there exists this separation of scales, the time averaging
procedure for time-varying mean ows can be dened as follows:
(x
i
, t) = (x
i
, t) =
1
T
_
t+T/2
tT/2
(x
i
, t

)dt

a(x
i
, t) = A(x
i
, t) =
1
T
_
t+T/2
tT/2
a(x
i
, t

)dt

with T
1
T T
2
.
30
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.4 Reynolds Averaging
2.4.4 Properties of Reynolds Time Averaging
31
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.5 Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Equations
2.5.1 Derivation
Applying Reynolds time-averaging to the incompressible form of
the Navier-Stokes equations leads to the Reynolds Averaged
Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations describing the time variation of
mean ow quantities.
Application of time-averaging to the continuity equations yields
u
i
x
i
= 0
or
U
i
x
i
= 0
32
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.5 Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Equations
2.5.1 Derivation
For the incompressible form of the momentum equation we have
u
i
t
+ u
j
u
i
x
j
+
1

p
x
i
=
u
i
t
+ u
j
u
i
x
j
+
1

p
x
i
=
1

ij
x
j
Considering each term in the time-average equation above we have:
u
i
t
=
U
i
t
1

p
x
i
=
1

p
x
i
=
1

P
x
i
33
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.5 Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Equations
2.5.1 Derivation
1

ij
x
j
=
1

ij
x
j
=
2

S
ij
x
j
= 2

S
ij
x
j
where the mean strain,

S
ij
, is dened as

S
ij
=
1
2
_
U
i
x
j
+
U
j
x
i
_
34
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.5 Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Equations
2.5.1 Derivation
u
j
u
i
x
j
=

x
j
(u
i
u
j
) u
i
u
j
x
j
=

x
j
_
U
i
U
j
+ u

i
u

j
_

x
j
(U
i
U
j
) +

x
j
_
u

i
u

j
_
U
j
U
i
x
j
+ U
i
U
j
x
j
+

x
j
_
u

i
u

j
_
U
j
U
i
x
j
+

x
j
_
u

i
u

j
_
Thus we have
U
i
t
+ U
j
U
i
x
j
+
1

P
x
i
=
1

x
j
_
2

S
ij
u

i
u

j
_
35
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.5 Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Equations
2.5.2 Summary
In summary, the RANS describing the time-evolution of the mean
ow quantities U
i
and P can be written as
U
i
x
i
= 0
U
i
t
+ U
j
U
i
x
j
+
1

P
x
i
=
1

x
j
(
ij
+
ij
)
where
ij
is the uid stress tensor evaluated in terms of the mean
ow quantities and
ij
is the Reynolds or turbulent stress tensor
given by

ij
= u

i
u

j
36
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.6 Reynolds Turbulent Stresses and Closure Problem
2.6.1 Closure or RANS Equations
The Reynolds stresses

ij
= u

i
u

j
incorporate the eects of the unresolved turbulent uctuations
(i.e., unresolved by the mean ow equations and description) on
the mean ow. These apparent turbulent stresses signicantly
enhance momentum transport in the mean ow.
The Reynolds stress tensor,
ij
, is a symmetric equation
incorporating six (6) unknown or unspecied values. This leads to
a closure problem for the RANS equation set. Turbulence
modelling provides the necessary closure by allowing a means for
specifying
ij
in terms of mean ow solution quantities.
37
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.6 Reynolds Turbulent Stresses and Closure Problem
2.6.2 Reynolds Stress Transport Equations
Transport equations for the Reynolds stresses,
ij
=u

i
u

j
can be
derived by making use of the original and time-averaged forms of
the momentum equations.
38
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.7 Turbulence Intensity and Kinetic Energy
2.7.1 Turbulent Kinetic Energy
Turbulent kinetic energy contained in the near-randomly
uctuating velocity of the turbulent motion is important in
characterizing the turbulence.
The turbulent kinetic energy, k, can be dened as follows:
k =
1
2
u

i
u

i
=
1
2
_
u

2
+ v

2
+ w

2
_
=
1
2

ii

=
1
2
(
xx
+
yy
+
zz
)
where u

2
=
xx
/, v

2
=
yy
/, and w

2
=
zz
/.
39
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.7 Turbulence Intensity and Kinetic Energy
2.7.2 Turbulence Intensity
Relative turbulence intensities can be dened as follows:
u =
_
u

2
U

, v =
_
v

2
U

, w =
_
w

2
U

where U

is a reference velocity.
For isotropic turbulence, u

2
= v

2
=w

2
, and thus
u = v = w =

2
3
k
U
2

For at plate incompressible boundary layer ow, U

=U

,
u>0.10, and the turbulence is anisotropic such that
u

2
: v

2
: w

2
= 4 : 2 : 3
40
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.7.2 Turbulence Intensity
41
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.8 Turbulent Kinetic Energy Transport Equation
2.8.1 Derivation
Can derive a transport equation for the turbulent kinetic energy
through contraction of the Reynolds stress transport equations
using the relation that
k =
1
2
u

i
u

i
=
1
2

ii

The following equation for the transport of k can be obtained:

k
t
+U
i
k
x
i
=

ij

U
i
x
j
+

x
i
_

k
x
i

i

1
2
u

i
u

k
u

k
_

i
x
j
u

i
x
j
As for the Reynolds stress equations, a number of unknown
higher-order correlations appear in the equation for k requiring
closure.
42
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.8 Turbulent Kinetic Energy Transport Equation
2.8.2 Discussion of Terms
Terms in this transport equation can be identied as follows:
k
t
: time evolution of k
U
i
k
x
i
: convection transport of k
Production:

ij

U
i
x
j
: production of k by mean ow
43
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.8.2 Discussion of Terms
Diusion:

k
x
i
: molecular diusion of k
1

i
: pressure diusion of k
1
2
u

i
u

k
u

k
: turbulent transport of k
44
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.8.2 Discussion of Terms
Dissipation:

i
x
j
u

i
x
j
= : dissipation of k at small scales
where is the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy.
45
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.9 Kinetic Energy Spectrum and Kolmogorov -5/3 Law
2.9.1 Denition
Further insight into the energy contained in the unresolved
turbulent motion can be gained by considering the turbulent kinetic
energy spectrum. The turbulent kinetic energy can be expressed as
k =
_

0
E()d
where E() is the spectral distribution of turbulent energy,
is the wave number of the Fourier-like energy mode, and is the
wave length of the energy mode such that
E()d = turbulent energy contained between and +d
and where
=
1

46
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.9 Kinetic Energy Spectrum and Kolmogorov -5/3 Law
47
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.9 Kinetic Energy Spectrum and Kolmogorov -5/3 Law

DI

EI
Dissipation
range
Inertial subrange Energy-containing range
Slope 2
Slope -5/3
E
(

48
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.9 Kinetic Energy Spectrum and Kolmogorov -5/3 Law
2.9.2 Range of Turbulent Scales
The large-scale turbulent motion ( 0) contains most of the
turbulent kinetic energy, while most of the vorticity resides in the
small-scale turbulent motion ( 1/), where , the Kolmogorov
scale, is the smallest scale present in the turbulence.
The dissipation of the turbulence kinetic energy occurs at the
Kolmogorov scale and it follows from Kolmogorovs universal
equilibrium theory that
dk
dt
= , and =
_

_
1/4
49
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.9.2 Range of Turbulent Scales
For high Reynolds number turbulence, dimensional analysis and
experimental measurements conrm that the dissipation rate, ,
turbulent kinetic energy, k, and largest scale representing the large
scale motions (i.e., scale of the largest eddies),
0
, are related as
follows:

k
3/2

0
When discussing features of turbulence, it was noted that it
contains a wide range of scales. This implies that

0

50
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.9.2 Range of Turbulent Scales
Using the expression above for
0
, an examination of the length
scales reveals that

=

0
(
3
/)
1/4

0

3/4
_
k
3/2

0
_
1/4

_
k
1/2

_
3/4
Re
3/4
t
where Re
t
is the turbulent Reynolds number. Thus
0
for high
turbulent Reynolds number ows (i.e., for Re
t
1). The latter is
a key assumption entering into Kolmogorovs universal equilibrium
theory.
51
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.9 Kinetic Energy Spectrum and Kolmogorov -5/3 Law
2.9.3 Kolmogorov -5/3 Law
Kolmogorov also hypothesize an intermediate range of turbulent
scales lying between the largest scales and smallest scales where
inertial eects dominate. He postulated that in this inertial
sub-range, E() only depends on and . Using dimensional
analysis he argued that
E() = C
k

2/3

5/3
or
E()
5/3
52
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.9 Kinetic Energy Spectrum and Kolmogorov -5/3 Law
53
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.9.3 Kolmogorov -5/3 Law
Although the Kolmogorov -5/3 Law is not of prime importance to
RANS-based turbulence models, it is of central importance to DNS
and LES calculations. Such simulations should be regarded with
skeptism if they fail to reproduce this result.
54
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.10 Two-Point Correlations
2.10.1 Two-Point Velocity Correlations
So far we have only considered single-point or one-point
correlations of uctuating quantities. Two-point correlations are
useful for characterizing turbulence and, in particular, the spatial
and temporal scales and non-local behaviour. They provide formal
denitions of the integral length and time scales characterizing the
large scale turbulent motions.
There are two forms of two-point correlations:

two-point correlations in space.

Both forms are based on Reynolds time averaging.
55
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.10.1 Two-Point Velocity Correlations
Two-Point Autocorrelation Tensor (In Time):
R
ij
(x
i
, t; t

) = u

i
(x
i
, t)u

j
(x
i
, t + t

)
Two-Point Velocity Correlation Tensor (In Space):
R
ij
(x
i
, t; r
i
) = u

i
(x
i
, t)u

j
(x
i
+ r
i
, t)
For both correlations,
k(x
i
, t) =
1
2
R
ii
(x
i
, t; 0)
56
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.10 Two-Point Correlations
2.10.2 Integral Length and Time Scales
The integral length and time scales, and , can be dened as
follows:
(x
i
, t) =
3
16
_

0
R
ii
(x
i
, t; r )
k(x
i
, t)
dr
(x
i
, t) =
_

0
R
ii
(x
i
, t; t

)
2k(x
i
, t)
dt

where r =|r
i
| =

r
i
r
i
and 3/16 is a scaling factor.
57
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.10 Two-Point Correlations
2.10.3 Taylors Hypothesis
The two types of two-point correlations can be related by applying
Taylors hypothesis which assumes that

t
= U
i

x
i
This relationship assumes that |u

i
| |U
i
| and predicts that the
turbulence essentially passes through points in space as a whole,
transported by the mean ow (i.e., assumption of frozen
turbulence).
58
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.11 Favre Time Averaging
2.11.1 Reynolds Time Averaging for Compressible Flows
If Reynolds time averaging is applied to the compressible form of
the Navier-Stokes equations, some diculties arise. In particular,
the original form of the equations is signicantly altered. To see
this, consider Reynolds averaging applied to the continuity
equation for compressible ow. Application of time-averaging to
the continuity equations yields

t
+

x
i
(u
i
) = 0

t
_
+

_
+

x
i
_
( +

)
_
U
i
+ u

i
_
_
= 0
59
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.11.1 Reynolds Time Averaging for Compressible Flows
The Reynolds time averaging yields

t
( ) +

x
i
_
U
i
+

i
_
= 0
The introduction of high-order correlations involving the density
uctuations, such as

i
, can complicate the turbulence modelling
and closure. Some of the complications can be circumvented by
introducing an alternative time averaging procedure: Favre time
averaging, which is a mass weighted time averaging procedure.
60
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.11 Favre Time Averaging
2.11.2 Denition
Favre time averaging can be dened as follows. The instantaneous
solution variable, , is decomposed into a mean quantity,

, and
uctuating component,

, as follows:
=

+

The Favre time-averaging is then

(x
i
, t) =
1
T
_
t+T/2
tT/2
(x
i
, t

)(x
i
, t

)dt

where

(x
i
, t)
1
T
_
t+T/2
tT/2
(x
i
, t

)(x
i
, t

)dt

0
61
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.11 Favre Time Averaging
2.11.3 Comparison of Reynolds and Favre Averaging

Decomposition
Reynolds : =

+

, Favre : =

+

Time Averaging
Reynolds : =

+

=

, Favre : = (

) =

Fluctuations
Reynolds :

= 0 , Favre :

= 0
62
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.11.3 Comparison of Reynolds and Favre Averaging
Further comparisons are possible. For Reynolds averaging we have
=

and for Favre averaging we have

=

Thus

or

=

+

63
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.11.3 Comparison of Reynolds and Favre Averaging
We also note that

= 0

=

=

Now applying time averaging, we have

= 0
64
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.11.3 Comparison of Reynolds and Favre Averaging
Returning to the compressible form of the continuity equation, we
can write
u
i
= U
i
+

i
= u
i
and therefore the Favre-averaged form of the continuity equation is
given by

t
( ) +

x
i
( u
i
) = 0
It is quite evident that the Favre-averaging procedure has
recovered the original form of the continuity equation without
introducing additional high-order correlations.
65
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.12 Favre-Averaged Navier-Stokes (FANS) Equations
Continuity Equation:

t
( ) +

x
i
( u
i
) = 0
Momentum Equation:

t
( u
i
) +

x
j
( u
i
u
j
+ p
ij
) =

x
j
_

ij
u

i
u

j
_
Favre-Averaged Reynolds Stress Tensor:
= u

i
u

j
Turbulent Kinetic Energy:
1
2
u

i
u

i
=
1
2

ii
=

k
66
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.12 Favre-Averaged Navier-Stokes (FANS) Equations
Energy Equation:

t
_

_
e +
1
2
u
i
u
i
_
+
1
2
u

i
u

i
_
+

x
j
_
u
j
_

h +
1
2
u
i
u
i
_
+
u
j
2
u

i
u

i
_
=

x
j
__

ij
u

i
u

j
_
u
i
q
j
_
+

x
j
_
u

j
h

1
2
u

j
u

i
u

i
+ u

i

ij
_
Turbulent Transport of Heat and Molecular Diusion of Turbulent
Energy:
q
t
j
= u

j
h

, u

i

ij
Turbulent Transport of Kinetic Energy:
1
2
u

j
u

i
u

i
67
AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows C. P. T. Groth c 2010
2.13 Turbulence Modelling
Turbulence Modelling provides a mathematical framework for
determining the additional terms (i.e., correlations) that appear in
the FANS and RANS equations.
Turbulence models may be classied as follows:

0-Equation or Algebraic Models

1-Equation Models

2-Equation Models

68