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MIL-HDBK-217F 2 DECEMBER 1991


SUPERSEDING MIL-HDBK-217E, Notice 1 2 January 1990

MILITARY HANDBOOK
RELIABILITY PREDICTION OF ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

THIS HANDBOOK IS FOR GUIDANCE ONLY DO NOT CITE THIS DOCUMENT AS A REQUIREMENT
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377

NOTICE OF CHANGE

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MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2 28 February 1995

THIS HANDBOOK IS FOR GUIDANCE ONLY DO NOT CITE THIS DOCUMENT AS A REQUIREMENT

MILITARY HANDBOOK RELIABILITY PREDICTIONOF ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

To all holders of MIL-HDBK-217F


1. The following pages of MIL-HDBK917F have been revised and supersede the pages listed.

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2.

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3.

Holders of MIL-HDBK-217F will verify that page changes and additions indicatedhavebeen entered. The notice pages will be retainedasachecksheet.Theissuance, together with appended pages, is a separate publication. Each notice is to be retained by stocking points until the military handbookis revised or canceled. Preparing Activity: Air Force 17

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RE H 9 9 9 9 7 7 0 007b088 b

NOTICE OF CHANGE

NOT MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE


MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 1 10 JULY 1992

MILITARY HANDBOOK RELIABILITY PREDICTION OF ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT To all holders of MIL-HDBK-217F 1. The following pages of MIL-HDBK-217F have been revised and supersede the pages listed. New Page(s) vi 5-3 5-4 5-7 5-8 5-9 5-1O 5-11 5-12 5-13 5-14 5-19 5-20 6-15 6-16 7-1 7-2 12-3 12-4 A- 1 A-2 A-3 A-4 A-5 A-6 A-7 A-8 A-9 A-1O A-11 A-12 A-13 A-14 A-15 A-16 Date Superseded Page(s) vi i 5-3 5-4 5-7 5-8 5-9 5-1O 5-11 5-12 5-13 5-14 5-19 5-20 6-15 6-16 7-1 7-2 12-3 12-4 A- 1 A-2 A-3 A-4 A-5 A-6 A-7 A-8 A-9 A-1O A-1 1 A-12 A-13 A-14 A-15 A-l6 Date 2 December 199 1 2 December 1991 2 December 1991 2 December 1991 Reprinted withoutchange 2 December 1991 Reprinted without change Reprinted without change 2 December 1991 2 December 1991 Reprinted without change 2 December 1991 Reprinted without change 2 December 1991 Reprinted without change Reprinted without change 2 December 1991 2 December 1991 Reprinted withoutchange Reprinted withoutchange 2 December 1991 2 December 1991 Reprinted without change 2 December 1991 2 December 1991 2 December 1991 2 December 1991 2 December 1991 Reprinted withoutchange Reprinted without change 2 December 1991 2 December 1991 2 December 1991 Reprinted withoutchange 2 December 1991

2 December 1991
2 December 1991 2 December 1991

2 December 1991 2 December 1991 2 December 1991 2 December 1991 2 December 1991 2 December 1991 2 December 1991

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2 December 1991

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MIL-HDBK-2L7F N O T I C E L R E

9399970 O076089

MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 1

2.
3.

Retainthe pages of this noticeandinsertbeforetheTable

of Contents.

Holders of MIL-HDBK-217F will verify that page changes and additions indicated have been entered. The notice pages will be retained as a check sheet. The issuance, together with appended pages, is a separate publication. Each notice is to be retained by stocking points until the military handbook is revised or canceled. Preparing Activity: Air Force 17

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Project No. RELI-O068

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H I L - H D B K - 2 1C 7N H FO 6 TICE

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MIL-HDBK-217F

DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE WASHINGTON DC 20301

RELIABILITY PREDICTION OF ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

1. This standardization handbook was developed by the Department o f Defense with the assistance of the military departments, federal agencies, and industry.
2. Everyefforthas

been made toreflectthelatestinformationonreliability prediction procedures. It is the intent to review this handbook periodically to ensure its completeness and currency.

3. Beneficial comments (recommendations, additions, deletions) and any pertinentdata whichmay be of useinimprovingthis document should be addressed to: RomeLaboratory/ERSR,Attn:Seymour F. Morris, 525Brooks Rd., Griffiss AFB, NY 13441-4505, by using the self-addressed Standardization DocumentImprovement Proposal (DD Form 1426) appearing at the end of this document or by letter.

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TABLE SECTION 1. 1 1.2 1.3
1:

OF CONTENTS
1-1 1-1 1-1 2-1 3-1 3-1 3-2 3-2 4-1 5-1 5-3 5-4 5-7 5-8 5-9 5-10 5-11 5-13 5-14 5-15 5-17 5-18 5-20 6-1 6-2 6-4 6-6 6-8 6-9 6-10 6-12 6-14 6-16 6-17 6-19 6-20 6-21 6-23 6-25

SCOPE Purpose................................................................................................................. Application ............................................................................................................. Computerized Reliability Prediction ......................................................................... REFERENCE DOCUMENTS

SECTION 2: SECTION 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4

.......................................................................

3: INTRODUCTION Reliability Engineering ............................................................................................ TheRole of Reliability Prediction.............................................................................. Limitations of Reliability Predictions.......................................................................... Part Stress Analysis Prediction ................................................................................

SECTION 4:

RELIABILITY ANALYSIS EVALUATION ...................................................

SECTION 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.1 1 6.1 2 6.1 3 6.1 4 6.15

6: DISCRETE SEMICONDUCTORS Discrete Semiconductors. Introduction.................................................................... Diodes. Low Frequency.......................................................................................... Diodes. High Frequency (Microwave. RF) ................................................................. Transistors. Low Frequency. Bipolar ........................................................................ Transistors. Low Frequency. Si FET......................................................................... Transistors, Unijunction ........................................................................................... Transistors, Low Noise, High Frequency, Bipolar ...................................................... Transistors, High Power, High Frequency, Bipolar ..................................................... Transistors, High Frequency, GaAs FET ................................................................... Transistors, High Frequency, Si FET ........................................................................ Thyristors andSCRs ............................................................................................... Optoelectronics, Detectors, Isolators, Emitters ......................................................... Optoelectronics, Alphanumeric Displays.................................................................. Optoelectronics, Laser Diode.................................................................................. TJ Determination.................................................................................................... Example.................................................................................................................

...
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SECTION 5: MICROCIRCUITS. INTRODUCTION ........................................................... 5.1 Gate/Logic Arrays and Microprocessors .................................................................... 5.2 Memories ............................................................................................................... 5.3 VHSlCNHSlC Like .................................................................................................. 5.4 GaAs MMlCandDigitalDevices ................................................................................ 5.5 Hybrids .................................................................................................................. 5.6 SAW Devices ......................................................................................................... 5.7 Magnetic Bubble Memories ..................................................................................... 5.8 X.T Table for All ........................................................................................................ 5.9 C2TableforAll ....................................................................................................... 5.1O XE, xL and X.Q Tables for All .................................................................................... 5.1 1 TJDetermination. (All ExceptHybrids) ...................................................................... 5.1 2TJ Determination,(ForHybrids) ................................................................................ 5.13 Examples ...............................................................................................................

MIL-HDBK-217F

CHG N O T I C E 2

9999970 OL970L9 959

MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION 7.1 7.2 7.3

7: TUBES AllTypesExcept TWT and Magnetron .................................................................... Traveling Wave ....................................................................................................... Magnetron.............................................................................................................

7-1 7-3 7-4


8-1

SECTION 8: LASERS 8.0 Introduction........................................................................................................... 8.1 Helium and Argon .................................................................................................. 8.2 Carbon Dioxide. Sealed ......................................................................................... 8.3 Carbon Dioxide. Flowing ....................................................................................... 8.4 Solid State. ND:YAG and Ruby Rod ...................................................................... SECTION 9: RESISTORS 9.1 Resistors ............................................................................................................... SECTION 10: CAPACITORS 10.1 Capacitors ............................................................................................................. 10.2 Capacitors. Example .............................................................................................. SECTION 11.1 11.2 11.3

8-2 8-3 8-4 8-5 9-1 10-1 10-6 11-1 11-3 11-4 12-1 12-4 12-5 13-1 13-3 14-1 14-2
15-1 15-3

11 : INDUCTIVE DEVICES Transformers ......................................................................................................... Coils ..................................................................................................................... Determination of Hot Spot Temperature ................................................................

SECTION 12: ROTATING DEVICES 12.1 Motors .................................................................................................................. 12.2 Synchros and Resolvers ........................................................................................ 12.3 Elapsed Time Meters .............................................................................................. SECTION 13: RELAYS 13.1 Mechanical............................................................................................................. 13.2 SolidStateandTimeDelay ..................................................................................... SECTION 14: SWITCHES 14.1 Switches................................................................................................................ 14.2 Circuit Breakers ..................................................................................................... SECTION 15: CONNECTORS 15.1 Connectors. General .............................................................................................. 15.2 Connectors, Sockets ............................................................................................. SECTION 16: INTERCONNECTION ASSEMBLIES 16.1InterconnectionAssemblieswithPlatedThroughHoles 16.2 Interconnection Assemblies, Surface Mount Technology

..........................................

.........................................

16-1 16-2 17-1 18-1 19-1

SECTION 17: CONNECTIONS 17.1 Connections .......................................................................................................... SECTION 18: METERS 18.1 Meters. Panel ......................................................................................................... SECTION 19: QUARTZ CRYSTALS 19.1 Quartz Crystals ......................................................................................................

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TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION 20: LAMPS 20.1 Lamps................................................................................................................... SECTION 21 : ELECTRONIC FILTERS 21 .1 Electronic Filters. Non-Tunable................................................................................ SECTION 22: FUSES 22.1 Fuses ................................................................................................................... SECTION 23: MISCELLANEOUS PARTS 23.1 Miscellaneous Parts ................................................................................................ APPENDIX A: APPENDIX B: APPENDIX C: PARTS COUNT RELIABILITY PREDICTION.......................................... VHSICNHSIC-LIKE AND VLSl CMOS (DETAILED MODEL) .............. BIBLIOGRAPHY ......................................................................................... LIST OF TABLES
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20-1 21-1 22-1 23-1


A- 1

B-1

c-1

Table 3-1 : Table 3-2: Table 4-1 : Table 6-1 : Table 6-2:

Parts with Multi-Level Quality Specifications ........................................................ Environmental Symbol and Description .............................................................. Reliability Analysis Checklist ............................................................................. DefaultCaseTemperaturesfor All Environments (C) .......................................... Approximate Thermal Resistance for Semiconductor Devices ................................................................................ in Various Package Sizes
LIST OF FIGURES

3-3 3-4 4-1 6-23 6-24

Figure 5-1: Figure 8-1 :

Cross Sectional View of a Hybrid with a Single Multi-Layered Substrate ................ Examples of ActiveOpticalSurfaces ..................................................................

5-18 8-1

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MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
FOREWORD
1.0 THIS HANDBOOK I S FOR GUIDANCE ONLY. THIS HANDBOOK SHALL NOT BE CITED AS REQUIREMENT. A IF IT IS, THE CONTRACTOR DOES NOT HAVE TO COMPLY.

MIL-HDBK-217F, Notice 2 provides thefollowingchangesbasedupon study (see Ref. 37 listed in Appendix C):

a recentlycompleted

Revised resistor and capacitor models, including new models

to address chip devices.

Updated failure ratemodelsfortransformers,coils,motors,relays,switches,circuitbreakers, connectors, printed circuit boards (with and without surface mount technology) and connections. Anewmodel to addresssurfacemountedtechnologysolderconnections.
9

ArevisedTravelingWaveTubemodelbasedupondatasuppliedby the ElectronicIndustries Association Microwave Tube Division. This further lowers the calculated failure rates beyond the earlier modifications made in the base document (MIL-HDBK-217F, 2 December 1991). Revised the Fast Recovery Power reevaluation of Ref. 28. Rectifier base failure rate downward based on a

2.0 MIL-HDBK-217F, Notice 1, errors in the basic F Revision.

(10 July 1992) was issued to correct minor typographical

3.O MIL-HDBK-217F, (base document), (2 December 1991) provided the following changes based upon recently completed studies (see Ref. 30 and 32 listed in Appendix C):

1. New failure rate prediction modelsare provided for the following nine major classes of microcircuits: Monolithic Bipolar Digital and Linear Gate/Logic Array Devices Monolithic MOS Digital and Linear Gate/Logic Array Devices Monolithic Bipolar and MOS Digital Microprocessor Devices (including Controllers) Monolithic Bipolar and MOS Memory Devices Monolithic GaAs Digital Devices Monolithic GaAs MMlC Devices Hybrid Microcircuits Magnetic Bubble Memories Surface Acoustic Wave Devices
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The 2 December1991 revision provided new prediction modelsfor bipolar andMOS 60,000, linear microcircuits with up to 3000 microcircuits with gate counts up to transistors, bipolar and MOS digital microprocessorandco-processorsup to 32 bits, to 1 million bits, GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits memory devices with up ("ICs) with up to 1,000 active elements, and GaAs digital ICs with up to 10,000 transistors. The C, factors have been extensively revised to reflect new technology devices with improved reliability, and the activation energies representing the temperature sensitivity of the dice ( 7 ~ have ~ ) been changed for MOS devices and for memories. The

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MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
FOREWORD

C2 factor remains unchanged from the previous Handbook version, but includes pin grid arrays and surface mount packages using the same model as hermetic, solder-sealed dual in-line packages. New values have been included for the quality factor (xa), the learning factor (xL), andthe environmentalfactor (xE). Themodel for hybrid microcircuitshas been revised to be simpler to use, to delete the temperature dependence of the seal and interconnectfailurerate contributions, and to provide a method of calculatingchip junction temperatures.
2. A newmodel for Very High Speed IntegratedCircuits(VHSICNHSICLike) Large Scale Integration (VLSI) devices (gate counts above 60,000).

andVery

3. The reformatting of the entire handbook to make it easier to use.


4. A reduction in the number of environmental factors (XE) from 27 to 14.
5. A revised failure rate model for Network Resistors.

6. Revised models for TWTs and

Klystronsbased Industries Association Microwave Tube Division.

on datasupplied

by theElectronic

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1.1 Purpose This handbook i s for guidance only and shall not be cited as a contractor does not have to comply (see Page 1-2). Th e requirement. If it is, the purpose of this handbook is to establish and maintain consistent and uniform methods for estimating the inherent reliability (Le., the reliability of amaturedesign)of military electronic equipment and systems. It provides a common basis for reliability predictions during acquisition programs for military electronic systems and equipment. It also establishes a common basis for comparing and evaluating reliability predictions of related or competitive designs. The handbook is intended to be used as a tool to increase the reliability of the equipment being designed. 1.2 Application Thishandbookcontains two methods of reliability prediction - "Part Stress Analysis" in Sections 5 through 23 and "Parts Count" in Appendix A. These methods vary in degree of information needed to apply them. The Part Stress Analysis Method requires a greater amount of detailed information and is applicable during the later design phase when actual hardware and circuits are beingdesigned.The Parts CountMethodrequiresless information, generally part quantities, quality level, and the application environment. This method is applicable during the early design phase andduringproposal formulation. In general,thePartsCount Method will usually result in amore conservative estimate (Le., higher failure rate) of system reliability than the Parts Stress Method.

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1.0

SCOPE

OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRmARY OF DEFENSE


9906 DEFENSE PENTAGON WASHINGTON. DC x U o 1 - 3 # ) 0

FEB 2 8 1995
SUBJECT:

Notice 2 to MIL-HDBK-217F, 'Reliability Prediction of Electronic Equipment', Project RELI-O074

Prior to sending the subject noticet o the M D Single Stock Point f o r printing and distribution, the following additions=st be made: Across the cover in BIG BOLD BLJu3K LETpisRs ALL CAPS: Insert 'TRIS HANDBOOK IS FOR GUIDANCE =Y. DO NOT CITE T H I S DOCUMENT As A REQmREMENT.. In the POREWORD (Page vii of Notice 2 ) . paragraph 1.0: A d d 'THIS HANDBOOK IS FOR GUIDANCE ONLY. TEacS HANDBOOK SHWl NOT BE CITED AS A REQVIREMENT. IF IT I S , TRE RDOES NOT HAVE M COMPLY. Add an entry f o r the SCOPE, paragraph 1.1 (Purpose): 'This handbook is f o r guidance only and shall not be cited as a requirement. If it is, the contractor &es not have to comply.

Walter B. Ber Chairman, Defense Standards Improvement Council


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OUSD(A&T)IYTSE&E/SE, Mr. M. Zsak

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MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
2 . 0 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS

This handbook cites some specifications which have been cancelled or which describe devices that are not to be used for new design. This information is necessary because someof these devices are used in so-called "off-the-shelf"equipment which the Department of Defense purchases. The documents cited in this section are for guidance and information.
SPECIFICATION
MIL-C-5

SECTION #
10.1

TITLE Capacitors, Fixed, Mica Dielectric, General Specification for Resistor, Fixed, Composition (Insulated), General Specification for Resistor, Variable, Wirewound (Low Operating Temperature) General Specification for Capacitor, Fixed, Ceramic Dielectric (Temperature Compensating), Established Reliability and Nonestablished Reliability, General Specification for Resistor, Variable, Wirewound (Power Type), General Specification for Capacitor, Fixed, Paper-Dielectric, Direct Current (Hermetically Sealed in Metal Cases), General Specification for Resistor, Fixed, Wirewound (Power Type), General Specification for Transformer and Inductors (Audio, Power, High Power Pulse), General Specification for Capacitor, Fixed Electrolytic (DC, Aluminum, Dry Electrolyte, Polarized), General Specification for
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MIL-R-11 MIL-R-19 MIL-C90

9.1 9.1 10.1

MIL-R-22 MIL-C-25 MIL-R-26 M I L-T-27 MIL-(2-62 MIL-C-81 MIL-C-92 MIL-R-93 M IL- R-94 MIL-V-95 w-L-111 w-c-375 W-F-1726 W-F-1814 MIL-C-3098 MIL-C-3607 MIL-C-3643

9.1
10.1

9.1 11.1 10.1 10.1 10.1


9.1

Capacitor, Variable, Ceramic Dielectric, General Specification for Capacitor, Variable, Air Dielectric (Trimmer), General Specification for Resistor, Fixed, Wirewound (Accurate), General Specification for Resistor, Variable, Composition, General Specification for Vibrator, Interrupter and Self-Rectifying, General Specification for Lamp, Incandescent Miniature, Tungsten Filament Circuit Breaker, Molded Case, Branch Circuit and Service Fuse, Cartridge, Class H (this covers renewable and nonrenewable) Fuse, Cartridge, High Interrupting Capacity Crystal Unit, Quartz, General Specification for Connector, Coaxial, Radio Frequency, Series Pulse, General Specifications for Connector, Coaxial, Radio Frequency, Series HN and Associated Fittings, General Specification for

9.14 23.1 20.1 14.5 22.1 22.1 19.1 15.1


15.1

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MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
2 .O

REFERENCE DOCUMENTS

MIL-C-3650 MIL-C-3655 MIL-S-3786 MIL-S-3950 MIL-C-3965 MIL-(3-5015 MIL-F-5372 MIL-S-5594 MIL-R-5757 MIL-R-6106 MIL-L-6363 MIL-S-8805 MIL-S-8834 MIL-S-8932 MIL-S-9395 MIL-S-9419 MIL-"10304 MIL-R-10509 MIL-C-10950 MIL-C-11015 MIL-C-11272

15.1 15.1 14.3 14.1 10.1 15.1 22.1 14.1 13.1 13.1 20.1 14.1,14.2 14.1 14.1 14.1 14.1 18.1 9.1 10.1 10.1 10.1

Connector, Coaxial, Radio Frequency, Series LC Connector, Plug and Receptacle, Electrical (Coaxial Series Twin) and Associated Fittings, General Specification for Switch, Rotary (Circuit Selector, Low-Current (Capacity)), General Specification for Switch, Toggle, Environmentally Sealed, General Specification for Capacitor, Fixed, Electrolytic (Nonsolid Electrolyte), Tantalum, General Specification for Connector, Electrical, Circular Threaded, AN Type, General Specification for Fuse, Current Limiter Type, Aircraft Switches, Toggle, Electrically Held Sealed, General Specification for Relays, Electromagnetic,General Specification for Relay, Electromagnetic (Including Established Reliability(ER) Types), General Specification for Lamp, Incandescent, Aircraft Service, General Specification for Switches and Switch Assemblies, Sensitive and Push (Snap Action), General Specification for Switches, Toggle, Positive Break, General Specification for Switches, Pressure, Aircraft, General Specification for Switches, Pressure, (Absolute, Gage, and Differential), General Specification for Switch, Toggle, Momentary Four Position On, Center Off, General Specification for Meter, Electrical Indicating, Panel Type, Ruggedized, General Specification for Resistor, Fixed Film (High Reliability), General Specification for Capacitor, Fixed, Mica Dielectric, Button Style, General Specification for Capacitor, Fixed, Ceramic Dielectric (General Purpose), General Specification for Capacitor, Fixed, Glass Dielectric,General Specification for

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2 . O REFERENCE

DOCUMENTS

MIL-C-I 1693

10.1

Capacitor, Feed Through, Radio Intederence Reduction AC and DC, (Hermetically Sealedin Metal Cases) Established and Nonestablished Reliability, General Specification for Resistor, Fixed, Film (Power Type), General Specification for Switch, Pressure Switches, Thermostatic Sockets and Accessories for Plug-ln Electronic Components, General Specification for Capacitor, By-pass, Radio - Interference Reduction, Paper Dielectric, AC and DC, (Hermetically Sealed in Metallic Cases), General Specification for Resistor, Variable, Wirewound. Precision, General Specification for Switch, Sensitive: 30 Volts Direct Current Maximum, Waterproof Circuit Breakers, Manual and Automatic (28 Volts DG) Switches, Rotary: 28 Volt DC Relays, Electromagnetic 24 VoltDC Switches, Toggle: 28 Volt DC Capacitor, Variable (Piston Type; Tubular Trimmer), General Specification for Fuse, Instrument, Power and Telephone Switches, Rotary, Snap Action and DetenVSpring Return Action, General Specification for Coils, Electrical, Fixed and Variable, Radio Frequency, General Specification for Couplers, Directional, General Specification for Filters and Capacitors, Radio Frequency Interference, General Specification for Switches, Rotary, Enclosed Capacitor, Fixed, Metallized (Paper, Paper Plastic or Plastic Film) Dielectric, Direct Current (Hermetically Sealed in Metal Cases), General Specification for Filter, High Pass, Low Pass, Band Pass, Band Suppression and Dual Functioning, General Specification for

MIL-R-1 1804 MIL-S-12211 MIL-S-12285 MIL-S-12883 MIL-C-12889

9.1 14.1 14.1 15.3 10.1

MIL-R-12934 M IL-S-13484 MIL-C-13516 MIL-S-13623 MIL-R-13718 MIL-S-13735 MIL-G14409 MIL-F-15160 MIL-S-15291 MIL-C15305 MIL-GI5370 MIL-F-15733 MIL-S-15743 MIL-G18312

9.1 14.1 14.2 14.1 13.1 14.1 10.1 22.1 14.1


11.2

15.1 21.1 14.1


10.1

MIL-F-18327

21 .i

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MIL-R-18546 MIL-S-19500 MIL-R-19523 MIL-R-19648 MIL-C-19978 9.1 6.0 13.1 13.1
10.1

Resistor, Fixed, Wirewound (Power Type, Chassis Mounted), General Specification for Semiconductor Device, General Specification for Relays, Control Relay, Time, Delay, Thermal, General Specification for
--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Capacitor, Fixed Plastic (or Paper-Plastic) Dielectric (Hermetically Sealed in Metal, Ceramic or Glass Cases), Established and Nonestablished Reliability, General Specification for Transformer, Pulse, Low Power, General Specification for Connector, Electrical, Printed Wiring Board, General Purpose, General Specification for Switches, Liquid Level, General Specification for Connectors, Plug and Receptable- Electrical Rectangular, Polarized Shell, Miniature Type Resistor, Variable, Nonwirewound (Adjustment Types), General Specification for Switches, Sensitive Resistor, Fixed, Film, Insulated, General Specification for Switches, Code Indicating Wheel (Printed Circuit), (Thumbwheel, In-line and Pushbutton), General Specification for Switches, Pushbutton, Illuminated, General Specification for Connectors, Plugs and Receptacles, Electrical, Water-Proof, Quick Disconnect, Heavy Duty Type, General Specification for Capacitors, Fixed or Variable, Vacuum or Gas Dielectric, General Specification for Capacitor, Fixed, Glass Dielectric, Established Reliability, General Specification for Resistor, Variable, Nonwirewound, General Specification for Fuse, Cartridge, Instrument Type, General Specification for Resistor, Thermal, (Thermally Sensitive Resistor), Insulated, General Specification for Connector, Plug-Receptacle, Electrical, Hexagonal, 9 Contacts, Female, 7.5 Amps Connector, Plug-Receptacle, Electrical, Hexagonal, 9 Contacts, Male, 7.5 Amps

MIL-T-21038 MIL-C-21097 MIL-S-21277 MIL-C-21617 MIL-R-22097 MIL-S-22614 MIL-R-22684 MIL-S-22710 MIL-S-22885 MIL-C-22992 MIL-C23183 MIL-C-23269 MIL-R-23285 MIL-F-23419 MIL-T-23648 MS-24055 MS-24056

11.1 15.1 14.1 15.1 9.1 14.1 9.2 14.4 14.1 15.1 10.1
10.1

9.1 22.1 9.1 15.1


15.1

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MIL-C-24308 MIL-S-24317 M IL-C-255 16 M IL-C-26482

15.1 14.1 15.1 15.1

Connectors, Electric, Rectangular, Nonenvironmental, Miniature, Polarized Shell, Rack and Panel, General Specification for Switches, Multistation, Pushbutton (Illuminated and Non-Illuminated), General Specificationfor Connector, Electrical, Miniature, Coaxial, Environment Resistant Type, General Specification for Connector, Electrical (Circular, Miniature, Quick Disconnect, Environment Resisting), Receptacles and Plugs, General Specification for Connectors, General Purpose, Electrical, Miniature, Circular, Environment Resisting,General Specification for Resistor, Variable, Wirewound, Nonprecision, General Specification for Connectors, Electrical, Rectangular, Removable Contact, Formed Blade, Fork Type (For Rack and Panel and Other Applications), General Specification for Connector, Plug and Receptacle, Rectangular, Rack and Panel, Solder Type and Crimp Type Contacts, General Specification for Relay, Solid State, General Specification for
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MIL- C-26500 MIL-R-27208 MIL-G28731

15.1 9.1 15.1

MIL-G28748 MIL-R-28750 MIL-C-28804

15.1 13.2 15.1

Connectors, Plug and Receptacle, Electric Rectangular, High Density, Polarized Center Jackscrew, General Specification for, Inactive for New Designs Connector, Electrical, Circular Threaded, High Density, High Shock Shipboard, Class D, General Specification for Microcircuits, General Specification for Sockets, Chip Carrier, Ceramic,General Specification for Hybrid Microcircuits, General Specification for Integrated Circuits (Microcircuits) Manufacturing,General Specification for Connector, Electrical, Circular, Miniature, High Density, Quick Disconnect, (Bayonet, Threaded, and Breech Coupling) Environment Resistant, Removable Crimp and Hermetic Solder Contacts, General Specification for Capacitor, Fixed, Mica-Dielectric, Established Reliability, General Specification for Resistor, Variable, Wirewound, Semi-Precision, General Specification for Capacitor, Fixed, Electrolytic, (Solid Electrolyte), Tantalum, Established Reliability, General Specification for

MIL-C-28840 MIL-M-38510 MIL-S-38533 MIL-H-38534 MIL-1-38535 MIL-G38999

15.1 5.0 15.3


5.0

5.0 15.1

MIL-C-39001 MIL-R-39002 MIL-G39003

10.1 9.1 10.1

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DOCUMENTS

MIL-R-39005 MIL-G39006 MIL-R-39007 MIL-R-39008 MIL-R-39009 MIL-G3901O MIL-G39012 MIL-G39014 MIL-R-39015 MIL-R-3901 6 MIL-R-39017 MIL-G39018 MIL-C-39019

9.1

Resistor, Fixed, Wirewound (Accurate), Established Reliability, General Specification for Capacitor, Fixed, Electrolytic (Nonsolid Electrolyte) Tantalum Established Reliability, General Specification for Resistor, Fixed, Wirewound (Power Type), Established Reliability, General Specification for Resistor, Fixed, Composition (Insulated), Established Reliability, General Specification for Resistor, Fixed, Wirewound (Power Type, Chassis Mounted) Established Reliability, General Specification for Coils, Electrical, Fixed, Radio Frequency, Molded, Established Reliability, General Specification for Connector, Coaxial, Radio Frequency, General Specification for Capacitor, Fixed, Ceramic Dielectric (General Purpose), Established Reliability, General Specification for Resistor, Variable, Wirewound (Lead Screw Actuated), Established Reliability, General Specification for Relay, Electromagnetic, Established Reliability, General Specification for Resistor, Fixed, Film (Insulated), Established Reliability, General Specification for Capacitor, Fixed, Electrolytic (Aluminum Oxide), Established Reliability and Nonestablished Reliability, General Specification for Circuit Breakers, Magnetic, Low Power, Sealed, Trip-Free, General Specification for
or Plastic Film Capacitors, Fixed, Metallized, Paper-Plastic Film Dielectric, Direct and Alternating Current (Hermetically Sealed in Metal or Ceramic Cases), Established Reliability, General Specification for

10.1 9.1 9.1


9.1

11.2 15.1 10.1 9.1 13.1


9.1

10.1
14.5

MIL-G39022

10.1

MIL-R-39023 MIL-R-39035 MIL-S-45885 MlL-G49142 MIL-G55074

9.1
9.1

Resistor, Variable, Nonwirewound, Precision, General Specification for Resistor, Variable, Nonwirewound (Adjustment Type), Established Reliability, General Specification for Switch, Rotary Connectors, Plugs and Receptacle, Electrical Triaxial, Radio Frequency, General Specification for Connectors, Plug and Receptacle, Telephone, Electrical, Subassembly and Accessories and Contact Assembly, Electrical, General Specification for Printed Wiring Board, General Specification for Resistor, Fixed, Film, Established Reliability, General Specification for

14.1 15.1
15.1

MIL-P-55110
MIL-R-55182

15.2
9.1

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MIL-G55235 MIL-G55302 MIL-A-55339 MlL-R-55342 MIL-C-55365 MIL-S-55433 MIL-G55514

15.1 15.1 15.1 9.1


10.1

Connectors, Coaxial, Radio Frequency, Series TPS Connector, Printed Circuit, Subassembly and Aocessories Adaptors, Connector, Coaxial, Radio Frequency, (Between Series and Within Series), General Specification for Resistors, Fixed, Film, Chip, Established Reliability, General Specification for Capacitor, Fixed, Electrolytic (Tantalum), Chip, Established Reliability, General Specification for Switches, Reed, General Specification for Capacitors, Fixed, Plastic (or Metallized Plastic) Dielectric, DC or DCAC, In Non-Metal Cases, Established Reliability, General Specification for Circuit Breaker, Magnetic, Unsealed, or Panel Seal, Trip-Free, General Specification for Transformer, Intermediate Frequency, Radio Frequency and Discriminator, General Specification for Capacitor, Chip, Multiple Layer, Fixed, Unencapsulated Ceramic Dielectric, Established Reliability, General Specification for Connector, Electrical, Circular, High Density, Quick Disconnect, Environment Resisting and Accessories, General Specification for Switches; Toggle, Hermetically Sealed, General Specification for Connectors, Electrical Rectangular, Crimp Contact Switch, Rotary, Variable Resistor Assembly Type Circuit Breaker, Remote Control, Thermal, Trip-Free, General Specification for Resistor Networks, Fixed, Film and Capacitor-Resistor Networks, Ceramic Capacitors and Fixed Film Resistors, General Specification for Capacitors, Fixed Metallized Plastic Film Dielectric (DC, AC or DC and AC) Hermetically Sealed in Metal or Ceramic Cases, Established Reliability, General Specification for Coils, Radio Frequency, Chip, Fixed or Variable, General Specification for Capacitor, Fixed, Electrolytic (Nonsolid Electrolyte), Tantalum Cathode, General Specification for Switches, Dual In-line Package (DIP), General Specification for Connector, Electrical, Rectangular, Microminiature, Polarized Shell, General Specification for

14.1 10.1

MIL-G55629 MIL-T-55631 MIL-G55681 MIL-G81511 MIL-S-81551 MIL-C-81659 MIL-S-82359 MIL-G83383 MIL-R-83401 MIL-C83421

14.5 11.1 10.1


15.1

14.1 15.1 14.1 14.5 9.1 10.1

MIL-C83446 MIL-C83500 MIL-S-83504 MIL-C-83513

11.2 10.1 14.1 15.1

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MIL-C-83515 Connectors, 15.1 Telecommunication, Polarized Shell, for MIL-R-83516 Relays, 13.1 Reed, Dry, MIL-C-83517 General Specification for 15.1 Connectors, Coaxial, Radio Frequency Coaxial, for Strip Transmission Line, General Specification for

General Specification

or Microstrip

MIL-R-83520 Relays, 13.1 Electromechanical, General Purpose, Non-Hermetically Sealed, Plastic Enclosure (Dust Cover),General Specification for MIL-C-83527 15.1 Connectors, Receptacle, Plug and Electrical, Rectangular Multiple Insert Type, Rackto Panel, Environment Resisting,15OOC Total Continuous Operating Temperature, General Specification for MIL-R-83536 Relays, 13.1 Electromagnetic, Established Reliability, for MIL-C-83723 Connector, 15.1 MIL-R-83725 Relay, Vacuum, 13.1 General Specification for MIL-R-83726 13.1, 13.2, Relays, 13.3 14.1 MIL-S-83731 MIL-G83733 15.1 Hybrid and Solid State, Time Delay, General Specification for Electrical (Circular Environment Resisting), Receptacles and Plugs, General Specification for General Specification

Switch, Toggle, Unsealed and Sealed Toggle, General Specification for Connector, Electrical, Miniature, Rectangular Type, Rack to Panel, Environment Resisting, 200C Total Continuous Operating Temperature, General Specification for Plug-ln Electronic Components, Dual-ln-Line (DIPS) and Single-ln-Line Packages (SIPS), General Specification for

MIL-S-83724 15.3 Sockets,

MIL-C-85028 Connector, 15.1 Electrical, Rectangular, Individual Contact Sealing, Polarized Center Jackscrew, General Specification for STANDARD MIL-STD-756 Reliability Prediction Modeling and MIL-STD-883 Test Methods Procedures and TITLE

for Microelectronics

MIL-STD-975 NASA Standard Electrical, Electronic and Electromechanical (EEE) Parts List MIL-STD-1547 Electronic Parts, Materials and Processes for Space and Launch Vehicles, Technical Requirements for

MIL-STD-1772 Certification Requirements for Hybrid Microcircuit Facilities and Lines

Copies of specifications and standards required by contractors in connection with specific acquisition functions should be obtained from the contracting activity or as directed by the contracting officer. Single copies are also available(without charge) upon written requestto:
Standardization Document Order Desk, 700 Robins Ave., Building 4, Section D, Philadelphia, PA 19111-5094, (215) 697-2667

2-8
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INTRODUCTION

3. I Rellablllty Englneerlng Reliability is currentlyrecognized as an essential need in military electronic systems. It is looked upon as a means for reducing costs from the factory, where rework of defective components adds a non-productive overhead expense, to the field, where repair costs include but also transportation and storage. More importantly, reliability directly impacts not only parts and labor force effectiveness, measured in terms of availability or sortie rates, and determines the size of the "logistics tail"inhibiting force utilization.

The achievement of reliability is the function of reliability engineering. Every aspect of an electronic system, from the purity of materials used in its component devices to the operator's interface, has an impact on reliability. Reliability engineering must,therefore,be applied throughout the system's development in a diligent and timely fashion, and integrated with other engineering disciplines. A variety of reliability engineering fools have been developed. This handbook provides the models tool, reliability prediction. supporting a basic

3.2
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The Role of Rellablllty Predlctlon Reliability prediction provides the quantitativebaseline needed to assess progress in reliability engineering. A prediction made of a proposed design may be used in several ways.

A characteristic of Computer Aided Design is the ability to rapidly generate alternative solutions to a particular problem. Reliability predictions for each design alternative provide one measure of relative worth of the available options. which, combined with other considerations, will aid in selecting the best
Once a designis selected, the reliability prediction may be used as a guide to improvement by showing to failure. If the part stress analysis method is used, it may also reveal other fruitful the highest contributors areas for change (e.g., over stressed parts). The impactof proposed design changes on reliability canbe determined only by comparing the reliability predictions of the existing and proposed designs.

to -maintain an acceptable reliability level under environmental extremes may be The ability of the design assessed through reliability predictions, The predictions may be used to evaluate the need for environmental control systems.
The effects of complexity on the probability of mission success can be evaluated through reliability predictions. The need for redundant or back-up systems may be determined with the aid of reliability predictions. A tradeoff of redundancy against other reliability enhancing techniques (e.g.: more cooling, higher part quality, etc.)must be based on reliability predictions coupled with other pertinent cost, space limitations, etc. considerations such as The prediction will also help evaluate the significance of reported failures. For example, ifseveral failures of one type or component occur in a system, the predicted failure rate can be used to determine whether the number of failures is commensurate with the number of components usedin the system, or, that it indicates a problem area. Finally, reliability predictions are useful to various other engineering analyses.As examples, the location of built-in-test circuitry should be influenced by the predicted failure rates of the circuitry monitored, and maintenance strategy plannerscan make use of the relative probabilityof a failure's location, based on predictions, to minimize downtime. Reliability predictions are also used to evaluate the probabilities of failure events described in a failure modes, effects and criiticality analysis (FMECAs).

31
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3.3

Limitations of ReliabilityPredlctions This handbook provides a common basis for reliability predictions, based on analysisof the best available data at the timeof issue. It is intended to make reliability prediction as good a tool as possible. However, like anytool, reliability predictionmust be used intelligently, with due consideration of its limitations.

The first limitation is that the failure rate models are point estimates which are based on available data. Hence, they are valid for the conditions under which the data was obtained, and for the devices covered. Some extrapolation during model development is possible, but the inherently empirical nature of the models can be severely restrictive. For example, none of the models in this handbook predict nuclear survivability or the effects of ionizing radiation. Even when used in similar environments, the differences between system applications can be significant. Predicted and achieved reliability have always been closer for ground electronic systems than for avionic systems, because the environmental stresses vary less from system to system on the ground and hence the field conditions are in general closerto the environment under which the data was collected for the prediction model. However, failure rates are also impactedby operational scenarios,operator characteristics, maintenarice practices, measurement techniques and differencesin definition of failure. Hence, a reliability prediction should never be assumed to represent the expected field reliability as measured by the user (.e., Mean-Time-Between-Maintenance, Mean-Time-Between-Removals, etc.). This does not negate its value as a reliability engineering tool; note that none of the applications to match the field measurement. discussed above requires the predicted reliability Electronic technology is noted for its dynamic nature. New types of devices and new processes are continually introduced, compounding the difficulties of predicting reliability. Evolutionary changes may be handled by extrapolation from the existing models; revolutionary changes may defy analysis.

f reliability predictions is the mechanics of the process. The part stress analysis Another limitation o method requires a significant amount of design detail. This naturally imposes a time and cost penalty. More significantly, many of the details are not available in the early design stages. For this 'reason this handbook contains both the pad stress analysismethod (Sections 5 through 23)and a simpler parts count in early design and bid formulation stages. method (AppendixA) which can be used
Finally, a basic limitation of reliability prediction is its dependence on correct application by the user. Those who correctly apply the models and use the information ina conscientious reliability programwill find the prediction a useful tool. Those who view the prediction only asa number which must exceed a specified value can usually find a way to achieve their goal without any impact on the system.
3.4

Part Stress Analysls Predlctlon

3.4.1 Applicability This method is applicable when most of the design is completed and a detailed parts list including part stresses is available. It can also be used during later design phases for reliability a broad trade-offs vs. part selection and stresses. Sections 5 through 23 contain failure rate models for variety of parts used in electronic equipment. The parts are grouped by major categories and, where not covered appropriate, are subgrouped within categories. For mechanical and electromechanical parts to Bibliography items20 and 36 (Appendix C), by this Handbook, refer

The failure rates presented apply to equipment under normal operating conditions, .e., with power on and of any of the base failure rate performing its intended functions in its intended environment. Extrapolation models beyond the tabulated values such as high or sub-zero temperature, electrical stress values above 1.0, or extrapolation of any associated model modifiers is completely invalid. Base failure rates can be O to 1 using the underlying equations. interpolated between electrical stress values from The general procedure for determining a board level (or system level) failure rate is to sum individually calculated failure ratesfor each component. This summation is then added to a failure rate for the circuit board (which includes the effects of soldering parts to it) using Section 16, Interconnection Assemblies.

3-2
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For parts or wires soldered together (e.g.,'a jumper wire between two parts), the connections model is accounted for appearing in Section 17 is used. Finally, the effectsof connecting circuit boards together by adding in a failure rate for each connector (Section 15, Connectors). The wire between connectors is rate. For various serviceuse profiles, duty cycles and redundancies the assumed to have a zero failure procedures describedin MIL-STD-756, Reliability Modeling and Prediction, shouldbe used to determine an effective system level failure rate.
3.4.2 Part Quallty .The quality of a part hasa direct effecton the part failure rate and appears in the part models as a factor, ZQ. Many parts are coveredby specifications that have several quality levels, hence, the part models have values of na that are keyedto these quality levels. Such parts with their quality designators are shown in Table 3-1. The detailed requirements for these levels are clearly defined in the applicable specification, except for microcircuits. Microcircuits have quality levels which are dependent on the number of MIL-STD-883 screens(or equivalent) to which they are subjected,
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Table 3-1:

Parts Wlth Muitl-Level Quality Specifications


Quality Designators

Microcircuits Discrete Semiconductors Capacitors, Established Reliability (ER) Resistors, Established Reliability (ER) Coils, Molded, R.F., Reliability (ER) Relays, Established Reliability (ER)

SI B,B-1 ,Other: Quality Judged by


Screening Level JANTXV, JANTX, JAN D, C, SI R, B, P, M, L

SI R, P, M

Some parts are covered by older specifications, usually referred to as Nonestablished Reliability (Non-ER),. two quality levels designated as that do not have multi-levels of quality. These part models generally have "MIL-SPEC.",and"Lower". If the part i s procured in complete accordance with the applicable If any requirements are waived, or if a specification, the ZQ value for MIL-SPEC should be used. ZQ value for Lower should be used. commercial part is procured, the The foregoing discussion involves the "as procured" part quality. Poor equipment design, production, of the higher quality parts requires a total and testing facilities can degrade part quality. The use equipment design and quality control process commensurate with the high part quality. It would make little sense to procure high quality parts only to have the equipment production procedures damage the parts or introduce latent defects. Total equipment program descriptions as they might vary with different part qualitymixes is beyond thescope of this Handbook. Reliability managementand quality control procedures are described in other DoD standards and publications. Nevertheless, when a proposed equipment development is pushing the state-of-the-art and has a high reliability requirement W equipment program should be given careful scrutiny and not just necessitating high quality parts, the

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the parts quality. Otherwise, the low failure ratesas predicted by the models forhigh quality parts will not be realized.

3.4.3 Use Environment All part reliability models include the effects of environmental stresses through the environmental factor, K E , except for the effects of ionizing radiation. The descriptions of these environmentsare shown in Table 3-2.The zE factor is quantified within each part failure rate model. These environments encompass the major areas of equipment use. Some equipment will experience more than one environment during its normal use, e.g., equipment in spacecraft. In such a case, the reliability analysis should be segmented, namely, missile launch (ML) conditions during boost into and return from orbit, and space flight(SF) while in orbit.
Table 3-2: Environmental Symbol and Description

~~

~~

Ground, Benign

GB

Nonmobile, temperature and humidity controlled environments readily accessible to maintenance; includes laboratory instruments and test equipment, medical electronic equipment, business and scientific computer complexes, and missiles and support equipment in ground silos, Moderately controlled environments such as installation in permanent racks with adequate cooling air and possible installation in unheated of air buildings; includes permanent installation traff c control radar and communications facilities.
. .

Ground, Fixed

GF

Ground, Mobile

Equipment installed on wheeled or tracked vehicles and equipment manually transported; includes tactical missile ground support equipment, mobile communication equipment, tactical fire direction systems, handheld cammunications equipment, laser designations and range finders. Includes sheltered or below deck conditions on surface ships and equipment installed in submarines. Unprotected surface shipborne equipment exposed to weather conditions and equipment immersed in salt water. Includes sonar on hydrofoil equipment and equipment installed vessels.

Naval, Sheltered

Naval, Unsheltered

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Environment

ITESymbol

Equivalent . MIL-HDBK-217E, Notice 1 RE Symbol

.Description

MIL-HDBK-217F RE W 9999770 0070710 O

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INTRODUCTION

Table 3-2: Environmental Symbol and, Descrlptlon (contd)


Equivalent MIL-HDBK-217E, Notice 1 E Symbol

Environment

Description

Airborne,lnhabited, Cargo

AIC AIT

Typical conditions in cargo compartments which can be occupied by an aircrew. Environment extremes of pressure, temperature, shock and vibration are minimal. Examples include long mission aircraft such as the C130, C5,B52, and C141. This category also applies to inhabited areas in lower performance smaller aircraft such as the T38. Same asAIC but installed on high performance aircraft such as fighters and interceptors. 6, F111, FIA 18 Examples include the F15, F1 and A l O aircraft. Environmentally uncontrolled areas which cannot be inhabited by an aircrew during flight. Environmental extremes,of pressure, temperature and shock may be severe. Examples include uninhabited areas of long mission aircraft such as the C130, CS, B52 and C141, This category also applies to uninhabited areaof lower performance smaller aircraft such as the T38. Same as AUC but installed on high performance aircraft such as fighters and interceptors. Examples include the F15, F16, F1 11 and A10 aircraft. Equipment installed on helicopters. Applies to both internally and externally mounted equipment such as laser designators, fire control systems, and communications equipment. Earth orbital. Approaches benign ground conditions. Vehicle neither under powered flight nor in atmospheric reentry; includes satellites and shuttles.

. .
Airborne, Inhabited, Fighter AIF

AIA

Airborne, Uninhabited, cargo

AUC Alm AUB

Airborne, Uninhabited, Fighter

AUF
%A

Airborne, Rotary Winged

ARW

Space, Flight

SF

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3 .O INTRODUCTION

fable 3-2:

Environmental Symbol and Description (cont'd)

Equivalent MIL-HDBKPl7E,
Notice 1

Environment
~~ ~

% Symbol

Description Conditions relatedto powered flight of air breathing missiles, cruise missiles, and missiles in unpowered free flight. Severe conditions relatedto missile launch(air, ground and sea), space vehicle boost into orbit, and vehicle re-entry and landing by parachute. Also applies to solid rocket motor propulsion powered flight, and torpedo and missile launch from submarines. Extremely severe conditions related to cannon launching of 155 mm. and 5 inch guided projectiles. Conditions apply.to the projectile from launch to target impact.

Missile, Flight

MR
M~~

Missile, Launch

ML "SL

* . .

Cannon, Launch

CL

3 . 4 . 4 Part Failure Rate Models Part failure rate models for microelectronic parts are significantly different from those for other parts and are presented entirely in Section 5.0. A typical example of the type of model used for most other part typesis the following one for discrete semiconductors: .

--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

~~=%XT~AXR~S~C"QXE where:

hp
hb
XE

isthepartfailurerate, is the base failure rate usually expressed by a model relating the influence of electrical and temperature stresseson the part, and the other X factors modify the base failure rate for the category of. environmental application and other parameters that affect the part reliability..

The zE and zQ factors are used in most all models and other IC factors apply onlyto specific models. The applicability of x factorsis identified in each section. The base failure rate (hb) models are presented in each part section along with identification of the applicable model factors. Tables of calculated + . , values are also provided for use in manual calculations. The model equations can, of course, be incorporated into computer programsfor machine processing. The tabulated values of are cut off at the part ratings with regard to temperature and stress, hence, use of parts beyond these cut off points will overstress the part. The use of the hb models in a computer

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INTRODUCTION

program should take the part rating limits into account. The At, equations are mathematically continuous the overstressed regions. beyond the part ratings but such failure rate values are in invalid
All the part models include failure data from both catastrophic and permanent drift failures (ems., a resistor permanently falling out of rated tolerance bounds) and are based upon a constant failure rate, except for of parts into motors which showan increasing failure rate over time. Failures associated with connection circuit assemblies are not included within the part failure rate models. Information on connection reliability is provided in Sections 16 and 17.

3.4.5 Thermal Aspects The use of this prediction methodrequires the determination of the temperatures to which the parts are subjected. Since parts reliability is sensitive to temperature, the thermal analysisof any design should fairly accurately provide the ambient temperatures needed in using the part models. 0 1course, lower temperatures produce better reliability but also can produce increased penalties in terms of added loads on the environmental control system, unless achieved through improved thermal design of the equipment. The thermal analysis should be partof the design process and included in all the trade-off studies covering equipment performance, reliability, weight, volume, 17 and 34 listed in Appendix C may be usedas guides in environmental control systems, etc. References determining component temperatures.

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MIL-HDBK-217F
4.0 RELIABILITY ANALYSIS EVALUATION

Table 4-1 provides a general c m t to be used as a gui& for evaluating a reliability prediction report. For completeness, the checklist includes categories for reliability modeling and allocation, which are sometimes delivered as part of a prediction report. It should be noted that the scope of any reliability analysis depends on the specific requirements called out in a statement-of-work (SOW) or system specification. The inclusion of this checklist is not intended to change the scope of these requirements.
Table 4-1: Major Concerns

Analysis Checklist Re1 bllity Comments


System design drawings/diagrams must be reviewed to

dODELS
Are all functional elements included in the reliability block diagram /model? Are all modes of operation considered in the mathnmdel?

be sure thatthe reliability model/diagram agrees with the


hardware. Duty cydes, alternate paths, degraded conditions and redundant units mustbe defined and modeled.

and redundancy equations are used Do the math model results show that the design Unit failure rates from the detailed part predictions in the system math achieves the reliability requirement? model (See MIL-STD-756, Reliability Prediction and Modeling).

4LLOCATION

Are system reliability requirements allocated (subdivided) to useful levels? Does the allocation process consider complexity, design flexibility, and safety margins? .

Useful levels are defined as: equipment for subcontractors, assemblies for sub-subcontractors, circuit boards for designers. Conservative values are needed to prevent reallocation at every design change.

PREDICTION
Does the sum of the parts equal the value of the moduleor unit? Are environmental conditions and part quality representative the of requirements? Are the circuit and part temperatures defined and do they represent the design? Are equipment, assembly, subassembly and part reliability drivers identified? Are alternate (Non MIL-HDBK-217) failure rates highlighted along with the rationale for their. use? Many predictions neglectto include all the parts producing optimistic results (check for solder connections, connectors, circuit boards). Optimistic quality levels and favorable environmental conditions are often assumed causing optimistic results. Temperature is the biggest driver of part failure rates: low temperature assumptions will &use optimistic results. Identification is neededso that corrective actions for reliability improvement can be considered. Use of alternate failure rates, if deemed necessary, require submission of backup data to provide credencein the values. Each component type should be sampled and failure rates completely reconstructed for accuracy. Prediction methods for advanced technology parts should be carefully evaluated for impact on the module and system.

Is the levelof detail for the part failure rate


models sufficient to reconstruct the result? Are critical components such as VHSIC, Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMIC), Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) or Hybrids highlighted?

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5.0

MICROCIRCUITS, INTRODUCTION

This section presents failure rate prediction models for the followingten major classes of microelectronic devices:

Section
5.1 MonolithicBipolarDigitalandLinearGate/LogicArrayDevices Monolithic MOS Digital and Linear Gatenogic Array Devices MOS Digital Microprocessor Devices

5.1

5.1 Monolithic Bipolar and


--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

5.2 Monolithic Bipolar and MOS Memory Devices 5.3 5.4 5.4 VeryHighSpeedIntegratedCircuit(VHSICNHSIC-LikeandVLSI)CMOSDevices Gates) Monolithic GaAs Digital Devices Monolithic GaAs MMlC Hybrid Microcircuits Surface Acoustic Wave Devices Magnetic Bubble Memories
(> 60K

5.5
5.6 5.7

In the title description of each n&nolithic device type, Bipolar represents all TTL, ASTTL, DTL, ECL, CML, ALSTTL, HlTL, RTL, F, LTTL, STTL, BiCMOS, LSTTL, IIL, 13L and ISL devices. MOS represents all metal-oxide microcircuits, which includes NMOS,PMOS,CMOS and MNOS fabricated on various substrates such as sapphire, polycrystalline or single crystal silicon. The hybrid model is structured to accommodate all of the monolithic chip device types and various complexity levels.
Monolithic memory complexity factors are expressed in the number of bits in accordance with JEDEC STD 21A. This standard, which is used by all government and industry agencies that deal with microcircuit memories, states that memories of 1024 bits and greater shallbe expressed as K bits,. where 1 = K1024 bits. For example, a 16K memory has 16,384 bits, a 64K memory has 65,536 bits and a 1M memory has 1,048,576 bits. Exact numbersof bits arenot used for memories of 1024 bits and greater.
not covered by MIL-M-38510 or MIL-1-38535, use the For devices havingboth linear and digital functions linear model. Line drivers and line receivers are considered linear devices. For linear devices not covered by MIL-M-38510 or MIL-1-38535, use the transistor count from the schematic diagram of the device to determine circuit complexity.

For digital devices not covered by MIL-M-38510 or MIL-1-38535, use the gate count as determined from part an LSI circuit. For the the logic diagram. A J-K or R-S flip flop is equivalent to 6 gates when used as of purpose of this Handbook, a gate is considered to be any one of the following functions: AND, OR, exclusive OR, NAND, NOR and inverter. When alogic diagram is unavailable, use device transistor count to determine gate count using the following expressions:

Technoloav
Bipolar CMOS All other MOS except CMOS

No. Gates= No. Transistors/3.0 No. Gates= No. Transistors/4.0 No. Gates = No. Transistors/3.0

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A detailed form of the Section 5.3 VHSICNHSIC-Like model is included as Appendix B to allow more detailed trade-offs to be performed. Reference 30 should be consultedfor more information about this model.
Reference 32 should be consulted for more information about the models appearing in Sections5.1, 5.2, 5.4,5.5, and 5.6. Reference 13 should be consulted for additional information on Section 5.7.

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NIL-HDBK-~IJ~F C H G NOTICE 2

= 9999970 OL9703Y

165

MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2

5.1

MICROCIRCUITS, GATE/LOGIC ARRAYS AND MICROPROCESSORS DESCRIPTION 1. Bipolar Devices, Digital and Linear Gate/Logic Arrays 2. MOS Devices, Digital and Linear Gate/Logic Arrays 3. Field ProgrammableLogicArray(PLA)and Programmable Array Logic (PAL) 4. Microprocessors

h = ( C 1 q + C27tE) X Q ~ LFailures/lO 6 Hours P


r Digital No. Gates 1 101 1,001 3,001 10,001 30,001 to 100 t o 1,000 t o 3,000 t o 10,000 t o 30,000 t o 60,000 Digital and Linear Gate/Logic Array Die Complexity Failure Rate Cl C1
.o025

Linear No. Transistors 1 101 301 1,001 to 100 to 300 t o 1,000 t o 10,000

C1
.o1 o .o20
.O40

PLA/PAL No. Gates u p to 200 201 to 1,000 1,001 to 5,000

C1 .o1o .o2 1 ,042

.O050 .o1 o .o20

.O60

.O40 .O80

MOS Linear and Digital Gate/Logic Array Die Complexity Failure Rate Cl* Digital No. Gates 100 1 to 101 t o 1,000 1,001 t o 3,000 3,001 t o 10,000 10,001 t o 30,000 t o 60,000 Linear No. Transistors 1 101 301 1,001 to 100 to 300 t o 1,000 t o 10,000 PLA/PAL No. Gates Up to 500 501 to 1,000 2,001 to 5,000 5,001 to 20,000

C1 .o1 o .o20

C1 .o10 .o20

C1

.O40 .O80
.16 .29 30,001

,040
.O60

.O0085 .O017 .0034 .0068

*NOTE: For CMOS gate counts above 60,000 use the VHSICNHSIC-Like model in Section 5.3 MicroDrocessor Die Complexity Failure Rate - Cl Bipolar
No. Bits

All Other Model Parameters Parameter Refer to C1 c2


XE, ~
Q I

MOS C1

Section 5.8 Section 5.9 XL Section 5.1 O

Up to 8 Up to 16 Up to 32

.O60 .12

.14
.28

.56

.24

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5.2
MICROCIRCUITS, MEMORIES

DESCRIPTION
1. 2. 3. 4.

ReadOnlyMemories(ROM) Programmable Read Only Memories (PROM) UltravioletEraseablePROMs(UVEPROM) "Flash,"MNOSandFloatingGate Electrically EraseablePROMs(EEPROM).Includes both floating gate tunnel oxide (FLOTOX) and textured polysilicon type EEPROMs 5. StaticRandomAccessMemories (SRAM) 6. Dynamic Random Access Memories (DRAM)
XL

hp = (C1 XT + C2 X E

+ hcyc) XQ

Failures/106 Hours

Die Complexity Failure Rate- C, MOS Memory Size, B (Bits) Up to 16K 16K < B 5 64K < B S 256K cBI1M Bipolar DRAM SRAM (MOS & BiMOS) ROM, SRAM PROM
PROM, UVEPROM, EEPROM, EAPROM

ROM

.O0065 .o01 3 7 .O026 64K .O034 .O052 256K .O068

3 .O0085 .O078 .O01 .O094 .O052 .O025 .O01 .O1 6 .o1 9 .o1 1 .O050 .O38 .O31 .o21 .o1 o .O42 .O75 .O62
I

A, Factor for kc c Calculation Total No. of Programming Cycles Over EEPROMLife, C

T+

Flotoxl .O0070 .O01 4 .O034 .O068 .o20 .O49 .1o .14 .20 .68 1.3 2.7 3.4

TexturedPoly2 .O097 .O1 4 .O23 .O33 .O61 .14 .30 .30 .30 .30 .30 .30 .30

A2 Factor for hcyc Calculation Total No. of Programming Cycles Textured-Poly A2 Over EEPROM Life, C Up to 300K
O

u p to 100 100 c c 5 200 200 < C S 500 500cC51K 1K<C13K 3K c C S 7K 7K<CI15K 15K C 5 20K 20K c C I 30K 30K C 5 100K lOOK < C S 200K 200K C 5 400K 400K < C I500K

300K < C S 400K 400K c C I500K

1.1 2.3

All Other Model Parameters Parameter I Refer to

*T

Section 5.8 Section 5.9 Section 5.1O Page 5-5

XE,

XQI XL

(C) 1. A, = 6.817 X 2. No underlying equation for TexturedPoly.

hcyc(EEPROMS only)

hcyc= O

For all otherdevices

5-4
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5.2

MICROCIRCUITS, MEMORIES

EEPROM ReadlWrite Cycling Induced Failure Rate kYc


I

A1 B1 A2 B2 NOTES:

All Memory Devices Except Flotox and Textured-Poly EEPROMs

k y c=O

Flotox and Textured Poly EEPROMs

&=[AI

B1

+
ed-Pdy Page 5-4 Page 5-6 Page 5-5 Page 5-6 Section 5.10

Flotox
Page 5-4 Page 5-6 Az=O BZ=O Section 5.10

Error Correction Code (ECC) Options: 1. No On-Chip ECC 2. On-Chip Hamming Code 3. Two-Needs-One Redundant Cell Approach i . See Reference24 for modelingoff-chip error detection and correction schemes at the memory system level.
2. If EEPROM type is unknown, assume Flotox.

3. Error Correction Code Options:Some EEPROM manufacturers have incorporated


on-chip error correction circuitry into their EEPROM devices. This is representedb) the on-chip hamming code entry. Other manufacturers have taken a redundantcell in every memory cell. This approach which incorporates an extra storage transistor is represented by the two-needs-one redundant cell entry.
4. The Ai and A2 factors shownin Section 5.2 were developed based on an assumec

system life of 10,000 operating hours. For EEPROMs used in systems with significantly longer or shorter expected lifetimes the Al and A2 factors should be multiplied by: System Lifetime Operating Hours 10,000

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5.2

MICROCIRCUITS, MEMORIES

lY

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MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 1
5.3

MICROCIRCUITS, VHSICNHSIC-LIKE

AND VLSl CMOS

DESCRIPTION CMOS greater than 60,000 gates

Die Base Failure RatePart Type Logic and Custom Gate Array and Memory

I
0.16 0.24

All Other Model Parameters i Refer to Parameter

%T

"Es

Section 5.8 Section 5.10

Package Type Correction Factor - npT Manufacturing Process Correction Factor ZMFG Manufacturing Process I ~MFG QML or QPL Non QMLor Non QPL

1
Packane Type Pin Grid Array Chip Carrier (Surface Mount Technolo nv) DIP

ZPT . . Hermetic I Nonhermetic

55 2.0
*

Die Complexity Correction Factor - ICCD Feature Size


I

I I i:! I
2.2 4.7 1,O 58 37 24 38 25
X, = Feature Size(microns)
--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

(Microns) .8 O 1.o0

xCD=

((-& ) (e-

A I .4 8.0 5.2 3.5 1.25


(.64))+ .36

.4 c A I .7 14 8.9 5.8
P

Die Area (cm2) . 7 c A <1 I . O c A S2 2..0 0< A I 3 . 0 19 13 8.2 16

A Total Scribed Chip Die Areaincm2

Die AreaConversion:cm2 = MIL2 f 155,000

I
ElectricalOverstress Failure Rate Acne LUV

Package Base Failure Rate Number of Pins 24 28 40 44 48 52 64 84 120 124 144

- ARP
W .

'B P ,0026 ,0027 .O029 .O030 ,0030 .O031 ,0033 .O036 .O043 ,0043 .O047 ,0060

VTH (ESD Susceptibility (Volts))*

AEOS
.065
.053 .044

0 - 1000
> 1000 - 2000
> 2000 4000

> 4000 - 16000

VTH = ESD Susceptibility (volts)


Number of Package Pins

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5.4
MICROCIRCUITS, GaAs MMlC AND DIGITAL DEVICES

DESCRIPTION Gallium Arsenide Microwave Monolithic Integrated Circuit (GaAsMMIC) and GaAs Digital Integrated Circuits using MESFET Transistors and Gold Based Metallization
--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

M:Die Complexity Failure Rates Complexity (No. of Elements) C1

Cl

Device Application Factor ITA

Application MMlC Devices I 100 mW) Low Noise & Low Power ( Driver & High Power (> 100 mW) Unknown

1 to 100
1 . Cl accounts for the following active elements: transistors, diodes.

Digital Devices Applications Digital All

1.o

U:Die Complexity Failure Rates Complexity Cl

Cl
All Other Model Parameters I Refer to Parameter KT

(No. of Elements)
1 to 1000

Section 5.8 Section 5.9 Section 5.1 O

1. Cl accounts for the following active elements: transistors, diodes.

c2
XE, XLI XQ

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5.5
DESCRIPTION Hybrid Microcircuits MICROCIRCUITS, HYBRIDS

,X , = [ Z Nc kc J (1 + .2 K E ) KF KQ tL Failures/l O6 HOUE
Nc
=

LC

Number of Each Particular Component Failure Rateof Each Particular Component

The general procedure for developing an overall hybrid failure rate is to calculate an individual failure rate for each component type used in the hybrid and then sum them. This summation is then modified to account for the overall hybrid function (zF), screening level (W),and maturity (xL). The hybrid package failure rate is a function of the active component failure modified by the environmental factor(.e., (1 + .2 zE) ). Only the component types listed in the following table are considered to contribute significantly to the overall failure rate of most hybrids. All other component types (e.g., resistors, inductors, etc.) are to have a failure considered to contribute insignificantlyto the overall hybrid failure rate, and are assumed rate of zero. This simplification is valid for most hybrids; however,if the hybrid consistsof mostly passive components then a failure rate should be calculated for these devices. If factoring in other component types, assume KQ = 1, X;E=1 andTA = Hybrid Case Temperature for these calculations. Determination of h, Make These Assumptions When Determining Handbook Section
AC

Determine LCfor These Component Types Microcircuits

C2 = O, KQ = 1, ZL = 1, TJ as Determined from = O (for VHSIC). Section 5.12,


ZQ

Discrete Semiconductors

= 1, xA = 1, TJ as Determined from Section

6.14, ICE= 1. Capacitors


I

10

XQ

= 1, TA = Hybrid Case Temperature,

np=

1.

NOTE:

If maximum rated stress fora die is unknown, assume the same as for a discretely package die of the same type. If the same die has several ratings based on the discrete packaged type, assume the lowest rating. Power rating used should be based on case temperature for discrete semiconductors.

- nF Circuit Function Factor


Circuit Type Digital Video, 10 MHz c f c 1 GHz
f > 1 GHz

F
1.o 1.2 2.6 Microwave,

5.10 Refer to Section

Linear, f c 10 MHz Power

5.8
21

Supersedes page 5-9 of Revision F, Notice 1


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5.6

MICROCIRCUITS, SAW DEVICES


DESCRIPTION 'SurfaceAcoustic Wave Devices

A., = 2.1 ZQ XE FailuresllO6 Hours


Quality Factor Screening Level
1O Temperature Cycles (-55C to +125"C) with end point electrical tests at temperature extremes.

TCQ

Environmental Factor -

E
"E

"Q
.1o

Environment GB GF

.5
2.0
4.0
4 .O

None beyond best commerical practices.

1 .o

GM

NS

NU
AIC AIF AUC AUF ARW

6.0

5 .O 5 .O
8 .O

8 .O

SF
MF
ML

.50

5 .O
12

CL

220

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5.7 MICROCIRCUITS, MAGNETIC BUBBLE

MEMORIES

The magnetic bubble memory device in its present form is a non-hermetic assembly consisting of the following two major structural segments:
1.

--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

A basic bubble chip or die consisting of memory or a storage area (e.g., an array of minor loops), and required control and detection elements (e.g., generators, various gates and detectors).

2.

A magnetic structure to provide controlled magnetic fields consisting of permanent magnets, coils, and a housing.

These two structural segments of the device are interconnected by a mechanical substrate and lead frame. The interconnect substrate in the present technology is normally a printed circuit board. It should be noted that this model does not include external support microelectronic devices requiredfor magnetic bubble memory operation. The model is based on Reference 33. The general form of the failure rate model is:

hp = hl + h2
where:

Failures/106 Hours

X, = Failure Rate of the Control and Detection Structure

h,

= Failure Rateof the Memory Storage Area

Chips Per Package NC

I
NC
I

Number of Bubble Chips per Packaged Device Temperature Factor- "T

I
I

Device Complexity Failure Rates for Control and I and Ca, Detection Structure C, .

C11 = C21 = N1
=

.00095(N1).40 .0001(N1)*226 Number of Dissipative Elements on aChip (gates, detectors, 1000 generators, etc.), N1 I

Use: Ea = Ea TJ
= =

.8 to Calculate

55 to Calculate nT2
Junction Temperature (OC), 25 I T J I 1 7 5

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Write Duty Cycle Factor - nW W W


D
=

C12 =

.00007(N2)*3 .00001(~~)~3 Number of Bits, N2 I 9 x

= =

for D I.O3or R/W 2 2154

Avq. Device Data Rate Mfg. Max. Rated Data Rate

c22 =
N2
=

lo6

WW =

No. of ReadsperWrite
All Other Model Parameters Parameter Section c2 Duty Cycle Factor - D

NOTE: For seed-bubble generators, divide nw by 4, or use 1, whicheveris Ireater.

I
I

5.9
5.10

Avg. Device Data Rate Mfg. Max. Rated Data Rate

I,

5-12
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( R N ).3

1 . OD

Device Complexity Failure Rates for Memory Storage Structure- C12 and CZ2

MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 1
5.8

MICROCIRCUITS,

KT

TABLE FOR ALL

Supersedes page 5-13 of Revision F


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-~

~~~

UIL-HDBK-ZL7F N O T I C E L RE

9799970 0 0 7 b L O O 3

MIL-HDBK-217F
5.9
MICROCIRCUITS,

Cp TABLE FOR ALL

Package Failure Rate for all Microcircuits - c2


Package Type Hermetic: DlPs I w/Solder or Weld Seal, Pin DlPs with Glass Flatpacks with Grid Array Axial Leads on Seal2 150 Mil Centers3 ( P G A ) ~SMT , (Leaded and Nonleaded) .O0092 .O013 ,0019 ,0026 ,0034 .O041 .O048 .O056 .O064 ,0079 .O087 .o1o .O13 .O 15 .O25 .O32 .O53 .O76 .O97 .O0047 .O0073 .O013 ,0021 .O029 .O038 .O048 .O059 .O071 .O096 .o 1 1 .O14 .o20 .O24 .O48 .o0022 .O0037 .O0078 .O013 .o020 .O028 .O037 .O047 .O058 .O083 .O098

i
cans4

Number of Functional Pins, Np

Nonhermetic: DIPS, PGA, SMT (Leaded and N~nleaded)~

i
--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 22 24 28 36 40 64 80 128 180 224

.O0027 .O0049 .o01 1 ,0020 .O031 .O044 ,0060 .O079

.o01 2 .O01 6 .0025 .0034 .0043 ,0053 .0062 ,0072 .0082 .o1 o .o1 1 .O13 .O17 ,019 .032 .041 .068

.098
.i 2

NOTES:

1.
2. 3. 4.

SMT: Surface Mount Technology


DIP: Dual ln-Line Package If DIP Seal type is unknown, assume glass The package failure rate (C2) accounts for failures associated only withthe package itself. with mounting the package to a circuit board are accounted for in Failures associated Section 16, Interconnection Assemblies.

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RE

9999970 0070728 8

MIL-HDBK-217F
5.10

MICROCIRCUITS, ZE, AL AND

ZQ

TABLES FOR ALL

. F
GM
NS NU AIC AIF AUC *U.F . ARW SF MF ML CL

Environment Factor- ICE Environment

..

"E 50 2.0 4.0 4.0 6.0 4.0 5.0 5.0 8.0 8.0 SO. 5.0 12 220

Quality Factors Description


Glass S Cateaories:

- zc
"Q

1:

Procured in full accordance O, Class S with MIL-M-3851 requirements. Procured in full accordance with MIL-1-38535 and Appendix B thereto (Class U). .25

2.

3.Hybrids:(Procured to Class S requirements (Quality Level K) of MIL-H-38534. Class R Cateaories; 1. Procuredin full accordance with MIL-M-38510, ClassB requirements. 1.o

Learning Factor "L Years in Production, Y


I ~..1

2.Procured in full accordance with MIL-1-38535, (ClassQ).

I
I

.5 1 .o 1.5 2 2.0
nL = .O1 exp(5.35 - ,35Y)

I
-

"L 2.0 1.8 1.5 1.2


1 .o

3.Hybrids:Procured to Class B requirements (Quality Level H) of M1L.H-38534.

I
1

Glass -1 CategpIy; Fully compliant with all requirements of paragraph 1.2.1 of MIL-STD-883 and procured to a or MIL drawing, DESC drawing other government approved documentation. (Does not include hybrids), For hybrids use custom screening section below.

Y = Years generic devicetype has been in production

2.0

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. MIL-HDBK-217F
5.10

MICROCIRCUITS, ZE,ZL AND

ZQ

TABLES FOR ALL

m Qualii Factors (cont'd): len Calculation for Custom Screening Pro!

s
Point Valuation

Group
1.

'NOT APPROPRIATE FOR PLASTIC PARTS. NOTES: 1 . Point valuation only assigned if used independent of Groups 1, 2 or 3. 2. Point valuation only assigned if used independentof Groups 1 or 2. 1, 2 and 3 must be followed. 3. Sequencing of tests within groups 4. TM refers to the MIL-STD-883 Test Method. 5. Nonhermetic parts should be used only in controlled environments(Le., GB and other temperature/humidity controlled environments). EXAMPLES:
1.
2.

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2'

ior Hybrids) (FinalElect&als @ Temp Extremes) and TM 1014 (Seal Test,Cond A, B, or C) and TM 2009 (Extemal Visual) TM 101O (Temwrature Cycle, Cond B Minimum) or TM 2001 (Constant' Acceleration, Cond B Minimum) TM 5004 (or 5008 for Hybrids) (Final Electricals @ Temp Extremes) A, B, or C) and TM2009 (External and TM 1014 (Seal Test, Cond Visual) Pre-Bum in Electricals TM 1015 (Burn-in B-LeveVS-Level) and TM 5004 (of 5008 for Hybrids) (Post Bum-in Electricals @ Temp Extremes)
TM 2820 Pind(ParticleImpactNoiseDetection)
.

50

37

30

36
11 11

Level) (B (S Level)

TM 5004 (or 5008 for Hybrids) (Final Electncals @ Temperature Extremes)


6

(Note 1)

TM 2010/17 (InternalVisual) TM 1014 (Seal Test, Cond A, B, or C)


TM 2012 (Radiography)

7
7

7.

(Note 2)

7
7 1 1

TM 2009 (ExtemalVisual)
10 11

(Note 2)

TM 5007/5013 (GaAs) (Wafer Acceptance)


TM 2023 (Non-Destructive Bond Pull)
89 Point Valuations

ZQ=2+
.

Mfg. performs Group 1 test and Class B bum-in:

XQ

=2

87 + 50+30

= 3.1

Mfg.performsinternalvisualtest,sealtestandfinalelectricaltest:
I

RQ = 2 +
ZQ =

87 7+7+1

= 5.5

Other Commercialor Unknown Screening Levels

10

MIL-HDBK-217F

RE

m 9999970 0070730

MIL-HDBK-217F
5.11

MICROCIRCUITS, TJ DETERMINATION, (ALL EXCEPT HYBRIDS)

Ideally, device case temperatures should be determined from a detailed thermal analysis of the equipment. Device junction temperatureis then calculated with the following relationship:

TJ TC

= =

Worst Case Junction Temperature (C).

Case Temperature (C). I f not available, use the following default table. Defautt Case Temperature(Tc) for all Environments

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--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Tc(OC)

I 35
=

45

50

I 45

50

I 60

60

75

75

60

I 35

50

60

45

Junctionto-case thermalresistawe (OCrWatt) for a device soldered into a printed circuit board. If eJJc i s pot available, use a value contained in a specification for the closest equivalent deviceor use .the following table. Die Area> 14,400 mi12 eJC

Package Type (Ceramic Only) Dual-ln-Line Flat Package Chip Carrier Pin Grid Array Can

(W
11 10 10 10

28 22 26 20 70

The maximum power dissipation realized in a system application. If the applied power is not available, use the maximum power dissipation from the specification for the closest equivalent device.

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9999970 0070733 B

MIL-HDBK-217F
5.12
MICROCIRCUITS, TJ DETERMINATION, (FOR HYBRIDS)

This section describes a method for estimating junction temperature (TJ) for integrated circuit dice mounted in ahybrid package. A hybrid is normally made up of one or more substrate assemblies mounted

or thin within a sealed package. Each substrate assembly consists of active and passive chips with thick
film metallization mountedon the substrate, which in turn may have multiple layers of metallization and dielectric on the surface. Figure substrate.The
5-1 is a cross-sectional view of a hybrid -with a single multi-layered

layers within the hybrid aremade up of various materials with different thermal

characteristics. The table following Figure 5-1 provides a list of commonly used hybrid materials with typical thicknesses and corresponding thermal conductivities (K). If the hybrid internal structure cannot be
. determined, use the following default values for the temperature rise from case to junction: microcircuits,

10C; transistors, 25C; diodes, 20C. Assume capacitors areBt Tc.

CHIP (A)

SUBSTRATE (D)

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PACKAGE
CASE (F)

Figure' 5-1:

Cross-sectional View of a Hybrld with a Slngle Multl-Layered Substrate


c

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MIL-HDBK-~II~F NOTICE

II RE m 9 9 9 7 9 7 0 007bLOL 5
MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 1

Typical Hy! id Characteri CS


Thermal Conductivity,

Material

Typical Usage

Typical Thickness, Li (in.) 0.01 o

Feature From Figure 5-1 A A B B/E B/E

(%)
2.20

Ki

lin* WW) ,0045

Silicon

Chip Device Chip Device Chip Attach Chip/Substrate Attach Chip/Substrate Attach Chip Attach Glass Insulating Layer Substrate, MHP Substrate, PHP Case, MHP Case, MHP Case, PHP

GaAs
Au Eutectic Solder Epoxy (Dielectric) Epoxy (Conductive) Thick Film Dielectric Alumina
--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

0.0070
0.0001 0.0030

.76
6.9 1.3

.O092
.o00014 .O023 ,58 .O23 .O045 ,039 .O038 .O48 .O043 ,0020

O. 0035
0.0035

.O060
-15 .66 .64
6.6

B
C D D F F F

0.0030
0.025 0.025

Beryllium Oxide Kovar Aluminum Copper

0.020
0.020 0.020
P

.42 4.6 9.9

NOTE: MHP: Multichip Hybrid Package, PHP: Power Hybrid Package (Pwr:

2 2W, Typically)

n Ki Li A

Number of Material Layers ThermalConductivity of thMaterial

= = =

(E)

(UserProvided or FromTable)

Thickness of thMaterial(in)(UserProvided or FromTable) Die Area (in2). If Die Area cannot be readily determined, estimate as follows: A = [ ,00278 (No. of Die Active Wire Terminals) + .041q2

TC

= Hybrid Case Temperature (OC). If unknown, use the TC Defautt Table shown in Section 5.1 1.

8JC = Junction-to-Case Thermal Resistance (Cm PD = DiePowerDissipation (W)

(As determined above)

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5-19

~~

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MIL-HDBK-ZL7F

N O T I C E L RE

9977970 0076102 7

MIL-HDBK-217F
5.13 MICROCIRCUITS, EXAMPLES

Example 1: CMOS DlgltalGateArray Given:


A CMOS digital timing chip (4046) in an airborne inhabited cargo application, case temperature 48OC, 75mW power dissipation. The device is procured with normal manufacturer's screening consisting of temperature cycling, constant acceleration, electrical testing, seal test and external visual inspection, in the sequence given. The component manufacturer also performs a B-level to the applicable MILburn-in followed by electrical testing. All screens and tests are performed STD-883 screening method. The packageis a 24 pin ceramic DIP with a glass seal. The device has been manufacturedfor several years and has 1000 transistors.

c,
"T

.o20
.29

1O00 Transistors = 250 Gates, MOS C, Table, Digital Column


1 Determine TJ from Section 5.1 = 50C TJ = 48OC + (28"C/W)( .075W) Determine "T from Section 5.8, Digital MOS Column.

Section 5.9 Section 5.10 Section 5.1 O Group 1 Tests Group 3 Tests (B-level) TOTAL 87 I C Q = ~ + - = 3.1 80
--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

aQedm
80 Points

50 Points

"L

Section 5.1O

hp = [ (.020)(.29) + (.Oll) (4)] (3.1)(1) = .15 Failure/106 Hours


Example 2: Given: EEPROM

A 128K Flotox EEPROM that is expected to have aTJ of 80C andexperience 10,000 read/write cycles over the life of the system. The part is procured to all requirements of in Paragraph 1.2.1, MIL-STD-883,Class B screeninglevelrequirementsandhasbeen and will be usedin an production for three years. It is packaged in a 28 pin DIP with a glass seal airborne uninhabited cargo application.

tcp = (C1 XT + C2 XE + Awe)


C1 XT C2
=
=
=:

XL

Section 5.2

.O034 3.8 .O14

5.2 Section Section 5.8 Section 5.9

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. .

MIL-HDBK-217F
5.13
ICE
"Q
'

MICROCIRCUITS, EXAMPLES

=
=

"L

hcyc =

5.0 2.0 1.0 .38

Section 5.1 O Section 5.10 Section 5.10 Section 5.2:

= B2 = O for Flotox

Assume NO ECC, XECC = 1 Al ='.1 , 7K I C 5 15K Entry i at bottom of B1 and B2 Table) B1 = 3.8 (Use Equation Acvc A1 B1 (.1)(3.8) = .38

3p = [ (.0034)(3.8) + (.014)(5.0) + .38] (2.0)(1) = .93 Failures/106 Hours


Example 3: GaAs MMlC
Given:

A MA4GM212 Single Pole Double Throw Switch, DC - 12 GHz, 4 transistors, 4 inductors, 8 resistors, maximum input PD = 30 dbrn, 16 pin hermetic flatpack, maximum TCH = 145OC in a ground benign environment. The part has been manufactured for 1 year and is screenedto Paragraph 1.2.1 of MIL-STD-883, Class B equivalent screen.

% = [ C1n-p~+ C p E I X L ~ Q
c1
XT
'

Section 5.4

= = =
S.

4.5 .O61 3.0 .O047 .50 1.5 2.0 [(4.5)(.061)(3.0)

"A C2

'FE
"L
KQ

=
=

Section 5.4, MMlC Table, 4 Active Elements (See Footnote to Table) Section 5.8, TJ= TCH = 145C Section 5.4, Unknown Application Section 5.9 Section 5.1 O Section 5.1 O Section 5.10
--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

%=

+ (.0047)(.5)]

(1.5)(2.0) = 2.5 Failures/106 Hours

NOTE: The passive elements are assumed to contribute negligibly to the overall device failure rate.

Example 4:
Given:

Hybrid

A linear multichip hybrid driver in a hermetically sealed Kovar package. The substrate is alumina and there are two thick film dielectric layers. The die and substrate attach materials are conductive epoxy and solder, respectively. The application environment is naval unsheltered, in production for over two years. The device is 65OC case temperature and the device has been

5-21
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MIL-HDBK-217F
5.13

MICROCIRCUITS, EXAMPLES
screened to MIL-STD-883, Method5808, in accordance with TableVIII, Class B requirements. The hybrid contains the following components: Active Components:
--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

1 1 2

2 2
Passive Components:
2 17 .

LM106 Bipolar Comparator/Buff er Die (13 Transistors) LM741ABipolarOperationalAmplifierDie (24 Transistors) Si NPN Transistor Si PNP Transistor Si General Purpose Diodes Ceramic Chip Capacitors Thick Film Resistors

1.

Estimate Active Device Junction Temperatures

If limited informationis available on the specific hybrid materials and'construction characteristics in the introductionto Section 5.12 can be the default case-to-junction temperature rises shown used. When detailed information becomes available the following Section 5.12 procedure should be used to determine the junction-to-case(eJC) thermal resistance and TJ values for . each component.

(Equation 1)

Layer Silicon Chip Conductive Epoxy

Figure 5-1 Feature

.O045

B
(2)(.0045) C
D

'
=

.O23 .o09 ,039 .O023

Two Dielectric Layers


Alumina Substrate Solder Substrate Attachment Kovar Case

E
F

948
.1258

Die Area = [ .O0278 (No, Die Active Wire Terminals) TC+~JCPD (Equation 3)

+ .O4172

(Equation 2)

TJ =

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MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
5.13

MICROCIRCUITS, EXAMPLES

LM 106
No. of Pins

LM741A 14

Si NPN

Si PNP
3
.6

Si Diode
2

Source Vendor Spec. Sheet

8 .33 .O041 30.8 75

3
.6 .O025 50.3 95

Power Dissipation, (W) Area of Chip (in.2) eJC

.35 .O065 19.4 72

.42 .o022 56.3

Circuit Analysis Equ. 2 Above Equ. 1 Above Equ. 3 Above

.O025

rCw

50.3

TJ ("c)
2.

95

89

Calculate Failure Rates for Each Component:


A) LM1 06 Die,13 Transistors (from Vendor Spec. Sheet)

X T +% c2 =X [c E 1l X Q n L
--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Section 5.1

Because C2 = O;

hp = C1 XTZQ XL
=

XT: Section 5.8; X Q , XL Default to 1.O

(.01)(3.8)(1)(1) = .O38Failures/106Hours

B) LM741 Die, 23 Transistors. Use Same Procedure as Above.


kp =
Cl
XTXQ XL =

(.01)(3,1)(1)(1) = .O31 Failures/106 Hours


=

C) Silicon NPN Transistor, Rated Power = 5W (From Vendor Spec. Sheet),VCENCEO


Linear Application hp =
= =

.6,

% P T ~ A X R ZSXQXE

Section 6.3;

XA, X Q , XE DefauR to

1.O

(.00074)(3.9)(1.0)(1.8)(.29)(1)(1)
.O015 Failures/106 Hours

D) Silicon PNP Transistor, Same as C.

Xp =

.O015Failures/106 Hours

E) Silicon General Purpose Diode (Analog), Voltage Stress= 60%, Metallurgically Bonded Construction.

hp =
=

V T X S xc

XQXE

Section 6.1

: XQ, XE Default to

1.O

(.0038)(6.3)(.29)(1)(1)(1) .O069Failures/106 Hours

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5-23

VIL-HDBK-217F

CHG N O T I C E 2

9997970 OL7704L 3T5

MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
5.13

MICROCIRCUITS, EXAMPLES F) Ceramic Chip Capacitor, Voltage Stress = 50/0, TA = TCASE forthe Hybrid, 1340 pF, 125C Rated Temp.

Ap

=
=

hbXCVRQ5CE (.0028)(1.4)(1)(1) .O039 Failures/106 Hours

Section 1O. 11; K Q , ICEDefault to 1.O

G) Thick Film Resistors, per instructionsin Section 5.5, the contribution of these devices is considered insignificant relativeto the overall hybrid failure rate and they may be ignored.

Section 5.10 Section 5.5 Section 5.10 Section 5.1 O

Ap

[ (1)(.038) + (1)(.031) + (2) (.0015) + (2) (.0015)

+ (2)(.0069) + (2)(.0039)](1 +
hp
=

.2(6.0)) (5.8) (1)(1)

1.2 Failures/l O6 Hours

5-24
--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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MIL-HDBK-217F

6. O

DISCRETE SEMICONDUCTORS, INTRODUCTION

The semiconductor transistor, diode and opto-electronic device sections present the failure rates on the basisof device type and construction. An analytical model of the failure rate is also presentedfor each device category. The various types of discrete semiconductor devices require different failure rate models that vary to some degree. The models apply to single devices unless otherwise noted. For multiple devices ina single package the hybrid model in Section 5.5 should be used. The applicable MIL specification for transistors, and optoelectronic devices is MIL-S-19500. The quality levels (JAN, JANTX, JANTXV) are as defined in MIL-S-19500. The temperature factor (ET) is based on the device junction temperature. Junction temperature should be computed based on worse case power (or maximum power dissipation) and the device junction to case thermal resistance. Determination of junction temperatures is explainedin Section 6.14. Reference 28 should be consulted for further detailed information on the models appearing in this section.

6- 1
--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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MIL-HDBK-237F C H G N O T I C E 2

H 9799970 0397043 37B

MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
6.1
DIODES, LOW FREQUENCY DESCRIPTION Low Frequency Diodes: General Purpose Analog, Switching, Fast Recovery, Power Rectifier, Transient Suppressor, Current Regulator, Voltage Regulator, Voltage Reference

SPECIFICATION MIL-S-19500

h , = hbn Tn Sn Cn Qn E Failuredl O6 Hours


Base Failure RateDiode Type/Application General Purpose Analog Switching Fast Recovery Power Rectifier Power Rectifier/Schottky Power Diode Power Rectifierwith High Voltage Stacks Transient SuppressorNaristor Current Regulator Voltage Regulator and Voltage Reference (Avalanche and Zener) Temperature Factor - zT
(General Purpose Anak , Switching, Fast Recovery, PC mient supe ssor)

Temperature Factor - 9

(Voltage Regulator,Voltage Reference, and CurrentRegulator)

.O038 ,0010 .O25

=T
1.o 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.1 2.3 2.5 2.7 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.7

TJ (c)

.O030
.O0501
Junction

.O013 .O034 ,0020

TJ (c)

zT

T J (C)

nT

30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 1O0

105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175

3.9 4.2 4.5 4.8 5.1 5.4 5.7 6.0 6.4 6.7 7.1 7.5 7.9 8.3 8.7

25 30 35 40 45

50 55
60 65 70 75

ao

a5
90 95 1O0

1.o 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.9 2.2 2.6 3.0 3.4 3.9 4.4 5.0 5.7 6.4 7.2 8.0

105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 1 75

9.0 10 11 12 14 15 16 18 20 21 23 25 28 30

I
L

JunctionTemperature (C)

32
1

3091

TJ

+ 273 -

E)

)
I

TJ =

Junction Temperature (C)

6-2
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MIL-HDBK-217F
6.1

DIODES, LOW FREQUENCY

ElectricalStress Factor xs Stress


"

Quality Factor- x Quality JANTXV

"S

"Q
0.7

Transient Suppressor, Voltage Regulator, Voltage Reference, Current Regulator All Others: V , 5 .30. . 3e V , 5 .40 .4 V, 5 .50 .5 e V , 5.60 .6 V , 5 .70 .7 v, 5 .ao .8 c v , 5.90 .9<vs51.00
L

1.o

JANTX JAN Lower

1 .o
2.4 5.5
8.0

0.054 0.1 1 0.19 O .29 O .42 0.58 0.77 1.o

Plastic

Environment Factor- zc .Environment KE 1 .o


1

Document provided by IHS.

--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

6.0

For All Except Transient Suppressor, Voltage Regulator, Voltage Reference, or Current Regulator zS = .O54

GM

9.0
9.0 19 13 29
20

NS NU AIC AIF AUC .AUFARW

(V, I.3)
(.3

"s

v ,

2.43

..vss 1)

V , = Voltage Stress Ratio =

Voltage Applied Voltage Rated

'

43 24
.50

Voltage is Diode Reverse Voltage

SF

Contact Consttuction Factor Contact Construction

MF
v

14 32 320

ML "C CL

Metallurgically Bonded Non-Metallurgically Bonded and1 Spring Loaded Contacts

i:
6-3
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6.2

DIODES, HIGH FREQUENCY (MICROWAVE,


--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

RF)

SPECIFICATION MIL-S-19500

. DESCRIPTION
Si IMPATT;Bulk Effect, Gunn; Tunnel, Back: Mixer, Detector, PIN, Schottky: Varactor, Step Recovery

Failures/l O6 Hours
Base Failure Rate Temperature Factor- T (IMF 1 TJ (c) 7ct T
1.o
1.3 1.8 2.3 3.0 3.9 5.0 6.4

Diode
Si IMPAlT ( I 35 GHz) . Gunn/Bulk Effect Tunnel and Back (Including Mixers, Detectors)

I
.22 . i 8 .O023 .O081 .O27 .O025

TJ (c)
25 30 35 40 45 50 .55 60 .65 70 75 a5 90 95 1O0

Detectors) and oint Contact (200 MHz s Frequency I 35 GHz) Recovery Varactor and Step

PIN Schottky Barrier (Including

8.1
10 13 16 19 24 29 35

TJ Cc)
25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65

Temperature Factor - zT [All Types Ex pt I M P A T TJ (c) LT


1.o 1.l 1.3 1.4 . 1.6 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.5 2.8 3.0 3.3 3.5 3.8 4.1 105 110 . 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 1 70 1 75

ao

70
75 80 85 90 95 1O0

T TJ =

4.4 4.8 5.1 5.5 5.9 6.3 6.7 7.1 7.6 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10 11

105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 . 1 75

42 50. 60 71 a4 99 120 140 160 1ao 21o 250 280 320 370

e x p [ 5 2 6T 0J (+!273-K))
=

TJ

Junction Temperature (C)

Application Factor
Application Diodes Control Voltage Varactor, Multiplier Varactor,

- ICA __
A
.50 2.5 1.o

1 2100

TJ + 273

Diodes All Other

E))

Junction Temperature (C)

6-4
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MIL-HDBK-217F

RE M 9 9 9 9 9 7 0 0070742 2 M

. . :

MI-HDBK-217F
6.2 DIODES, HIGH FREQUENCY (MICROWAVE, RF)

Power Rating Rated Power, Pr (Watts)


PIN Diodes Pr I 10

Quality Factor Q

(Schot

r)
W
.50
1.o

Quality
JANTXV JANTX JAN Lower

.50
1.3
2.0
2.4

10 < Pr I 100 100 < Pr S 1000


1000 < Pr 9 3000

1.a 2.5

All Other Diodes

1.o

Plastic

PIN Diodes

K R = .326 &Pr)

- .25

For high frequency part classes not specified to


MIL-S-19500 equipment quality classes are defined as devices meeting the same requirements as MIL-S-19500.

All Other Diodes

nR

5:

1 .O

(All Types Except Sch, ky) Quality Q

Environment Factor Environment GB


GF
GM

- E

1.o
2.0

JANTXV JANTX JAN Lower Plastic

.50 .
1.o

5.0
4.0

NS NU
AIC

5.0
25

11
4.0
5.0
?.O

50

*IF AUC AUF ARW


.

For high frequency patt classes not specified to MIL-S-19500 equipment quality classeq are
defined as devices meeting the same requirements as MIL-S-19500.

12 16

.50
9.0
24

MF
ML

CL

250

--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

6-5
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Document provided by IHS.

. .

.
,

NIL-HDBK-217F

RE

9999970 0070743 4

MIL-HDBK-217F
6.3

TRANSISTORS, LOW FREQUENCY, BIPOLAR DESCRIPTION NPN (Frequency 200 MHz) PNP (Frequency c 200 MHz)

SPEClFlCATlON MIL-S-19500

Failures/lO6 Hours
Base Failure Rate

-h
,00074

Application Factor "A ..

Application

I
I .5

I
-70

ci

NPN

Amplification Linear

. Switching
Temperature Factor
5ET
25 30 35 40 45 50 1.o I .1 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.5 2.8 3.0 3.3

-I
7ET 4.5 4.8 5.2 5.6 5.9 6.3 6.8 7.2 7.7 . 8.1 8.6 9.1 9.7 10 11

T J PC)
105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 1?O 175

Power Rating Factor Rated Power (Pr, Watts) Pr< .1 Pr = .5 Pr = 1.0


'

- KR
"R
.43 .77 1.o
1.8

"

55
60 65 70 75 80 85
90 95 1O0

Pr= 5.0 Pr = 10.0 Pr = 50.0 Pr = 100.0 Pr


500.0
.

2.3

4.3
5.5

3.6
3.9 4.2 1 exp(-2114(

10

1 TJ+273-=))

ZR = .43
ER

Rated Power 5.1 W


Rated Power> .1W

TJ =

Junction Temperature ("C)

(P,)*37

6-6
Document provided by IHS.

--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Document provided by IHS Licensee=Lockheed Martin/4667500100, 05/05/2004 10:42:07 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.

MIL-HDBK-217F
6 . 3
Voltage Stress Factor ICS Applied VCE/Rated VCEO *S TRANSISTORS, LOW FREQUENCY, BIPOLAR Environment Environment GB GF

o < vs I
.3 .4 .5 .6 .7
.8 '9

.3 <vs I .4 c v, I . 5 V , I .6 V, 5 .7 c V, I .8 c V , I .9 c v, s 1.0

.li .16 .21


. .29

nE 1 .o 6.0
9.0

Document provided by IHS.

--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

GM

.39
.54 .73 1.o.
.

NS
NU AIC AIF AUC.
.

9.0
19 13 29
~

20
43 24

ns

,045

exp (3.1(Vs))

(O

V, I 1 .O)

AUF ARW SF " F

v ,
VCE

= Applied VCE / Rated VCEO


= Voltage, Collector to Emitter

50
14 32 320

VCEO = Voltage, Collector to Emitter, Base


Open

ML

CL

Quality Factor
,

- XQ

Quality JANTXV

i
.70

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6.4

TRANSISTORS, LOW FREQUENCY, Si FET DESCRIPTION N-Channel and P-Channel Si FET (Frequency 5 400 MHz)

SPECIFICATION MIL-S-19500

Failuredl O6 Hours hp= h b 7 c T 7 t A 7 c Q 7 c E


Base Failure Rate & , Transistor Type MQSFET JFET Temperature Factor
f J ("C)
--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

I
.o1 2
.O045

Application Factor ICA Application Rated (Pr, Output Power) Amplification Linear (Pr Switching Signal Small

. "A
1.5

W
-70

-I
ZT
3.9 4.2

ZT

TJ ?c) 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175

Power F E T ~ (Non-linear, P, 2 2w)


2.0

25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90

95
1O0

1.o 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.a 2.0 2.1 2.3 2.5 2.7 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.7

4.5
4.8 5.1 5.4 5.7 6.0 6.4 6.7 7.1 7.5 7.9 8.3 8.7
50 <.Pr
C

4.0
%OW
,

0.0

10 Pr 2 250W

Environment FactorEnvironment 1 GB GF GM
NS

Xe

-=))
(OC)

1 .o 6.0
9.0

'

*T
TJ =

9.0

(-lg2' (T~+273

Nu AIC

19

Junction Temperature

13
29

AIF
Quality Factor 'CQ

AUC AUF

20
43

Quality
JANTXV JANTX JAN

ARW

24

SF
MF ML CL
32 320

.50
14

Lower Plastic

6-8
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MIL-HDBK-2L7F RE W 9999970 0070746 T

MIL-HDBK-217F
--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

6.5

TRANSISTORS, UNIJUNCTION

SPECIFICATION MIL-S-19500

DESCRIPTION Unijunction Transistors

h, = hbnTnQnE Failures/l O6 Hours


Base Failure Rate I+, Quality JANTXV JANTX
_ .
,

Quality Factor

- XQ
.70

1 .o

JAN Lower Plastic

2.4 5.5
8.0

Temperature Factor
T J ec)
TJ (Oc)

25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 1O0

1.o 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.7 1,9 2.1 2.4 2.7 3.0 3.3 3.7 4.04.4 4.9 5.3

105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175

'T

*'P

(-

2483 (TJ

273

"I
11

8.1 7.5 8.8 93 10

EnvironmentFactor - xE
"

Environment

"E

I .o 6.0. 9.0
"

12 13 13 14 15 16

9..o 19
"

13

AIF AUC AUF ARW SF MF


"

29
20

Z ) )
1

43 24

TJ =

Junction Temperature

("C)

.50
14 32 320

I -

I
l

ML CL

6-9
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MIL-HDBK-217F
6.6 TRANSISTORS, LOW NOISE, HIGH FREQUENCY, BIPOLAR
--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

SPECIFICATION MIL-S-19500

DESCRIPTION Bipolar, Microwave RF Transistor (Frequency > 200 MHz, Power 1W)

h, = h b ~ T ~ R ~Failures/l S ~ Q ~ O6 EHours

Application Note: The model appliesto a single die (for multiple die use the hybrid model). The model does .. apply to ganged transistors on a single die. Power Rating Factor ICR .. Base Failure Rate A,, Rated Power (Pr,Watts) R

Temperature Factor
TJ Fc) 25 *T

- nT
*T
4.5

TJ

vc)

30 35
40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75

i.o 1.1 1.3

1 . 4
1.6 1.7 i.9 2.1 2.3 2.5 .2.8

ao as

3.0 3 . 3
3.6

90

95 1 O0

3 . 9
4.2

1o5 i10 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 1.50 155 160 165 170 75

4 . 8

5.2 5.6 5.9

o
.

Pr i . I . I < Pr I .2 .2 < Pr I. 3 . 3 < Pr S .4 .4 < Pr S -5 .5 < Pr I.6 .6 < Pr I.7 .7 < Pr S .8 .8 < Pr I.9

.43

.55 .64 .71

.77
.83
.88
.

.92 .96

6.3 6 . 8

7 . 2
7.7

8 . 1
8.6 9.1 9.7 10 11

Voltage Stress Factor - xS Applied VCE/Rated VCEO


<v , .3 < v , .4 < v , .5 V, , .6 < V
I .3

1 .4
I .5

1
T TJ
a

.6 S -7
I. 8
I

exp(-2114( T J + 2 7 3 . - E ) )
Junction Temperature (C)

v , .a c v , .9 < v ,
.7 c

. 9

I 1.0

IC, =
V ,

.O45 exp (3.1 (Vs))

(O

= Applied VCE / Rated VCEo

VcE

= Voltage, Collector to Emitter

r
S

.11

.16
.2 1
.29

.39

.54 .73

1.o

V , 1 1.O)

VcEo

= Voltage,Collector to Emitter,Base Open

Document provided by IHS.

Document provided by IHS Licensee=Lockheed Martin/4667500100, 05/05/2004 10:42:07 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.

MIL-HDBK-217F
6.6

TRANSISTORS, LOW NOISE, HIGH FREQUENCY, BIPOLAR

Quality Factor -

Environment Factor -

Quality
JANTXV JANTX JAN
.

Q
.50
1.o 2.0

Environment

E 1 .o

2.0

5.0
4.0 11

Lower

5.0

4.0
NOTE: For these devices, JANTXV quality class must include IR Scan for die attach and screen for barrier layer pinholes on gold metallized devices.

5.0
7.0

12 16

.50

.
--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

9.0 24 250

6-1 1
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MIL-HDBK-217F
6.7
TRANSISTORS,

HIGH POWER, HIGH FREQUENCY, BIPOLAR


DESCRIPTION Power, Microwave, RF Bipolar Transistors (Average Power2 1W)

SPECIFICATION

MIL-S-19500

h, = hbzTzAz,,pQzEFailuresA O6 Hours
Base Failure Rate A+, Frequency (GHz) 1.o 5 0.5 ,040 .O39 .O38 1 .O47 .O46 2 .O67 .O65 3 .O95 .O93 4 .14 .13
5.0

,060 ,086 .12


-

10 300 50 200 ,050 .42 ,048 .O69 .O98 ,14 .17


=

100 .O67 ,080 .24 .35 .ll -16 .23

.12 1.1 .14 a20 .28

.20 .62

400 .36

500

600 1.3

.74
o

+,

=
--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

.O32 exp(.354(F)

+ .00558(P)) F

Frequency (GHz)

Output Power

(W)

NOTE: Output power refersto the power level for the overall packaged device and tonot individual transistors within the package (if more than one transistor is ganged together). The output power represents the power output from the cycle in pulsed applications. Duty cycle is accounted for when active device and should not account for any duty determining zk

Temperature Factor

- .

leT ..

(Gold Metllization) V , (VCE~~CES)


5.40
.i o

TJ (c)
a l O0

.45 .20 25 .30 .36 .43 6.8

.50

.55

110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190


200

.12 .15 .18 .21 .25 .29 .34


AO
-

.50
.59 .68 18 .79 i91

.45

.30 -37 .45 .54 .64 5.1 .75 7.1 -88 1,O 13 . 1.2 1.4

.40 .49 .59 .71 .85 3.4 1.0 4.7 1.2 8.8 1.4 4.4 1.6 1.8 20

20 1.7 2.4 9.7 70 5.9 10

Temperature Fadtor ICT (Aluminum Metallization) V , (VCEIBVCES) TJ (C) 5.40 . -45 .50 s1 1.1 O0 -.75 .38 110 5 7 1.7 .1.1 2.3 ,84 1.7 2.5 1 130 1.2 2.4 3.6 140 150 160 6.5 3.3 1 23 180 18 12 190 31 23 7.8 15 200 30

.55
1.5 3.3 4.8

9.5
13

40
&))I

ILT= .38exp( 5794 (TJ


(Vs 5 .M)

273
1
+

I
i
I

1 XT

2 (VS -35) exp 2903 (.4 c v , 5.55)


VS

(-

1
+

273

- K))s

RT 7.55 (vs

(.4 < v ,
VS

s 55)

exp

(-

273

- E))
I

= BVCES VCE; = =

=
= =

VCE~BVCES Operating Voltage (Volts)

VCE BVCES

Operating Voltage (Volts) Collector-Emitter Breakdown Voltage with Base Shorted to Emitter (Volts) Peak Junction Temperature (OC)

VCE
BVCES

Collector-Emitter Breakdown Voltage with Base Shorted to Emitter (Volts)


Peak Junction Temperature

TJ

TJ

(C)

6-12
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4
MIL-HDBK-217F RE
7 9 9 9 7 7 0 0070750

MIL-HDBK-217F
6.7
Application Factor CA Duty Factor Application NIA cw Pulsed

TRANSISTORS, HIGH POWER, HIGH FREQUENCY, BIPOLAR


Quality Factor - XQ Quality XA 7.6
.46 .70

I Q
.so
1 .o

JANTXV JANTX JAN Lower

I 1%
5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 2 30%
1

XA

.=

7.6,CW

M
1.o
2.0

1.o 1.3 1.6 1.9 2.2

2.0
5.0

NOTE: For these devices, JANTXV quality class must include IR Scan for die attach and screenfor barrier layer pinholes on gold metallized devices.

ICA =

.O6 (Duty Factor YO)+ .40 , Pulsed Environment Factor - 7 c c

Matching Network Factor Matching Input and Output Input None

- M

Environment

GM

5.0

4.0

--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

6-1 3
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6.8

TRANSISTORS, HIGH FREQUENCY, GaAs FET

SPECIFICATION MIL-S-19500

G a & Low Noise, Driver and PowerFETs (r 1GHz)


h, = hbnTnAnMnQnE Failuredl O6 Hours
Base Failure Rate

DESCRIPTION

-L
2
"

Operating .1(GHz) Frequency 1 4

e .1
.O52 .O52 .O52 ,052 .O52 ,052 .O52 ,052
"

Average Output Power(Watts) . 1


"
1

4
"

6
"

5
6

7 '8
9 10

.O54 ,084 ,083 .13 .30 .20 .30 .46 ,72 .71 1.1

,066 .1o . I6 .24 .37 .56 .87 Pe.1 1 $F$lO,

.36 .13 .20 .47


'

.14 .21 .32

.56

.85
1*3
'

50
2.0
'

.96 1.5 2.3 , ' 3.5

.76 1.2 1.8

A t . , =
A+,
F

,052

Frequency (GHz)

Average Output Power (Watts)

The average output power represents the power output from the active device and should not account for any duty cycle in pulsed applications.

Temperature Factor

- zZT
24 28 33 38 44 50 58 66 75 85 97 110 120 140 150

T c ("C)
25 30 35 40 45 50

KT
1.o 1.3 1.6 2.1 2.6 3.2 4.0 4.9 5.9 7.2 8.7 10 12 15 18 21

Tc ("c)
105 110 115 120 . 125 30 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175

Application Factor - ITA .. Application (P I 6W)


All Low Power and Pulsed

ZA

55
60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 1O0

I '

cw

'
~~~~~

4
~ ~

1 I I

P = Average Output Power (Watts)

Channel Tc Temperature

("C)

Document provided by IHS.

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- ..

--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

.O093 exp(.429(F)

+ .486(P))

4sFs10,

.1 < P 1 6

~~

IIL-HDBK-217F

NOTICE 3 RE

9999970 0076303

MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 1
6.8 TRANSISTORS, HIGH FREQUENCY, GaAs FET

Matching Network FactorMatching Input and Output Input Only None

"M

Environment Factor Environment GB GF

1 .o
2.0

1 .o
2.0

GM NS NU

5,O
4.0

4.0

11

Quality Factor Quality JANTXV JANTX JAN Lower

- na
"Q
.50
1 .o

AIC AIF AUC *UF ARW SF MF

4.0
5.0

7.0
12 16 .50

2.0
5.0

9.0
24 250

ML
CL

page Supersedes
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6-15 of Revision F
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6-15

--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

MIL-HDBK-217F
6.9
TRANSISTORS, HIGH FREQUENCY,

S I

FET
DESCRIPTION Si FETs (Avg. Power c 300 mW, Freq. > 400 MHz)

SPECIFICATION MIL-S-19500

h , =h b 7 C T X Q 7 C E Failures/l O6 Hours
Base Failure Rate Transistor Type MOSFET JFET
.O23
--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

+-,
I
I
Quality JANTX JAN

Quality Factor- XQ

i
.50
1.o

JANTXV

2.0

Temperature Factor
TJ

IZT
XT

Lower

5.0

vc)

T
1.o 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.1 2.3 2.5 2.7 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.7

TJ (c)
105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175

25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 1O0

-8.3
8.7

3.9 4.2 4.5 4.8 5.1 5.4 5.7 6.0 6.4 6.7 7.1 7.5 7.9

Environment Factor Environment

GB
GF GM NS NU

1.o
2.0

5.0
4.0

11 4.0

AIF
%C AUF

5.0
7.0
12 16

AFIW
SF

.50
9.0
24

MF
ML

CL

250

6-1 6
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NIL-HDBK-217F

RE W 9997770 0070754 9

MIL-HDBK-217F
6.1 O THYRISTORS AND SCRS

SPECIFICATION MIL-S-19500

DESCRIPTION Thyristors SCRs, T r i m

h , =h b ~ T ~ R n S Failures/l ~Q~E O6 Hours

Type Device

Base Failure Rate -

1
I

All Types

I
I

.o022

I
I

Current Rating Factor Rated Forward Current Ifrms (Amps))

- ZR ..
R.
.

Temperature Factor TJ (c) 25 30 . 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 1O0 %T


1.o 1.i 1.41.6 1.9 2.2 2.6 3.0 3.4 3.9 4.4 5.0 5.7 6.4 7.2 8.0

-:

TJ (c) 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175

.O5 .1o .50 . 1.0 5.0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 . 1O0 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 175

,30
. .40

,76 1.o 1.9 2.5 3.3 3.9 4.4 4.8 5.1 5.5 5.8 6.0 6.3 6.6 6.8 7.0 7.2 7.4 7.6 7.8 7.9

TJ =

Junction Temperature (C)

frms

RMS RatedForwardCurrent(Amps)

6-1 7
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. -

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' MIL-HDBK-217F

RE

7797770 0070755

6.1 O THYRISTORS AND SCRS

V, (Blocking Voltage Applied/ Blodcing Voltage Rated)

V, I ; .30 .3 < 1 .4 . .4 < Vs I ; .5 .5 Vs S .6 ; .7 .6 Vs I .7 vS I.a .a e vS s .9 ,9 e Vs i 1.0 -

IrS'.10

--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

MIL-HDBK-217F

Voltage Stress Factor - ns

Environment Environment
XE

nS

GB
GF

1 .o
6.0

us

.io .la
.27 .3a

GM
NS NU AIC AIF %C AUF ARW SF MF

9.0 9.0
19 13

.51
.65 .a2
'

29 20 43
24

1 .o

(Vs < 0 . 3 ) (V,

'

.50
14 32

"s

0.3)

ML
Quality Factor

- XQ
"Cl
0.7
1 .o

CL

320

Quality
JANTXV JANVX JAN

2.4

bower
Plastic

5.5
8.0

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RE W 9 9 9 9 7 7 0 O070756 2

MIL-HDBK-217F
6.1 1

OPTOELECTRONICS, DETECTORS, ISOLATORS, DESCRIPTION

EMITTERS

SPECIFICATION pto-isolators, Photodetectors, MIL-S-19500

h, = lLbzTxQxE Failures/l O6 Hours


Base Failure Rate Optoelectronic Type Photodetectors
Photo-Transistor Photo-Diode
,0055

.o040
,0025

Quality Factor- ZQ Quality

"Q

JANTXV

.70

Opto-Isolators
Photodiode Output, Single Device
'

Phototransistor Output, Single Device Photodarlington Output, Single Device Light Sensitive Resistor, Single Device Photodiode Output, Dual Device Phototransistor Output, Dual Device Photodarlington Output, Dual Device Light Sensitive Resistor, Dual Device

.O13
,013

.O064

.O033 .O17

.dl 7
.o086

Environment Factor- xE Environment GB

"E.

1;o 2.0

Emitters
Infrared Light Emitting Diode (IRLD) Light Emitting Diode (LED)
.O013

GF GM NS NU AIC AIF AUC AUF ARW SF MF ML CL

00023

8.0
5.0 12
4.0

Temperature Factor
TJ ?c)

zT
1.o 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7 3.0 3.4

nT TJ =

25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70

2790 Junction Temperature ("C)

I
(

- nT
.

35 80 85 90 95 1O0 105 110 115

3.8 4.3 4.8 5.3 5.9 6.6 7.3 8.0 8.8

'6.0
6.0

8.0
17 .50
.

9.0
24 450

TJ

+ 273 - E))

6-1 9
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MIL-HDBK-2L7F RE

9999970 0070757 I.I


!

MIL-HDBK-217F
6.12 OPTOELECTRONICS, ALPHANUMERIC DISPLAYS DESCRIPTION Alphanumeric Display

SPECIFICATION MIL-S-19500

h , = hbnTnQnE Failures/l O6 Hours


Base Failure Rate X,, Number Characters
1

of

Segment Display ,00043


.O0047

Ib

I 1
Diode Array Display .O0026 .O0030 .o0043
,00047 .O0060

Temperature Factor

-:

Ib

TJ (c)
25 30 35 40 45 50

%T
1.o 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.1 2.4 2.7 3.0 3.4

TJ 75 80 85 90 95 1O0 105 110 115


1

1 wRogicChip
2 2 wL& Chip 3 3 w/Lgic Chip
4

.O0086
,00090
*

,0013 .O013
.O017 .o018

.O0064
.o0077

55 60
65 70

6.6

4 wkogic Chip
5

.O0081
,00094 .o01 1

8.0 8.8

6
7

8
9

.o022 ,0026 .O030 ,0034 .O039


.o043 .O047

10 11 12 13 14 15

.O052
,0056 .O060

.O13 ,0015 .O016 .OP1 8 ,0020 ,0021 .O023


,0025

*T
, P ( -

2790 (TJ

+ 273

298

TJ = .Junction Temperature (C)

1
E

.O065

.O026

A+, =.00043(C) + +, for Segment Displays A+, = .O0009 + .00017(C) + A o , DMe Array Displays
C
a

Environment Factor E Environment GB =F GM NS NU

1 .o

Number of Characters
,000043 for Displays with a Logic Chip 0.0 for Displays without Logic Chip

2.0

A c , .

8.0 5.0
12 4.0
.

NOTE: The number of characters in a display is the in a && sealed number of characters contained
padtage. For example, a 4 character display comprising 4 separately packaged single characters 6.0 character displays, be 4-0119 mounted together would not 1-four character display. Quality Factor FQ

AIC
AIF AUC AUF
ARW

6.0

8.0
17

Quality JANTXV JANTX JAN Lower Plastic

0.7 1.o 2.4 5.5

SF

50
9.0

MF
ML CL

24 450

8.0

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MIL-HDBK-217F

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= 9999978 8[378758 b

MIL-HDBK-217F
6.13

OPTOELECTRONICS, LASER DIODE

SPECIFICATION MIL-S-19500

DESCRIPTION Laser Diodes with Optical Flux Densities 3 MW/cm2 and Forward Current < 25 amps

L, = hbRTAQnlXARp7cE Failuredl O6 Hours


Base Failure Rate Laser Diode Type

- +,

GaAdAI GaAs
In GaAYln GaAsP

Temperature Factor

- nT
%T
1.o 1.3 1.7 2.1 2.7

3.0
4.0 5.0 10 15 20 25
Tc1 =
-

25 30 35 40 45 50 55
60 65

()a68

3.3
4.1 5.1 6.3 7.7 9.3
1

Forward Peak Current (Amps), I I 2 5

NOTE: For Variable Current Sources, use the Initial Current Value.

70 75

Application Factor X .A.


Application Duty Cycle

T ' TJ =

exp(- 4635 (TJ

+! 273 - g ))

"""""Pulsed
. .

*A
4.4

Junction Temperature ("C)

.I .2 .3
.4

.32
.45 .55
-

.5
.6

.63. .71 .77


-

.7

Quality Factor- XQ

.8

Quality Hermetic Package Nonherrnetic with Facet Coating Nonhermetic without Facet Coating

nn

I
XA

.9 1.o

J
Pulsed

.a4 .89 ,95 1.00

1.o 1.o

= 4.4,

cw

"A = Duty Cycle

3.3

NOTE: A duty cycle of one in pulsed application represents the maximum amountit can be driven in a pulsed mode. This is different from continuous wave application whichwill not withstand pulsed operating levelson a cntinuous basis.

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Forward Current Factor, 1 Forward Peak Current (Amps) .O50 .O75 .1 .5 . 1.0 2.0

"I 0.13 0.1 7 0.21


1.o 1.6 2.1 2.6 3.0 4.8 6.3 7.7 8.9
0.62

~.

MIL-HDBK-ZE7F R E

9999970 0670759 B W

MIL-HDBK-217F
6.13

OPTOELECTRONICS, LASER DIODE


Power Degradation Factor Ratio P P s
0.00 .O5

- ICE,
nP

Environment Environment

.so
.53

GB

.I o
.15 .20 .25 .30 .35
AO

.56
, 5 4 9

6,
GM
NS
NU

2.0

.63 .67
.71

5,O
12

.77 .83
.91 1.o 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.7 2.0 2.5

.4S
.50 .55

AIC
AIF
AUC

4.0 6.0
6.0 8.0

.60. .65
.70 .75

. ,

AUF

.ao

ARW SF

17
'

.85 .90 .95

10

3 . 3 5 . 0

.50

MF. ML
CL

9.0

24 450

PS Pr =

Rated Optical Power Output

(mw)

RequiredOpticalPowerOutput

(mw)

NOTE: Each laser diode must be replaced when power outputfalls to Pr for failure rate prediction to be valid.

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8.0

MIL-HDBK-217F

RE

9 9 9 9 9 7 6 0870760 4

MIL-HDBK-217F

6.1 4

DISCRETE SEMICONDUCTORS, TJ DETERMINATION

Ideally, device case temperatures should be determined from a detailed thermal analysis of the equipment. Device junction temperature is then calculated with the following relationship: TJ = T c + OXP where: TJ
=

Junction Temperature (C) Case Temperature (C). If no thermal analysis exists, the default case temperatures shownin Table 6-1 should be assumed.
--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

TC- = eJC =

Junction-to-Case Thermal Resistance (Cm. Thisparametershouldbe 6-2, whichever is determined from vendor, military specification sheets or Table greater. It may alsobe estimated by taking the reciprocal of the recommended derating level. For example, a device derating recommendation of .16 W/C would f result in a OJC of 6.25 OCM. If eJC cannot be determined assumea eJC value o 70CM. Device Worse Case Power Dissipation (W)

. P

The models are not applicable to devices at overstress conditions. I f the calculated junction temperature is greater than the maximum rated junction temperature on the MIL slash sheets or the vendors specifications, whichever is smaller, then the device is overstressed and these models ARE NOT APPLICABLE.

Table 6-1:

Default Case Temperat-ures (TC) for All Environments


.

Environment GB GF GM

TC (c)
35 45 50 45 50 60 60 75

NS
NU AIC AlF AUC . AUF ARW SF

75
60 35 50 60 45

MF
ML CL

6-23
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RE

9 9 9 9 9 7 00 8 7 8 7 b l

MIL-HDBK-217F
6.1 4

DISCRETE SEMICONDUCTORS, TJ DETERMINATION

Table 6-2:

Approximate Junction-to-CaseThermalResistance Devicesin VariousPackageSizes*

(eJ c )

for Semiconductor

t
1
. c

Type Package TO-1 TO-3 TO-5 TO-8 TO-9 TO-1 2 TO-18 TO-28 TO-33 TO-39 TO-41 TQ-44 TO-46 TO-52 TO-53 TO-57TO-59 TO-60 TO-61 TO-63 TO-66 TO-71 TO-72 TO-83 . TO-89 TO-92 TO-94 TO-99 TO-1 26 TO-127

eJC
?O 10 70 70 70 70 70 5 70 70 10 70 70 70 5 5 5 5 5 5 10 70 70 5 22

eJC

Type Package TO-205AD TO-205AF T01220 DO-4 DO-5 DO-7 DO-8 DO-9 DO-13 . DO-14 DO-29 DO-35 DO-41 DO-45 DO-204MB DO-205AB PA-42A,B PD-36C PD-50 PD-77 PD-180 PD-319 . PD-262 PD-975 PD-280 PD-21 6 PT-2G PT-GB . PH-1 3 PH-1 6 PH-56 PY-58 PY-373

- 70
70 5 5 5 -. 1o 5 5 10 5 10 10 10 5 70 5 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70
'

'

'When available, estimates must be based miliary on specification sheetor vendor values, whichever 8Jc s higher.

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70
5 70 5 5 10 10

'

TO-204
TO-204AA

70
90

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MIL-HDBK-217F

RE

m 9979970

00707b2 8

MIL-HDBK-217F
6.1 5 DISCRETE SEMICONDUCTORS, EXAMPLE

I Example
Given:

Silicon dual transistor (complementary), JAN grade, rated for 0.25 W at 25%, one side only, and 0.35 W at 25"C, both sides, with Tmax = 2OO0C, operating in linear service at 55C case temperature in a sheltered naval environment. Side one, NPN, operating at 0.1 W and 50 percent of rated voltage and side two, PNP, operating at 0.05 W and 30 MHz. percent of rated voltage. The device operates at less than 200

Since the device is a bipolar dual transistor operating at low frequency (c200 MHz), it falls into the Transistor, Low Frequency, Bipolar Group and the appropriate model is given in Section 6.3. Since the of each side separately and sum them device is a dual device, it is necessary to compute the failure rate together. Also, since 0JJc is unknown, eJC = 70C/W will be assumed. Based on the given information, the following model factors are determined from the appropriate tables shown In Section 6.3. xb 3 "T1 = "T2 = "A =
= "st = "s2 =
XR
ZQ

=
=

"E

,00074 2.2 2.1 1.5 .68 .21 . I l 2.4 9

Side 1, TJ =TC + 0Jc P = 55 + 70(.1) = 62C Side 2, TJ = 55 + 70(.05) = 59C Using equation shown with nR table, P , = .35W Side 1,50% Voltage Stress Side 2,30% Voltage Stress.

hp hp

=
= =

SIDE 1 SIDE 2% "T1 "A "R "SI ".Q XE -b % "T2 "A ".S2"Q "E

( . 0 0 0 7 4 ) ( 2 . 2 ) ( 1 . 5 ) ( . 6 8 ) ( . 2 1 ) ( 2 . 4 ) ( 9 + )(.00074)(2.1)(1s)(.68)(.11)(2.4)(9)
.O1 1 Failures/lO6 Hours

6-25
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MIL-HDBK-217F

NOTICE

L RE

= 9999970 0076L0.5 2 W

MIL-HDBK-217F

7.1

TUBES, ALL TYPES EXCEPT TWT AND MAGNETRON DESCRIPTION All Types Except Traveling Wave Tubes and Magnetrons. Includes Receivers, CRT, Thyratron, Crossed Field Amplifier, Pulsed Gridded, Transmitting, Vidicons, Twystron, Pulsed Klystron, CW Klystron

+, = hbxLzE Failures/106 Hours


Type Base Failure Rate (Includes Both Randorn and Wearout Failures) Tube I Tube Type Klystron, Low Power, Receiver 5 .O Tetrode, Pentode Triode, YU (e.9. Local Oscillator) Power 10 CRT 9.6 Klystron, Continuous Wave4 3K3000LQ 9.0 Thyratron 50 3K50000LF 54 Crossed Field Amplifier 150 3K21OOOOLQ QK681 260 3KM300LA 64 SFD261 150 19 3KM3000LA Pulsed Gridded 110 3KM50000PA 2041 140 120 3KM50000PA1 390 6952 150 3KM50000PA2 7835 140 61 O 4K3CC Transmitting 4K3SK 29 Triode, Peak Pwr. I 2 0 0 Ava. 75 4K50000LQ 30 Pwr. 2 2KW, Freq. I 200 MHz 4KM50LB 28 Tetrode & Pentode, Peak Pwr. 1O0 4KM50LC 15 I200 KW, Avg. Powers 2KW, 4KM50SJ 38 Freq. I 200 KW 4KM50SK 37 4KM3000LR 140 Vidicon 4KM50000LQ 79 Antimony Trisulfide(Sb&) 4KM50000LR 57 Photoconductive Material 4KM170000LA 15 Silicon Diode Array Photoconductive 8824 130 Material I 48 8825 120 Twystron 8826 280 VA 1 44 850 VA800 E 70 450 VA145E VA853 220 VA145H 490 VA8568 65 VA91 3A 230 VA888E 230 Klystron, Pulsed* ~KMP~OOOOLF 43 Ifthe CW Klystron of interest is not listedabove, 8568 230 L3035 66 use the Alternate CW Klystron ly, Table on the L3250 69 following page. L3403 93 SAC42A 1O0 VA842 18 2501OA 150 ZM3038A 190

ectifier

"

KW.

'

I f the pulsed Klystron of interest is not listedabove, use the Alternate Pulsed Klystron hb Table on the following page.

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MIL-HDBK-217F

NOTICE

L RE I 9 9 7 9 7 7 0 0 0 7 6 3 0 6 Y
MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 1

7.1

TUBES, ALL TYPES EXCEPT TWT AND MAGNETRON


Learning Factor - nL

Altern; :e* Base Failure Rate for Pulsed Klystrons - A


F(GHz)

Po
.o 1
-30
.80 1,o
3.0

.2 16 16 16 17 18 19 21 22

.4

.6 16 17 17 18 21 25

.8

1.0

2.0

4.0

6.0
21

T (years)

1
10

16 16 17 17

16 17 18 18
23

20
22 25 28 45

5.0 8.0 10 25

28

30 34
60

35
40

3 1

75

16 16 16 16 17 20 18 18 25 21 19 2822 25 34 31 45 40 63 45 75 90 160

30 34
51 75 110

XL = =
=
I

10(T)-2.1, 1

ITS3

10,

T <1

hb =
F P
=

2.94(F)(P) + 16

1,T23

OperatingFrequency in GHz, 0.2 5 F I 6 PeakOutputPowerin MW, .O1 IP s 25 and P I490 F-2*95

Number of Years sinceIntroduction to Field Use Environment Factor - xE

'See previous page for other Klystron Base Failure

Rates.

Environment

"E .50
1 .o 14

GB
Alternate* Base Failure Rate for CW Klystrons -

+ ,
66 66

GF

F(MHz) 300 500 800 1000 2000 4000 6000 8000

GM

NS
NU

8 .O
24
5 .O

o. 1 1.o
3.0
5.0 8.0 10

30
50

30 3 1 32 33 34 35 37 30 35 45 46
55 70 80

3 1 32 33 34 36 30 39
56 71

33 33 34 35
48 58 73

34 34 35 36 49 59

30 47 39 48 40 58 49 4 1 50
42

57 57

AIC AIF AUC *UF ARW

8.0 6 .O
12

43

80 1O0

0 1

40

+,=
P
F

0.5P + .0046F

+ 29

SF
MF
ML
22

-20
57
1O00

=
=

Average Output Power in K W , 0.1 IP 4 100 and P s 8.0(1O)6(F)-1*7 Operating Frequency in MHz, 300SF18000

CL

'See previous pagefor other Klystron Base Failure

Rates.

7-2
--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Supersedes page 7-2 of Revision F


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MIL-HDBK-217F CHG NOTICE

777q770 L711%?044 004

MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
7.2

TUBES, TRAVELING WAVE

DESCRIPTION
Traveling Wave Tubes

h, = hbzE Failures/106 Hours


Base Failure Rate 1410 8 6Power 4 2 (W) 1 .1 10 1O0 500 1O00
3000 5000

18 24 24 24 24 24 25 26 26 27 29 32 29 29 29 29 29 30 31 32 33 35 39 35 43 42 42 42 42 43 44 45 46 49 51 56 62 61 61 61 62 63

Environment Factor- nc L Environment

Frequency (GHz) 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 13 14 15 17 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 14 15 16 18 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 16 18 20 16 16 16 16 17 17 17 18 19 20 22 24 19 20 20 20 20 20 21 22 23 24 26 29

"E
.5

GB

GF
GM

1.5

7.0

64
66 68 71 75

NS

3.0
10

h"
P F 5 a

8000 1O000 15000 20000 30000 40000

NU
AIC
AIF

5.0
7.0

83
91

AUC
ll(l.ooool)p (1.1)F Rated Power in Watts (Peak, if Pulsed), .O01 I P I40,OOO Operating Frequencyin GHz, .1 5 F < 18

6.0

AUF ARW

9.0
20

SF
MF
ML CI

.O5
11

If the operating frequency is a band, ortwo different values, use the geometric mean of the end point frequencies when using table.

33
500

Supersedes page 7-3 of Revision F


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7-3
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MIL-HDBK-217F
7.3

TUBES, MAGNETRON

DESCRIPTION Magnetrons, Pulsed and Continuous Wave (CW)

h,

= hbxUxCxEFailures/106 Hours

Base Failure Rate -

.1 .5 1 30 5 20 10 P(MW) 7 41 24 .o1 7.6 4.6 1.4 10 6.3 1.9 30028026056 230210 34 180150120 93 .O5 110 64 39 .1 12 7.2 2.2 130 80 48 .3 15 9.0 2.8 17 10 3.1 410 370 330 290 240 200 54150 89 .5 0 230 170 100 62 1 19 11 3.5 4.4 24 14 680 630 580 530470410350280 77 210130 3 85 31 230 140 4.9 26 16 5

Frequency (GHz) . 40 . . 50

60

70

80

90

100

440 O

480 550

580 O 520 460 390

640 760 700

Pulsed Magnetrons:
hb =

I
I

CW Magnetrons (Rated Power

5 KW):

I~(F)*'~ (P)-2o Operating Frequency in GHz, .15 F s 100

%=I8

Utillization Factor - xu Utilization (Radiate Hours/ Hours) Filament

RI I

Environment Factor- nE Environment


GB

"E
1.o

o .o
0.1

o .2
0.3 O-4 O .5 0.6

.44 .50 .55 .61 .66 .72 .78

GF
GM

2.0
4.0

NS
NU

15
47
10
16
12

O. 7 0.8

.83
.89 .94

AIC
AIF

o .9

%C
RU =

0.44 + 0.56R

AUF

23
80

Radiate Hours/Filament Hours

ARW
SF

.50

Construction Factor- "C Construction


c 5 KW) CW (Rated Power Coaxial Pulsed Conventional Pulsed

MF
a

43
133

"C
1.o

ML CL

2000

1.o 5.4

7-4
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i
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MIL-HDBK-217F RE

9 9 9 9 9 7 0 00707b7 7

MIL-HDBK-217F
8 .O

LASERS, INTRODUCTION

in this section apply to Jaserpeculia-, .e., those items The models and failure rates presented wherein the lasing action is generated and controlled. In addition to laser peculiar items, there are other assemblies used with lasers that contain electronic parts and mechanical devices (pumps, valves, hoses, etc.). The failure rates for these parts should be determined with the same procedures as used for other electronic and mechanical devices in the equipment or system of which the laser is a part.
The laser failure rate models have been developed at the "functional," rather than "piece part" level because the available data were not sufficient for "piece part" model development. Nevertheless, the laser functional models are included in this Handbook in the interest of completeness. These laser models will be revisedto include piece part models and other laser types when the data become available. Because each laser familycan be designed using a variety of approaches, the failure rate models have been structuredon three basic laser functions which are common to most laser families, but may differ in the hardware implementation of a givenfunction. These functions are the lasing media, the laser pumping mechanism (or pump), and the coupling method. Examples of media-related hardware and reliability influencing factors are the solid state rod, gas, gas pressure,vacuumintegrity,gasmix,outgassing,andtubediameter.The electrical discharge,the flashlamp, and energy level are examples of pump-related hardware and reliability influencing factors. The "Q" switch, mirrors, windows, crystals, substrates, coupling function reliability influencing factors are the coatings, and levelof dust protection provided, Some of the laser models require the number otactive optical surfaces as an input parameter. An active optical surfaceis one with which the laser energy (or beam) interacts. Internally reflecting surfaces are not . cwnted. Figure 8-1 below illustrates examples of active optical surfaces and count.

Flgure 8-1:

Examples of Active Optical Surfaces

8- 1
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M I L = H D B K = 2 L 7 F RE m 9999970 0070768 9 m
MIL-HDBK-21I F

8.1

LASERS, HELIUM AND ARGON

DESCRIPTION Helium Neon Lasers Helium Cadmium Lasers Argon Lasers

hp = XMEDIACE
Lasing Media Failure Rate AMEDIA Type
.

~ O U P L I N G ~Failures/l E O6

Hours

AMEDIA

Environment Environment
=B

.30
1 .o
4.0

=F
GM. NS NU AIC

3.0
4.0
4.0

AIF
Coupling FailureRate - b u P L I N G

6.0

AUC
AUF

?,O
9.0

Helium Argon

ARW

5.0
.1 o
3.0 8.0

SF MF ML CL

NOTE: The predominant argon laser failure (as mechanism is related to the gas media reflected in AMEDIA; however, when the tube is refilled periodically (preventive of maintenance) the mirrors (as part ~OUPLING) can be expectedto deteriorate after approximately104 hours of operationif in contactwith the discharge region. ~OU~LIN isG negligible for helium lasers.

NIA

8-2
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RE

99999700070769

MIL-HDBK-217F
8.2

II
LASERS,, CARBON DIOXIDE, SEALED

DESCRIPTION CO2 Sealed Continuous Wave Lasers

10 nOsnE Failures/106Hours =n;onB hnE +~ ~ ~ ~ ~


"

Lasing Media Failure Rate h,,,,,


...

. ..

Tube Current (mA)

AMEDIA

Optical Surface Factor - "0s Active Optical Surfaces I "OS 1


2
.

10 20 30 40 50

1 O0 150
AMEDIA
= 69(l) 4 0

240 930 1620 2310 3000 6450

1.
2

. .9900

nos

= Number of Active Optical Surfaces

1
--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

I = Tube Current (mA), 1O s I 5 150

NOTE: Only active optical surfaces are counted. An active optical surface is one with which the laser energy or beam interacts. Internally reflecting surfaces are not counted. See Figure 8-1 for examples on determining the number of optical surfaces.

Gas Overfill Factor = "0 CO2 Overfill Percent (%) I

"O

O
25

1.0
.75

Environment Factor- zC Environment


GB

GF

n o = 1 - .O1 ("hOverfill)
Overfill percentis based onthe percent increase over the optimum CO2 partial pressure which is normally in the range of 1.5 to 3 Torr (1 Torr = 1 m m Hg Pressure) for most sealed C02 lasers.

GM

NS
NU

AIC
AIF AUC AUF ARW

Ballast Factor Percent of Ballast Volumetric Increase

- XB
"6

SF MF ML

O 50
1 O0 150

1 .o .58 .33 .19

C,

i
.

NIA 8.0

8-3
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RE

999997[3 0070770 7

MIL-HDBK-217F
8.3

LASERS, CARBON DIOXIDE, FLOWING


: x

DESCRIPTION CO2 Flowing Lasers

II: Failures/lO6 Hours hp = ~ C O U P L I N G ~ O E S


Coupling Failure Rate- XWUPLING Environment Factor xc

UPL LING
1.o

Environment
GB

-30
1 .o
4.0

300

GF .
GM

NS
P = Average Power CSutputin M ,.O1 S P I l .D

3.0
4.0
4.0
6.0

NU
AIC AIF AUC AUF . ARW SF

Beyond the1KW range other glass failure mechanisms begin to predominate and alter the XCOU~L~NG values. CO2 flowing laser optical It should also be noted that devices are the primary source of failure occurrence. A tailored optical cleaning preventive maintenance program on optic devices greatly extends laser life.

7.0
9.0

5.0
.1o

MF
Optical Surface Factor %OS Active Optical Surfaces nos

3.0
8.0

ML
CL

NIA

1 2

1 2

nos = Number of Active Optical Surfaces

NOTE: Only active optical surfaces are counted. with which the laser An active optical surface is one energy or beam interacts. Internally reflecting surfaces are not counted. See Figure 8-1 for examples on determining the number of optical surfaces.

8-4
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~~~~~~

MIL-HDBK-237F

RE

9999970 0070773

MIL-HDBK-217F
8.4

LASERS, SOLID STATE, ND:YAG AND

RUBY ROD

DESCRIPTION
Neodymium-Yttrium-Aluminum-Gamet (ND:YAG) Rod Lasers Ruby Rod Lasers

PUMP ~ E D I A + 16.3 z Pump Pulse Failure Rate - h p u ~ p


X,
(
+

znE ~ Failures/l ~ ) O6

Hours

Pump Pulse Failure Rate h p " ~ p

(Xenon Flashlamps) The empirical formula used to determine


'

(Failures/l06 Hours) for Xenon lamps is:

The empirical formula used to determine for Krypton lamp is:

u + ~ , P
l c p ~ ~is pthe failure rate contribution of the Xenon flashlamp or flashtube. The flashlamps evaluated herein are linear types used for military solid state laser systems. Typical default model parameters are given below. PPS
*

is the failure rate contributionof the krypton flashlamp or flashtube. The flashlamps (CW) evaluted herein are the continuous wave type and are most widely used for commercial solid state applications. They are approximately 7mm in diameter and5 to 6 inches long, is the average input power in kilowatts. Default value: P = 4. is the flashlamp or flashtube arc length in inches. Default value: L = 2. isthecoolingfactordue to variouscooling media immediately surrounding the flashlamp or flashtube. z c m ~ = 1 for any air or inert gas
'

is therepetitionpulserate in pulsesper second. Typicalvaluesrangebetween1and 20 pulses per second. is the flashlamp or flashtube input energy per pulse, in joules. Its value is determined from the actual or design Input energy. For values less than30 joules, use Ej = 30. Default value: E 40.

L
z m L

Ej

i'

. cooling,

zmt

= .1 .for all liquid designs.

d is the flashlamp or flashtube inside diameter, in millimeters. Default value: d = 4.

Default value: zCmL = .1, liquid cooled. Media Failure Rte - AMEDIA

L
t

is ttie flashlanip or flashtube arc length inches. Defautt value: L = 2.

in

Laser Type.
ND:YAG
Ruby

&MEDIA
O

is the truncated pulse width in microseconds. Use t= 1O0 microseconds for any truncated pulse width exceeding 100 microseconds. FOI shorter duration pulses, pulse width is to be measured at1O percent of the maximum current amplitude. Default value: t I 100. is the cooling factor due to various cooling media immediately surrounding the flashlamp or flashtube. zCwL I1.O for any air or inert gas cooling. z c m ~ .1 for all liquid cooled designs. Default value: nCmL = .1 , liquid cooled.

I
-

(3600) (PPS) [43.5 F2*52]

PPS

is the number of pulses

per second

WOOL

is the energy density in Joules per cm.2/pulse over the cross-sectional area of the laser beam, whichis nominally equivalent to the cross-sectional area of the laser rod, andits value is determined from the actual design parameter of the laser rod utilized.

NOTE: hEDlA is negligible for ND:YAG lasers.

I
8-5

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RE E 9 9 9 9 9 7 0 0870772

O E

MIL-HDBK-217F
8.4

LASERS, SOLID STATE, ND:YAG AND RUBY ROD


Environment Factor xE Environment "E 'GB
.30
1 .o
4.0

nc
Rigorous cleanliness procedures and trained maintenance personnel. Belbws providedovw optical train,
Minimal procau&r duhg o p o n i n g , maintenaco, r o p a u . urd tosting. Bdbm pt0vid.d ovor opticaltnin.

GF
.%A

30

NS
NU

3.0
4.0
4.0 . 6.0

Minimalpr.cuttionr during op.ning, maintenance, ropair, md tuting. No belbm providd v o r opticrl tmin.

80

*IC
+F
AUC
ARW

7.0
9.0
5.0

SF

.1o

MF
ML
--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

3.0
8.0 NIA

CL

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MIL-HDBK-217F

CHG NOTICE 2

9999770 0397046 987

MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
9.1

RESISTORS

'P = 'bzTRP
Resistor Style ;pecification MIL-R11 39008 22684 39017 551 82 55342 10509 11804 8340 1 93 39005 26 39007 18546 39009 23648 27208 39015 1 2934 19 39002 22 22097 39035 94 39023 23285

X X:

S QR E Failures/106 Hours

Description Resistor, Fixed, Composition (Insulated) Resistor, Fixed, Composition (Insulated) Est. Rel. Resistor, Fixed, Film, Insulated Resistor, Fixed, Film (Insulated), Est. Rel. Resistor, Fixed, Film, Established Reliability Resistor, Fixed, Film, Chip, Established Reliability Resistor, Fixed Film (High Stability) Resistor, Fixed, Film (Power Type) Resistor Networks, Fixed, Film Resistor, Fixed, Wirewound (Accurate) Resistor, Fixed, Wirewound (Accurate) Est. Rel. Resistor, Fixed, Wirewound (Power Type)

%
.o017 .o017 .O037 .O037 .O037 .O037 .O037 .O037 .o01 9 .O024 .O024 .O024 .O024 .O024 .O024
.o019

RC
RCR
RL

XT Table Use Column: 1

ns Table Use
Column: 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 VIA, X s = 1
1

1
2

RLR
RN (R, C or N)

2
2 2 2 NIA,
=1

RM
RN RD

RZ

RB
RB R
RW RWR RE
--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

2
2 2 2 2 2

1 2 2

Rel. Resistor, Fixed, Wirewound (Power Type) Est.


Resistor, Fixed, Wirewound (Power Type, Chassis Mounted) Resistor, Fixed, Wirewound (Power Type, Chassis Mounted) Est. Rel. Thermistor, (Thermally Sensitive Resistor), Insulated Resistor, Variable, Wirewound (Lead Screw Activated) Resistor, Variable, Wirewound (Lead Screw Activated), Established Reliability Resistor, Variable, Wirewound, Precision Resistor, Variable, Wirewound (Low Operating Temperature) Resistor, Variable, Wirewound, Semi-Precision Resistor, Wirewound, Power Type Resistor, Variable, Nonwirewound Resistor, Variable, Nonwirewound Est. Rel. Resistor, Variable, Composition Resistor, Variable, Nonwirewound, Precision Resistor, Variable, Nonwirewound

2
2

RE R

RTH
RT RTR RR RA

NIA, XT = 1 NIA, XS = 1 2 2 2 1 1

.O024 .O024
,0024

1
1
1

.O024 .O024 .O024 .O037 .O037 .O037 .O037 .O037

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

RK

RP

2
2
2

RJ RJ R
RV

2 1 1

RQ
RV C

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9-1

flIL-HDBK-ZL7F

CHG N O T I C E 2

9 9 9 9 9 7 0 0197047 813

MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
9.1

RESISTORS
Temperature Factor
TW) Column 1 .88 1.1

- XT
Column 2
.95

Power Factor- XP
Power Dissipation (Watts) .o01

"P
.o68

20
30

1.1

.o1
.13

.i 7
.44

40
50
60
70

1.5
1.8

1 . 2
1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6

.25
.50 .75 1.o

.5a
.76

2.3

2.8

.89
1.o 1.3 1.5

ao
90

3.4 O 4 .
4.8 5.6 6.6 7.6 8.7
10

1.7

2.0

1 O0 110

1.9
2.0
2.1 2.3 2.4 2.5 1

3 . 0

4 . 0
5.0
10

1.7
1.9

120 130
140

2.5 3.5
4.6

25
50
1O0

I
nT

150

exP

-Ea 8.617 x 10-

6.0
7.1

150

Column 1: Ea = .2 Column 2: Ea = .O8

np = (Power D i s ~ i p a t i o n ) . ~ ~

Resistor Case Temperature. Can be.approximated as ambient component temperature for low power dissipation non-power type resistors.

NOTE: 'CTvalues shown should only be used up to the temperature ratingof the device. For devices with ratings higher than 150C, use the equation to determine x,-.

9-2
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MIL-HDBK-217F

CHG N O T I C E 2

9999970 0397048 7 5 T

MIL-HDBK-217F

NOTICE 2
9.1

RESISTORS

Power Stress FactorI Power Stress


.1

C ~

.79
.88

66 .81 1.o
1.2

GB
GF

.2
.3

4.0
16 12
42

.99
1.1 1.2 1.4
1.5

GM
NS

.4
1.5 1.8

.5
.6

NU
2.3

18

.7
2.8 .8
.c . -l

AIF AUC AUF

23 31

1.7

1.9

3.4

43
63

ARW
Column 1 : zs = .71e1.1( S )

SF
MF ML
37

.50

87 1728

S =

Actual Power Dissipation Rated Power Quality Factor- I Quality


C ~

CL

Established Reliability Styles S

ICQ
.O3
0.1

0.3
1.o

M
Non-Established Reliability Resistors (Most Two-Letter Styles) Commercial or Unknown Screening Level

3.0

10

NOTE: Established reliability styles are failure rate graded(S, R, P, M) based on life testing defined in the applicable military device specification. This category usually applies only to three-letter styles with an RSuff x.

Supersedes Section 9.0 - 9.17 of Revision F


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9-3

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Column 1

Column 2

Environment Factor- IC Environment

ICE 1 .o

MIL-HDBK-ZL7F CHG N O T I C E 2

9 9 9 9 9 7 0 0397049 b7b

MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
10.1

CAPACITORS

'P=%

X 'TC 7~ 'TC

T C V SR 'TCQ7cE Failures/106 Hours


'ETTable Use zc Table Use
E ', ,

Capacitor Style

Spec. MIL-C-

Description
.O0037

Table -

U se
Column:
1

Column:
1

Column:
1

%R
1

cz, cm

CQ,

CQR

a i

CHR

T
CY

I
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Capacitor, Fixed, PaperDielectric, Direct Current (Hermetically Sealed in Metal Cases) Capacitor, By-pass, Radio Interference Reduction, Paper Dielectric, AC and DC (Hermetically sealed in Metallic Cases) 1 1693 Capacitor, Feed through, Radio Interference Reduction AC and DC (Hermetically sealed in metal cases), Established and Nonestablished Reliability 19978 Capacitor, Fixed Plastic (or Paper-Plastic) Dielectric (Hermetically sealed in metal, ceramic or glass cases), Established and Nonestablished Reliability 18312 Capacitor, Fixed, Metallized (Paper, Paper Plastic or Plastic Film) Dielectric, Direct Current (Hermetically Sealed in Metal Cases) 39022 Capacitor, Fixed, Metallized Paper, Paper-Plastic Film or Plastic Film Dielectric 555 14 Capacitor, Fixed, Plastic (or Metallized Plastic) Dielectric, Direct Current in Non-Metal Case: Capacitor, Fixed Supermetallized Plastic Film Dielectric (DC, AC or DC and AC) Hermetically Sealed in Metal Cases, Established Reliability Capacitors, Fixed, Mica Dielectric 39001 Capacitor, Fixed, Mica Dielectric, Established Reliability 10950 Capacitor, Fixed, Mica Dielectric, Button Style 11272 Capacitor, Fixed, Glass Dielectric Capacitor, Fixed, Glass 23269 Dielectric, Established Reliability

.O0037

.O0037

.O0051

.O0037

.O0051

.O0051

.O0051

.O0076 .O0076

2 2
2

1 1
1

2 2

1
1

.O0076 .O0076 .O0076

2
2 2

1 1

2 2

10-1

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Supersedes Section 10.1

- 10.20 of Revision F
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MIL-HDBK-217F C H G N O T I C E 2

9999570 0397050 308 D

MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
10.1

CAPACITORS

I
Description

CK

1 1O1 5
4

Capacitor, Fixed, Ceramic Dielectric (General Purpose) Capacitor, Fixed, Ceramic 3901 Dielectric (General Purpose), Established Reliability Capacitor, Fixed, Ceramic Dielectric (Temperature Compensating), Established and Nonestablished Reliabilihr Capacitor, Chip, Muttiple Layer, Fixed, Ceramic Dielectric, Established Reliability .o0099

CKR

C C , CCR

20

.o0099

.o020

CSR
CWR

39003

capacitor, Fixed, Electrolytic (Solid Electrolyte), Tantalum, Established Reliability Capacitor, Fixed, Electrolytic (Tantalum), Chip, Established Reliability Capacitor, Fixed, Electrolytic (Nonsolid Electrolyte), Tantalum Capacitor, Fixed, Electrolytic (Nonsolid Electrolyte), Tantalum, Established Reliability Capacitor, Fixed, Electrolytic (Nonsolid Electrolyte), Tantalum Ca?hode Capacitor, Fixed, Electrolytic (Aluminum Oxide), Established Reliability and Nonestablished Reliability

.O0040

55365

.O0005

CL CLR

3965 39006

,00040 .O0040

CRL

83500

.O0040

.o0012

CE

Capacitor, Fixed Electrolytic (DC, Aluminum, Dry Electrolyte, Polarized) 81 14409 Capacitor, Variable, Ceramic Dielectric (Trimmer) Capacitor, Variable (Piston Type, Tubular Trimmer) Capacitor, (Trimmer) Variable, Air

62.o0012

cv
PC
(TT

.O079 .O060

Dielectric 92 .O000072

CG

83

Capacitor, Fixed or Variable, 231 .O060 Vacuum Dielectric

10-2
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CHG

NOTICE 2

9999770 0377053 244 D

MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
10.1

CAPACITORS

Temperature Factor

XT

Capacitance Factor TC Capacitance, C(cLF) .000001


. r

T(%)
20

Column 1 .91 1.1 1.3 1.6 1.8 2.2 2.5 2.8 3.2

Column 2 .79 1.3 1.9 2.9 4.2 6.0 8.4 11 15 21

Column 1 .29 .35


.44

Column 2
.04

30
40 50 60

.o0001
.o001 .o01
.o1

.07
.12

.54

.20 .35

.66
.76

70

.O5
.1

.50
.5 9
.85

80
90 1O0 110 120 130 140 150

.81 .94 1 .o 1.1 1.2


1.3

.5
1 3
8

1 .o 1.3 1.6
1.9

3.7
4.1 4.6 5.1
5.6

27

35
44
56

18 40 200 1O00
3000

1.4 1.6 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.5 2.7


s

2.3 3.4 4.9 6.3 8.3 11 13

nT

= exp

1 T + 273 298

Column 1: Ea = .15 Column 2: Ea = .35

1O000 30000 60000 120000 Column 1:

T = Capacitor Ambient Temperature


NOTE: 1. zT values shown should only be use up to the temperature fating of the device.

2.9

15

7tc = c .o9

2. For devices with ratings higher than 150C, use the equation to determin ~ C(for T applications above 15OOC).

Column 2: TC = c.23

Supersedes Section 10.1 - 10.20 of Revision F


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MIL-HDBK-217F

CHG N O T I C E 2

9 9 9 9 90 71 09 7 0 5 2

180

MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
10.1 CAPACITORS

Voltage Stress Factor xv Voltage Stress


0.1 0.2 0.3 O .4

Column 1
1 .o 1 .o 1 .O
1 .1

Column 2
1 .o 1 .o 1 .o 1 .O

Column 3
1 .o 1 .o 1 .1
1.3 1.6

Column 4
1 .o
1 .o 1 .O 1 .O 1 .O

Column 5
1 .O 1.1 1.2

1.5
2.0
2.7
3.7 3.4

0.5
0.6
0.7

1.4

1.2 2.0

2.0
3.2

2.0
2.6

2.0
15 130

5.7
19 59

0.8

5.2

5.1 6.8

0.9

8.6

4.4

990

5.6
Column 1:

5900

9.0

'zv = (

3 5

Column 2:

nv = ($)'O

+1
S =
Operating Vpltage Rated Voltage

column 3:

'zv =

(2>"+ 1

Note: Operating voltage is the sum of applied DC voltage and peakAC voltage. Series Resistance Factor (Tantalum CSR Style Capacitors Only) - xSR Circuit Resistance, CR (ohms/volt)
L

>0.8
>0.6 to 0.8
>0.4 to 0.6 >0.2 to 0.4

.66
1 .O

1.3

2.0
2.7

>0.1 to 0.2

o to 0.1
CR =

3.3

Eff. Res. Between Cap. and Pwr. Supply Voltage Applied to Capacitor

10-4
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flIL-HDBK-217F

CHG NOTICE 2

9 9 9 7 9 7 0 0 3 9 7 0 5 3 0x7

MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
10.1

CAPACITORS

Environment Factor X-

~~~

Non-Established Reliability Capacitors (Most Two-Letter Styles) Commercial or Unknown Screening Level

3.0

1o.

NOTE: Established reliability styles are failure


rate graded (D, C, S, etc.) basedon life testing defined in theapplicable military device specification. This category usually applies only to three-letter styleswith an "R" Suffx.

Supersedes Section 10.1 - 10.20 of Revision F


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10-5

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VIL-HDBK-217F

CHG NOTICE 2

H 9997970 0397054 T53

MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
10.2

CAPACITORS, EXAMPLE

Example Given:

A 400 VDC ratedcapacitortypeCQ09AlKE153K3isbeingusedinafixedground environment, 50C component ambient temperature, and200 VDC applied with50 Vrms @ 60 Hz. The capacitoris being procured in full accordance with the applicable specification.

The letters "CQ"in the type designation indicate that the specification is MIL-C-19978 and that it is a NonEstablished Reliability quality level. The "E" in the designation correspondsto a 400 volt DC rating. The "153" in the designation expresses the capacitance in picofarads. The first two digits are significant and the third is the number of zeros to follow. Therefore, this capacitor has a capacitance of 15,000 picofarads. (NOTE: Pico = 1O-1 2, p = 1O-6) Based on the given information the following model factors are determined from the tables shown in Section 10.1. hb
XT
=

.O0051 1.6 .69 2.9 Use Table Equation (Note 15,000 pF = .O15 pF)

=
=

xc
xv

+ fi (AC Volts Applied) S = DC Volts Applied DC Rated Voltage


S =

200 + fi (50) =
40 O

nSR
XQ

1
=
=

3.0 10

XE

10-6
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Supersedes Section 10.1

- 10.20of Revision F

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flIL-HDBK-237F

CHG N O T I C E 2

9999970 0397055 99T

MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
11.1
SPECIFICATION MIL-T-27 MIL-T-21038 MIL-T-55631 DESCRIPTION STY LE Power Pulse High Audio, Power and TF TP INDUCTIVE DEVICES, TRANSFORMERS

Low Power Pulse Intermediate Frequency (IF), RF and Discriminator

Base Failure Rate 3.0 Transformer Flyback (< 20 Volts) Audio (15 -20K HZ) Low Power Pulse (Peak Pwr.< 300W, Avg. Pwr. 5W) High Power, High Power Pulse (Peak Power 2 300W, Avg. Pwr. 2 5W) RF (10K - 10M HZ)

hb (F/1O6 hrs.)
.O054
.O1 4

.o22

,049

.13

Temperature Factor- nT 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 1O0 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 XT .93 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 1.9 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.1 3.3 3.5 3.8 4.1 4.3
4.6

Quality Factor

- xn

MIL-SPEC Lower

Environment Factor

- x,

Environment GB GF GM

XE 1.o
6.0 12
5.0

NS
NU

16 6.0 8.0
7.0
--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

AIC AIF AUC AUF ARW SF

9.0 24
.50

MF
ML

13 34 61 O

CL

THS = Hot Spot Temperature(C), See Section


11.3. This prediction model assumes that the for insulation rated temperature is not exceeded

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C H G NOTICE 2

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MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2

11.1

INDUCTIVE DEVICES, TRANSFORMERS Transformer Characteristic Determination Note

MIL-T-27 Example Designation


TF

MIL-T-27

Grade

Insulation Family
Class

G4
O

576

Case

Symbol

Family Type Codes Are: Power Transformer and Filter:

O1 through 09,
through 50 53

37 through 4 1
Audio Transformer: 10 through 21, Pulse Transformer: 22 through 36,54

MIL-T-21036 Example Designation


TP
MIL-T-21038

4
Grade

Insulation

X1 1OOBCOOl

Class

MIL-T-55631. The Transformers are Designated with the following Types, Grades and Classes.
Type I Type II Type 111 Grade 1 Grade2

Intermediate Frequency Transformer Radio Frequency Transformer Discriminator Transformer For Use When immersion and Moisture Resistance Tests are Required For Use When Moisture Resistance Test is Required For Use in Sealed Assemblies 85C Maximum Operating Temperature 105C Maximum Operating Temperature 125% Maximum Operating Temperature > 125C Maximum Operating Temperature

Grade3 Class O Class A Class B Class C -

The class denotes the maximum operating temperature (temperature rise plus maximum ambient temperature).

11-2
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MIL-HDBK-217F

CHG N O T I C E 2

9999970 0397057 762

MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
11.2

INDUCTIVE DEVICES,

COILS

SPECIFICATION DESCRIPTION MIL-C-15305 M IL-C-83446 MIL-C-39010

STYLE

RF Variable, and Fixed Variable, and Fixed RF, Chip Molded, RF, Est. Rel.

'P=',
Base Failure Rate- &

T Q E

n: Failures/106 Hours
Quality Factor - XQ Quality

"Q
.03

Fixed Inductor

or Choke

.O00030

S
R

.1o .30
1.o 1.o

P Temperature Factor THs(C) 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 1O0 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 "T .93 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 1.9 2.2
2.4

MIL-SPEC

Lower

3.0

Environment Factor- IC,


1

Environment GB GF GM

"E
1 .o

6.0 12

3.8
4.1 4.3 4.6

AUC *UF
ARW

7.0
9.0

24 .50 13 34 61 O

SF
MF ML CL

THs

= Hot Spot Temperature ("C),

See Section 11.3

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11-3

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2.6 2.8 3.1 3.3 3.5

NS NI I

5.0
16 6.0

AIF

8.0

MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
11.3
INDUCTIVE DEVICES, DETERMINATION

OF HOT SPOT TEMPERATURE

Hot Spot temperaturecan be estimated as follows: THS = TA + 1.1 (AT) where: THS = TA = AT = HotSpotTemperature("C) InductiveDeviceAmbientOperatingTemperature("C) AverageTemperatureRiseAboveAmbient("C)

AT can either be determined bythe appropriate "Temperature Rise" Test Method paragraph in thedevice base specification (e.g., paragraph 4.8.12 for MIL-T-27E), or byapproximation using one of the procedures described below. For space environments a dedicated thermal analysis should be performed.

AT Approximation (Non-space Envir Iments) Information Known 1. MIL-C-39010 Slash Sheet Number MIL-C-39010/1C-3C, 5C, 7C, 9A, 10A, 13,14 MIL-C-39010/4C, 6C, 8A, 11, 12
2.

AT Approximation
AT = 15C

AT = 35C AT = 125 WL/A AT = 11.5 WL/(Wt.).6766 AT = 2.1 Wl/(Wt.). 6766

Power Loss Case Radiating Surface Area Power Loss Transformer Weight Input Power Transformer Weight (Assumes 80% Efficiency) Power Loss (W)

3.
4.

WL A Wt. W,

= = = =

RadiatingSurfaceArea ofCase (in2).See below forMiL-T-27CaseAreas Transformer Weight (Ibs.) Input Power (W)

NOTE: Methods are listedin preferred order(Le., most to least accurate). MIL-C-39010 are microminiature deviceswith surface areas less than 1 in2. Equations 2-4 are applicableto devices with surface areas from 3 in2 to 150 in2. Do not includethe mounting surface when determining radiating surface area.

Case AF AG AH AJ EB EA FB FA

MIL-T-27 Case Radiatinc Areas (Excludes Mounting Surface) Case Case Area (in2) Area (in2) 4 GB 33 7 LA 43 GA 11 HB MB 42 MA 18 HA 53 NB 21 58 JB 71 NA 23 JA KB 72 OA 25 KA 31 84

Area (in2) 82 LB 98 98 115 117 139 146

11-4
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MIL-HDBK-217F

CHG N O T I C E 2

9999970 0397059 5 3 5

MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
12.1

ROTATING DEVICES, MOTORS

The following failure-rate model applies to motors with power ratings below one horsepower. This model is applicable to polyphase, capacitor start and run and shaded pole motors. It's application may be extended to other types of fractional horsepower motors utilizing rolling elementgrease packed bearings. The model is dictated by two failure modes, bearing failures and winding failures. Application of the model to D.C. brush motors assumes that brushes are inspected and replaced and are not a failure mode. Typical applications include fans and blowers as well as various other motor applications. The model is based on References 4 and 37, which contain a more comprehensive treatment of motor life , prediction methods. The references should be reviewed when bearing loads exceed 10 percent of rated load, speeds exceed 24,000rpm or motor loads include motor speed slip of greater than 25 percent. The instantaneous failure rates, or hazard rates, experienced by motors are not constant but increase with time. The failure rate model in this section is an average failure rate for the motor operating over time period ' 7". This time period is either the system design life cycle (LC) or the time period the motor must last between complete refurbishment (or replacement). The model assumes that motors are replaced upon failure and that an effective constant failure rate is achieved after a given time due to the fact that the effective "time zero" of replaced motors becomes random after a significant portion of the population is replaced. The average failure rate, A , can be treated as a constant failure rate and P added to other part failure rates from this Handbook.
--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

1P = AUB hl

[-

h2 BC~W x lo6 Failures/106


("c) 7.0e+04 80 90 1O0 110 120 130 140

Hours

Bearing & Winding Characteristic Life


TA ?c)
O 10

- a~ and aw
aB (Hr.) e+05 22000 14000 91O0 61O0 e+04

aB (Hr.1
3600 70 13000 39000 78000 80000 55000 35000 7.56+03

TAaw (HI.) 6.48+06 3.28+06 1.6e+06 8.9e+05 5.08+05 4200 2900 2.98+05 1.8e+05 21 1500

aw
1.1

W.)

20 30 40 50 60

O0

4.6e+04 3.1 e+04 2.1 1.56+04 1.08+04

aB

clw
aB aw

=
=
E

10

2357 [TA + 273

- 1.831
eristic Life for the Motor Bearing

Weibull Charact

Weibull Characteristic Life for the Motor Windings Ambient Temperature ("C)

TA

NOTE: See page 12-3 for method to calculate aB and a , , , ,when temperatureis not constant.

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9999970 01'170b0 257

MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
12.1

ROTATING DEVICES, MOTORS

A and B Determination Motor TvDe I A

I
1.9

h, and Determination
hl
Or

Electrical (General) Sensor Servo Stepper

1.1 .48 2.4 11 .29 1.7 5.4

h2

o - .10
.11 - -20 .21 - .30

.13 .15
--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

.23

Example Calculation

.31 - .40 .41 - .50 .51 - .60 .61 - .70 .71 - .80

.31
.4 1 .51 .6 1 .68 .76 1 .o

A general purpose electrical motor is operating at 50C in a system witha 10 year design life(87600 hours) expectancy,
aB
=

55000 Hrs.
2.9e

aW =
"

+ 5 Hrs.
=

LC "B

87600 Hrs. 55000 Hrs.


2.9e

1.6

.81 - .90
z 1.0

"

LC

"W

87600 Hrs. + 5 Hrs. =


(for

.3

-Cis the system design life cycle (in hours), or


he motor preventive maintenance interval, if notors will be periodically replaced or .efurbished. Determine hl and separately
I n
I,-.

hl

1.0

E=

1.6)

I
I

lased on the respective

h2
A

.23 1.9 1.1


+

and ratios. aB "W

= =

%=
hp

1.0 [(1.9)(55000)
=

(1.1)(2.9e + 5)

10.3 Failures/lO6 Hours

12-2
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12.1

ROTATING DEVICES, MOTORS

aCalculation for Cycled Temperature The following equation can be used to calculate a weighted characteristic life for both bearings and windings (e.g., for bearings substituteaB for all a's in equation). hl

+
a

h2

h3 +-""-h,

a= h2 hl
a

-+

-+

h -3 + "3

"""_

hm am

where:
a
=
= = = =

either aB or aw TimeatTemperature Tl Time to Cycle From Temperature Tl to T3 TimeatTemperatureT3 TimeatTemperatureTm Bearing (or Winding) Life atTl Bearing (or Winding) Life at T2 T1 + T 3 T3 2

hl h2 h3 hm

al =

a2

NOTE:

T2 =

, T4 =

Hours (h) Thermal Cycle

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12-3

MIL-HDBK-217F

CHG N O T I C E 2

H 9999970 0397062 02T

MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
12.2

ROTATING DEVICES, SYNCHROS

AND RESOLVERS
DESCRIPTION Rotating Synchrosand Resolvers

%=b

IC

S N E

n x Failures/106Hours

NOTE: Synchros and resolvers are predominately used in service requiring only slowand infrequent motion. so that the electrical failure mode dominates, and no Mechanical wearout problems are infrequent in the model above. mechanical mode failure rate is required

b
30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 .O083 .O088 .O095 .o1 o .o1 1 .O1 3 .O32 .O41

Number of Brushes Factor- nN Number of Brushes ICN 12 3


4

1.4 2.5 3.2

.O52
110 115 120 125 .O69 ,094 .13 .19 .29 .45 .74 1.3 8.5

.O14 .O16
.o1 9 .o22 .O27

Environment Factor- IC=


L

Environment

TE
1.o

\
TF

If Frame Temperatureis Unknown Assume TF = 40 C + Ambient Temperature

DEVICE TYPE Synchro Resolver

--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

TF+273 = .O0535 exp 334


=

GB
GF GM NS NU AIC AIF AUC AUF ARW SF

2.0 12

Frame Temperature (C)

7. O
18
4.0

6.0
16

Size Factor nS Size 8 or Smaller


2

25 26

xS Size 10-16
1.5

Size 18 or 1
1.5

.50
14 36 680

MF ML CL

2.25

12-4
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MIL-HDBK-217F C H G N O T I C E 2 MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2


12.3

7 9 9 9 9 7 0 0197063 T b b

ROTATING DEVICES, ELAPSED TIME METERS

DESCRIPTION Elapsed Time Meters

h, = hbynEFailures/l O6 Hours
Base Failure Rate- A ,+ . Environment Factor - nCE

Type

Environment

Inverter Driven Commutator D.C.

I
I

E
1 .o 2.0 12

2o

30
80

7.0
18

5.0
Temperature Stress Factor - CT Operating T (OC)/Rated T (c) 8.0
16

o to

.5

25
26

.a
1 .o

.8
1.0

.50
14

38 NIA

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12-5

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MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
13.1 SPECIFICATION MIL-R-5757 MIL-R-83516 MIL-R-6106 MIL-R-83520 MIL-R-83536 MIL-R-13718 MIL-R-83725 MIL-R-19648 MIL-R-19523 MIL-R-83726 (Except Class MIL-R-39016 RELAYS, MECHANICAL

Relay

DESCRIPTION Mechanical

C, Solid State

Type)

P '

= 'bxLKC"CYC

F7tQ E Failures/106 Hours


Load Stress Factor - xI
5

Base Failure Rate- A+,


TA ("C) 25 30 35 40 45
50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 1O0 105 110 115 120 125

850C1

Resistive
2.72 9.49 1.O6 1.28 1.76 2.72 4.77 9.49 21.4 1.28
54.6

.o059
.O067 .O075 .O084 .O094 .o1 o .o12 .O13 .O14 .O1 6 .O1 7 .o1 9 .o21 .O066 .O073 .O081 .O089 .O098 .o1 1 .o12 .O13 .O14 .O15 .O17 .O18 .o19 .o2 1 .o22 .O24 .O26 .O27 .O29 1 1

.1 o .20 .30 .40 .50 .60 .70 .80 .90 1.o0

.05

2.1 5 2.72 3.55 4.77

2.

nL = exp

(3)

rating Load Current HatzResistive Load Current

1.

l,,

.O059 exp

2. l , ,= .O059exp
TA
=
--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

( (

-.19 8.617 X 10-5 -.17 8.617 X 10-5

For single devices which switch two different load types, evaluate nL for each possible stress load type nL). combination and use the worse case (largest Cycling Factor - xcYc Cycle Rate (Cycles per MIL-SPEC Hour)
2 1.0

z ] ) z ] )
Rate
1

Ambient Temperature ("C)

Contact Form Factor - xc (Applies to Active Conducting Contacts) Contact Form nC


SPST SPDT 4PST 4PDT 6PDT

Cycle (Cycles Hour) per (Commercial Quality)


> 1000
1

xcYc

1.o0 1.50 DPST 1.75 2.00 3PST 2.50 3.00 DPDT 4.25 3PDT
5.50 8.00

10 10 1000

Cycles per Hour

basic design limitationsof the relay are not valid. Design specifications should be consulted prior to evaluation of %YC

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MIL-HDBK-217F CHG NOTICE

m 9999970 0397065 839

MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
13.1

RELAYS, MECHANICAL

Quality Factor - 7 c C
Quality

R P X

.1o

.3O
.45

U
M L MIL-SPEC, Non-Est. Rel. Commercial
L

.60
1 .o 1.5 1.5 2.9

- "F APlplication and Construction Factor Application Construction Contact Rating T V De Type Dry Circuit Armature (Long) Signal Dry Reed Current Mercury Wetted (Low mv Magnetic Latching and ma) Balanced Armature Solenoid 1 0-5 Amp Armature (Long) 1 General Armature Purpose
Sensitive
(O 100 mw)

Environment Factor- SC, Environment


GB "E 1 .o 2.0 15 8.0 27

Polarized Vibrating Reed High Speed

Short)

=F
GM

AIC

7.0
9.0 11 12
46

AIF
AUC
AUF ARW

5-20 Amp

SF MF ML CI

.50

Thermal Time Delay Electronic Time Delay, Non-Thermal Latching, Reed Dry Magnetic Wetted Mercury armature Balanced High Voltage 20 (Glass) Vacuum (Ceramic) Vacuum Medium Armature (Long and Power Short) Wetted Mercury Latching Magnetic Mechanical Latching 2 Balanced Armature
Solenoid

10 5

5 5
3

1 2

3
2

25
66
N/A

25-600 Amp

Contactors (High Current)

Armature (Short) Mechanical Latching Balanced Armature

13-2
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Armature (Long and Short) Mercury Wetted Magnetic Latching Movement Meter Balanced Armature

7 3

1O0

MIL-HDBK-217F

CHG NOTICE 2

7999970 OL970bb 7 7 5

MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
13.2

RELAYS, SOLID STATE AND TIME DELAY DESCRIPTION Relay, Solid State Relay, Time Delay, Hybrid and Solid State

SPECIFICATION MIL-R-28750 MIL-R-83726

of solid state (and solid state time delay) relays is to sum The most accurate method for predicting the failure rate the failure rates for the individual components which makeup the relay. The individual component failure rates can either be calculated from the models provided in the main body of this Handbook (Parts Stress Method) or from the Parts Count Method shown in Appendix A, depending upon the depth of knowledge the analyst has about the components being used. If insufficient information is available, the following default model can be used:

hp
Base Failure RateType Relay Solid State Solid State Time Delay Hybrid

A ~ ~ c c Failures/106 Q~c~ Hours


Environment Factor- xE

hh
.O29 .O29 .O29

Environment GB GF GM
1.o

3.0 12 6.0 17 12
19

NS
NU
AIC

Quality Factor- zQ

Quality MIL-SPEC Commercial

"0

AIF AUC AUF ARW SF MF ML CL

21 32 23
.40

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1.o

1.9

12 33 590

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MIL-HDBK-ZL7F

CHG N O T I C E 2

m 9999770

Ol1970b7 bDL

MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
14.1

SWITCHES

'P='b Base Failure Rate- 2 Description Centrifugal Dual-In-line Package Limit Liquid Level Microwave (Waveguide) Pressure Pushbutton Reed Rocker Rotary Spec. M IL-SNIA 83504 8805 21 277 N/A 8932 9395 121 1 8805 22885 2431 7 55433 3950 22885 3786 13623 15291 15743 22604 2271O 45885 82359 8805 13484 2261 4 12285 24286 2271 O 3950 5594 8805 8834 941 9 13735 81551 83731

X X

L C

IC 7[:

E Failures/106 Hours
Load Stress Factor Stress S 0.05 o. 1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.o
S=

Ab (F/106 Hrs.)
3.4 .o0012 4.3 2.3 1.7 2.8 .1o .o010 .O23 .11

Resistive 1.o0 1 .o2 1.O6 1.28 1.48 1.76 2.1 5 2.72 3.55

Load Type Inductive 1.o2 1.O6 1.28 1.76 1.15 2.72 4.77 9.49 21.4

p
L

Operating Load Current Rated Resistive Load Current


=

XL

exp (S/.8)2 exp (S/.4)2 exp (S/.2)2

for Resistive Load for Inductive Load for Lamp Load

xL

NOTE: When the switch is rated by inductive load, then use resistive xI . .49 .O31 -18 .1o Contact Configuration Factor' - X## of Contacts,

Sensitive Thermal Thumbwheel Toggle

Contact Form SPST DPST SPDT


3p5t
4p5t

NC 1 2 2 3 4 4 6 8 12

DPDT 3PDT 4PDT 6PDT

ICC 1.o 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.6 1.8


2.0 2.3

KC = (NC). 33
Applies to toggle and pushbutton switches only, all others use xC = 1.

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14-1

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MIL-HDBK-ZL7F C H G N O T I C E 2
MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
14.1

9 9 9 9 9 7 0 OL970b8 5 4 8

SWITCHES

Quality Factor - xQ

Environment
XQ

Quality MIL-SPEC

Environment GB GF
1 .o

1 2

Lower

3.0
18

I I

GM NS NU

8.0
29

AIC

10
18

AIF
AUC AUF

13

22
46

ARW
SF

.50
25

MF

ML

67
1200

CL

14-2
--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
14.2

SWITCHES, CIRCUIT BREAKERS

SPECIFICATION MIL-C-13516 MIL-C-55629 MI L-C-83383 MIL-C-39019 w-c-375

DESCRIPTION Circuit Breakers, Manual and Automatic Circuit Breakers, Magnetic, Unsealed, Trip-Free Circuit Breakers, Remote Control, Thermal, Trip-Free Circuit Breakers, Magnetic,Low Power, Sealed, Trip-Free Service Circuit Breakers, Molded Case, Branch Circuit and Service

h , = h b ~ C 7 t U ~Failures/l Q~E O6 Hours


Base Failure RateDescription Magnetic Thermal Thermal-Magnetic
1
I

Quality Factor- ~n
b
.34 .34 .34
I

Quality

nQ
1.o

MIL-SPEC Lower

I
Environment Factor- 7 t r
L

8*4

Environment Configuration Factor- nc Configuration GB GF GM DPST 3PST 4PST


3.0
4.0
1 .o

2.0
15

NS NU AIC AIF AUC Use Factor- zu AUF ARW SF


MF

8.0

27
7.0

9.0
11

Use
Not Used as a Power On/Off Switch

I
1.o

I
2.5

12

46

50
25
66

Also Used as a Power On/Off Switch

ML CL

NIA

Supersedes page 14-5 of Revision F


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MIL-HDBK-217F CHG N O T I C E 2

9 9 9 9 9 7 0 0377070 176

MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
15.1

CONNECTORS, GENERAL

3 L p = hb~TnKnQnE Failuredl O6

Hours

APPLICATION NOTE: The failure rate model is for a mated pair of connectors. It is sometimes desirable to assign half of the overall mated pair connector (Le., single connector) failure rate to the line replaceable unit and half to the chassis (or backplane). An example of when this would be beneficial is for input to maintainability prediction to allow a failure rate weighted repair time to be estimated for both the LRU and chassis. This f the connector are substantially accounting procedure could be significant if repair times for the two halves o different. For a single connector divide A,, by two.

Base Failure Rate- h . U Specification Description MIL-CCircular/Cylindrical 501 5 26482 26500 27599 28840 29600 38999 83723 3151 1 Card Edge (PCB)* Hexagonal Rack and Panel

Temperature Factor- nT

To (C)

nT

.o01 o

21 097 55302 24055 24056 243 08 2873 1 28748 835 15 21617 24308 28748 28804 81 659 835 1 3 83527 83733 85028 3607 3643 3650 3655 15370 25516 26637 39012 55235 8351 7 55074 22992 491 42

.O40 .15 .o21

Rectangular

.O46

RF Coaxial

.O0041

20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 1O0 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250

.9 1 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.8 2.0 2.3 2.7 3.0 3.4 3.7 4.1 4.6 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.1 8.6 9.2 9.8 1o.

Telephone Power Triaxial

.O075 .O070 .O036


To = Connector Ambient + AT
AT = Connector Insert Temperature Rise (See Table)

Printed Circuit Board Connector

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MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
15.1

CONNECTORS, GENERAL

Lower

Quality Factor - X Q Quality MIL-SPEC

AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT

= 3.256 (i).85 = 2.856 (i) .85 = 2.286 (i) = 1.345(i) = 0.989 (i) = 0.640 (i) .85 = 0.429 (i) .85 = 0.274 = 0.100 (i) .85

32 Gauge Contacts 30 Gauge Contacts 28 Gauge Contacts 24 Gauge Contacts 22 Gauge Contacts 20 Gauge Contacts 18 Gauge Contacts 16 Gauge Contacts 12 Gauge Contacts

Environment Factor Environment GB GF GM


NS NU

- nE
XE 1 .o
1 .o 8.0 5.0 13

AT = i =

Insert Temperature Rise Amperes per Contact AT = 5C AT = 50C

*IC
RF Coaxial Connectors

3.0
5.0

AIF
AU c
AU F

RF Coaxial Connectors (HighPowerApplications)

8.0

12 19 .50 10 27 490

ARW

SF

MF ML CL

15-2
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DefauIlt Insert Temperature Rise lation Amperes ict Gau(L PerContact 20 16 30 1 2 2 10 2 8 5 3 22 4 4 0 37 13 5 5 56 13 19 8 6 18 27 79 7 23 10 36 8 30 13 46 9 57 37 16 45 19 10 70 15 96 41 70 20 25 106 30 35 40

12 -O
1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 15 26 39 54 72 92

MatingNnmating Factor MatingNnmating Cycles (per 1000 hours)

- zK
IFK

O to .O5
> .O5 to .5 > .5 to 5 > 5 to 50

1 .o 1.5 2.0 3.0

*One cycle includes both connect and disconnect.

~~

MIL-HDBK-217F

CHG N O T I C E 2

9997970 0197072 T77 H

MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
15.2

CONNECTORS, SOCKETS

'P=%
Base Failure Rate- Ilt, Description Dual-ln-Line Package Single-ln-Line Package Chip Carrier Pin Grid Array Relay Transistor Electron Tube, CRT Spec. MIL-S
83734 83734

5~ IC

II: Failures/106 Hours P Q E

Active Pins Factor- x p


Number of Number of
ZP
1.o 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 4.1 4.5 5.0 5.5 5.9 6.4

'b
.O0064 .O0064 .O0064 .O0064 .O37

Active Contacts
1 2 3 4 5 6

Active Contacts
55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 1O0 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 155 160 165 170 175 180

nP
6.9 7.4 7.9 8.4 8.9 9.4 9.9 10 11 12 12 13 13 14 14 15 16 16

38533
NIA
12883

7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

12883 12883

.O051
.o1 1

Quality Factor- xQ Qualit MIL-SPEC. Lower Environment Factor- x=


1 .o

17
18 18 19 20 20 21 22

q
N

.39

= Number of Active Pins

An active contactis the conductive element which mateswith another elementfor the purpose of transferring electrical energy.

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MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
16.1

INTERCONNECTION ASSEMBLIES WITH PLATED THROUGH HOLES xC

kp = hb[N1

N2 (xc

13)

Failures/106 Hours

APPLICATION NOTE: This model applies to board configurations with leaded devices mounted into the plated through holes and assumesfailures are predominately defect related. For boards using surface mount technology, use Section 16.2. For a mix of leaded devices mounted into plated through holes and surface 16.2 for the surface mountcontribution. mount devices, usethis model for the leaded devices and use Section A discrete wiring assembly with electroless deposit plated through holes i s basically a pattern of insulated wires laid down on an adhesive coated substrate. The primary cause of failure for both printed wiring and discrete wiring assemblies is associated with plated through-hole (PTH) problems (e.g., barrel cracking). Base Failure Rate hb Technology
--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Quality Factor- "Q b ' .O00017

.
-

Quality MIL-SPEC or Comparable Institute for Interconnecting, and Packaging Electronic Circuits (!PC) Standards (IPC Level3) Lower
1

Printed Wiring Assembly/Printed Circuit Boards with PTHs

Discrete Wiring with Electroless .o001 1 Deposited PTH(2 2 Levels of Circuitry) Number of PTHs Factor N1 and N2 Factor
N1

Quantity Automated Techniques: Quantity of Wave Infrared (IR) or Vapor Phase Soldered Functional PTHs Quantity of Hand Soldered PTHs Complexity Factor - "C Environment Factor Environment GB GF GM
NS

"E
1 .o

N2

2.0
7.0

Number of Circuit Planes, P


s2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

1 .o
"C 1 1.3 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 2.9 3.1 3.3 3.4 3.6 3.7

5.0

NU AIC AIF AUC AUF

13

5.0
8.0

16

28
19

*RW
SF MF ML

.50
10 27
500

3.9
4.0

CL

Discrete Wiring w/PTH


"C = .65 P.63

2SP118

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MIL-HDBK-217F

CHG N O T I C E 2

9999970 0377074 841

MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
16.2

INTERCONNECTIONASSEMBLIES,SURFACEMOUNTTECHNOLOGY

APPLICATION NOTE: The SMT Model was developed to assess the life integrityof leadless and leaded devices. It provides a relative measure of circuit card wearout due to thermal cycling fatigue failure of the "weakest link SMT device. An analysis should be performed on all circuit board SMT components. The component with the largest failure rate value (weakest link) is assessed as the overall board failure rate due to SMT. The model assumes the board is completely renewed upon failure of the weakest link and the results do not consider solder or lead manufacturing defects. This model is based on thetechniques developed in Reference 37.

s = ~ Average ~ failure rate over the


expected equipment life cycle due to surface mount device wearout. This failure rate contribution to the system is for theSurfaceMountDeviceon each board exhibiting the highest absolute value of the strain range: where: CR
=

Temperature cycling rate in cycles per calendar hour. Base on a thermal analysis of the circuit board. Use table default values if other estimates do not exist. Average number of thermal cycles to failure

Nf

ECF

Effective cumulative number failures Weibull the over characteristic life.

of
where: d
=

- ECF Effective Cumulative Failures LC ECF aSMT


0 -.1 .11 .20 .21 - .30 .31 - .40 .41 - 50 .51 - .60 .61 - .70 .71 - .80 .81 - .90 >. 9

Distance from center of device to the furthest solder joint in mils (thousandths of an inch) Solder joint height mils in for leadless devices. Default to h = 8 for all leaded configurations. Circuit board substrate thermal coefficient of expansion(TCE) Use environment temperature extreme difference Package material thermal coefficient of expansion (TCE) Temperature rise due dissipation (Pd)
=

.13 .15

as
AT

.23 1 .3
.41 .5 1
=

I
LC

-61 .68 .76


1.o

WC

Design life cycle of the equipment in which the circuit board is operating. The Weibull characteristic life. C~SMT is a function of device and substrate material, themanufacturing methods, and the application environment used.

TRISE =

to power

Pd
8JC

eJCP

~ S M T=

P
nLC =

= =

Thermal resistance "/Watt Power Dissipation (Watts)

Lead configuration factor

16-2
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CHG NOTICE 2

9 9 9 7 9 7 0 0397075 788

MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
16.2

INTERCONNECTIONASSEMBLIES,SURFACEMOUNTTECHNOLOGY

CR - Cycling Rate Defat Values Number o f Equipment Type Cycles/Hour 1.o Automotive .O8 Consumer (television, radio, recorder) .17 Computer Telecommunications .O042 Commercial Aircraft .25 .o21 Industrial .O3 Military Ground Applications .12 Military Aircraft (Cargo) .5 Military Aircraft (Fighter) "LC

as - - Default TCE Substrate Values


Substrate Material

- Lead Configuration Factor

Lead Configuration Leadless J or S Lead Gull Wing

"LC 1 150
5,000

1
I

a m - TCE Packaae Values

-Material

I orcc Average Value

Plastic Ceramic

7
6

AT - Use Environment Default Temperature Difference AT Environment 7 GB GF GM NS NU AIC AIF AUC AUF ARW SF MF ML CL

F R 4 Laminate F R 4 Multilayer Board FR-4 Multilayer Board w/Copper Clad Invar Ceramic Multilayer Board Copper Clad Invar Copper Clad Molybdenum Carbon-Fiber/Epoxy Composite Kevlar Fiber Quartz Fiber Glass Fiber Epoxy/Glass Laminate Polyamide/Glass Laminate Polyamide/Kevlar Laminate PolyamidelQuartz Laminate Epoxy/Kevlar Laminate Alumina (Ceramic) Epoxy Aramid Fiber Polyamide Aramid Fiber Epoxy-Quartz Fiberglass Teflon Laminates Porcelainized Copper Clad Invar Fiberglass Ceramic Fiber

18 20 11

7
5 5
1

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3
1

5 15 13 6
8

7 7
6 9

20

7
7

2 1 26
26 61 31 31 57

57
31

EXAMPLE: A large plastic encapsulated leadless chip carrier is mounted on a epoxyglass printed wiring assembly. The design considerations are: a square package is 1480 mils on a side, solder height is 5 mils, power is dissipationis .5 watts,thermalresistance 20C/watt, the design life is 20 years and environment is military ground application. The failure rate developed is the impact of SMTfor a single circuit board and accounts for all SMT devices on this board. This failure rate is added to the sum of all of the component failure rates on the circuit board.

N/A N/A

MT
aSMT

aSMT

ECF

N/A

Nf CR

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16-3

flIL-HDBK-237F

CHG N O T I C E 2

9999970 039307b b 3 4

MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
16.2

INTERCONNECTIONASSEMBLIES, SURFACE MOUNTTECHNOLOGY

hFor h: For as: For AT: For act: For TRISE:

= 5 mils

as = 15 (Table - Epoxy Glass)


AT = 21 (Table - GF)

W C = 7 (Table - Plastic)
TRISE = 8JcP = 20(.5) = 10C
~ L= C1 (Table - Leadless)

For nLC:
For CR:

CR = .O3 cycles/hour (Table

- Military Ground)

Nf

18,893 thermal cycles to failure

.O3 18,893 cyledhour cycles = 629,767 hours

"

LC

(20 yrs.) (8760

%MT

F)

629,767 hrs.

= .28

ECF

=
=

.23 failures (Table - EffectiveCumulativeFailures)


.23 failures = ,0000004 failuredhour aSMT E 629,767 hours
.4 ~failures/l O6 hours

MT
h s

ECF

= ~

16-4
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NIL-HDBK-217F

CHG N O T I C E 2

9999970 0377077 550

MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
17.1

CONNECTIONS

APPLICATION NOTE: The failure rate model in this section applies to connections used on all assemblies except those using plated through holes or surface mount technology. Use the Interconnection Assembly Model in Section 16 to account for connections to a circuit board using either plated through hole technology or surface mount technology. The failure rate of the structure which supports the connections and parts, e.g., non-plated-through hole boards and terminal straps, is considered to be zero. Solderless wrap connections are characterized by solid wire wrapped under tension arounda post, whereas hand soldering with wrapping does not depend on a tension induced connection. The following model is for a single connection.

3p = %xE
Base Failure Rate- L U Connection Type Hand Solder, w/o Wrapping Hand Solder, w/Wrapping Crimp Weld Solderless Wrap Clip Termination Reflow Solder Spring Contact Terminal Block

Failures/l O6 Hours
Environment Factor- x ,

+, (FAO6 hrs)
.O013

.O00070

.O00015
.O000068
.o001 2

.O00069

.17
.O62

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.O0026

NIL-HDBK-ZL7F

RE

m 9999970 O070860 8 m

MIL-HDBK-217F
18.1

METERS, PANEL

SPECIFICATION MIL-M-1 0304

DESCRIPTION Meter, Electrical Indicating, Panel Type, Ruggedized

X P % AXF X Q
Ease Failure Rate L

n:E Failures/106 Hours


Quality Factor zn

I
I

I
All

Quality
MIL-"10304

"O

I
Application Factor

.o90

I
1

1 .o

Lower

3.4

I
I

- ..
XA

Application Direct Current Alternating Current

Environment Factor- x , Environment GB

1 .o 1.7
I

"E 1 .o 4.0 25 12
35
28

GF GM NS

Function Factor xc

Function Ammeter .Voltmeter Other'

I
I

*F 1.o 1.o
2.8
~~ ~

NU AIC
Al F

42
58

AUC AUF ARW SF MF


ML CL

73 60 1.1
60

' Meters whose basic meter movement construction


is an ammeterwith associated conversion elements.
I
--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

NIA NIA

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. .

.
~

.
. .. .

.
..

"

"

- .
'

MIL-HDBK-237F

RE

9999970 0070863

m
~~

MIL-HDBK-217F
19.1 SPECIFICATION MIL-C-3098 DESCRIPTION Crystal Units, Quartz

QUARTZ CRYSTALS

'P = 'b Q E
Base Failure Frequency, f(MHz)

x Failures/106 Hours
Environment Factor zE

"b
.o1 1 .O13 .o19 .o22 ,024 .O26 .O27 .O28 ,029

Environment GB . GF

0.5 1.O 5.0 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105

"E 1 .o 3 .O
10

GM
NS
r

6.0 16
12

NU

.O30
.O31 ,032 ,033 .O33 .O34 .O35 .O35 .O36 .O36 .O37 .O37 .O37 ,038
_ .

AIC AIF AUC AUF ARW SF MF ML

17
22

28 23

.50
13
32

. .

CL

500

hb =

.013(f)*23

Quality Factor zQ

Quality MIL-SPEC Lower

Xn

19-1
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NIL-HDBK-ZL7F R E

9999970 0070862

MIL-HDBK-217F

SPECIFICATION escent,Lamps, MIL-L-6363 w-L-111 Tungsten-Filament Miniature, Incandescent, Lamps,


L

DESCRIPTION

h, = X , , ~ C ~ I C Failuredl ~K~ O6 Hours

APPLICATION NOTE: The data used to develop this model included randomly occurring catastrophic failures to tungsten filament wearout. and failures due

Base Failure Rate?+,

Environment Factor K,
Ah

Voltage, Rated

V, (Volts)

5 6 12 14 24
28 37.5

I I ::: II
59

.75 1.8 .

5.4

Utilization Factor nu Utilization (IlluminateHourd Equipment Operate Hours)


< 0.10

leu
0.10

0.10 to 0.90
> 0.90 .

0.72
. 1.0

Application Factor K . A_ Application Alternating Current Direct Current

I
1 .o
3.3

20-1
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'

..

..

MIL-HDBK-217F

RE

9 9 9 9 9 7 0 0070863 3 E

MIL-HDBK-217F
--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

2 1.1

ELECTRONIC FILTERS, NON-TUNABLE

SPECIFICATION MIL-F-15733 MIL-F-18327

DESCRIPTION Filters, Radio Frequency Interference Filters, High Pass, Low Pass, Band Pass, Band Suppression, and Dual Functioning (Non-tunable)

to estimate the failure rate for electronic filters is to sum the failure rates for the individual The most accurate way components which makeup the filter (e.g., IC's, diodes, resistors, etc.) using the appropriate models provided in this Handbook. The Parts Stress models or the Parts Count method given in Appendix A can be used to determine individual component failure rates. If insufficient information is. available then the following default model canbe used.

A,, =
Base Failure Rate At, TY Pe MIL-F-15733, Ceramic-Ferrite Construction (StylesF i 10-16, 22, 24, 30-32, 34,35, 38, 41-43, 45, 47-50, 61-65, 70, 81-93, 95, 96) MIL-F-15733, Discrete LC Componentsi (Styles FL 37, 53, 74)
,

XQ

XE FailuresUO6 Hours
c c . Environment Factor - 7
I :

'b

Environment.

"E

,022

.12 .12 .27


7.0

MIL-F-18327, Discrete LC Components (Composition 1) MIL-F-18327, Discrete LC and CrystalComponents . (Composition 2)

9.0
11

13 11 .80

7.0
Quality Factor- Z n Quality MIL-SPEC Lower 15 120

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MIL-HDBK-217F

RE

7777778 0870Bb4 5
~~

MIL-HDBK-217F
22.1

FUSES

SPECIFICATION W-F-1726 W-F-1814 MIL-F-5372 ML-F-23419 MIL-F-15160

DESCRIPTION Fuse, Cartridge Class H Fuse, Cartridge, High Interrupting Capacity Fuse, Current Limiter Type, Aircraft Fuse, Instrument Type Fuse, Instrument, Power and Telephone (Nonindicating), Style F01

hp

+, ICEFailures/106 Hours

APPLICATION NOTE: The reliability modeling of fusespresentsauniqueproblem.Unlikemostother components, there is very little correlation between the numberof fuse replacements and actual fuse failures. Generally whena fuse opens, or blows, something elsein the circuithas created-anoverload conditionand the fuse is simply functioning as designed. This model is based on life test data and represents fuse open and A short failure mode is most commonly shorting failure modes due primarily to mechanical fatigue and corrosion. caused by electrically conductive material shorting the fuse terminals together causing a to failure open condition when rated current is exceeded.

Base Failure Rate $ TY Pe

Environment Factor- xE

I
I

Environment GB GF
I

I
I

W-F-1726, W-F-1814, MIL-F5372, MIL-F-23419, ML-F-15160

x C E 1.o 2.0 8.0


5.0

GM NS NU AIC
AlF

11
9.0

12
a

AUC AUF ARW SF MF ML CL

15 18 16
.9o

10 21 230

22-1
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. .

MIL-HDBK-217F

RE

9 9 9 9 9 7 0 0070865 7

MIL-HDBK-217F
23.1
--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

MISCELLANEOUS

PARTS

h,-. Failure
P

Rates for Miscellaneous Parts (Failures/lO6 Hours) Failure Rate Part Type 15 20 40

Vibrators (MIL-V-95) 60-cycle 120-cycle 400-cycle Lamps Neon Lamps Fiber Optic Cables (Single Fiber Types Only) Single Fiber Optic Connectors' Microwave Elements (Coaxial &Waveguide) Attenuators (Fixed& Variable) Fixed Elements (Directional Couplers, Fixed Stubs & Cavities)
& Cavities) Variable Elements (Tuned Stubs

0.20
0.1 (Per Fiber Km) 0.10
-

See Resistors, TypeRD Negligible 0.10

Microwave Ferrite Devices OOW) Isolators & Circulators (51 Isolators & Circulators (>1 OOW) Phase Shifter (Latching) Dummy Loads < 1oow 1oow to I 1ooow > 1ooow -Terminations (Thin or Thick Film Loads Used in Stripline and Thin Film Circuits) 'Caution: Excessive Mating-Demating Cycles May Seriously Degrade Reliability
0.030
X

ZE

0.030X "E

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MISCELLANEOUS PARTS

Environment Factor
--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

- IC,
L

Environment Factor- nE (Dummy L .ds) Environment

(Microwave Ferri Devices) Environment "E 1.o 2.0


8.0
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APPENDIX A: PARTS COUNT RELIABILITY PREDICTION

Parts Count Reliability Prediction This prediction method is applicable during bid proposal and early design phases when insufficient information is available to use the part stress analysis models shown in the main bodyof this Handbook. The information needed to apply the method is (1) generic part types (including complexity for microcircuits) and quantities, (2) pait quality levels, and (3)equipment environment. The equipment failure rate is obtained by looking up a generic failure rate in one of the following tables, multiplyingit by a quality factor, and then summing it with failure rates obtainedfor other components in the equipment. The general mathematical expression for equipment failure rate with this method is:
Equation 1 for a given equipment environment where:

hEQUIP =
hg
=

Totalequipmentfailurerate(Failures/106Hours) Generic failure rate for the i th generic part (FailuredlO6 Hours) Quality factor for the i th generic pari Quantity of

"Q
--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Ni n

= =

i th generic part
pari categories in the equipment

Number of different generic

Equation 1 applies if the entire equipment is being used in one environment. If the equipment comprises several units operating in different environments (such as avionics systems with units in airborne inhabited (Al) and uninhabited (AU) environments), then Equation 1 should be applied to the portions of the equipment in each environment. These "environment-equipment" failure rates should be added to determine total equipment failure rate. Environmental symbols are defined in Section 3. The quality factors to be usedwith each part type are shown with the applicable hgtables andare not necessarily the same values that are used in the Part Stress Analysis. Microcircuits have an additional multiplying factor, xL, which accounts for the maturity of the manufacturing process. For devices in production two years or more, no modification is needed. For those in production less than two years, h 9 should be multiplied by the appropriate 5tL factor (See page A-4).
It should be noted that no generic failure rates are shown for hybrid microcircuits. Each hybrid is a fairly uniquedevice. Sincenone of thesedevices have beenstandardized, their complexitycannot be determined from their name or function. Identically or similarly named hybrids can have a wide range of complexity that thwarts categorization for purposes of this prediction method. If hybrids are anticipated for a design, their use and construction should be thoroughly investigated on an individual basis with application of the prediction modelin Section 5.

The failure rates shown in this Appendix were calculated by assigning model default values to the failure rate models of Section 5 through 23. The specific defauR values used for the model parameters are shown with theh Tables for microcircuits. Default parameters for all other part classes are summarized in 9 the tables starting on Page A-12. For partswith characteristics which differ significantly from the assumed defaults, or parts used in large quantities, the underlying models in the main body of this Handbook can be used.

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(

PARTS COUNT
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A:

PARTS COUNT

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APPENDIX B:
' a ,

VHSICIVHSIC-LIKE AND VLSl

CMOS-(DETAILED MODELL

This appendix contains the detailed version of the VHSICNLSI CMOS model containedin Section 5.3. It is provided to allow more detailed device level design trade-offs to be accomplished for predominate failure modes and mechanisms exhibited in CMOS devices. Reference30 should be consulted for a detailed derivation of this model.
VHSICNHSIC-I IKF FAll URF RATF MODFL

+.. &TCt)

b N ( t ) + &Ac + k m + hls(t)

Predicted Failure Rate as a Function o f Time Oxide Failure Rate *Metallization Failure Rate
Hot Carrier Failure Rate

Contamination Failure Rate Package Failure Rate

EOS/ESD Failure Rate


Miscellaneous Failure Rate The equations for each of the above failure mechanism failure rates are as follows:
.

Total Chip Area (in cm2)

ATYPEo~

.77 for Custom and Logic Devices, 1.23 for Memories and Gate Arrays

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MIL-HDBK-217F
APPENDIX B:

VHSIC-VHSIC-LIKE AND VLSl CMOS (DETAILED MODEL)

OXlnF FAll URF RATF FQUATION (CONTINUED)

.21 cm2 Oxide Defect Density (If unknown, use where X . = 2 prn and X, is the feature size of the device)

gJ
-

..

1 Defect/cm2

Effective Screening Time (Actual Time of Test (in I O 6 hrs.)) (ATox (at junction screening temp.) (in OK))*

ATOX

TemperatureAccelerationFactor, = (where TJ = Tc -192 ( P


1

exp

-.3

8 . 6 1 7 ~ 1 0 (L ~ TJ

k)]

+~ J C P (in

OK))

EOX

- 21 .5)
/

Maximum Power Supply Voltage VDD, divided by the gate oxide thickness (in MV/cm)

(QML) = 2 if on QML, .5 if not.


If Sigma obtained from test data of oxide failures from the same or similar process. not available, use aooxvalue of 1.

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jylFTAl FAll URF RATF EQUATION

2 Total Chip Area (in cm ) .88 for Custom and Logic Device;, 1,12 2 -21 cm X0 Metal Defect Density (If unknown use (-)
XS

for Memory and Gate Arrays

where X0 = 2 pm and Xs is the feature size of

the device) 2 1 DefecVcm Temperature Acceleration Factor

Effective Screening Time A(atScreeningTemp.


TMET

(in 106 hrs.) (in OK)) 6 . (ActualScreeningTime (in 10hrs)) (in lo6 hrs.)

(QML)

3 8 8 (Metal Type) J2 A
TMET

(QML) = . 2 if on QML, .5 if not. Metal Type = 1 for AI, 37.5 for AI-CU or for Al-Si-Cu The mean absolute value of Metal Current Density (in 1O6 Amps/cm2) sigma obtained from test data on electromigration failures from the same or a similar process. If this data isnot available usedMET = 1. time (in lo6 hrs.)

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I
APPENDIX B:

MIL-HDBK-217F
VHSIC-VHSIC-LIKE AND VLSl CMOS (DETAILED MODEL)

HOT CARqlFR F M URF RATF FQUATION

(QML) = 2 if on QML, .5 if not


o
--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

.O39

8.61 7x1O'5
=

( 1 TJ

k)]

(where TJ = T ~ eJ$ +

(in OK))

Id
'sub

Drain Current at Operating Temperature. Substrate Current at Operating Temperature. -0058 e -*o0689TJ (in OK) (mA) 'sub = sigmaderivedfromtestdata, (at Screening Temp.(in

I f unknown use Id = 3.5 e -.O0157 TJ (in O K ) ( m ~ )

If unknown use

%c

=
=

if not availableuse 1.
OK))

t0

* (Test Duration

in lo6 hours)

.hcoN

.O00022 e

-.O028 to

ATCON

-.O028

1 0

Effective Screening Time ATcon (at screening junction temperature (in O K ) ) (actual screening timein lo6 hrs.)

=
=

time (in lo6 hrs.)

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APPENDIX B:

~-

VHSlCNHSlC-LIKE AND VLSl CMOS (DETAILED MODEL)

PACKAGF FAILURF RATF F-QUATION


xPAC

=
=

(.O024 + 1.85 X 10-5(#Pins)) ZE nQ "PT See Section 5.10

+ %H

xE
ZQ

See Section 5.10 Package Type Factor (llpT)


--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Type

Package DIP Pin Grid Array' Chip Carrier (Surface Mount Technology)

=PT

I
-

1.o 2.2 4.7

Package Hermeticity Factor


O for Hermetic Packages
I .

-exp

tapH '399 H; [

%( ln(t) - In(t50pH)) 1 ' forplasticpackages

Ambient Temp. (in O K )

5230 + (1-DC)(RH) whereTJ =Tc (WRH) e (for example,for 50% Relative Humidity, use RH = 50) .74 time (in lo6 hrs.)

(k

e)]

+ eJCP (in

OK)

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FOS/FSD FA11 URF RATF FQUATION

kOS

=
.

-ln (1 - .O0057 e ,00876

-.O002 VTH

VTH = ESD Threshold of the device using a100 pF, 1500 ohm discharge model

= Temperature Acceleration Factor =

exp[

-.423

where TJ = Tc + eJ$ to =
=

(in O K )

Effective Screening Time ATMls (at Scleening Temp, (in time (in lo6 hrs.)
OK))

* Actual Screening Time(in lo6 hours)

6-6
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., .

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B W

MIL-HDBK-217F
APPENDIX C :
Publications listed with "AD" numbers may be obtained from: National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, VA22151 (703) 487-4650 BIBLIOGRAPHY

z r .

U.S. Defense Contractors may obtain copies from:


Defense Technical Information Center ' CameronStation FDA,Bldg. 5 Alexandria, VA 22304-61 45 (703) 274-7633

"L": These documents are in a Documents with AD number prefix with the letter "B" or with the suffix "Limited Distribution" category. Contact the Defense Technical Information Center for ordering procedures.
Copies of MIL-STDS's, MIL-HDBKs, and specifications are available from: Standardization Document Order Desk 700 Robins Ave. Building 4, Section D Philadelphia, PA 191 11-5094 (215) 697-2667 The year of publication of the Rome Laboratory (RL) (formerly Rome Air Development Center (RADC)) documents is part of the RADC (or RL) number; e.g., RADC-TR-88-97 was published in 1988. 1
--``,,,``,,,``,,`,,`,,`,,,,`,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

"Laser Reliability Prediction," RADC-TR-75-21 O, ADA016437.

2. "Reliability Model for Miniature Blower Motors Per MIL-8-23071 B," RADC-TR-75-178, AD A013735. 3. "High Power Microwave Tube Reliability Study," FAA-RD-76-172, AD A003361 2. ADA050179.

4."ElectricMotorReliabilityModel,"RADC-TR-77-408,

5.

'

"Development of Nonelectronic Part Cyclic Failure Rates," RADC-Tk-77-417, AD A050678. This study developed new failure rate models for relays, switches, and connectors.

6.

"Passive Device Failure Rate Models for MIL-HDBK-2178," RADC-TR-77-432, AD A050180. This study developed new failure rate models for resistors, capacitors and inductive devices.

7.
Y

"Quantification of Printed Circuit Board Connector Reliability," RADC-TR-77-433, AD A049980. "CrimpConnectionReliability,"RADC-TR-78-15,ADA050505 "LSI/Microprocessor Reliability Prediction Model Development," RADC-TR-79-97, AD AO689
"A Redundancy Notebook," RADC-TR-77-287, AD A050837. li.

8.
P.

9. 1O .

11. "Revision

of Environmental Factors for MIL-HDBK-2178," RADC-TR-80-299, AD A091837.

c-1
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APPENDIX C: BIBLIOGRAPHY

12. 13.

"Traveling Wave Tube Failure Rates," RADC-TR-80-288, AD A096055. "Reliability Prediction Modeling of New Devices," RADC-TR-80-237,AD A090029. This study-developed failure rate models for magnetic bubble memories and charge-coupled memories.

14. "Failure Rates for Fiber Optic Assemblies," RADC-TR-80-322, AD A09231 5. 15. "Printed Wiring Assembly and Interconnection Reliability," RADC-TR-81-318, AD A l 11214.
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for printed wiring assemblies, solderless wrap This study developed failure rate models assemblies, wrapped and soldered assemblies and discrete wiring assemblies with electroless deposited plated through holes.

16. 17. 18.

"Avionic Environmental Factors for MIL-HDBK-217," RADC-TR-81-374, AD B064430L. "RADC Thermal Guide for Reliability Engineers," RADC-TR-82-172, A AD l 18839. "Reliability Modelingof Critical Electronic Devices," RADC-TR-83-108, AD A l 35705. This report developed failure rate prediction procedures for magnetrons, vidicions, cathode ray tubes, semiconductor lasers, helium-cadmium lasers, helium-neon lasers, Nd: YAG lasers, electronic filters, solid state relays, time delay relays (electronic hybrid), circuit breakers, LC. Sockets, thumbwheel switches, electromagnetic meters, fuses, crystals, incandescent lamps, neon glow lamps and surface acoustic wave devices.

19.

, AD A l 58843. "Impact of Nonoperating Periodson Equipment Reliability," RADC-TR-85-91


This study developed failure rate models for nonoperating periods. "RADC Nonelectronic Reliability Notebook," RADC-TR-85-194, AD A l 63900. This report contains failure rate data on mechanical and electromechanical parts.

20.

21

"Reliability Prediction for Spacecraft," RADC-TR-85-229, AD A149551. This study.investigated the reliability performance histories of 300 Satellite vehicles and the is basisfor the halvingof all model nEfactors for MIL-HDBK-217E to MIL-HDKBPl7E, Notice 1.

22. 23. 24.

"Surface Mount Technology: A Reliability Review," 1986, Available from Reliability Analysis Center, PO Box 4700, Rome, NY 13440-8200, 800-526-4802. "Thermal Resistances of Joint Army Navy (JAN) Certified Microcircuit Packages," RADC-TR-86-97, AD B108417. "Large Scale Memory Error Detection and Correction," RADC-TR-87-92, AD B117765L.

to calculate memory system reliability for memories This study developed models incorporating error detecting and correcting codes. For a summary of the study see 1989 IEEE Reliability and Maintainability Symposium Proceedings, page 197, "Accounting Soft for Errors in Memory Reliability Prediction."
25. "Reliability Analysisof a Surface Mounted Package Using Finite Element Simulation," RADC-TR-87177, AD A189488.

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APPENDIX C:
26.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

"VHSICImpact on System Reliability," RADC-TR-88-13,AD8122629. "Reliability Assessment of Surface Mount Technology," RADC-TR-88-72, AD A193759. for Discrete Semiconductor Devices," RADC-TR-88-97, AD

27.

28. "Reliability Prediction Models A200529.

This study developed new failure rate prediction models for GaAs Power FETS, Transient Suppressor Diodes, Infrared LEDs, Diode Array Displays and Current Regulator Diodes. 29. 30. "Impact of Fiber Optics A201 946. on System Reliability and Maintainability," RADC-TR-88-124, AD

"VHSICNHSIC Like Reliability PredictionModeling,"RADC-TR-89-171,ADA214601. This study provides the basis 5.


for the VHSIC model appearing

in MIL-HDBK-217F, Section

31.

"Reliability Assessment Using Finite Element Techniques," RADC-TR-89-281 , AD A216907. This study addresses surface mounted solder interconnections and microwire board's platedthrough-hole (PTH) connections. The report givesadetailedaccountofthefactors to be considered when performing an FEA and the procedure used to transfer the results to a reliability figure-of-merit.

32.

"Reliability Analysis/Assessment of Advanced Technologies," RADC-TR-90-72, ADA 223647. This study provides the basis for the revised microcircuit models (except VHSIC and Bubble Memories) appearing in MIL-HDBK-217F, Section 5.

33. 34. 35.

"Improved Reliability PredictionModel for Field-AccessMagneticBubbleDevices,"AFWAL-TR81 -1052. "Reliability/Design Thermal Applications," MIL-HDBK-251 "NASA Parts Application Handbook," MIL-HDBK-978-B (NASA). This handbook is a five volume series which discusses afull range of electrical, electronic and electromechanical component parts. It provides extensive detailed technical information for eachcomponent part such as: definitions, construction details, operating characteristics, parts, environmental derating, failure mechanisms, screening techniques, standard considerations, and circuit application. "NonelectronicParts Reliability Data1991 ," NPRD-91. This report contains field failure rate data on a variety of electrical, mechanical, electromechanicalandmicrowavepartsandassemblies(1400 different part types). It is available fromtheReliability Analysis Center, PO Box 4700, Rome, NY 13440-8200, Phone: (315) 337-0900. "Reliability Assessment of Critical ElectronicComponents,"RL-TR-92-197,AD-A256996. This study is the basis for new or revised failure rate models in MIL-HDBK-217F, Notice 2, for the following device categories: resistors, capacitors, transformers, coils, motors, relays, switches, circuit breakers,connectors,printed circuitboardsandsurface mount technology.

36.

37.

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CHG NOTICE 2

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MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE 2
APPENDIX

C:

BIBLIOGRAPHY

38.

"Handbook of Reliability Prediction ProceduresforMechanicalEquipment,"NSWC-94/L07. ThisHandbookincludes a methodology for nineteenbasicmechanicalcomponentsfor evaluating a design for R&M that considers the material properties, operating environment and critical failure modes. It is available from the Carderock Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Bethesda,MD20084-5000,Phone(301)227-1694.

Custodians: Army - CR Navy - EC Air Force - 17 Review Activities: Army - MI, AV, ER Navy - SH, AS, OS Air Force - 11, 13, 15, 19, 99 User Activities: Army AT, ME, GL Navy - CG, MC, YD, TD Air Force - 85

Preparing Activity: Air Force 17

ProjectNo.RELI-O074

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