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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Introduction to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Getting Started; Implementation Timeline/Checklist Monitoring and Evaluation Weeds Plant Diseases Wildlife Insects Soil, Turf, and Landscaping Making it official: An IPM Policy Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Monitoring Forms Policy, Law and Regulations Product Supplier List Contact/Resource Information Resources 1-2 3-5 6 - 13 14 - 22 23 - 30 31 - 36 37 - 51 52 - 58 59 - 65 66 67 - 73 74 75 76 - 78
Special thanks to: Rick Stumpf, Park District of Highland Park; Phil Nixon, University of Illinois Extension; Julie Samuels, Openlands Project; John Masiunas, University of Illinois Extension; Raymond Cloyd, University of Illinois Extension; Bettina Francis, University of Illinois Extension; Dawn Nordby, University of Illinois Extension; Larry Hanks, University of Illinois Extension; Tom Voigt, University of Illinois Extension; Jennifer Grant; New York Extension; Rachel Rosenberg, Safer Pest Control Project; Kim Stone, Safer Pest Control Project; Fred Gullen, Superintendent of Parks Glenview; Dave Shangle, Dalsh Consulting for their contributions. Compiled and Edited by John Q. Knight.
CHAPTER 1 – INTRODUCTION TO INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT
WHY PRACTICE IPM?
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) – is a system of controlling nuisance wildlife that uses a combination of methods to maximize the effectiveness of control, while minimizing pesticide applications and the potential hazards associated with their use. IPM offers park district management and staff a way of managing parks without depending on pesticides, which in turn provides a safer place for people to enjoy the outdoors, improves the health and vitality of the park’s ecosystem, and ultimately reduces maintenance needs and costs. A Safer Place for People to Enjoy IPM is a pest control method that has been around for centuries. Current IPM programs arose out of a desire to manage areas such as parks without relying heavily on pesticides. Pesticides have been linked with a variety of health problems, ranging from acute short-term symptoms of poisoning such as nausea, dizziness, headaches, and aches and pains1 to chronic problems such as cancer2, endocrine disruption, asthma irritation3, and learning disabilities. Routine use of pesticides on park grounds may expose park users and staff to these short and long term health risks. Pesticide accidents such as spills or misapplications could subject the park or municipality to liabilities. Storing pesticides also includes the potential for accidents. Reducing pesticide use and using IPM helps reduce these risks. Improved Health and Vitality of the Park’s Ecosystem Pesticides don’t just harm or kill the undesired organism. They reduce populations of beneficial plants, insects, fish, and other organisms. They kill beneficial microorganisms in soil that are needed to grow healthy plants, in turn requiring the application of fertilizers to help these plants grow. This self-perpetuating cycle will often cause artificially healthy turf that relies heavily on chemical fertilizers. IPM focuses your efforts on maintaining healthy plants and soil, enabling you to more effectively control pest problems. When problems do arise, you can address them by more effectively choosing the most appropriate method – weighing risk, costs, and effectiveness. Additionally, many IPM methods also reduce or eliminate the residues and run-off associated with applying pesticides – particularly important in areas used by children. Reduced Maintenance Needs and Costs Over the long-term, IPM can reduce the costs associated with pest control (See Susqueanna School, p. 57). Repeated maintenance inputs of pesticides, herbicides, and chemical fertilizers can be phased
Lowengart, R. et al. 1987. Childhood leukemia and parents’ occupational and home exposures. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 79:39-46. 2 Davis, J.R., et al. 1993. Family pesticide use and childhood brain cancer. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 24(February):87-92. 3 National Institutes of Health. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. 1997. Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma (April), NIH Publication No. 97-4051.
Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project
out, restoring the natural balance of the soil, and eventually requiring fewer water and fertilizer inputs.
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES AND METHODS P
R I N C I P L E S
Eliminating insect, disease, and weed pest problems – not eradicating all pests Applying pesticides, fertilizers, or watering only when the benefits outweigh the costs Considering all pest management options, including natural, biological, cultural, and chemical methods
(Adapted From: Gempler’s 1999-2000 IPM Almanac)
Instead of relying on pesticides as the first choice to manage pest problems, IPM uses a hierarchy of pest control methods to maintain pest populations at or below levels determined by park management. A hierarchical list of these methods follows:
I P M
E T H O D S
Natural control – creating habitat for natural predators of pests, i.e. planting native landscaping to attract dragonflies for mosquito control. Cultural control – maintaining the site in a way to discourage pests. For example, maintaining grass heights of 2½ to 3 ½ inches to shade out weeds. Physical control – removing the pest; i.e. employing someone to pull weeds from flowerbeds Biological controls – applying insects or bacterium for pest control. For example, a bacterium called milky spore can be used to control Japanese Beetle grubs in turf. Least Toxic Chemical controls – when all other methods have not brought pest populations to tolerable levels, chemical controls that are the least hazardous to the environment and nontarget or beneficial organisms should be considered.
Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project
Descriptions include the damage caused by the pest. traditional pest management strategies. Please flip through it. To start. Consult the chapter(s) before executing the step. taking at least a few seasons. target methods Develop a monitoring schedule Plan for and implement IPM methods STEP 4 – CONTINUED MONITORING. Chapters 4 through 7 have sketches of pests (including weeds in Chapter 4) to aid in identification. Details regarding each of the steps can be found in the following section entitled “Explanation of Steps” and in the cited chapters. and updated records 9 – on Evaluate IPM program 9 – on STEP 5 – DEVELOPING/ADOPTING POLICY Draft IPM policy and adopt (Chapter 9 for example) 12 – on E X P L A N A T I O N O F S T E P S : 3 Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project . and are numbered sequentially. AND EVALUATION Maintain detailed. using the information pertinent to your site to design your IPM program. As you proceed. RECORD KEEPING. The short-term methods will keep pests at acceptable levels while making the IPM transition. IPM P R O G R A M I M P L E M E N T A T I O N T I M E L I N E A N D C H E C K L I S T STEP 1 – BEGINNING THE TRANSITION Phase out the use of pesticides Begin implementing short-term IPM methods STEP 2 – ASSESSING THE SITE Collect and review historical information regarding the site Develop and draft monitoring form Collect soil sample(s) to be analyzed Conduct baseline assessment Analyze baseline assessment information and soil test results Timeline (In Months) 0-4 0-4 4-6 6 7-8 7-8 8 8 8 9 – on 9 – on STEP 3 – DEVELOPING AN IPM PLAN Set an action threshold Prioritize pests and evaluate available resources.CHAPTER 2 – TRANSITIONING TO IPM (HOW TO USE THE MANUAL) Transitioning to IPM will be a gradual process. implementing long-term methods will begin to reduce the amount of maintenance and inputs needed. consistent. such as routine pesticide applications. should be phased out and replaced with IPM methods. This manual is designed as a reference tool. coupled with specific IPM methods that can be implemented over the short and long term. The steps in constructing a program are outlined in the timeline and checklist below.
D. Plan for and Implement IPM Methods Chapter 3 Develop a routine schedule in which IPM methods will be implemented to meet action thresholds. Phase Out Pesticide Use and Implement Short-Term IPM Methods Chapters 4 – 7 Phase out chemical applications and begin to apply pesticides only where and when needed to control a specific pest. STEP 2 – ASSESSING THE SITE A. By modifying the soil. B. Chapter 3 includes sample forms that may be used to gather this information. plant health and pest resistance can be significantly improved. and plants. soil. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 4 .EXPLANATION OF STEPS STEP 1 – BEGINNING THE TRANSITION A. Sketches are provided to aid in identification and descriptions include short-term IPM methods for control (including least toxic products) that are less hazardous than traditional practices. Comparing current and past conditions will help to determine the cause of pest problems and the most effective methods of pest control for the site. C. Identification of the pest(s) is an important first step in a successful IPM program. Set an Action Threshold Chapter 3 How many pests or weeds are acceptable? This section provides a framework to help you decide when a pest is problematic enough to warrant treatment. landscaping. and maintenance methods. Develop a Monitoring Schedule Chapter 3 Depending on the amount and type of pests identified. and decide which methods are the most feasible for the site. STEP 3 – DEVELOPING AN IPM PLAN A. Prioritize Pests and Target IPM Methods Chapters 4 -7 Identify common causes for the pests that are found on the site. develop a routine schedule in which monitoring will be performed to ensure that pests are being maintained below the action thresholds. Prepare for and Conduct the Baseline Assessment Chapter 3 Before developing an IPM plan for your site. prioritize methods to control the pests that cause the most damage. which leads to a higher level of pest tolerance and decreases the need for pest control activities. Long-Term IPM Methods Chapter 8 Improving site conditions is the base of a successful IPM program. it is useful to observe and record conditions of weather.
Draft IPM Policy and Adopt Chapter 9 An effective IPM program will improve the health and appearance of the site. Additionally. RECORD KEEPING. in some cases. save time and money. records enable the manager or maintenance staff to evaluate and fine-tune the IPM program to make it the most effective.STEP 4 – CONTINUED MONITORING. Consistent. altogether prevented. and Updated Records Chapter 3 Good records save time by providing an account of past pest conditions and effectiveness of controls. management presentations. Evaluate IPM Program Chapter 3 STEP 5 – DEVELOPING/ADOPTING POLICY A. pest outbreaks can be anticipated and. the program can offer numerous ways in which to involve the public: educational site visits. etc. The next step is to incorporate IPM into park management policy – publicizing the park district’s dedication to providing a healthy place for people to enjoy. Also. B. allowing for the fine-tuning of an IPM program. AND EVALUATION A. With them. public signs and displays. and improve the environment. Maintaining Detailed. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 5 .
monitoring includes the regular observation and recording of site conditions. The construction vehicles tore up some turf. wildlife. sun exposure. you decide to aerate the area and relieve the compaction. an area of the park continually has problems with broadleaf weeds. you can choose targeted methods of pest control that are the most effective. Further review of the test results reveals that calcium levels are slightly low. However. so some areas needed to be replanted. would lead you to look to other possible causes. By taking a broad look at site conditions. which will minimize inputs and maximize effectiveness. At this point. particularly where tire ruts had formed. Monitoring will help you: 1) Determine the extent of pest populations 2) Design and time appropriate pest management methods 3) Maintain pests and pest damage at acceptable levels Monitoring is an essential component of an effective IPM program. AND EVALUATION WHAT IS MONITORING? In an IPM program. you will be able to determine whether or not this is an effective method of controlling the weeds. insects. and the presence of weeds. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 6 . soil health. By incorporating more calcium into the next fertilizer application and evaluating the results. take another example where an area of the park has recently been renovated with some new playground equipment. coupled with investigations that found that the soil is not overly compacted and the grass varieties are well suited to the shade and moisture conditions. Or. As the new sod went in. These conditions include plant health. The turf recovers and is able to grow where the ruts once were. This information.CHAPTER 3 – MONITORING. drainage and moisture. For example. it was watered thoroughly for weeks following the installation. soil physiology (study of soil processes). or disease. Monitoring is the base of an IPM program. WHY MONITOR? Maintaining good monitoring records will make your job easier. you notice the sod hasn’t taken hold in areas that had a lot of traffic. Having data on site conditions will also aid in the evaluation of past management methods and enable you to continually select the best methods. A soil test comes back from the lab with results indicating that the phosphorus levels are suitable for turf. compaction. turf density. IPM PLAN.
ArcView GIS software. etc. Collect as much of the following as possible: Inventory of plants on the site Pest problems.DEVELOPING A MONITORING PROGRAM 1. control strategies. GIS positioning devices. temperatures. Time of year pests have been present Previous construction or other damage Ideally. Description and extent of tree. The most important element of monitoring is consistency. consider hiring a consultant or intern. arranging the files to the above categories should provide for easy reference and comparison. and the effectiveness of those strategies. the data should be compiled into a database so that it can be readily compared with current information. Historical Information Monitoring begins with collecting site-specific historical data. or a new one can be created by drafting a log and sketch of the site. (Alternatively. Developing or Using a Monitoring Form Appoint a staff member to be responsible for monitoring. You can find information on how to do this below. the IPM program will be based on the baseline assessment. plant and landscaping damage from disease. Historical data will accumulate over time as it is collected on monitoring forms. sparse turf. so it is important to have the same person develop or select the monitoring form that they will use during monitoring visits. or wildlife Soil types. If there isn’t sufficient staff or staff time. The monitoring form will be used to record historical data. the log and map can be easily recorded directly into a computer using spreadsheets. perform the baseline assessment. If no historical data is available. Records of pesticide applications and landscape maintenance may be good sources for this information. pH levels. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 7 . If this isn’t possible. Below are suggestions on how to organize the data when adapting or developing the monitoring form. 2. Sample monitoring forms are included in Appendix A. time of year pest is present Weather and site conditions during pest problems: rainfall. and record information gathered at follow-up monitoring visits. compaction Man made and natural features near problem areas Site use: playground. insects. nutrient deficiencies. hiking trail. presence of weeds. etc. It consists of a site log (Figure 1) and map (Figure 2) that is used to record observations during these visits. or other similar technologies).
FIGURE 1 – LOG PORTION OF MONITORING FORM Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 8 .
a map can be drafted during a walk through of the site – keeping in mind that it should be made by the same person responsible for continued monitoring.M LOG O N I T O R I N G F O R M C O N T E N T S (Organized in Columns) FIGURE 1 Inventory of trees and other plants on the site Pest problems. sparse turf. insects. etc. baseball fields. plant and landscaping damage from disease. The sketch will serve as your monitoring form. temperatures. but should contain both a map and a log in some form. are included for ease in orientation. pH levels. Be sure that property lines. or wildlife (Adapted or Sketched) FIGURE 2 Soil types. or to use existing topographical drawings. including identification of weeds. time of year pests are present Weather and site conditions: rainfall. presence of weeds. have drainage or other moisture problems Site use: playground. MAP FIGURE 2 – MAP PORTION OF MONITORING FORM Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 9 . Time of year the pest is present The monitoring form should be tailored to the site and preferences of the assessor. roads. tennis courts. hiking trail. insects. disease. other recreational areas. Description and extent of tree. etc. compaction Man made and natural features near problem areas including areas that flood. It may be possible to adapt an aerial photo of the site as the basis for your map. nutrient deficiencies. If these resources are not suitable. or wildlife damage. Include easily recognizable landmarks and including the information listed in the log and map sections. etc.
copy it before filling it out during the baseline assessment. Larger sites may take some time. Use the magnifying glass if they’re hard to see. Baseline Assessment The baseline assessment is the initial collection of current information about the site. R O U N D : C O N D U C T I N G A S S E S S M E N T T H E S I T E Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 10 . The next page contains a list of suggested tools to bring along. Walk through all areas of the park. Chaps 4 – 7 Small shovel and soil test kit – to collect soil samples to be sent to a lab Collection Bags Clip Board Before conducting your baseline assessment. jars. or initially focus on a pilot plot. Identifying both pests and site conditions will help you address possible causes of pest problems and will provide you with information that you can use to improve the health of your turf and landscaping. location. a useful information source to review is “Turfgrass Weed Management – An IPM Approach. traps. Nearby features such as storm water discharge pipes. rocky soils. lures. soil characteristics and traffic – as well as any weeds or diseases present. The article outlines specifics in monitoring for weeds. so you may want to break the area into smaller segments while performing the baseline assessment. since more information will lead to better pest management decisions. walk the site.” (Reference #21). mapping plants and site conditions such as amount of shade. TOOLS FOR THE BASELINE AND FOLLOW-UP SITE ASSESSMENTS: Magnifier – to identify insects too small to identify with the naked eye Insect Sweep Nets – to collect insects for identification Insect Traps and Lures – to aid in collection Jars and Vials with 70% Ethyl or Isopropyl Alcohol – To preserve insects for identification Identification Keys – to assist in identifying the pest. 3. and the guide to identify them.IMPORTANT: Since the monitoring form (map and log) will be used to record changes in site conditions during each monitoring visit. Survey the site to locate pests and use nets. Be sure to record as much of the above information as possible. Take soil samples in areas that have weed growth or poor turf/landscaping health. and collection bags to trap or collect them if you have difficulty identifying them right away. and estimated amount on the monitoring form. Record the type of pest. but includes methods that can be applied to monitoring for all pests. O N T H E G With the tools listed above. and areas of low or high elevation or heavy use patterns are all conditions that can contribute to pest problems and should be recorded.
Many factors may play into setting these thresholds. insecticidal soaps and other Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 11 . Certain levels of insects will not affect plants. noticeable. weeds in a park may be more frequently tolerated than in front of village hall. it will be important to develop an outreach program for the public explaining the change in the park and how it will benefit the community. Determining how much of a particular pest. Powdery mildew on some plants may be tolerated as it is more unsightly than harmful. Is the public willing to tolerate a few weeds if they know that the IPM program will reduce the use of pesticides? If this is a new program. or both. and certain numbers of weeds are unnoticeable at a casual glance. some things to consider may be aesthetics. combined with plant phenology can help you predict the occurrence of a pest problem or the vulnerable life stages of insect pests and can help prevent disease outbreaks. in setting a weed threshold. For example. This level may vary depending on the use of the site. etc. The most important thing to determine about the site is the amount of damage that can be tolerated before it becomes harmful. or potential pest problems that could possibly affect your site – to be prepared should a problem develop. Contact an extension office for any nearby. General Rule for Insect Damage: 1) Pest damage on new plants should be limited to roughly 5% of the total plant 2) Older. 2. Finding the appropriate balance and setting a corresponding threshold can only be done through a system of trial and error for some pests. You may ask yourself questions such as can I stand to have a few dandelions on the practice field. or. detailed weather data such as Growing Degree Days. user safety (athletic fields) nearby neighbors. Prioritize IPM Methods As you determine your thresholds. Setting Action Thresholds – When to Take Action Establish a threshold based on the amount of pest-related damage that will be tolerated. can be tolerated – is setting an action threshold. Public awareness is also important in setting thresholds. For example. For example. take an inventory of the resources you have available to reach them. hardier plants can withstand 10-15% damage from the pest. does the milkweed near the footpath really deter from the landscape? On the other hand. it is important to take action while it is possible to take proactive steps. current. IPM PLAN Assemble historical data and pest control information that was recorded during the baseline assessment. Do you have the machinery you need for larger modifications of the site and soil? Are you able to identify a supplier that can provide you with beneficial insects. 1. and they may change over several seasons as you build up information about the patterns at each site.Additional information can be collected to increase the precision of the IPM program. or the damage caused by that pest. the purpose of the site. A list from the local extension office should be available to help you determine when these events may occur.
(for example mechanical removal for weeds) and long-term methods are steps to designed to prevent problems from occurring. When transitioning into an IPM Program. in order to identify potential problems before they occur. Think of problems cumulatively – often the conditions causing one problem will cause others as well. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 12 . Use the turf and landscaping knowledge of the park staff. the size of the site. To reach your desired threshold. the life cycles of the pests you find. Prioritize the IPM methods that are feasible for you. Generally. Establish a Monitoring Schedule Create a schedule for monitoring. then knowing which problems will likely arise will enable you to anticipate when you will need to monitor – such as correlating with the seasonal appearance of certain pests to other occurrences. each will need a customized monitoring schedule to prevent problems. and monitoring. Record Keeping Keep records of how each control measure worked by following up during the next monitoring visit. and advice from your local cooperative extension office. plants. It is also important to consider whether the chemical controls are species specific or affect non-target species.less harmful products (Appendix C)? Use the list from your baseline assessment to identify what IPM methods you can apply towards each pest. Monitoring should occur at regular intervals. can have blanket effects on pest populations and methods to control them. and which may be long-term goals. If this proves unfeasible. the amount of short-term methods used will be gradually reduced. or to minimize them before the become a larger problem. Chapters 4-7 list both short and long-term methods. your IPM Plan will include both short-term and long-term methods. (including the flowering of a particular shrub). taking into account the number and diversity of plants on the property. Gather information from Chapters 4-7 and other sources on how to prevent outbreaks and manage these pests if they become a problem. it’s most useful to increase the frequency of monitoring in spring. landscape maintenance. Take time to prioritize IPM methods that will be used. These records ensure that ineffective methods are not duplicated. but it will save a lot of effort in the long run by preventing future problems. and formulate an annual IPM plan including soil preparation. IPM Methods – Short and Long Term Take action on your thresholds using the information provided in Chapters 4-7. and site sizes. 4. including temperature and precipitation. 5. Given the differences in pest species. Determine the potential pest problems that may be encountered base on historical data and the current site assessment. as well as anticipated pest problems in the area. as natural cycles. Making one lasting change to the soil may initially involve a large amount of work. Be sure to include basic weather information along with it. your management techniques will initially focus on shortterm treatment options. 3. start out monitoring on a quarterly basis. Short-term methods are steps taken to immediately deal with pests. and which methods they may have in common. If this is not easily determined. As you transition into an IPM program.
Start with a small site that can be easily managed. Were you able to control targeted pests? How well did you achieve the threshold levels that you had set? Were there observable impacts on the pests? What was the reaction to the program from the public or from municipal leaders? Certain IPM methods may take awhile to have an effect. Below are questions that will help you evaluate the program on an annual basis. improving drainage is often a lengthy process and. E V A L U A T I O N Are thresholds too difficult to attain. which weren’t? Have you realized the savings from reduced pesticide use and needs? Q U E S T I O N S Beginning an IPM program can be an intimidating task. As such. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 13 . should they be readjusted? Has the health of the landscape improved? Have the long-term IPM methods been successful? Which treatments were cost-effective. The key is to select a parcel of land small enough so that beginning an IPM program is not too intimidating. provide assistance in customizing the program. it may be difficult to evaluate the impacts right away. or divide a larger site to make the task easier.EVALUATION Evaluate the impact of the IPM program at the end of the year. and product needs. equipment. expectations and outcomes should be evaluated accordingly. and should be evaluated accordingly – for instance. Take into account that the process of transitioning into IPM will occur over a few seasons. plan for monitoring. consequently. Establishing an electronic database to track this information will help streamline data collection and make analysis easier. A test plot on a segment of a larger site can be used to evaluate an IPM program.
Broadleaf and Blackseed Plantain (Plantago major and P. unbranched stems are produce with small inconspicuous flowers. Short Term Control: See mechanical removal. unbranched stems. and in the listed sections of Chapter 8. Explanations of the methods can be found at the end of this chapter. flaming. flaming. Long-Term Control: See Chapter 8: moisture management. heavily compacted soils. lance like leaves with prominent parallel veins. and heat treatment. Short Term Control: See mechanical removal. you will find descriptions of common weed species in Illinois. Leaves are 2” to 10” long and 1/3” to 1” wide with three predominate parallel veins on the blade. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 14 . Both species are common in turf or sod areas and tolerate close mowing and damp. From June through September leafless. rugelii) Perennial weeds that have broad oval leaves with parallel veination. weed trimmer. (Source: “Illinois Pesticide Applicator Training Manual – Fruit and Vegetable Crops Pest Control”) W E E D I D E N T I F I C A T I O N G U I D E Buckhorn plantain (Plantago lanceolata) Narrow. and IPM methods that can be used for their control. and heat treatment. Seed heads are bullet-shaped. Common on drier soils and neutral to basic soils. weed trimmer. moisture management. Leaves are 1 ½” to 7” long and 2/3” to 4” wide.CHAPTER 4 – WEEDS Below. Long-Term Control: See Chapter 8: compaction. Flowers are present from June to September and are produced at the end of long. pages 18 to 22. Tolerates close mowing. conditions that can potentially contribute to their growth.
and compacted soils.Large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis) A mat forming. Leaf blades are about 12 times longer than wide. flaming. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 15 . Bright-green leaves are opposite on the stem. in spring or fall before seeds are added to the soil bank  Short Term Control: See mechanical control. Can out compete and displace native grasses and wildflowers. flaming. Bluish-purple flowers are borne on short ascending stems. fertilizing. and heat treatment. The spreading. Long Term Control: Contact the Illinois Department of Natural Resources (http://dnr. with toothed edges. White flowers with four petals occur the following year during May to July. Seeds are in slender capsules. and heat treatment. summer annual with purple stems.state. This plant grows well in shady areas where soils are poorly drained. After becoming established it will tolerate hot. flaming. 1 to 2 ½” long and are dispersed in August but remain dormant until the second following spring. and normally dull green (sometimes purple tinged). Flowers are produced from early April through June. Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata) A non-native. Leaves are alternate.il. and are flat. Can reach 3 feet in height. square stems that root at the nodes and form dense prostrate patches. round. Ground Ivy (Glechoma hederacea) (Creeping Charlie) A perennial with creeping. sharply pointed. soil heatlh. weed trimmer. Long-Term: See sun exposure and Chapter 8: moisture management. Foliage emits a mint-like odor when injured. Short Term: See mechanical removal. Long-Term Control: See targeted fertilizing and Chapter 8: moisture management. biennial herb that invades shaded areas. Stems reach 1 to 3 1/2’ high and emit a strong odor when crushed.us/). Short Term Control: See mechanical removal. and fertile lawns where turf is thin or mowed short. Can be found in warm. leaving unsightly dead patches. flat growth of crabgrass tends to crowd out desirable grasses. invasive. triangular. with scalloped edges. Crabgrass is killed by the first frost. Control immediately to prevent dense growth. weed trimmer. Seedheads appear as several finger-like spikes at the end of each stalk. Seeds germinate in early spring. moist. and heat treatment. dry.
Strong taproot is thick and fleshy. Thrives in moist. Seeds detach readily and are wind disseminated. approximately 1 inch long by 1/4 inch wide. as it fixes nitrogen in the soil. Long-Term: See Chapter 8. Leaves are 3 to 10” long and 1 to 2” wide. weed trimmer. Young plants have long. The plant has three short-stalked leaflets that are egg shaped and rounded at the apex. and heat treatment Long-Term: See targeted fertilizing and Chapter 8: moisture management. Mature plants have small. pointed at the apex. Grows well on compacted soils. variously lobed. dull-green leaves and inconspicuous white flowers. dark green leaves and are often mistaken for grass. Beneficial. slender. weed trimmer. Leaves are alternate. bright yellow. branched. low-fertility soils. flaming. weed trimmer. Flower heads are 1 to 2” in diameter. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) A perennial weed reproducing from seed and broken segments of the taproot. Short Term: See mechanical removal.White Clover (Trifolium repens) A mat-forming perennial with creeping branched stems. Short Term: See mechanical removal. Can be 8 to 12” high and 6 to 15” in diameter. Stems are smooth or only slightly hairy. The plant forms a tough. Round flower heads are produced through the summer and are white or pinkish in color. fertilizing. Long-Term: See Chapter 8: compaction. and deep. flaming. prostrate wiry mat. and heat treatment. elliptic to oblong. Short Term: See mechanical removal. flaming. and upon maturing. Prostrate Knotweed (Polygonum aviculare) A summer annual that germinates in early spring. bear seed with fluffy white down attached. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 16 . and heat treatment.
maculata). Stems have four sides. and erect stems. Listed as an exotic weed in Illinois. Flowers bloom in mid to late summer. egg-shaped. up to 1 ¼” long. flaming. Seedpods are large. Reproduces from seed or from long. Prostrate spurge has pale green leaves while spotted spurge has a maroon spot on each leaf. Globe-like flower clusters develop at the end of the stem and upper leaf axils. weed trimmer. The plant exudes a milky sap when injured. Leaves are in whorls of three or opposite. Will crowd out most native aquatic vegetation. Long-Term: See Chapter 8. Short Term: See mechanical removal. becoming woody and reaching 3 to 4 feet. spreading roots. and heat treatment. unbranched.il. Monarch butterfly habitat. Grows better in welldrained soil and does not tolerate frequent mowing or cultivation. and heat treatment. Long-Term: See targeted fertilizing and Chapter 8: compaction. and pointed. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 17 . Survives on dry or sandy. 4” to 8” long. Not a persistent weed. are stiff. Flowers are borne from late June to early August. flaming. and reach 3’ to 10’ tall. and heat treatment. Leaves are large and oblong. The small leaves are opposite. Short Term: See mechanical removal. Long-Term: Contact the Illinois Department of Natural Resources (http://dnr. Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum slicaria) an invasive perennial. Short Term: See mechanical removal. Spreads by root and stem cuttings and produces many seeds. spiny. weed trimmer. A perennial with stout. 2” to 5” long. fertilizing. with a base that may appear woody. Mat-forming summer annuals that usually appear midseason. flaming. Individual flowers are purplish pink to white and fragrant.us/) Common Milkweed (Asclepias syriaca). Flowers are present July through September in the axils of the upper leaves.state.Prostrate and Spotted Spurge (Euphorbia supina and E. weed trimmer. low nutrient soil and on compacted or disturbed sites. and 1/3“ wide.
flaming. and its fruit are small (1/8 inch in dia. and can be variable in shape. Leaves develop attractive autumn coloration of reds and orange. Long-Term: See sun exposure. The blades are dull-green in color. and heat treatment. Long-Term: See Chapter 8. Plant contains poisonous oils that can produce a serious rash on contact or through the smoke of burning plants. Note: Should you chose mechanical removal. and waxy white in color. Mat forming. weed trimmer. Quackgrass (Elytrigia repens) A common perennial in Northern Illinois. A patch forming. Long Term: See sun exposure. Short Term: See mechanical removal. Plant is either an upright shrubby plant 2 to 3 feet high. less than 1” long.). fibrous roots. round. growing up to 20” tall and have weak and hairy stems. spiked seed head in June and July. take extreme caution and wear gloves. Small white flowers have 5 white petals that are notched at the tips. Flowers. and a long-sleeved shirt. pants. weed trimmer. Poison Ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) A woody perennial. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 18 . Chapter 8: moisture management. moist soils and in shade. and heat treatment. up to 12” long. May have red stems. very hairy. and make sure they are immediately washed with detergent in warm water. Has shallow. flat. and up to ½” wide. Do not come into contact with clothes that may have oil from the plant on them. weed trimmer. and hairy to smooth on the upper surface and smooth underneath. Grows in cool. Plants are distinguished by the 3 shiny leafs on each branch. The plants produce a long. Tolerates frequent mowing. dark green. Leaves are opposite. and heat treatment. flaming. flaming.Mouseear Chickweed (Stellaria media) A perennial that reproduces by seeds and occasionally spreads by creeping stems. Control is important because of the hazard to persons that may come into contact with it. Short Term: See mechanical removal. Short Term: See mechanical removal. coarse-textured grass that spreads by strong underground stems (rhizomes). Leaflet edges are smooth to roughly toothed. or more commonly a vine that climbs trees and fences.
It’s also best to remove the weed before it goes to seed. accompanied by an illustration and suggested use for the tool. so that the weed cannot regrow. The Complete Guide to Organic. including the taproot. it’s important to remove the entire plant. to reduce the possibility of further weed growth. Figure 3 has some garden tools that can be used.SHORT-TERM IPM METHODS Mechanical Removal The best short-term method in an IPM program is mechanical removal. it is effective and often a good choice for sites of moderate size. Low-Maintenance Lawns) Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 19 . Although mechanical removal can be labor intensive. FIGURE 3 – COMMON GARDEN TOOLS (Source: Safe & Easy Lawn Care. you pull the weed from the ground – by hand or by using a garden tool. When removing the weed. Most of these tools can be found at hardware stores or garden centers. Put simply.
causing it to wilt and die. one on the end of the trimmer that houses a trigger to engage the motor and another mid way down for controlling the trimmer while in use. preventing the plant seeds from germinating. A weed trimmer is usually around 4’ long with two handles. Description: 3’ torch with ignition switch is connected to a butane tank with a neoprene hose. around trees. however. or can be purchased from: www. www. the whip circulates around the motor. or www. On the other end is a circulating motor with a plastic whip.net. as it will leave burn patches in the turf. (Source: www. flaming must be done with caution and should not be used in areas that are particularly dry or that have debris or dry vegetation that may catch fire. This method is a good substitute for a pesticide spray gun – as you will just as easily be able to spot treat weeds along fence lines. It is important to heed all the manufacture’s warnings before using. Check with you local hardware store for availability or try www. When the motor’s engaged. Using a weed trimmer – sometimes called a hedge or grass trimmer – will help you perform this task quickly. garden center.mcmaster.groworganic. This method consists of using a handheld torch to burn the plant for a couple of seconds. the applicator should take precautions to avoid burns and prevent their clothing from catching fire while applying .greenfire. 3” flame from end of torch used to flame weed. Flaming may not be appropriate for athletic fields. sidewalks and paths. Below is a picture and description of a flaming device: To minimize the risk of fire. Available at any local hardware store. cutting any weeds or grass that the whip comes into contact with. parking lots. The Essential Resource for Integrated Pest Management) Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 20 . Additionally.com.com. any seeds that come into contact with the flame are rendered infertile. and other hard to access areas.com) Flaming Another IPM treatment technique is flaming.Weed Trimmer Many weeds will not regrow if they are cut down a handful of times.gemplers. Also.mcmaster. (Source: Gempler’s 1999-2000 IPM Almanac. Tank is fixed to a lightweight dolly. The flame damages the plant’s cells. Flamers are generally more effective on annual weeds.com. Possible benefits of flaming include lower costs by substituting butane gas for seasonal pesticide purchases.
Prevention first builds on maintaining a healthy. Herbicidal soaps are made of fatty acids that are naturally found in the soil. They kill weeds and quickly decompose in the soil. broadleaf weeds. have few known adverse environmental effects. Heat-treating makes use of hot water and foam mixtures that are directly applied to the weed. but before initial weed growth actually occurs. lichens. algae.victorpest. Herbicidal soaps can be used to control mosses. Check Appendix C for additional resources. posing minimal environmental impact. Research thoroughly before considering its use. parking lots. whether flaming or hot water/steam. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 21 . Vinegar has also been shown to be an effective spot treatment. can be substituted for bare-ground treatments such as applying broad-spectrum plant killers Roundup® or other Glyphosate®containing generic herbicides. like flamers. Below you will find long term IPM methods specific to weeds. the USDA warns that vinegar concentrations over 5% can burn and should be handled with protective equipment. One example would be ammoniated soap “Concern Fast-Acting Weed Killer™” available at www. and can be applied like traditional herbicides – which is especially useful for spot-treatment applications.Heat Treatment Heat treatments. Most long-term weed management steps should be taken before spring. These applicators. Using vinegar in a sprayer can also corrode seals and valves. but generally consist of a 3’ to 4’ wand connected by hose to a tank containing the heated mixture. while outside temperatures are tolerable. After treatment. Additional herbicidal soaps are available at www. IPM LONG-TERM METHODS The goal of using long-term IPM methods is to decrease the likelihood of or prevent weed growth on the site before it occurs. Review Chapter 8 for a more thorough explanation of long-term methods as they apply to the entire landscape. you may incorporate all or a few of the steps below – keeping in mind available time and resources. However. are handy for spot treatments of fence lines. around trees. dense turf and effectively covering areas that do not have turf. Applicator designs vary. cause it to wilt and die. When including weed control in your IPM Plan. See Waipuna in Appendix C for more details.com or www. Least-Toxic Chemical Controls Another option for weed control is the use of certain less-hazardous herbicides.groworganic. and when applied to the weed. These mixtures are heated to extremely high temperatures. the non-toxic foam/mixture dissipates. sidewalks and paths. These include herbicidal soaps and essential oils.biconet.com. and other hard to access areas. and annual grassy weeds.com.
laid on bare ground before covering with landscaping rocks or mulch 2) Apply mulch directly on the ground around landscaping. areas that are shaded by trees. barriers. Mulches used around ornamentals have the additional benefit of reducing evaporation from the soil. For example. to discourage the growth of white clover. knowing that dandelions go to seed in late summer and spring can help you plan to mow them down before the seed fluff matures and dissipates. areas of high foot traffic. groundcovers. Another method is to apply a slow-release fertilizer to the planting-hole before planting ornamentals. Keep in mind that fertilizers should be applied judiciously – to control weeds. Fertilizer can be applied through drip irrigation systems. play areas. For instance. tree limbs. with equipment found at your local hardware store or garden center. reduce costs. Knowing that Creeping Charlie is a perennial may convince you to focus on it rather than other annual weed species that may die off at the end of summer. or similar stores using the website www. Barriers. Often. See Appendix C for other potential suppliers. garden center. shrubbery. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 22 . etc. turfgrass cannot be grown or isn’t desired in these areas. Fertilizing impacts the nature and extent of weed growth. and limit potential environmental impacts such as runoff. adding organic material to the soil.com. or other ornamentals should be trimmed to allow for sunlight to penetrate onto the turf. Landscaping with Mulches. and Groundcovers The goal is to eliminate areas where weeds can grow. you will be able to build information about the plant’s life cycle into your IPM plan. Mulch can also be applied to walking paths. Sun Exposure Certain weed species favor shady conditions where the ground is moist and turf density is low. avoid overfertilizing with phosphorus. Landscaping options for these areas include: 1) Fabric or plastic barriers to cover soil before landscaping. encouraging turf growth and density.homeharvest. used throughout growing season Monitoring and Mapping Once weeds are identified.A logical sequence for incorporating long-term methods: Monitoring and Mapping Site Modifications – landscaping with mulches. See Chapter 3 for more information on monitoring and mapping. service areas and other locations where plants are not appropriate. and helping protect plants against extreme temperatures. adjusting sun exposure Targeted Watering and Fertilizing – systems installed before spring. This includes exposed soil in-between ornamental plants or trees. These products can be found at the local hardware store. All these things need to be considered when formulating your IPM plan. Targeted Fertilization The goal of targeted fertilization is to ensure that ornamentals are fertilized and weeds are not. In these areas.
Recent studies have shown that it exhibits antibacterial. Herbicidal soaps – usually a liquid concentrate. then turning brown as grass dries. accumulates on the soil where turfgrass is planted and prevents water from reaching grass roots. and insecticidal traits. and solely ornamentals. Also. in combination with leaf surfaces that remain wet for 6-8 hours. cloth or other material that’s wrapped around a tree trunk or other woody ornamental to protect it from physical damage. Garlic Oil – derived from garlic bulbs.e.CHAPTER 5 – PLANT DISEASE Both the turf and ornamental plants in a park can be susceptible to disease. Tarp Dragging – method of reducing the amount of moisture that’s collected on turf. exhibits very low toxicity to mammals. Low toxicity . stolons. The recurrence of a disease may indicate that long-term IPM methods are needed (See Chapter 8). Fungicidal soaps – usually a liquid concentrate. Augustine. amebicidal. to a lesser degree. Low toxicity . harbors insects and diseases. such as a state extension specialist. achieved by dragging a tarp across the surface of the grass leaves to absorb the excess moisture. grass clippings. some diseases may be difficult to diagnose from the descriptions. E X P L A N A T I O N O F T E R M S : Sunscald – occurs when a tree’s trunk is burned from exposure to the sun Solarization – process of placing thin sheets of clear plastic over turf for several weeks. and. sunscald. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 23 . hot. patches are a few inches to 3’ in diameter. All grasses are susceptible to attack. and Kentucky Bluegrass. and kills the pathogen that lies in the top 2” to 4” of the turf. rhizomes. Brown Patch will develop when weather is warm. contains the volatile oil alliin. Sunlight penetrates the tarp. Below. Should not be used near waterbodies. and blocks light penetration. bent grasses. killing both pests and beneficial insects . heats the soil to temperatures in the range of 100oF to 122oF. Word of caution: has a broadspectrum effect. Caused by a fungus that lives in the soil. Unbalanced soil fertility. Thatch – a mat-like layer made up of dead roots. consisting of sodium or potassium salts combined with fish or vegetable oil to control fungus. you will find descriptions of diseases that affect turf. Tree wrap – burlap. and humid. Effects St. Neem Oil – derived from the tropical neem tree. particularly high nitrogen levels. and may require the help of an expert. with temperatures above 85oF during the day and 60oF at night. antifungal. i. Primarily used as an insecticide. and excessively low mowing height exacerbate the disease. turf and ornamentals. consisting of sodium or potassium salts combined with fish or vegetable oil to control weeds. T BROWN PATCH U R F G R A S S D I S E A S E S Dark or water-soaked patches first appearing grayish black.
Apply only when grass is dry to prevent injury to grass. The dark green color results from the release of nitrogen produced by the decaying action of the fungi on dead organic matter in the soil. or fungicidal soap. Lesions on individual leaves are tan. and during weather with warm days and cool nights. about the size of a silver dollar on closely mown turf. Although solarization will kill most lawn pathogens. Remove thatch (Chapter 8) as it harbors the disease. FAIRY RINGS Fairy rings are patches. peat. used as a soil drench at a concentration of 150 to 200 ppm  See Appendix C for a list of possible suppliers. Overwinters in thatch.With proper management. Dig holes in the damaged turf and add a ¼” to ½” layer of composted tree bark or compost. and straddle the leaf blade. Fairy rings may or may not be accompanied by mushrooms. or even thatch. arcs. least toxic products include neem oil. Kentucky bluegrass. Collect grass clippings when mowing the turf to prevent thatch build up. there is not much that can be done. Remove thatch. spread hydrated lime (be sure to read the directions first) at rate of 10 lb per 1. DOLLAR SPOT Appears as light tan patches of dead leaf tissue. If it is peat. and sometimes lines of dark green. You can also dry grass by dragging a tarp across the grass surface. including buried wood. The fungi are not infecting the turf but instead are living on dead organic material in the soil or thatch. On taller cut turf the patches may appear as large as 3”-4” in diameter. ryegrass. At fist sign of the disease. which suppresses pathogens by preventing them from reproducing. Trichoderma is also found in aged compost or pulverized tree bark. valuable beneficial organisms will survive. The dark green color can be masked by applying a Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 24 . Supina bluegrass is more susceptible to the disease than Kentucky bluegrass or perennial ryegrass . The compost can also be added to solarized soil to compete with and destroy Brown Spot. All grass species and varieties are equally at risk. of grass to keep grass dry and reduce damage from Brown Spot.000 sq. although usually only the upper half of the leaf is affected. neem and garlic oil. Thrives in nutritionally deficient grasses. Does not usually require treatment. If the cause is a buried tree stump or other solid wood debris. lawn turf will generally tolerate or recover from the disease without significant damage. microorganisms such as Trichoderma will survive and be most effective at suppressing Brown Spot once the soil has been solarized. Solarization is another option. Repeat process in roughly 3-week intervals until disease is completely gone. For instance. ft. For control. and bermudagrass. remove the wood and replace with soil. Try solarization. Proper nitrogen fertilization will stimulate turf growth and the affected tissue can be mown. Using the soap as a drench spot treatment on discrete areas of damaged lawn and repeating applications every 4 –5 days may provide sufficient control. fast growing turf or occasionally dead turf. or another non-discrete source of organic matter. zoysia. fine-leaved fescue. These are caused by any one of a number of Basidiomylete fungi (mushrooms). hourglass-shaped. and garlic oil. Affects creeping bentgrass. tree stumps.
Centers of the spots may become light tan as the spots enlarge. if necessary. and remove and destroy infected grass clippings [3. Spring fertilization protects grass during spring infection season.8. and is associated with shallow rooted grass. Do not keep the turf overly moist nor should the turf be allowed to become drought stressed. This is a warm-weather disease that can occur from late June through early September – particularly in July and August. The disease primarily attacks Kentucky bluegrass when it is over-fertilized in the summer. resulting in dead circular patches of turf that often contain living turf or weeds in the center (called a frog-eye pattern). Symptoms usually appear first along sidewalks and in poorly drained areas. Reduce thatch to remove overwintering areas for the disease. which will ultimately help the turf recover. Increase the mowing height to provide more leaf tissue. Avoid working around infested grass when wet. Fusarium Blight attacks Kentucky bluegrass when the turf is over fertilized. for example. which is highly vulnerable to drought stress. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 25 . Grass roots and crowns are rotted. Raise the mowing height in summer.16]. (DRECHSLERA) MELTING OUT OR LEAF SPOT Early symptoms of melting out appear as small dark purple or black leaf spots occurring primarily during cool weather in spring and fall. If turf has died. Cool. Usually appears after a week or two of dry weather following a heavy rain. This is a warm-weather disease that can occur from late June through early September. and aerate the turf. along sidewalks and in poorly drained areas. Provide balanced nutrition to the affected area.12]. remove clippings that may be diseased. NECROTIC RING SPOT This disease leaves dead spots that appear suddenly. High nitrogen and low calcium levels in the soil favor the disease. moist weather promotes infection of grass roots and crowns. Symptoms usually appear first in areas of lawn under stress. Generally the disease is so minimal it goes unnoticed. Can be found on nearly all turf types throughout the year. Maintain lawn health. See Chapter 8 on how to fertilize turf properly. The disease usually appears after a week or two of dry weather following a heavy rain. It is caused by a fungus that rots the roots and crowns of susceptible grasses. overseed (Chapter 8) with perennial ryegrass or tolerant cultivars of Kentucky bluegrass [8. remove thatch. and adjust fertilizer to address nutrient deficiencies (Chapter 8). and is associated with shallow rooted grass.nitrogen source to the local area or. Occasionally it may become severe and turf loss may result. Similar symptoms can occur in summer when temperatures exceed 85oF. Avoid fertilizing in late spring or early summer. the entire turf . then tan and yellow. Plant disease-resistant grasses (check with your local extension office for a list). Rake out dead grass and replace with Fusarium resistant cultivars (check with your local extension office for a list) . Kentucky bluegrass is primarily susceptible. FUSARIUM BLIGHT This disease appears as 2” to 6” diameter patches that turn red-brown. which is highly vulnerable to drought stress. Keep the turf on a well-balanced fertilization and irrigation program.
reduce thatch.16]. COTTONY BLIGHT This disease causes circular spots of dark green grass growing together to form large. Do not work on turf while leaves are still wet. stabilized manure or slow-release ammonium based fertilizers in affected areas during the late fall and early spring. or a fungicidal soap . Fill in any low spots in the lawn where water collects. nighttime temperatures are above 68oF. RUST Rust is easily identified by orange spore-bearing pustules on the surface of leaves. in humid areas. to reduce moisture build up on plants [8. Mow often to remove infected leaves. RED THREAD (PINK PATCH) Fungus that appears as red threads extending from the grass blades. apply organic fertilizers with nitrogen in fast-releasing form. Water early in the day. GREASE SPOT. Proper nitrogen fertilization. and irrigation will help manage most infections until the disease disappears due to changes in the weather. Overwinters in thatch. irregular clusters. and. May appear at any time of the growing season. Active in warm. Threads are elongated. particularly when grass is slow growing and the weather is cool to warm and humid . particularly around rivers. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 26 . wet weather when day temperatures exceed 85oF. wet weather. Ensure proper drainage. Spray or dust susceptible plants with sulfur as needed. paying particular attention to nitrogen levels. Remove thatch. but is most common on Kentucky bluegrass during autumn. All common turf grasses are susceptible. Avoid applications of highly soluble nitrogen fertilizers just prior to or during warm weather. mowing. if necessary apply neem oil. Grass is often affected in light tan to pinkish patches. and ponds.PYTHIUM BLIGHT. primarily in the spring. Disease thrives in soils with calcium deficiency or excessive alkalinity. Substitute Kentucky blue grass with disease-resistant cultivars. Red thread occurs primarily on under-fertilized fine fescues during cool. Maintain balanced fertility. Apply moderate amounts of compost.12. antler-like masses of red fungal tissue extruding from the tips of infected turf plants. and relative humidity is close to 100%. Aerate. Avoid excessive applications of highly soluble nitrate fertilizers because this generates frequent flushes of lush. Will develop in cool to warm weather. As the disease ages the orange pustules turn brown. When nitrogen is low. becoming brittle and turning dark red. lakes. Rust diseases occur most frequently on slow-growing turf. usually 2”-12” in diameter. Remove and destroy infected leaves to slow spread of disease. Provide good air circulation by pruning nearby trees and shrubs. Irrigate infrequently and deeply during warm weather. Fungus later dries. Rust diseases rarely kill turf but are unsightly and can predispose the turf to environmental stresses. high traffic areas are particularly vulnerable. weak growth that are very susceptible to Rust. Grasses in poorly drained. Infected turf areas have a yellow to orange tinge and the orange spores can coat clothing as pedestrians walk through affected areas.
Sometimes forms papery black layer that can be peeled away from the leaf. which is highly vulnerable to drought stress. Particularly destructive to Kentucky bluegrass. Water infrequently and deeply . Leaf blades and crown may be affected. Typically appears in the fall. Usually appears after a week or two of dry weather following a heavy rain and is associated with shallow rooted grass. Turns grass plants pale green. Maintain a healthy lawn. or mowing and raking at any time . Usually occurs during the cool weather of spring and fall. however. Fertilize with slow-release organic products.SLIME MOLD Slime Mold is rarely a serious problem. SOOTY MOLD This fungus appears as a dark gray to sooty black layer covering the surface of grass leaves. Ensure proper drainage. Rinse sticky leaves with water to reduce honeydew before molds can grow. or in soil. coating the grass with what looks like cigarette ash on the surface of the grass blades. Primarily attacks and Kentucky bluegrass when it’s over-fertilized during the summer. Spores can be easily removed from grass by rinsing with water during dry weather. or under humid conditions. Summer patch is a warm-weather disease that occurs from late June through early September. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 27 . Infected areas may vary from a few inches to a few feet across. STRIPE SMUT Fungus that appears on grasses as yellow or brown spots with black or dark longitudinal stripes on the blades. Stripes will eventually burst. or brown. Mold spores suddenly appear on turf during warm weather or following heavy rains. Replace or overseed with resistant Kentucky bluegrass varieties . Rinse off infected leaves with stream of water . SUMMER PATCH Fungus forming 2” circular spots of dead and dying grass that often enlarge to 24” in diameter. it can cover and disfigure it. Control sucking-insects such as aphids and whiteflies to reduce honeydew (Chapter 7). and can be readily wiped off to show healthy green leaf surface underneath. Spots start out as dark blue to purple wilted turf and turn straw-colored to light tan when dead. Grass in the center of each spot may remain healthy and become surrounded by a band of dead turf (called Frog Eye). Mow frequently and remove clippings. releasing powdery spores. in thatch. Does not harm grass. Symptoms usually appear first along sidewalks and in poorly drained areas. Infected blades eventually dry out and die. yellow. Results in poor growth or collapse of the plant. Fungus overwinters in infected plants.
Remove thatch to reduce overwintering sites for the fungus. flowers. dry climates because the spores do not require a film of water on the leaf to germinate. Brown or blackened damaged areas are visible on crowns or roots. Avoid mulching with straw. lightly fertilize in early fall. Wash leaves of infected plants with water every 1-2 weeks to remove spores. when applicable. Avoid excessive applications of highly soluble nitrate fertilizer because it generates frequent flushes of lush. Occurs throughout the growing season but is most typically seen on Kentucky bluegrass in moderate to severely shaded conditions. Slow spread of the disease by removing and destroying infected leaves.5% solution of Baking Soda (1 teaspoon to 1 quart water). Initially develops in the absence of light brought about by snow cover. stabilized manure or slow-release ammonium based fertilizers in late fall and early spring. or fungicidal soap for control . More commonly found on turf surfaces.TYPHULA BLIGHT. and can easily be scraped off. The fungus oversummers on infected leaves. though other ornamental plants may be affected. Use mulches to suppress weeds. save moderately affected plants by pruning away diseased roots Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 28 . If feasible. garlic oil. Use snow barriers. plant in well-drained soils. appearing as small patches of white or gray on grass blades. T U R F A N D O R N A M E N T A L D I S E A S E POWDERY MILDEW Powdery Mildew is a fungus mostly affecting turf. Occurs when the ground is unfrozen. ROOT ROT These soil-borne fungi cause leaves to be smaller than usual and cause plants or turf to wilt and turn yellow or brown. fruit. Plant or overseed with disease resistant grasses. and apply neem oil. Plants begin to decline gradually or quickly for no apparent reason. Presence on trees is denoted by white mats of fungi and dark brown fungal strands found on the roots or growing between the bark and wood. and avoid over-watering. May be successful applying a spray of . Thrives in warm. Use moderate applications of compost. weak growth that is very susceptible to attack (also susceptible to black spot and rust). Spreads rapidly to become patches of white that will eventually cover the entire surface of leaves. Refrain from cultivating close to roots. particularly on the edges of spots right after the snow melts. Ensure water does not pool around plant base. gray to brown spots 3” to 2’ in diameter which appear as snow melts. and. and the temperature is between 32oF and 40oF. Remove and destroy badly infected plants. and plant with soil line slightly higher than surrounding soil level and slope soil away from trunk. gray-white fungi are visible. Substitute Kentucky blue grass with disease-resistant cultivars of grass. Apply lime to dry soil or drag a tarp to control moisture [8.12]. Reduce thatch by aerating and then top dress with compost. and enrich soil with compost. Increase air circulation by pruning nearby trees and shrubs. soil moisture is plentiful. Fuzzy. It is not present on most athletic fields but is often found near bleachers and buildings. Transplant plants when warm. which causes injuries and allows for disease. GREY SNOW MOLD Fungus that causes patches of circular. shoots. Use solarization to kill the fungus. be sure to wash undersides as well.
with light specks and dark bands on developing needles. Usually found on the lower two thirds of young trees. Seal wounds left from pruning with pruning sealer. maple. poplar. often with raised ring of callus tissue around it. Disinfect tools used on or around infected plants. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 29 . Area becomes brownish and sunken. Plant growth may be slowed. plum. spray at 2-week intervals with Bordeaux mix or copper when new shoots are one-quarter grown .and replanting in well-drained soil. bark dries and separates from underlying wood and the healthy bark. Dead tissue may exude sap that flows down the trunk. Needles turn olive green. Do not perform any unnecessary pruning. however. especially arborvitae. Leaves in the upper portions of tree wilt and turn yellow or brown. usually dying from tip first. Cankers on large branches and trunks first appear as a circular area of dying bark. remove cankerous tissue and prune away and burn infected branches. before fungus produces spores. Where infections are severe. Appears as mottled orange or brown spots. Symptoms are most pronounced in late spring and early summer. NEEDLECAST This fungus affects evergreens. in areas with good air circulation. Plant tree species that are hardy. carefully dig trench 3-4 feet deep between infected and healthy trees to sever root contacts. and western red cedar. Spreads rapidly in red and black oaks. and willow. pine. OAK WILT Oak Wilt fungus affects all oaks. Prune trees only when dormant to prevent fungi from getting into the wood. Bark of killed trees is raised and cracked by mats of fungus growing between bark and wood. Prune damaged needle tips and rake up and destroy dropped needles. Immediately backfill trench so roots do not dry out . Cankers grow each year becoming large. Severely infected young trees may die. and branch tips may die back. White oaks can survive 1-2 years. leaves die from the tip and edges inward. Remove and destroy fungus in infected trees immediately. Maintain tree health by protecting it from sunscald and do not fertilize tree late in season. Infected branches often break from the weight of fruit or a windstorm. red and black are most susceptible. Avoid mechanical damage to trees . Later. Twigs and branches die once cankers completely girdle them. Perform soil solarization before planting may be effective in controlling root rot . Severely affected needles drop by midsummer. and may kill tree(s) within weeks. To save nearby trees. O CANKER R N A M E N T A L D I S E A S E Fungal disease affecting more than 70 species of woody plants – particularly apple. spruce. as the disease can spread underground. Seal wounds left from pruning with pruning sealer. rough swellings. During dry weather. and maintain health.
Fermenting. Solarize soil around the location of the infected plant(s). First year damage is mild. Avoid injuring bark. but worsens in succeeding years as disease builds up. Replace severely infected trees . turn yellow. Branches may die one by one. turn yellow. Leaves on young trees may wilt. and drop leaves – although stems will remain upright. you’ll often see a light brown or yellow discoloration extending upward from the base of the stem. especially elm. Remove and destroy infected plants. Apply mulch to the soil to keep it cool during summer months.SLIME FLUX Woody plants are susceptible to this bacterial disease. Wood around the wound becomes dark brown and water-soaked. oozes from wounds or cracks in the bark of a branch. Usually appears on lower branches first. and poplar trees. symptoms are usually seen in spring and summer or after wet weather. Clean out and trim edges of bark wounds with a sharp knife immediately and seal with pruning sealer to promote healing. Use white trunk paint or a tree wrap (be sure to remove as tree grows too big) on young trees to prevent sunscald and injury. Clean tools afterward with 10% bleach solution. and drop prematurely. If you cut infected stems open. maple. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 30 . trunk. dark-colored slimy sap. Rotate plants . General decline in the health of the tree. Affects many woody and herbaceous plants. Often associated with wet soils and mechanical or frost injury to bark or roots. Appears in trees more than 5 years old after heartwood has formed. Branches on older trees die back slowly. Flowing sap dries to a light gray or white stain on the bark. Prune away affected limbs and seal. as yellow patches on older leaves. or fork of a limb. or the whole plant may collapse suddenly. VERTICILLIUM WILT A fungus that causes plants to gradually wilt. Maintain plant health. which may have foul smell.
) of ponds to prevent easy movement in and out of the water. or Canadian. so check local regulations before attempting control. and some methods to control them. Pay attention to droppings under openings. flying mammals with a thin membrane of skin that stretches between the front and back legs. Products such as the Goosebuster noise deterrent (http://www. or damaged eaves.html) and Goose D-Fence at ( http://www. Feathers are grayish to dark brown. CANADA GEESE Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 31 . look for entry and exit points: loose flashing. and the lack of turf can contribute to bank erosion. In buildings.CHAPTER 6 – NUISANCE WILDLIFE Wildlife is generally an asset of park districts. BATS Bats are small. as it provides habitat for their predators. black. and any odors. and trees. and feet are also black. as many people enjoy seeing and experiencing the many different animals they may encounter during a park visit.birdx. legs. Canada. Geese prefer water bodies where they can easily get in and out of the water and banks that have short turf and grasses they can feed on. in certain circumstances. However. Screen or seal openings that are 3/8” or larger. around detention ponds. Bats are heavily protected by most state governments. Alter the edge or shore profiles (using shoring rocks. federal.com/) are available. some animals may prove to be a nuisance to park management or even park goers themselves. smudges around holes.com/gbuster. as they eat insects. etc. Bill. and hide in dark areas such as building awnings. Feathers and droppings on shore from geese are often aesthetically displeasing. and hollow trees. Roosting on banks and feeding on grass also contributes to poor turf health. Below is a list of wildlife that can possibly become a nuisance. caves. Geese are protected by state. Consult government regulations before attempting control. bushes. Check inside chimneys and vents. shingles. They are not active in bright daylight. Maintain at least a 10’ foot wide buffer of native grasses. Bats can enter areas through holes as small as 3/8”. Bats are beneficial. High grass deters geese. Avoid searching in June/July as they’re raising young. including mosquitoes. making sure no bats are present beforehand.lakerestoration. with white feathers on the belly. but may not be appropriate for park use. Discourage people from feeding the geese. look for droppings (will contain insect body parts: wings. bang walls to listen for screeching. Look inside attics and unused rooms during daylight for the bat roost. Some golf courses have had good control results using a border collie to harass geese and prevent them from congregating. etc). geese have black necks and heads with a prominent white cheek patch. and smell – droppings and urine are very odorous. and international laws.
using combinations to repel them through use of all their senses. frogs. timed sprinklers. Check tree trunks near ground surface for damage. The average size is 120 lbs. but excavate the soil. brown ground-dwelling mammal. Chipmunks eat both plant and animal material.. Use taste repellents such as small amounts of garlic oil to help protect trees. fruits. Make pouches of old nylons or cloth and fill with blood meal. Have short. They burrow. discontinue use. Tree bark can be damaged by antlers. including seeds. Seeds and nuts shouldn’t be used because it will attract ground-dwelling birds. Install deterrent plants: flowering herbs such as lavender. The key is to disrupt their feeding tendencies before they become an established habit. borage. If using repellants. rats. WHITE-TAILED DEER Females (does) are tan. fennel. including thyme. and fences strung from monofilament are good deterrents. Motion light. Increase the number of devices if deer feeding persists. Spend most of their time in burrows. If pouches attract coyotes. worms. and 38” tall. Place bird feeders at least 15-30 feet away from building. Rotate deterrents before deer get used to them. sunflowers. Most active during the early morning and late afternoon. cats. logs. May damage trees by feeding on the bark. and/or brown with a white muzzle and throat. and dill may also work. Scented soaps hung from tree limbs (make sure to include hot pepper in soap to prevent rodents from chewing bark soaked with soap) may work to prevent feeding on bark. flower bulbs. dogs. nuts. and songbirds. and apple slices placed near den entrances. insects. Use caution in handling and releasing. pointy heads marked with black and white stripes down the back.CHIPMUNKS Small. and debris that may be close to a structure. white underneath. Heavily scented herbs. bacon. Feeding may cause damage to ornamental plants and trees. set them out before deer establish regular feeding habits. Both male and female tails are brown on top. cans/metal that will make noise. During winter months. seedlings. mint. Garlic scent dispensers will repel deer when the pressure is low to moderate. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 32 . so tunnel entrances are well concealed. Check with the public works department or Department of Natural Resources before trapping. To trap. Seal entrance points and remove objects such as stones. typically 5”-6” long. yarrow and other plants with thorns and spines that discourage feeding. oats.. Chipmunks favor areas with stonewalls or rotting logs and heavy ground cover. use rat traps baited with peanut butter. cinnamon. The average size is 160 lbs. 40” tall. Remove debris piles that may provide harborage. Males (bucks) have patches of colored fur on their stomachs and their antlers are single beam with multiple tines. oregano. Relocate trapped chipmunk into remote forest at least 5 miles from trap site. they will go underground and stay inactive.
about 4” to 5 ½” in length. and streams. but some have grown up to 30”. aquatic rodents that make their homes near lakes. grains. Trap muskrats using a live trap baited with fresh vegetables. or the vegetation that they feed on. Relocate at least 10 miles from trapping location. or melon rind placed in bait boxes. rivers. crayfish. their tunneling may contribute to shore erosion. and the length of gestation is roughly a month. As muskrats establish their dens near water bodies. or seeds. Fill in unoccupied dens to prevent muskrats migrating to the location. Control muskrat feeding by spraying plants with garlic or hot pepper oil. and a brown tail. 13]. install 8’ fence with netting. They are mostly vegetarians. with black stripes on both sides of its body. Use solid fencing that deer can’t see through. but need some cover to survive. barley. mussels and fish. GROUND SQUIRRELS Brown to gray rodent. oats. especially along roads and ditch banks. salamanders. newts. Rarely needs control. May cause structural damage to buildings. nuts. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 33 . and nuts. They readily eat any healthy plants such as cattail or horsetail. as over application will burn the plant. The average size is 18” to 24” long. or after a rainstorm. Apply sparingly.) Monitor these areas for their activity. Alter the habitat by reducing the areas that provide them with shelter (brush piles. Be sure to reapply every two weeks. gray fur on its underside. Active during the day.For high deer pressure in areas where damage is substantial. The Illinois DNR regulates wildlife trapping. otherwise make fence at least 8’ tall [12. Electric fencing can also be used. No permit is required from the Department of Natural Resources (DNR) for trapping. feeding on grasses. tree stumps. For live trapping. MUSKRATS Muskrats are small. large rocks. Usually found in open areas. Can have extensive burrows with large mounds. debris. but will also feed on frogs. Ground squirrels are primarily vegetarians. and bank erosion. Muskrats can have up to 6 litters per season. etc. and their feeding may cause damage to nearby gardens or landscaping plants. use rat traps baited with peanut butter. and you will need a permit beforehand. hibernate in winter.
Pay close attention. bird feeders. and crawlspaces. Use welded wire to prevent access under decks. Treat lawn for grub control. concrete slabs and porches. and fresh fish. Most active at night. fresh fish. Cap chimneys and seal attics. Place lighting in or near den during the day for at least one-week. and you will need a permit beforehand. chimneys. Best baits: Apple slices. Protect gardens through fencing. or sardines. and you will need a permit beforehand. storm sewers. that animals have left the building before you seal it up. watering dishes. and swamps. about the size of a cat. elevated sheds. Best baits: chicken parts/entrails. attics. Commonly found along streams. Remove possible den areas: lowhanging bush. Place rags soaked in ammonia in den for one-week. examine after dark. dead trees. Remove outside food. If encountered use extreme caution. brown. Repair breaks in foundation. rock crevices. screen outside windows that are low to the ground with hardware cloth. chicken parts/entrails. Once raccoon is trapped. weighing up to 14 lbs. May knock over garbage cans and tear apart garbage bags in search of food. Prefers to live near streams or swamps. The Illinois DNR regulates wildlife trapping. and keep lids on garbage cans using bungee straps. and white ringed bushy tail. set out at night. and garbage cans. it must be put down or released within a 100 yds of where it was caught. particularly in spring/summer when young are present. (Both skunks and raccoons feed on grubs). as raccoons are carriers of rabies.OPOSSUM White to gray. Live trapping – set multiple traps. RACCOON Black facemask. seal the opening immediately. etc. logs. and black. Place a radio in or near den during the day for one week to disturb them and encourage them to move on. lakes. corn. Den located inside hollow trees. If animal is currently living under building. Feet are well adapted to climbing. with a pointed face with rounded. Prevent cans from being knocked over by storing them in a garbage corral. deserted buildings. Cover window wells securely. seal all openings but one and sprinkle tracking powder (flour or talc) at entrance. Secure outside access to crawl spaces. hairless ears. The Illinois DNR regulates wildlife trapping. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 34 . culverts. if tracking powder reveals that animal has left. Approximately 40” long.
fresh fish. frogs. bird feeders. Active at night. Remove possible den areas: lowhanging shrubbery etc. and mow grass short to expose their runs. Keep light on for at least one week.SKUNKS Black with white stripes or spots. Secure outside access to crawl spaces. skunks are likely feeding on grubs and it should be treated. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 35 . and damaged vents – make necessary repairs to prevent their access. Another option is to place rags soaked in ammonia in den for one week. If you’ve trapped a skunk. concrete slabs and porches. Prevent cans from being knocked over by storing them in a garbage corral. Snakes often enter buildings through broken foundations. Keep shrubbery away from foundations. woodpiles. Their diet includes insects. The Illinois DNR regulates wildlife trapping. Protect gardens through fencing. cat food. size of an average cat. and lawn insects. eliminate snake hiding places such as brush piles. garbage. cracked mortar. To trap. If control is necessary. Cover window wells securely. Place lighting in or near den during the day. elevated sheds. Use welded wire to prevent access under decks. rodents. cover all but entrance of trap with burlap or canvas before placing it (use commercially sold solid-skunk traps). and garbage cans. harmless. will feed on garden crops. and beneficial. Skunks feed on grubs. eliminate rodent problems by reducing food and harborage. SNAKES Most snakes are non-poisonous. worms. birds. Once skunk is trapped. it must be put down or released within a 100 yds of where it was caught. To release. sardines. Remove outside food and water dishes. When natural selections for food are sparse. and keep lids on garbage cans using bungee straps. If that doesn’t work. Will spray with musk if they feel threatened. If turf is being torn up. approach the trap slowly and transport gently. or toads. and you will need a permit beforehand. or eggs. place a radio in or near den during the day for one week to disturb them and encourage them to move on. Best baits for live trapping are chicken parts/entrails. stand back 20 feet and release door using string. and rock. May transmit rabies.
Squirrel can be re-released after receiving the landowner’s permission. The Illinois DNR regulates wildlife trapping. and you will need a permit beforehand. It is 15” long and weighs about 1 lb. Identify entry point. Spread the opening. seal with heavy gauge ½” hardware cloth or sheet metal. Tree squirrels are rarely a problem unless they gain access to buildings. To prevent access via utility lines. cut length of 2”-3” diameter plastic piping lengthwise. placing the pipe around the line. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 36 . Squirrel will fall off piping. where they may den in attics or overhangs.TREE SQUIRRELS The average tree squirrel is gray. with a large fluffy tail and paws typical of the rodent family. Use a rat trap for control.
mint. Females can give birth continuously to live nymphs without mating. quassia. hatching in spring. Attract native predators and parasites by planting pollen and nectar plants. Nematodes – parasitic worms. Use insecticidal soap or ultrafine horticultural oil to control . Horticultural Oils – oils made from vegetables. but lacking fully developed features. Garlic and Pepper Sprays – oil made from steam distillation of crushed garlic bulb or hot peppers. clove. Feeding can spread viral diseases. Prolegs – front pair of legs on a multi-legged insect Pitch at the buds Pupae – intermediate insect stage before becoming an adult. Broad spectrum insecticide that kills both pests and beneficial insects. Homemade garlic. pink. May or may not have wings. and flower distortion. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 37 . Nymphs resemble adults. T APHIDS R E E S Feeding causes leaf. fenugreek.CHAPTER 7 – INSECTS E X P L A N A T I O N O F T E R M S : Btk – a bacterial species that causes disease and death in caterpillars. dusty gray. Degree Day – the mean daily outdoor temperature. often characterized by insect appearing like a worm. or tomato-leaf sprays may work to repel Aphids. Lady bugs are natural predators and can be purchased from garden suppliers (Appendix C) and released into problem areas. usually resembling the adult. Spray small plants frequently with a strong stream of water to knock aphids off. Eggs over winter on woody stems. or white with a fluffy coating. Insecticidal soaps – sodium or potassium salts combined with fish or vegetable oil and formulated to dehydrate the insect. bodies are green. crawling insects. Have long antennae. black. Nymphs – the larval form of an insect. bud. severely infested leaves and flowers will drop. Broad spectrum insecticide that kills both pests and beneficial insects. Adults are pear-shaped 1/32” to 1/8” insects with 2 short tubes projecting backward from the abdomen. basil. Diatomaceous Earth – a fine-grained and porous dust composed of the skeletons of diatoms (onecelled marine organisms with skeletons based on silicon) that can be used for controlling many pests. Crawlers – small. cumin. Phenology – the study of reoccurring biological phases and the interaction of phases between (Some Definitions Adapted From: Common Sense Pest Control) species. or eucalyptus.
Destroy pruned branches and leaves immediately by burning or small chipping or grinding. slug-like.BAG WORM Damaged needles turn brown and may persist on the tree for some time. Repair limb injuries by cutting back just to the Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 38 . Larvae hatch and pupate in the soil. and watering during drought. Control by physical removal at night. elms. Handpick cases or use Btk. and limbs may die or break off due to tunneling (or boring) in the inner bark. buckeyes and other shade trees. BLACK VINE WEEVIL Plants wilt. often damaging broad and narrow leaved evergreen trees and shrubs.11.11]. legless and blind. Beetles can also carry pathogens – Dutch elm disease for example – that can kill trees. reapplying after precipitation [10. and kill plants by destroying feeder roots and girdling stems. BORERS Signs of borers include small holes in trunks or branches. Apply diatomaceous earth during dry conditions. maples.12]. Females are wingless. except large veins. Larvae feed on roots and adults chew on leaves. Adults feed at night. Larvae feed on plant roots or lower stems. Promote tree vigor by keeping it healthy. Larvae are dark brown. especially yews and broadleaf evergreens such as rhododendrons and euonymus. seal holes with putty. Larvae tunnel into the roots. mulching. Keep plants healthy with proper pruning. Use pheromone traps to catch males. Eggs are laid in cases. and can destroy the entire root ball. Adults are oblong. Avoid wounding bark. When infestations are heavy. large numbers of brown cases hang from twigs and branches. ¾” . and feed on roots. Larvae are white grubs with yellowish heads up to ½” in length. despite the presence of moisture in the soil. Lay small white eggs in the soil. Adults feed on the foliage of numerous plants. forming holes around leaf margins or devouring entire leaves. Probe into caterpillar borer holes with a flexible wire or inject parasitic nematodes. white pine. and spend their life inside twig or leaf-covered case. Larvae pupate in September. Prune off infested branches and seal. Use caution when using a lawn mower or weed trimmer around trunks of woody plants. but also feed on spruce. Males are black. Bag Worms feed primarily on arborvitae trees. or by adding nematodes to the soil. Extensive tunneling can overwhelm a tree’s defenses and kill it directly. juniper.1” caterpillars with white or yellow heads. After treatment. about 1/3” long with brownish-black spots on abdomen. clear-winged moths with a 1” wingspan. Eggs are light tan and laid inside case. Attract native parasites with pollen and nectar bearing plants [10.
10]. unless there is a severe infestation. and other pines. Remove infested limbs from trees. Black cherry. Eggs are laid on twigs in masses and are covered with a hardened foamy layer. BOX ELDER Feeding can cause deformities in flowers. You can also plant less susceptible birch varieties [8. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 39 . Larvae feed voraciously for a month or so. contact a USDA representative. Occasionally infests other shade or fruit trees. crab apple and apple trees. Larvae hatch in the spring into caterpillar-like larvae and appear gray with dark green stripes. Adults are yellowish tan to brown moths with 2 narrow. Females lay eggs in crevices on foliage or seed pods. EUROPEAN PINE SAWFLY Larvae feed on the needles of Scotch. Mugo. diagonal stripes across wings. Damage is not usually serious. the Asian long Horned Beetle) are the subjects of quarantine and eradication requirements through the USDA. Note: Some recently introduced wood-boring beetles (for example. leaves. Larvae are black. and pupate in late summer. Adults are ½” bugs with charcoal-colored wings and red veins. Ensure proper caulking and weather sealing to prevent them from entering buildings. EASTERN TENT CATERPILLAR Feeds on plants in the rose family. Eggs hatch in 2 weeks. later marked with black. They are different than caterpillars as they have large black heads and six or more pairs of prolegs. In late spring they form a cocoon beneath a tree. Adult females overwinter in buildings or sheltered areas . Eggs are dark and shiny. Nymphs are bright red. May also become a structural pest. If you believe you’ve found a beetle of this type. Swarms of congregating adults that are preparing for hibernation may be a nuisance. Clean under tree to remove cocoons. or fruit of boxelder. Wasp-like adults emerge in the fall. then consuming it entirely. brownish blue or red marks along the sides. Their feeding can defoliate entire branch or tree. and maple trees. first eating only the outer portion of the needle. Control is not typically necessary. and dead or dying trees quickly. Pine oil compounds have been found effective in repelling bark beetles. shoots. and consume leaves from edges inward. 2”-2 ½ ” caterpillars with a white stripe along the back and irregular. Nymphs feed on foliage until molting to adults in July.outer edge of the shoulder ring of the limb. hairy. Do not seriously harm healthy trees. ash. Hawthorn. Caterpillars spin tents of silk webbing in branch crotches of trees.
then pupate for several weeks. causing stunted growth or leaf loss. Prune out caterpillar tents when possible [10. Adults emerge in July to early August. darker. only the late summer/fall generation occurs. white 1” moths with heavy bodies. Larvae feed on leaves of many trees and shrubs. FALL WEBWORM Caterpillars that spin webs around masses of leaves. and disposing of them. preferably in winter when tents are easier to see.16]. GYPSY MOTH Heavy infestations can defoliate trees. Larvae feed in trees until July. Females crawl to nearby trees or other objects to deposit egg masses that are laid under a fuzzy yellow-brown covering. Eggs over winter on tree trunks and hatch in May. as a local control program may already be in place. Remove cocoons by picking. Apply Btk on foliage when larvae are feeding. In southern areas of Illinois. If you’re protecting small amount of trees. including conifers. there will be two generations per year – one in late spring and one in late summer/early fall. Neem oil is also registered for control. If this occurs repeatedly. Adult females are nonflying. strong fliers. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 40 . Report Gypsy Moth sightings to the proper authorities. Bands should be scraped off daily to maintain their effectiveness. Mature larvae are up to 2 ½ ” gray-brown caterpillars with 5 pairs of blue dots and 6 pairs of red dots on back. Attract native parasitic flies and wasps by growing small-flowered herbs. Apply Btk. Monitor daily to make sure that band is still around tree and hasn’t been disturbed. Other options include shaking off larvae. deciduous trees can be killed.Prune infested branches and burn them. and long hairs in tufts on body. sweeping them up. A single defoliation will kill conifers. In northern Illinois. or remove tents. wrap a burlap band around the tree to trap the gypsy moth as they crawl down the trunk at night. Males are smaller.
severing them or completely consuming small seedlings. Monitor adults with sticky traps available from hardware and garden stores. Suspect cutworms when seedlings have been cut off near the ground. dig around base of damaged transplants in the morning and destroy larvae hiding below soil surface by removing thatch [10. which can destroy patches of turf. The eggs are about 1/100” long and laid in clusters. Adults are brown or gray moths. Adults emerge late August to early September. and lay eggs on grass or soil surface from early May to early June. Cutworms are surface feeding insects. They’re generally associated with organic food sources. add nematodes to soil. cardboard. Gnats have been implicated in spreading spores of soil pathogens such as. Verify by searching just below soil surface debris in concentric circles around cut stems. Fusarium. and Pythium. Many species of cutworms have multiple generations per year. slimly-looking caterpillars 1”-2” in length. eliminate wet areas on floors. Collars of paper. sooty gray or black.16]. then pupate in soil. Gnats are small (1/8” to 1/10” in length). Plants attacked by gnats will lack vigor. and hide in thatch by day. Reduce access to garbage cans. For treatment. Their wings have a distinctive Y-shaped vein at the tip and their legs and antennae are long and delicate. Birds feeding extensively in a turf area may indicate a high population of cutworms and concentrated control efforts may be needed. may tunnel into plants or feed on foliage that’s close to the ground. or see Appendix C for list of additional sources. and collars should be pushed into soil until about half is below ground level.T CUTWORMS U R F A N D O R N A M E N T A L P L A N T S Feed on stems of vegetable and flower seedlings near the soil line. Search at night on plants. practice good sanitation and inspect incoming plant material for gnats. with shiny heads. or plastic should be placed around transplants at planting. Verticillium. They feed at night and damage the turf by cutting plants off at ground level. but will be mostly unaffected. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 41 . Larvae are fat. Larvae feed on grass and other plants for 3-5 weeks. FUNGUS GNATS Only larvae damage plants as they consume feeder roots and root hairs. long legged. flies. or by day when they lie curled up nearby in the mulch. The larvae are white with black heads and are about ¼” in length when full grown. reduce algal growth.
reddishbrown on top and yellow beneath. yellow. humid weather. On maples and other trees. but may become a problem for large fields. bee flies. Nymphs appear similar to adults. the damage can usually be tolerated without treatment. and sod. brown-to-orange eggs (glued together in masses) form a pod in uncultivated soil. The adults continue to feed until fall. Suck juices from stems and leaf undersides of most fruit and vegetable crops. The differential grasshoppers winter as eggs and do not appear as adults until summer. and other flowers. and eat any kind of vegetation.GRASSHOPPERS Grasshoppers are chewing insects that feed from the outer edges of leaves inward. Replace nasturtiums. Adults lay eggs in spring. and diseases. 1”-2” long with leathery forewings and enlarged hind legs. a single female will lay several egg pods containing from 15 to 120 eggs. usually 1” to 2” below the surface. Wash Leafhopper nymphs from plants with strong sprays of water. fencerows. dry weather favors grasshopper development. ground beetles. yellowish with brown and black markings and distinct chevron-like black markings on the hind legs. Some have brightly colored bands on wings. The nymphs shed their skins several times. Hot. Nymphs are pale. (killed by leafhopper-spread aster yellows) with new plants in mid-summer . Migratory and red-legged grasshoppers winter as eggs. Can spread disease as they feed. slender. marigolds. Spray plants with insecticidal soap or Neem oil for control. curled leaves with white spots on undersides. reaching maturity in 6 to 8 weeks. LEAFHOPPERS Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 42 . Potato Leaf Hoppers are green and wedged-shaped. birds. roadsides. A forward point above the head is very pronounced in some species. there are 2-5 generations a year. Among the more important ones are flesh flies. wingless. and can over winter as eggs or adults. but otherwise resemble the adults. Often not a problem for smaller areas. with red-tinged hind legs. rodents. Attract these natural controls by planting or allowing native plants to grow . During September and October. but otherwise similar to adults. flowers. Elongated. Grasshoppers have many natural enemies. Nymphs are wingless. adults are about 1/8” long. The eggs are deposited 1” to 2” below the soil surface in field margins. when they mate and the female lays eggs. and many have brightly colored underwings. blister beetles. diseases (bacteria and fungi) kill off many grasshoppers. hairworms. In wet. The adults of migratory and red-legged grasshoppers are about 1” long. Adults are wedge-shaped. which hatch from mid-May in southern Illinois to July in northern Illinois. and jump rapidly when disturbed. The differential grasshopper is 1 ½” to 1 ¾” long. ditch banks. 1/10” – ½” long insects. spiders. green or brown. Their toxic saliva distorts and stunts plants and causes tipburn and yellowed. Adults are brown. or green. and weeds.
but their larvae or pupae may be found in damaged buds and shoots. black sawfly about 1/10” long.15].LEAFMINERS Leafminers cause yellow spotting on leaves and premature leaf drop. Both have pupae that are dark brown and slightly smaller than their respective larvae. The small. and slightly over ¼” long when full grown. The mature larvae are about ¾” long . The mature larvae of the European pine shoot moth are about 5/8” long and have brownish bodies and black heads. and the adult is a small. Pitch at the buds and a few dead needles with webbing are the first indication of an infestation. In northern regions. The adult Boxwood Leafminer is a gnat-like fly. with similar characteristics to those described above. reddish. The mature larvae are pink to green. a bee-like insect. The mature larvae of the Nantucket pine tip moth are about 3/8” long and have yellowish bodies and brown heads. It has distinct black spots in the middle of the underside of the thorax and first abdominal segments. Consult a pest control technician if you believe the tree needs treatment. Birch Leafminer. Plants will also grow poorly and have sparse foliage. Injury caused to a bud or shoot by the European pine shoot moth is almost invariably the work of a single larva. subjecting it to possible disease and winterkill in colder areas. The larva or maggot is yellowish-white about 1/8” long. Repeated infestations can result in dead twigs and a weakened plant. and has a flattened body with three pairs of legs. The larva is whitish. Crooked stems called "post horns" result when a damaged shoot recovers. and hollow tunnels as they feed. winding. Mugo. feeding on leaf tissue and making round. somewhat flattened. There are several species of leafminer that may be encountered in Illinois. Larval feeding stunts or kills the twigs ("shepherd's crook") and causes deformed and bushy growth. The adult Hawthorn Leafminer is a sawfly. depending on the host. Eastern white pines are much less susceptible. adult European and Nantucket pine moths are not likely to be seen. The larva average about 1/5” in length when fully grown. The adult Oak Leafminer is a small moth. The damage of most leafminers can be tolerated without treatment. may require insecticidal treatment if the infestation is severe [10. Larvae tunnel within leaves of many vegetable crops and ornamentals. red and Austrian pines in northern Illinois. Larvae are usually about 1/10” long. The European Pine Shoot Moth is mainly a pest of Scotch. The adult Zimmerman pine moth is gray with a mottled forewing of red and gray. with black spots containing a single bristle. 1/10” in length and orange-yellow colored. PINE MOTHS Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 43 .
yellow or spotted. May fully encrust branch until it dies before moving on to another part of the plant. and shrubs. and greenhouses. ground covers. trees. gardens. wormlike animals. SNAILS AND SLUGS Eat tender plants or shrubs and may demolish seedlings. hemlock. black. creating large holes in annuals. Must be thoroughly applied to plant. It is Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 44 . laid in jellylike masses under stones or debris. and other conifers. while snails have coiled shells. tree should be pruned after larvae have hatched. to trap crawlers when they are active or by applying ultrafine horticultural oil. Pine Needle Scale – waxy covers of the scale appear as 1/8” long. another generation hatches in midsummer. Peroceras reticulatum. Dark red crawlers hatch and are present in midspring and midsummer. Use degree-days or phenology to determine when to scout and put out tape. perennials. SCALES Oystershell Scale – shells resemble an Oystershell. Adults are soft-bodied. white flecks on the needles of pine. If control is necessary. spruce. Slugs and snails feed on many plants in landscapes. Slugs have no shells. oval or round. May achieve control with plant spray oil to suffocate them. Eggs are clear. but before they are widespread . First generation hatches into gray crawlers in mid to late spring. In southern half of Illinois. as scale will not die unless completely covered. Typically infest only certain branches or part of a branch. gray. with sticky side out. tan. Both measure 1/8” – 2” in length and leave characteristic trails of mucus wherever they crawl. Lecanium Scale – scales turn brown and become brittle and helmet shaped. is commonly found in Illinois. green. crawlers emerge in late summer. The gray garden slug.Do not typically need control as they often do not cause widespread damage. Control scales by wrapping electrical tape around tree. bulbs. When eggs hatch.
the use of drip irrigation systems where water is directed toward individual plants may lead to fewer slugs. such as wooden boards. the effectiveness of these materials is reduced by rainfall. Try Slug out or other slug baits (See Garden’s Alive in Appendix C) [10. eggshells. boards. Slugs lay clusters of translucent. Check traps daily. Spacing plants far enough apart to allow air movement to dry the soil also reduces moisture. and wood ash have been used as barriers to prevent slugs from feeding on plants. Slug activity is highly dependent on soil moisture. In addition. Baits are available that attract slugs into traps where they then drown.approximately ¾”to 1 ½” long. these materials generally work best during dry periods when slugs are less active. to lavender. Slugs are active at night (nocturnal) when humidity is high from evening rains or irrigation. rolled-up newspapers. which means they have to be reapplied regularly after becoming wet. In addition. Diatomaceous earth. Slug management involves a combination of strategies such as hand picking. repelling them. which can harm children and pets. barriers. to purple. flowerbeds. Slugs receive a slight electric shock when their moist bodies contact the copper. Cultivating the soil around plants may reduce slug populations by destroying eggs. However. snakes. and commercial molluscicides. They can lay between 20 and 100 eggs several times per year. Natural enemies include Firefly larvae. Habitat modification is one of the most effective strategies in reducing slug populations. early in the morning and dispose of any slugs that are caught. and lizards. weeds. Plant a diversity of trees and shrubs. baits. ranging in color from pale yellow. lime. For heavy slug infestations another possibility is to employ some neighborhood children to collect slugs and kill them. Avoid using eggshells and lime as continued application will raise the pH of the soil and contribute to poor plant health. pearly-shaped eggs under debris or buried beneath the soil surface. Avoid watering late in the day as this creates moist conditions conducive to slug activity. Also. never pour salt on slugs as this may burn plant foliage and roots. grapefruit rinds. frogs. and debris. old vegetation. as they require moisture to move around. They can also be placed around flowerpots. Handpicking is especially effective during moist weather conditions. and ground covers. Copper barriers can be placed around the base of shrubs. Monitoring is important to determine the effectiveness of slug management strategies. However. Check for slugs at night. During this time. Traps. rocks. weeds. especially those not preferred by slugs such as rhododendron and hardleafed evergreens. 15]. plant debris. toads. traps. they are covered with black or brown spots and mottling. This involves eliminating hiding places such as mulches. In addition. widespread use of this method may not be feasible. Instead. water plants early in the morning. habitat modification. They hide during the day under mulch. handpicking can be performed to reduce slug populations. and trees that are being fed on. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 45 . shredded bark. copper bands have sharp edges. and inverted one-gallon plant containers can be placed where slugs are feeding. In addition.
with 8 legs and fine hairs on its body. In early summer they pupate into adults. One generation occurs every one to two years. Larvae over winter deep in the soil. webs may cover leaves and growing tips and punctures become brown and sunken. and fine hairs covering their body. The immature mites pass through three stages before becoming adults. long legs. B. The eggs of the two spotted spider mite are pearly white. oval-shaped. Adults feed on plants and lay eggs in the turf in late summer. Encourage parasitic wasps and flies by landscaping with native plants . milky spore disease. Later. emerge in early spring. Two to three years are required to allow the level of bacteria to increase among the grub population before significant control is obtained. allowing for a natural control of spidermites. A bacterial disease. pale green or yellow with two dark spots on its back which are composed of food contents. The two spotted spider mite is quite small (< 1/60”). However. The bacterium first infects a small percentage of the population and slowly kills the grubs. Neem oil and insecticidal soap can be used for control. they move toward the surface to feed on roots. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 46 . Can appear reddish. leaves are bronzed or turn yellow or white with brown edges. can be applied to areas prone to Japanese beetle infestation. Later they develop a fourth pair of legs. In the spring. In the meantime.SPIDER MITES Adults and nymphs suck juice from cells on leaf undersides of many food crops. Plants are weakened. popillae needs to be applied when the grubs are first noticed. JAPANESE GRUB/BEETLE Larvae cause dead spots throughout turf by feeding on roots of turf and ornamental plants. The bacterium. as this will prevent the bacteria from multiplying. avoiding frequent insecticide sprays helps conserve predatory mites. and on webbing on the foliage. leaves may drop and fruit may be stunted. Males are slightly smaller (1/80”) and slimmer than females with a pointed abdomen. Mites reproduce in many overlapping generations during the season. Adults are robust. Eggs hatch into larvae that live in the soil. dirty-white grubs with brown heads. Bacillus popillae (Milky Spore). ornamentals. possessing only 3 pairs of legs in the first stage. ½” beetles with bronze wing covers. other insecticides cannot be used to kill the grubs. Young mites resemble the adults except in size. Larvae are fat. up to ¾” long and are found in sod. Early damage appears as yellow-specked areas on leaf undersides. can be a viable control measure if properly used. circular. and fruit trees. Most spin fine webs. metallic blue-green. where mites have sucked the sap from plant parts. Eggs or adults over winter in bark crevices or garden debris.
the queen may move part of colony to new harborage. When populations are high. Dead bees. They are beneficial insects as they pollinate flowers of fruit. After the colony is dead. larval skins. White grubs are the larval stage of several beetle species. Occasionally a grub problem goes unnoticed until skunks tear up the turf. and wax caps from combs all attract beetles and moths. autumn and winter). Bees over winter clustered in hives. usually finding hollow trees. living on stored honey. A small amount of insecticide Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 47 . and ornamental plants. Larvae are white grubs located in wax combs in hives. Otherwise. Stored honey attracts other bees and wasps. which receives proper fertilization. grubs move downward in the soil to avoid being frozen. but occasionally finding wall voids. to feed on the grubs. O HONEY BEES T H E R N U I S A N C E I N S E C T S Adults are gold and black striped insects. Honey will also attract robber bees. Otherwise. As the soil warms. Trees and wall voids are common nesting areas. Bees swarm at this time. Do this by pulling back the sod or turf of the suspect areas or of patches of turf starting to show symptoms of stress. wasps. Count the number of grubs in each square foot area of soil within the root zone. August and the first week of September – before the grubs migrate downward deeply into the soil where they are out of range of treatments. Control beetle grubs during July. which should be 10-12 per square foot of turf. and mowing.WHITE GRUBS Grubs survive in soil and damage turf by feeding on the turf and ornamental plant roots. The life cycle of white grub beetles varies by species. In the summer. Severe grub infestations will allow the turf to be easily pulled from the soil. can withstand low to moderate levels of feeding much better than poorly maintained turf. Contact a local beekeeping association. Knowing the species of grub is important so that the proper control strategies can be used. it is very important to remove the nest. contact the public works department to determine control options. Healthy turf. irrigation. especially July and early August. grubs migrate upwards and actively feed on turfgrass roots. Dead bees will attract carpet beetles. ¾” long with translucent wings. vegetable. wax combs will melt and allow honey to flow down through walls. Do not attempt wasp or bee control without proper protective equipment. Check for damage throughout the summer. Honey stains cannot be removed. and moths that may persist for several years. Honeybees can chew through dry wall and fly inside. One important thing to understand is when the soil is cold (early spring. Many beekeepers will remove the bees to a commercial hive for a nominal fee. Locate and have the nest destroyed. Check with the Illinois extension office for control options specific to the species of grub that needs control . often at night. survey the soil to determine if grubs exceed threshold levels.
In food service areas. garbage areas. pet waste). and may have yellow sides. Install air curtains or fans at serving windows and entrances. etc. Drain wet areas around garbage collection sites. . outhouses/bathrooms. Keep cracks and crevices caulked and sealed to avoid nests in the walls . Look for manure. snack bars. metallic green or bronze. keep garbage collection dumpsters and cans well away from the food area. garbage areas. etc. Keep the area very clean. Look for manure to find the source of flies. Regularly clean outhouses. thorax and abdomen are shiny black. Fly strips and insect light traps using glue or an electrocution grid can be installed in areas of high traffic – food area. meat scraps in garbage. and clean up or remove. food service areas. live on dead animals. Blow (Green) Flies – ¼" long. Evaluate waste management. and are ¼” long. dull body. carrion.dust (for instance the proper Boric Acid product) spread around the nest opening will kill the nest. and wet mixed garbage. Clean garbage cans and dumpsters regularly. and any overflow immediately. HOUSE FLIES OR BLOW (GREEN) FLIES House Flies live on garbage or manure. After larvae have fed on the garbage or feces (for example. They have a dark. Replace security and dock lights with orange or yellow lights. dead birds and rodents. remove spills immediately. may want to increase the number of times garbage is removed. they crawl out of garbage or food source and look for a dry place to pupate.. or they have a metallic blue abdomen with a dull thorax. Keep loading docks clean. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 48 .
state.cdc. use ionize lighting (orange) sodium vapor 5) Consult with IDPH on control options including larvaciding. This must be started before the event takes place. near doorways and other places where they may come into contact with humans. Recent cases of contracting WNV in Illinois have heightened concern over controlling the insect. pull tarps taut so water can’t collect on top. Most easily distinguished from other wasps and bees by the hive – usually constructed as an upside down.us/) for up-to-date information. slender. ¾”-1” long with a thin waist and an abdomen that tapers at both ends. For small sites. Humans are not often stung. fans can be used to create a “breeze” that is only slightly faster than the mosquitoes can fly to deter them from entering the area. sometimes. with a single pair of wings and a long. clear any catch basins or clogged sewer lines. the use of insect growth repellants (altosid or methoprene) and stocking isolated water bodies with mosquito eating fish Site Preparation: Prior to parties and events. Mosquitoes are carriers of the West Nile Virus (WNV) and St. which includes standing water (See Figure 4).gov) or the Illinois Department of Public Health (http://www. piercing mouthpart called a proboscis. Wasps are Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 49 . See Appendix C for possible product suppliers. spiders and other insects. Control Methods: 1) During mosquito season. 4) Maintain lighting away from areas that people will be using. the event site can be surrounded with mosquito traps that use a combination of carbon dioxide and. During the summer. Source: Common Sense Pest Control PAPER WASPS Flying insect. turn containers upside down so they don’t hold rainwater. Louis Encephalitis. clear roof drains and gutters. Nests are often found under caves and overhangs.MOSQUITOES Figure 4 Adults are 1/8” in length. post mosquito information on park bulletin board and other public areas 2) Identify potential larval sources of the mosquitoes 3) Eliminate as many potential larval sources as possible. Check with the Center for Disease Control (www. paper wasps feed on small insect larvae. umbrella-shaped mass of cells. encourage park goers to wear long-sleeved clothing and pants.il.idph. octanol to attract mosquitoes away from the area and capture many of the mosquitoes entering the site.
attracted to ripe fruit, and similar sources of sugar (pop, candy, etc). Paper wasps are also beneficial, as they prey on caterpillars. Simply removing the nest early in the season may be effective, but after the nest is well established, the wasps will try to reestablish a new nest at the same location after it is removed. Caulk attic and window openings, and around wall penetrations. Treat established nests with diatomaceous earth or with a non-toxic mint oil spray – available at: www.victorpest.com. Do not attempt control without proper protective equipment .
Eliminate tall grasses in areas that patrons frequent. Ticks not only wait on tall grass for a host to come by, but prefer fairly humid environments – environments typical of tall grass. By cutting tall grass, airflow and sunlight is increased, reducing humidity. Before attempting control, make sure the proper attire is worn, particularly in areas known to have Lyme disease-carrying ticks. Protective clothing should be a light color to easily identify ticks. Tuck pants into socks, and inspect for ticks afterwards. Remove leaf litter. Remove rodent nesting sites from around area. Certain mice are hosts for Lyme disease-carrying ticks and play a major role in the transmission of other tick-borne diseases. Stack firewood, landscaping supplies, and other materials away from service buildings or other areas that are open to the public. Locate bird feeders away from the site – many bird species carry ticks. Spilled seed can also attract unwanted wildlife – including mice that carry ticks. Mow around weedy fence lines that provide cover for rodents along nearby woodland edges .
Adults are black and yellow, with yellow bands covering a dark abdomen and a thick waist. Adults are predators and prey on other insects. They build nests from wood pulp, saliva, and occasionally mud. They are about the size of bees, ½” to ¾” long. Will build nests in soil depressions, rodent burrows, wall voids, or in any small hole in the ground that will give protection until workers can develop. Can live in environments close to human activity. Have large colonies, some with thousands of workers. Forage and scavenge for nectar and other sweet carbohydrates, and thus are often drawn towards garbage cans with pop, beer, sweets, and backyard fruit. Make sure sweet foods are removed and picnic tables are cleaned up. At social events, serve beverages in cups with lids, not bottles or cans. Important to monitor and clean garbage cans and picnic tables. Garbage cans should have domed tops with self-closing lids. If needed, increase frequency of garbage collection. Put out traps – like the one pictured to the side – available at hardware stores or
Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project
www.victorpest.com. Have the nest removed by a professional. Locate food serving strategically during late summer activities so that yellow jackets are not lured to dense crowds. In or near buildings, caulk wall voids and screen ventilation openings. In-ground nests may be treated with a mild insecticide dust such as Sevin® or diatomaceous earth labeled for this use, then filled in with dirt. Nests in buildings may be treated with diatomaceous earth or boric acid labeled specifically for that purpose. Yellow Jackets can also be vacuumed as they enter and leave the nest by holding a vacuum hose close to the nest entrance. This may take some time if attempted after early morning, since most of the population will be out foraging. After vacuuming is complete, carefully remove vacuum bag and place in a larger plastic bag, such as a garbage bag. For extra safety, put bag in freezer for a couple of hours to kill Yellow Jackets before discarding. Do not attempt wasp control without proper protective equipment [8,15].
Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project
CHAPTER 8 – SOIL, TURF, AND LANDSCAPING
The key to preventing insects, disease, and weeds from becoming a problem is to maintain healthy turf and landscaping. Maintaining healthy turf can be very labor-intensive, and can often consume a large part of the staff’s time. A viable alternative, though often overlooked, is to replace turf with landscaping alternatives that require less maintenance. Below are suggestions for this type of landscaping, as well as methods for improving the health of the turf and ornamental plants that make up the existing landscape.
E C O N D
H O U G H T
A N D S C A P I N G
Not all grass cultivars commonly used for turf are native to Illinois. Consequently, soil often does not have the right type or amounts of nutrients to support healthy turf. Nutrients need to be added to the soil through fertilizer, which translates into inputs of money and staff time. Redesigning or modifying a landscape is a way to reduce these costs. Although some areas will require turf, others may be better suited for other landscaping options. Mulches, decorative rocks, and native plants are all feasible replacements for turf and are often better choices. For instance, in areas that are heavily shaded or traversed, installing any of these options would reduce required maintenance. Native plants also require less maintenance, are often aesthetically pleasing, and they provide habitat to native species – wildlife that is beneficial to the park and surrounding area, and is often a drawing point for park visitors. Soil, Turf, Ornamentals, and Maintenance Healthy turf and ornamentals require proper nutrient and water delivery, sunlight, maintenance, and soil conditions that provide for root development and microorganism activity. To start, this requires focusing on the soil. Essential nutrients for plant growth come from the soil and are delivered by the root system to the plant. Unfortunately, most soils don’t contain the right amounts of all the needed nutrients. Different types of plants can also have very different nutrient requirements. Compounding the problem is that certain soil conditions make it difficult for plants to establish a root structure. During the transition to IPM, there will be a period of slowed turf growth while grass plants adjust. This is important to keep in mind if turf is being maintained for athletic purposes, as IPM methods will have to be phased in over a prolonged period of time to ensure that the turf remains at a consistent level of quality. Turf that is maintained for recreational use may not need as long, as the impacts of transitioning will not impede park goers’ enjoyment of the area. Achieving all IPM objectives will take some time. However, phasing the following methods into an IPM program can help achieve a landscape that is not only healthier, but one that is also more cost effective to maintain in the long run.
Compaction occurs when air pockets, or small holes are pressed out of the soil. The soil becomes so dense that plant and turfgrass roots are unable to spread throughout the soil. Core cultivation, or Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project
aerating, is useful for alleviating this problem. According to the University of Wisconsin, aeration “aids drainage, alleviates compaction, disrupts incompatible soil layers, manages thatch, and promotes turf growth and rooting, which increases the turf’s stress tolerance, improves nutrient uptake, and can reduce weed invasion” . Aerating or cultivating should be done in early spring or late fall – when weed germination is low. If it has to be done during high weed germination, a smaller tine diameter should be used. Core Cultivator A core cultivator is a pronged tool with tines that are pushed into the ground. As the tines are pulled up, plugs of soil are removed. Best used in small areas. The tool is very similar to a pitchfork, and the two can be used interchangeably for this purpose. Aerators For larger areas, use an aerator. Aerators are machines that pull plugs of soil out of the ground through the use of tines. There are two types of aerators. A drum or roller type aerator, which is often a heavy piece of machinery and may even add to compaction as it is used, and a piston-type aerator. A piston-type design generally works better as it will disrupt less surface area, pull deeper cores, and will not add to compaction. Also, when given a choice, select a machine with hollow tines – they’re more effective. Beware of machines that punch depressions into the sod, like nails, spikes, or “aerator sandals” that have spiked shoes. They actually compact the soil even more directly around the hole . To prevent compaction, avoid foot and motor traffic over the site while the soil is wet. Put up barriers such as shrubbery to prevent foot traffic in certain areas. If managing an athletic field, make sure athletes wear soft-spiked shoes, as metal-spiked shoes, such as those used in the past for golf, will cause compaction. If motor traffic is unavoidable, restrict it to a designated area. Any path that vehicles will repeatedly take should be covered with a 6” to 10” bed of dry wood chip mulch. Make sure service vehicles have dual tires, flotation tires, or that the tires on the vehicle are at the lowest, safest PSI .
Every plant in a landscape has a certain amount of water it will need for optimal health. To achieve this, turf and landscaping needs to be properly watered, and the land needs to be managed in a way that storm water is absorbed properly and the excess drains off the property without collecting into pools. Both the amount and frequency of watering can influence turf and plant health, insect infestations, disease, and weed growth. Best Approach for Watering Watering infrequently and deeply will allow the turf’s root system to become established, and is the best method to prevent weeds and disease. The best time to water is early morning. Avoid watering between 10 am and 4 pm because of high evaporation loss. Watering Don’ts Over watering turf will allow it to grow too rapidly, forming shallow roots that leave it vulnerable to pests and disease.
Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project
and some hardware stores. and disease to thrive. These holes slowly release water into the soil surrounding the plant. Should these methods prove unsuccessful. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 54 . These plants can be found at local nurseries. providing moisture only to the immediate area. and insects. that is perforated with a series of small holes. possibly leading to disease. This can be done with a simple drainage tile system – constructed by digging a trench that goes down grade in the direction you are attempting to route the flow. Mulch for moisture retention – when mulching a tree. This can be done through drip or sub-surface irrigation. The plants will absorb large amounts of water and release it into the atmosphere. Watering lightly and frequently will allow weed species to germinate. Watering at night will not allow the grass to dry out for a prolonged period of time. follow these guidelines : Use wood chips for mulch. weeds. When mulch is piled against tree. Pile chips up to 4” deep. Make sure that drainage. pests. This method not only prevents weeds from getting watered. Targeted Irrigation is a method of ensuring that. lining it with gravel. it will rot the bark and provide opportunities for insects to attack. and drainage culverts. Pile them in a donut shape around the tree trunk. Under watering turf leads to low-density turf. garden centers. and planting turf or a groundcover. Rainwater will permeate the ground. Rain Garden Plants with high transpiration rates can be planted and used to absorb water in what is called a rain garden. either draped along ornamentals or buried along their root systems. A list of suppliers can be found in Appendix C. placing perforated plastic piping in it. discharge pipes. but also eliminates water drift and minimizes water evaporation – cutting down water use and cost. Determine if the flow can be contained by means of shoring rocks and kept from recreational and other areas where water is undesired. only ornamental plants are watered. and culverts are free of obstructions that prevent water from flowing properly and cause it to pool. Rain gardens are collections of native plants that thrive in moist or pooled water locations. Make sure chips do NOT touch the bark. when watering a landscaped setting. keeping it from nearby weeds. Moist soil often occurs near storm water discharge pipes. flow into the pipe and be directed to the end of the pipe – which should be in an area that has better drainage or is near a storm water drain. causing pooled water to disperse at a faster rate. consider rerouting the groundwater flow to an area that has better drainage. which consists of a hose. increasing susceptibility to disease. backfilling with soil. Trim low-hanging vegetation to increase airflow. There should be a space of 2”-3” between the base of the tree trunk and mulch. Drainage and Discharge Moist soils can cause certain weed species.
poor aeration. under-fertilizing stresses plants. If you have varying soil types or are managing a large parcel of land. Conversely. Be sure to mention the types of vegetation growing in the soil along with that sample – this will assist the lab in making recommendations for adjusting the pH and adding nutrients. grass clippings. The application of excess fertilizer can also lead to pollution of ground and surface water through run-off. Encourage them by using organic rather than chemical fertilizers. unsterilized compost or peat moss. and prevents water from reaching grass roots. Plant health and resistance to disease and infestation relies on the plant receiving the right nutrients from the soil. Reduce Thatch By: Mechanically remove it Encourage its breakdown through biological means. Soil testing will help you determine how to adjust the pH. you need to know what nutrients the soil is lacking. preventing their absorption and extreme pH values are unsuitable for turf growth. The pH value should be slightly acid to neutral (between 5. stolons. Soil may be slow to break down thatch because it may have adapted to absorbing nutrients from quick release fertilizers. Use a heavy thatch rake (available at lawn and garden or hardware stores) or.e. To ensure this.THATCH Thatch is a mat-like layer made up of dead roots. Thatch accumulates on the soil where turfgrass is planted. Thus. lowers tolerance to pests. Thatch is caused by a combination of factors including decreased soil microbial activity. Testing costs roughly $15 per sample. SOIL HEALTH Turf is often fertilized routinely.5 and 7) for turf. contact your local extension service. Certain pH values can lock up nutrients in the soil. You can often observe this near roads as the Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 55 . To avoid these situations and ensure that the proper fertilizer is applied. except for a few weeds (a common example would be spotty turf with crabgrass). and improper mowing also slows the rate in which thatch degrades. you may find soil patches that are barren of growth. Weeds can often withstand these conditions. whether needed or not. Remove thatch in the fall to minimize damage to the turf. This can adversely affect turf and plants. and reduces plant quality . Brown Patch) or contributing to the growth of weeds. Both cases are detrimental to the landscape. Over-watering. compaction. use a leaf rake to rake up and remove the thatch . microorganisms and worms can speed up the degradation of thatch. and which soil amendments you need to add. and. harbors insects and diseases. rhizomes. poor drainage. and pesticide use – particularly fungicides which reduce microbial activity . potentially leading to the onset of disease (i. The test results provide the pH of the soil. it’s a good idea to test samples from different locations and landscapes throughout the site. the soil needs to be tested. to a lesser degree. not using herbicides. For information on receiving a kit containing instructions on how to collect soil. On the other hand. if that’s not available. and blocks light penetration. and top dressing with rich topsoil. with all possible nutrients. too much fertilizer. and the type and amount of fertilizer you should use.
the amount of fertilizer applications will decrease. Then. and it is advised to explore option number one above first. Using organic fertilizers also increases the populations of beneficial microbes and worms in the soil. To address these concerns. If you are fertilizing more than twice a year. resulting in storm water run-off and causing water quality problems such as algal blooms in nearby water bodies. which means that nutrients will be available to the plant over a longer period of time. local garden centers. Over the long run. As organic fertilizers are phased in. options for addressing extreme pH values are: 1) Convert turf areas near roads into landscaping by planting ornamentals and laying down mulch or decorative landscaping stones. Detailed information on fertilizing can be found below. these benefits will be manifested in the improved health and vigor of the turf. For better turf health. and hardware stores. and eventually move towards one application made in the fall. you should move towards fertilizing once in the fall and once in the spring.e. 2) Adjust the pH in areas where changes will be relatively permanent (i. and allowing for weed growth. based on recommendations from the test results. and nutrient return to the soil. This also means that turfgrass will be encouraged to form deeper roots. See Appendix C for additional sources. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 56 . you will need to find an organic fertilizer that will supplement the reported nutrient deficiencies.road salt has collected over the winter and dissolved into the nearby soil. Frequency During the transition. Transitioning to an organic fertilizer is a process that starts with a soil test . resulting in improved soil structure. Ph adjustments to the soil are not generally permanent. Adjusting the pH of the soil requires using either acidic fertilizers or sulfur to lower the pH or powdered limestone to raise it.gardensalive. the first step should be to move towards using organic fertilizers. this translates to higher maintenance costs – in addition to the toll it takes on the health of the turf and the surrounding environment. Generally. run-off prevention. The test results will also come back with recommendations for fertilization. but their use should be targeted. causing the soil pH to become more acidic. chemical fertilizers are often overapplied. Sources for organic fertilizers include www.com. substitute these recommendations with organic alternatives. Additionally. to minimize impacts on the environment and improve the health of site vegetation. not soil adjacent to a road that is salted every winter). Many organic fertilizers are slow-release. Chemical fertilizers are commonly fast acting and are absorbed by the plant readily. including suggestions for using various chemical fertilizers. They encourage shallow root growth and the build up of thatch by slowing the decomposition of grass clippings. You may need to experiment with varying fertilizers to find which will work best based on your site. thus making it less susceptible to drought. the break down of thatch. increased water-holding capacity. FERTILIZING Fertilizers are a necessary part of site maintenance. and in some cases eliminated.
moisture. taking into safety and playability concerns. and also leaves the turf vulnerable to pests. leaving grass susceptible to insects. based on the results reported from the soil sample test. An additional method is to apply a slow-release fertilizer to the planting-hole before the ornamental is planted. etc. MOWING Grass height affects moisture in the ground and light penetration. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 57 . Like turf. and on the care instructions for the plant. existing turf may have difficulty growing or it may not be filling in completely. regular mowing can also be an effective way of controlling weeds. Turf mowed too low will be open to weed seeds and may not establish a healthy root system. Adjust the mowing schedule depending on the type of turfgrass and use of the field – keeping in mind the ideal 2 ½” to 3 ½” height for most turf grass and that no more than 1/3 of the height of the grass should be cut at any one time. This method prevents fertilizer nutrients from reaching weeds or other unwanted vegetation. Mowing too frequently causes the grass to regenerate instead of establishing a significant root system. and eliminates fertilizer waste from overapplication. sun exposure. hardware. and disease. The object is to provide the best chance of seeds growing into turf. usually at rates greater than what is recommended by the seed packager.Fertilizer Application Targeted fertilization can also be used for the ornamentals in a landscape. and other lawn and garden stores. OVERSEEDING In some areas. providing fertilizer only to the immediate area. weeds. Overseeding is the spreading of grass seeds on a site. This often comes in a hardened spike or powdered form and is available at garden centers. Since certain weed species will not tolerate a consistent mowing schedule. After discovering the cause and addressing it (whether it is inappropriate fertilizing.) overseeding is a viable option to regenerate the turf. A grass length of 2 ½” to 3 ½” will help reduce the number of weed seeds germinating and also maintains needed moisture for the turf. ornamentals should only be fertilized with the nutrients needed. Fertilizers can be applied by drip irrigation systems where perforated surface or sub-surface hoses slowly release liquid fertilizer into the soil surrounding the plant. Keep athletic field turf at the longest length possible.
allow it to grow to the maximum acceptable height before cutting. improving plant health and increasing the ability of the soil to absorb water. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 58 . removing clippings and thatch. topsoil. and prevent the spread of disease. Apply in the fall. Both microorganisms and worms return nutrients to the soil. decreasing the need for fertilizers. worms aerate the soil. Pack planted seeds with the back of the rake or by gently walking over the planted area. Increased organic material will increase the earthworm population in the soil as well. and pull any weeds. rotted sawdust. Use rake to break soil surface. Once grass emerges. well-rotted manure. Using unsterilized compost reduces thatch – as it contains microorganisms that break it down. Organic matter encourages microorganism activity in the soil. Alternatively. Microorganisms break down thatch and combat the bacterium that cause many turf diseases. TOP DRESSING Top dressing. ground seaweed. all you need is a heavy metal garden rake and a lawnmower. After sowing. so overseeding should be done in the fall. As mentioned before. Stay off seeded area and water frequently for a 2 to 4 week period.000 ft2.Illinois has cool season grasses. providing a place for new seed to take root. fine-screened compost is best for the nutrient content. For areas less than 1000 ft2. Other good topdressings are sand. spreading a layer no thicker than 3/8” with a drop spreader or by hand . First. sow seeds with a drop spreader. and peat moss (make sure it is moist). Using 1½ times the amount recommended on the seed package. mow the turf at half the normal mowing height. drainage. or covering the turf with a thin layer of organic matter or soil. Also. a slitter can also be used to break the ground. Rake lawn thoroughly. go back over with rake or top dress (info below) at about ½ cubic yard per 1. can lead to better aeration.
4. North Shore Country Club Golf Course. Practicing IPM is a great opportunity to be a leader in your community – and other communities – in environmental stewardship. The golf course provides continuing education for staff and golfers and has found computer modeling very helpful. new and beneficial ways to engage the public. However. Encourage officials to pursue a park district policy to exemplify their commitment to the health of the community and surrounding environment.” For Dinelli. SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPLEMENTATION 1] Educational Opportunities for Youth and Community Members – Many grade school educational programs include environmental issues. has found ways of reducing pesticide use. county. including enhanced aesthetics of the park. 2] Involve Policy Makers – Invite the park district board. managerial cost savings. etc. The challenge is to understand these interactions and develop strategies…to favor the desired plant. Illinois Most golf courses are treated with an extensive array of pesticides to maintain their impeccable turf. good record-keeping. Take this opportunity to showcase the benefits and innovation of the program. these include regular monitoring. the positive impact on surrounding areas. insect pest trapping. SUCCESSFUL IPM PROGRAMS IPM is practiced successfully from the National Park Service and the San Francisco municipal properties to little leagues. No. and how the surrounding area is benefited. at the North Shore Country Club. the Superintendent. (Source: “IPM on Golf Courses” by Dan Dinelli in IPM Practitioner. and testing equipment. Volume XIX. and provides an opportunity to showcase the accomplishments associated with implementing IPM. golf courses. It is also a way to continually involve the public in pursuing an IPM policy. Crafting educational programs around your IPM program provides an excellent opportunity to engage local grade schools in the outdoors. Dan Dinelli. Glenview. They also provide an opportunity to explain how IPM methods work. and other officials out to visit the park.CHAPTER 9 – ADOPTING IPM POLICY BE A LEADER IN YOUR COMMUNITY Many communities are increasingly interested in finding ways to be environmentally conscientious. staff motivation and buy-in. Signs erected around the park can champion the park district’s commitment to providing a safe and scenic place for people to enjoy. April 1997) Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 59 . focusing particularly on how people can help improve environmental quality in their own communities. and school grounds. He emphasizes that “the foundation of IPM is avoidance of pest treatments by sound cultural and biological practices…my approach to plant care recognizes that plant health depends on its environment and interactions with a multitude of other organisms. Below is a list of a few successful programs. city council.
they have been able to find many successful solutions. aerate the soil four times a year. and maintaining detailed records has helped supervisors understand the patterns of disease outbreak. and selecting plants sturdy enough to handle the salty air. May 2000. Missouri After being alerted to the risks of herbicide use on playing fields. Vol. New York After students at Susqueanna School were accidentally exposed to pesticides and became ill in 1991. commitment to protecting kids and seeking out solutions. (Source: “Experiments and Success Stories”. No. Summer 1994) San Francisco In 1996. “Providing safer fields without chemicals is just a matter of education. The National Park Service manages a huge variety of resources. and mow high and frequently. To make it official. including historical and cultural sites as well as parklands. pesticide use has decreased by 70 percent. They now use organic fertilizers and compost twice a year on the athletic fields. Together this resulted in a reduction in maintenance costs. safety officer of the league. 19. as of 1994. Monitoring for diseases and weeds. staff developed a system where the empty beds are watered and allowed to sit for two weeks to let weed seeds germinate. goats are being used to clear brush and reduce the fire hazard! Staff have also installed weed barriers. On the city’s golf courses.” Instead of herbicides along fences and backstops they began using a propane flamer. which gets as good or better results. 1999) Susqueanna School.Northwest Athletic Association Little League Jefferson County. they adopted the following goal: “To provide the safest environment for the children utilizing available pest control alternatives. begun an intensive gopher and mole hole monitoring and trapping program. Only occasional hand weeding is needed. Gregg Small and Deborah Raphael in Pesticides and You.3. Park staff have responded with new and creative pest management strategies tailored to the needs of particular sites and. such as a historically significant peach orchard on the grounds of the Gettysburg National Historical Site. Nancy Owen Myers in Journal of Pesticide Reform. Pesticide use is approved only when alternatives are not feasible and the selected pesticide will not have an ecological or sociological impact on the site. To care for flower beds in Golden Gate Park. (Source: “IPM in National Parks”. From trial and error and experimentation. the New York Department of Environmental Conservation ordered the school to halt all routine pesticide applications and to implement an IPM program.” (Source: ASAP News. and are testing different mowing regimes. Then a flamer is used to kill the surfacing seedlings. two places where pesticides were frequently used. the Northwest Athletic Association decided to look for alternatives and become a role model in managing fields without using toxic chemicals. They also incorporated rock salt for additional control assurances. The school’s engineers eliminated all pesticide applications on their turf and playing fields. Northwest Athletic Association Little League) National Park Service Since 1980. According to Bryan Carroll. they spent most of their time doing preventative maintenance that has paid off in Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 60 . the City of San Francisco passed an ordinance requiring city departments to decrease pesticide use. This included taking care of gardens and golf courses. On the slopes surrounding the city. staff has tried slowrelease organic fertilizers. various aeration methods. the National Park Service has had a policy requires the use of IPM whenever practical. In the first year.
Angelo Ranieri. 1998). building engineer. says “We have now cut costs and labor across the board for the past 7 years and the turf looks better than ever. Overall. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 61 .” (Source: “Cost of IPM in Schools” Factsheet from Safer Pest Control Project.subsequent years with reduced labor and other costs. the school is saving $1000 annually on pest control.
disease. the District shall develop and implement the following Integrated Pest Management program: Statement of Policy: It shall be the policy of the District that Integrated Pest Management will be used to prevent and control pest problems in or on property maintained by the District. Defining Integrated Pest Management: “Integrated Pest Management” (IPM) is a sustainable process for managing pests that relies on knowledge about the plant. the goal of which is to control pest species while reducing and. District Integrated Pest Management Program: Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 62 . it is difficult or impossible to prevent patrons and employees of the District from coming into contact with those pesticides. particularly to the health of children. District is dedicated to protecting the health and welfare of its patrons and employees. including structural. eliminating dependence on chemical pest control strategies. and economic risks. Findings: WHEREAS. Non-chemical controls shall be given preference over chemical controls. the elderly and other sensitive populations as well as non-target animal and plant populations. only as a last resort. and that various pesticides may pose risks to human health. physical. WHEREAS. all pesticide use on grounds or in buildings maintained by the District will be subject to guidelines stated herein. environmentally sound and economical pest control method. THEREFORE. chemical controls. NOW. Integrated Pest Management represents an effective. biological and. WHEREAS. WHEREAS. cultural. and oversight of an Integrated Pest Management program for all sites under the purview of the ___________ Park District ("District") effective _______________(date). scientific research indicates that no pesticide is completely safe. health.PARKS/FOREST/NATURAL AREAS MODEL INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT POLICY Introduction: This Integrated Pest Management Policy ("Policy") shall govern the adoption. where possible. implementation. WHEREAS. or insect pest and its interactions with the environment and utilizes a variety of control measures. in a way that minimizes environmental. pesticides are currently applied to property owned or operated and maintained by the District. Specifically.
or create a risk to human health. size. All members shall be in agreement with the intent of the Policy and shall seek management techniques that minimize or eliminate the use of pesticides. and density of pest population that must be present to cause levels of unacceptable environmental. Cost effectiveness over a reasonable term. 2-5 years). The District shall submit a detailed work plan for implementing Integrated Pest Management. b. Notify contractors. other representatives of the public] 2. d. 5. The District shall collect baseline data on an ongoing basis to locate and determine pest population densities and population growth. the following criteria shall be considered: a. An IPM advisory committee ("Committee") shall review all IPM plans and review all pesticides used by the District. non-biological control strategies including structural. Non-chemical. members of citizen's action groups working on pesticide use reduction. 2. The Committee shall be governed by the following rules: 1. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 63 . Least-hazardous to human health Least disruptive to natural controls Least-toxic to non-target organisms Least-damaging to the environment Most likely to produce a permanent reduction in habitat conducive to pest populations f. Review and Evaluation of the IPM Program A. 4. ____________ shall convene and conduct the meetings of the Committee. Educate staff. which will incorporate the following approach: 1. Authorization. To decide whether treatment is warranted. c. Records shall be kept of such monitoring. physical/mechanical and cultural controls shall be considered first.. an acceptable tolerance level shall be established for each pest and site by determining the type. In selecting a treatment approach. Establish tolerance levels. aesthetic and/or economic damage. 3.[District representatives. The District shall inform all contractors of their obligation to comply with the IPM program. Identify a range of preferred treatments. The Committee shall be composed of.A.. e. Monitor pest populations. Education is a critical component of a successful IPM program. The District shall commit to providing ongoing training for employees and assisting in developing educational programs for the public.. (For example. Chemical approaches should be used only as a last resort. 3. and whether and to what extent natural enemy population(s) are present.
D. § 135 et seq. Prior notification shall not be required when a situation presents a direct threat to the public health and requires immediate action. or the safety provisions set forth on pesticide labels. Annual reports evaluating the IPM program shall be submitted to the Committee by the District. Effective Date This Policy shall take effect upon passage by __________ and publication as required by law. Signs shall be headed “Notice of Pesticide Application. or clause of this Policy is held invalid or unconstitutional. The Committee shall be responsible for keeping the public informed of the District's IPM program. 4. Information requests from the public about the Policy will be directed to an appropriate member of the Committee who will answer it promptly. as well as any new information on the hazards of chemical controls. 1. The District shall not violate any state or federal rules and regulations relating to pesticide use. This assessment shall include an evaluation of all chemical applications.S. B. Severability If any section. 2. the Committee shall conduct a review of the program’s overall effectiveness in managing pest populations. 7 U. Signs shall be posted at the entrance to all buildings where pesticides have been applied. Meeting Federal and State Regulations No pesticide shall be used unless it is registered for its intended use under the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (“FIFRA”). the date of application and a telephone number for more information. C. as well as any applications on large exposed areas in or on any property maintained by the District as follows: A. Signs shall be posted at appropriate intervals along property lines abutting residential areas.C.B.” Signs shall contain the following information: the name of the pesticide. Every two years. such holding shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions of the ordinance. Signs shall be posted at the time of application of pesticides. including a figure reflecting the total quantities of pesticide active ingredient applied. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 64 . sentence. Signs shall be posted at all park entrances where pesticides have been applied. 3. Notification Requirements The public shall be notified of any interior or exterior broadcast applications of pesticides.
“Physical Controls” means the use of controls that physically inhibit pests’ ability to inhabit an area by modifying their environment. avoiding pesticide use and more broadly promoting the health and sustainability of a given area. misting or fogging. or to be used as a plant growth regulator. “Mechanical Controls” means the use of mechanical procedures to eliminate or reduce pest populations. “Pesticide” means any substance or mixture of substances designed or intended for use to prevent. Examples include companion planting and attracting beneficial insects to reduce pest problems in gardens. and rodenticides. Examples include spraying. and rodents. “Bombing” means a treatment that releases large volumes of liquid aerosol into the air. influencing temperatures. and repairing the building or landscape to remove places where pests may breed. plants. “Structural Controls” means the use of a whole systems approach to controlling pest populations. An example includes application of pesticides to lawns. “Broadcast” means the application of granular formulated pesticides to broad expanses of surfaces. Examples of structural controls include adopting long-term maintenance practices such as caulking and sealing. Examples of physical controls include using traps and barriers. such as removing indentations in the earth that cause puddles where mosquitoes may breed. herbicides. fungus (molds). controlled burning or hand-pulling of weeds.Definitions “Biological Controls” means the use of a pest’s natural predators or parasites to eliminate or reduce the pest population. “Pests” means any unwanted insects. Pesticides include. which may include addressing structural issues in both buildings and landscapes. and certain pestspecific compounds of biological origin aimed at disrupting the lifecycle of the pest. “Cultural Controls” means the use of education to effect changes in persons’ perceptions and behaviors as a method of preventing pest problems. “Natural Controls” means the use of any method that does not employ synthetic substances as a way to eliminate or reduce pest populations and which may draw upon elements common to the environment. such as mowing and aeration of lawns. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 65 . repel or mitigate pests. but are not limited to. fungicides. destroy. insecticides.
APPENDIX A – MONITORING FORMS Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 66 .
LAWS AND REGULATIONS EXAMPLE POLICY Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 67 .APPENDIX B – EXAMPLE POLICY.
Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 68 .
Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 69 .
Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 70 .
Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 71 .
fish. 3. (5) Review rules and regulations pertaining to the regulation or prohibition of the sale. use or application of pesticides and labeling of pesticides for approval prior to promulgation and adoption. (4) Recommend legislation to the Governor. (3) Consider the problems arising from pesticide use with particular emphasis on the possible adverse effects on human health. § 415 ILCS 60/19. The interagency committee shall: (1) Review the current status of the sales and use of pesticides within the State of Illinois. (6) Contact various experts and lay groups.LAWS AND REGULATIONS § 415 ILCS 5/2. if appropriate. and wildlife. "Integrated pest management" is defined as a pest management system that includes the following elements: (a) identifying pests and their natural enemies. or the generally accepted and approved practices essential to good farm and institutional management on the premises of the various State facilities. Interagency Committee on Pesticides 2. business. to promote the development of technology for environmental protection and conservation of natural resources. (2) Review pesticide programs to be sponsored or directed by a governmental agency. crops. (c) determining the pest population levels that can be tolerated based on aesthetic. state controlled property. management of waste. which will prohibit the irresponsible use of pesticides. to encourage and assist local governments to adopt and implement environmental-protection programs consistent with this Act. and health concerns. and in appropriate cases to afford financial assistance in preventing environmental damage. 2. (7) Advise on and approve of all programs involving the use of pesticides on State owned property. industry.25. or the general public. or administered by State agencies. This shall not be construed to include research programs.25. (b) establishing an ongoing monitoring and recordkeeping system for regular sampling and assessment of pest and natural enemy populations. livestock. such as the Illinois Pesticide Control Committee. and setting action thresholds where pest populations or environmental conditions warrant remedial action. see notes under 225 ILCS 235/1) [Integrated pest management defined] Sec. (d) the prevention of pest problems through improved sanitation. (For postponed repeal of this Act. to obtain their views and cooperation. 225 ILCS 235/3. addition of Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 72 . economic. agriculture. (a) The General Assembly finds: (iv) that it is the obligation of the State Government to manage its own activities so as to minimize environmental damage.25 (2003) § 225 ILCS 235/3. Sec.
and the modification of habitats that attract or harbor pests. or on the use of natural control agents.physical barriers. and (g) recordkeeping and reporting of pest populations. with preference for products that are the least harmful to human health and the environment. biological. surveillance techniques. and remedial actions taken Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 73 . (f) when necessary. cultural or mechanical pest management methods. the use of chemical pesticides. (e) reliance to the greatest extent possible on nontoxic.
com.gardensalive.O. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 74 .com The Natural Garden 38W443 Route 64 St.homeharvest. O. Charles.com Waipuna: 630-759-8100 Goose Buster: http://www.planterspalette. WI 53964 (800) 476-9453 (800-GRO WILD) www.bird-x.com Prairie Nursery P.com www.com/gbuster.gemplers. www.com Planter’s Palette 28 W.APPENDIX C – PRODUCT SUPPLIER LIST Home Harvest: http://www. GA 30374-0100 www. Contact information is provided solely as resource in attaining the products mentioned in the manual.com * Note: SPCP does not endorse nor is SPCP affiliated with any of the above companies.prairienursery.com Taylor Creek Restoration Nurseries/Applied Ecological Services 17921 Smith Road.com Peaceful Valley Farm Supply: www. IL 60175 (630) 584-0150 The Growing Place 25W471 Plank Road Naperville.greenfire. Box 740100 Atlanta.mcmaster. 571 Roosevelt Road Winfield.html Goose-D-Fence: http://www.com Gempler’s: www.victorpest.net Biocontrol Network: www.com McMaster-Carr: P.appliedeco.groworganic. Box 306 Westfield.artandlindaswildflowers.com/ NATIVE PLANT SUPPLIERS Art and Linda’s Wildflowers (708) 785-2943 E-mail: art@artandlindaswildflowers. IL 60190 (630) 293-1040 www.thegrowingplace.lakerestoration. WI 53520 (608) 897-8641 E-mail: info@applied eco. IL 60563 (630) 355-4000 www.com Green Fire: www.com Victor Pest: www.biconet. Broadhead.com/ Gardens Alive: www.
idph. WI 53711 608-277-9960 John Spier Associate Professor of Environmental Turfgrass Science 1575 Linden Dr.APPENDIX D – CONTACTS/RESOURCES Michael P. NY 13748 607-775-9156 Mark Stefan River Trails Park District/ Golf Course Superintendent Rick Stumpf Highland Park District 847-681-2189 Tom Wilson Lombard Park District/ Golf Course Management 630-627-1281 DNR – Wildlife Nuisance Permits (nongame).il. 2 Angelo Ranieri Susqueanna Schools.state. WI 53706 608-262-1624 Dan Dinelli Golf Course Superintendent North Shore Country Club Mike Fletcher Clarendon Hills Park District Superintendent 630-921-4869 Chris Pekarek Assistant Golf Course Superintendent The Village Links of Glen Ellyn 490 Harding Ave Glen Ellyn. Fitchburg. call 217-782-6384 Illinois Sport Turf Managers Association Midwest Hotline: 847-622-3517 Center for Disease Control: 1-800-3113435 or www. NY (IPM program for athletic fields) 1040 Conklin Rd Conklin. Madison.gov Illinois Department of Public Health: 217-782-4977 or http://www.us/ Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 75 .cdc. IL 60137 630-469-2077 ext. Anderson Consulting Ecologist/ Restorationist Biologic Environmental Co. 2505 Richardson St.
 “The organic Gardener’s Handbook of Natural Insect and Disease Control. 1991. Barbara W. Joeseph C. Sheila. NSW 2060. The Ecological Gardener’s Guide to Foiling Pests. Low-Maintenance Lawns. Barbara. Babadoost. College of ACES. Editor. Garden.” Brooklyn Botanic Garden..” Mulhern. Madeira Park. Bradley. 2003.APPENDIX E – REFERENCES. NY. Pets. Cornell University.” Schultz.” Rubin. Rhonda..” Ellis. Warren. Daar. Barbara.  “Rodale’s Successful Organic Gardening Controlling Pests and Diseases.O. EPA 735-B-92-001. Least-Toxic Solutions for your Home. Turfgrass Management – an IPM Approach. Published by Gempler’s Inc. Ltd.. USEPA. 1996. Fern Marshall. RECOMMENDED READING  “Safe & Easy Lawn Care. Box 740100 Atlanta..” Paulsrud. Copyright 1999 Gempler’s Inc. Published by Rodale Press: Emmaus.  “Natural Insect Control. Gilkeson. PA. Special publication 39-17. Copyright and publishing. Dr. Patrick S.. 2nd Ed. The Essential Resource for Integrated Pest Management. Newton. Eugene.  “Weed Facts. 1994. Jann. Inc.  “Urban Integrated Pest Management.” Wood. BC V0N 2H0. Inc. Ithica. Rhonda Massingham Hart. Published by Weldon Russel Pty Ltd.  McMaster P. M. Lawrence. North Sydney. Department of Floriculture and Ornamental Horticulture. 1997.. A Guide for Commercial Applicators. 1993.” Ellis. The Complete Guide to Organic.  “Illinois Pesticide Applicator Training Manual – Fruit and Vegetable Crops Pest Control. Carole Rubin.. Carole. Ltd. Copyright 1990. CT.  “Common Sense Pest Control. Weinzierl. Copyright 1997. R. 1989.” Neal. Daar.  “Gempler’s 1999-2000 IPM Almanac. Copyright Rodale Press. Linda A. Pinto. Copyright Weldon Russell Pty. Published by Harbour Publishing Co. Published by Bicks Lithograph & Printing Corporation. Olkowski. Edited by Cox. P. The Newest Varieties and Techniques to Grow Lush Hardy Grass. Copyright Olkowski. Emmaus. GA 30374-0100  “How to get your Lawn and Garden Off Drugs. and Community.. Houghton Mifflin Company. B.  “Deer Proofing your Yard and Garden. Nixon.” Olkowski. PA. William. Helga.” Massingham Hart.. University of Illinois. Rodale Press. M. Published by Taunton Press. July 1992. Editor. Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 76 . P. J.  “The Chemical-Free Lawn.. PhD. Mohr.” Michalak. Olkowski. Masiunas. Wiesbrook. Copyright Rodale Press.
.ho.” Arner.gov/wv/ipm/manual. Copyright CRC Press Inc. Reprinted in Handbook of IPM for Turfgrass and Ornamentals.htm  The Garden Club of America: www..livingwithwild. Robert.edu/. Ithaca...us/RA.umass.insectimages..com/ Animal..org  http://ctrees.Web Sites:  Insect images: http://www..jpg Chipmunk – http://www. Joseph C.bugwood.tamu.html Canadian Geese – http://master. Leslie. 2003 at 02:03 PM http://www.unl../floriculture/ floral_facts/fungnat.pacofhudson.ento.edu/insects/ Ent-3001. http://www.org/  University of Wisconsin IPM Website: http://www.edu/  University of Wisconsin IPM Program: http://ipcm.edu/programs/school/table.uiuc..co.Warnell School of Forest Resources and College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences .htm Ground Squirrel – http://www.provostadve.org/  National Park Service IPM manual: http://www.gif Deer – http://www.org/  ForestryImages is a joint project of The Bugwood Network and USDA Forest Service.msu.us/expltx/ jrnat/bugbasics.ipm.tx.gcamerica.Dept.wisc.” Neal.jpg Grasshopper – www.state.html Paper Wasp – www.csiro.graphics/13line1.s/geese_canadian..htm Opossum – www.psu.au/aicn/ name_c/a_73.corkyspest.gif Honey Bee – www.htm Articles:  “Turfgrass Weed Management – An IPM Approach. ISBN#: 0-87371-350-8.  “Softspikes® Golf Cleats: A Revolution in Golf.html Fungus Gnat – www.com/pac7.edu/Pest%20Sheets/epineshootborer.nature.htm  Michigan State University’s IPM Home Page: http://www. 1994.html Muskrat – http://www.htm All pages Copyright © 2000 The Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System The Bugwood Network . NY 1992. Picture Sources: Bat – www.tpwd./RAPImages/Deer3.animalcontrolproducts.edu/p.dallas.cas.html Box Elder – www.com/ahb.edu/CAT02_land/L0517-02.forestryimages.html Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 77 . The University of Georgia . Cornell University. All rights reserved.muskrattracks.md.nps. January 27. of Entomology Last updated on Monday.ipm.The University of Georgia  College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences and Warnell School of Forest Resources Copyright 2002.at_chipmunks_tmb.ianr. Anne R.com/eng/muskrat.
.dnr.il./ crooked_river_state_park.com/.t/images/skunks1./ce/eek/ critter/insect/ticked.gov/r9extaff/ drawings/page7d.Raccoon – http://www.sherpaguides..html Integrated Pest Management for Park Districts Safer Pest Control Project 78 .wi.org/raccoon..proviso.state.us/.htm Tree Squirrel – www.gif Snake – www.boquetriver.html Skunk – http://www..fws..gif Ticks – www.k12..