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3.4.1 Flows laminar and turbulent Viscous flow regimes are classified as laminar or turbulent structure of flow-based. In the regime laminar, the structure of flow is characterized by an orderly continuous motion in sheets or layers. On the other hand, the structure of flow in the regime turbulent is characterized by three-dimensional movements, at random, from particles of fluid which added to the average movement. In flow laminar no macroscopic layer of fluid mixing adjacent. A thin filament of ink injected into a flow laminar appears as a single line; There is no dispersion of ink for all the flow, except the slow dispersion due to molecular motion. By elsewhere, a strand of ink injected into a turbulent flow is dispersed quickly by the entire field of flow, that is, the ink line is breaks down in countless threads matted. This behavior of turbulent flow is due to fluctuations of present speed; macroscopic particles of fluid mixture of adjacent layers of it has resulted in the rapid dispersion of the ink. The thin filament of smoke rising from a cigarette in a place without streams gives a clear picture of flow laminar. To measure

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that the smoke is ascending, decomposes into random movements and whimsical; This is an example of turbulent flow.

It is possible to obtain a more quantitative picture of the difference flows between laminar and turbulent to examine the output from a immersed in the flow sensitive device for measuring speed. If is It measures the x component of speed in a fixed position in a tube, both for stationary flow laminar to turbulent, strokes of speed against time will appear as shown in the figure. In steady, laminar flow speed at a point remains constant with the time. In turbulent flow, velocity stroke indicates random fluctuations of the instantaneous speed, u, around the average speed at the time, U. We can consider the speed snapshot, u, as the sum of the average time speed, U, and the fluctuating component, u', u = U + u' Since the flow is steady, the average velocity, U, do not vary with the time. Although many turbulent flows that interest us are stationary in the middle (U is not a function of time), the presence of random velocity fluctuations of high frequency makes that the analysis of turbulent flows is extremely difficult. In a flow laminar one-dimensional, cutting effort relates to the gradient of speed through the simple relationship

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and x

du dy

For turbulent flow in which the average speed is one-dimensional, a simple relationship is not valid. The fluctuations random three-dimensional speed (u ', v', w') transport time through the lines of flow of medium flow, increasing the effort effective cutting. Therefore, in a turbulent flow there is no universal relationship between efforts field and velocity field average. So, in turbulent flows we must rely widely semiempiricas theories and experimental data. 3.4.2. Compressible and incompressible flows Workflows in which variations in the density are negligible is called incompressible; When variations in density within a flow are not negligible, the flow is called compressible. The more common examples of compressible flow concerning the flow of gases, as the flow of fluids can be treated often as incompressible. However, water hammer and cavitation are examples of the importance of the effects of compressibility in workflows liquids. Flows of gas with negligible heat transfer also can be considered incompressible, always What the flow velocities are small in relation to the speed of the sound; the ratio of the speed of flow, V, with the local speed of the sound, c, gas, is defined as the Mach number,

M V c

For < 0.3 M, maximum density variation is less than 5 per percent. So with < 0.3 M gas flows can be treated as incompressible; a value of M = 0.3 in air at standard conditions, It corresponds to a speed of approximately 100 m\/s. Compressible flows occur frequently in the engineering applications. Common examples include air systems compressed employees to power shop tools and drills dental, transmission of gases in pipes at high pressure and control pneumatic or hydraulic, as well as in sensing systems. The effects

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de la compresibilidad son muy importantes en el diseo de las modernas aeronaves y misiles de alta velocidad, centrales elctricas, ventiladores y compresores.

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