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1. The following are not related with primary lymphoid organs EXCEPT a. they efficient in exposing T cells to foreign antigen. b. they are the primary site of antibody synthesis and release. c. they filter blood and trap blood-borne antigens. d. they provide the microenvironment for maturation of T and B cells. 2. Hematopoietic stem cells are pluripotent, which means that they are a. antigen-specific cells. b. capable of developing into any blood cells. c. committed to produce cells of a single lineage. d. not self-renewing. 3. Lymphocytes continually recirculate through peripheral lymphoid tissue in order to a. be killed before they cause autoimmunity. b. efficiently encounter antigen. c. mature from stem cells into lymphocytes. d. phagocytosis antigen and kill it. 4. Peripheral lymphoid organs a. are centrally located in the abdomen to protect their vital functions. b. are designed to maximize contact between antigen and lymphocytes. c. produce antigen-specific lymphocytes from stem cells in response to antigen. d. sequester antigen to minimize its damage to the body. 5. The primary purpose of the adaptive immune system is to a. block all pathogens from entering the body. b. cure allergic reactions. c. kill tumor cells. d. protect from disease upon re-infection with a specific pathogen. 6. Rapid but non-antigen specific immune responses are produced by the a. adaptive immune system. b. innate immune system. c. leukocytes. d. lymphatic system. 7. Vaccination protects us from infectious disease by generating memory a. antigen. b. lymphocytes. c. macrophages. d. PMNs.

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8. Which situation below describes an example of innate immunity? a. antibody production by plasma cells. b. antigen removal by cilia in the respiratory tract. c. complement activation by antibody bound to the surface of a bacterium. d. memory response to influenza virus 9. The antigen specificity of an adaptive immune response is due to a. activation of antigen-specific lymphocytes. b. folding of antibody to fit the pathogen. c. lysis of only certain pathogens by neutrophils. d. phagocytosis of only certain pathogens by macrophages. 10. Clonal selection a. begins with inflammation. b. occurs for all leukocytes. c. occurs in response to self antigens. d. results in proliferation of antigen-specific lymphocytes. 11. Cytokines are NOT a. able to induce increased blood vessel permeability. b. antigen-specific. c. made in response to bacterial antigens. d. signals from one cell that affects the behavior of another cell. 12. A fundamental difference between the antigen receptors on B cells (BCR) and on T cells (TCR) is their a. different requirements for antigen presentation. b. function following antigen binding. c. heterogeneity from one lymphocyte to the next. d. heterogeneity on each lymphocyte. 13. Genes for immunoglobulin (antibodies) are unlike other human genes in that a. antibody genes are composed of introns and exons. b. DNA for antibody molecules is inherited from only one parent. c. gene segments must be spliced together to make each unique antibody molecule. d. several exons encode each antibody molecule. 14. Humoral immunity can be acquired passively by a. catching a virus from a friend by shaking hands. b. receiving a vaccine of influenza virus grown in eggs. c. receiving serum from someone who has recovered from an infection. d. receiving leukocytes from an immune family member.

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15. Inflammation does NOT involve a. cytokine production by macrophages. b. migration of leukocytes out of the circulation. c. secretion of antibodies. d. swelling at the site of infection 16. Innate immune responses are most effective against a. antigens resembling self antigens. b. common antigens on bacteria. c. genetically engineered antigens. d. viruses that have previously caused infection. 17. Lymphocytes acquire their antigen specificity a. as they enter the tissues from the circulation. b. before they encounter antigen. c. depending on which antigens are present. d. in the secondary lymphoid organs. 18. A secondary immune response is NOT a. faster than a primary response. b. larger than a primary response. c. longer lasting than a primary response. d. preceded by a longer lag period than a primary response. 19. Antibody effector functions include all of the following EXCEPT a. activating complement on bacterial surfaces to promote phagocytosis by neutrophils. b. binding extracellular viruses to block their entry into host cells. c. binding intracellular viruses to initiate cytotoxicity. d. coating bacteria to promote their phagocytosis by neutrophils. 20. Effector functions of complement include all of the following EXCEPT a. attracting phagocytosis to the site of infection. b. facilitating phagocytosis of complement-coated bacteria. c. increasing blood vessel permeability to plasma proteins. d. presenting antigen to B cells.

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