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GRADE 12A: Advertising Persuasive writing

About this unit


The unit is designed to guide your planning and teaching of English lessons. It provides a link between the standards for English and your lesson plans. The teaching and learning activities in this unit should help you to plan the content, pace and level of difficulty of lessons. You should adapt the ideas in the unit to meet the needs of your class. You can also supplement the ideas with appropriate activities from your schools textbooks and other resources. In this unit, students explore the use of emotive and persuasive language in advertising.

UNIT 12A.7 11 hours


Resources
Resources include: quiz to raise awareness of exposure to advertising; well-known advertisement from a newspaper or magazine; written text about audience profiling in the advertising industry; video recording of two or three television advertisements; audio recording of two speakers talking about advertising on television; copies of broadsheet and tabloid newspapers; persuasive letter or article about a controversial aspect of advertising.

Expectations
By the end of the unit, most students will: systematically use bilingual and monolingual dictionaries and thesauruses to support vocabulary development; apply understanding of word parts, relationships, and context clues to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words and specialised vocabulary; understand affixes and roots and use these to guess the meanings of unknown words, and to extend, elaborate on and add precision to meaning; understand and respond to a range of information on unseen but more abstract subjects given in face-to-face or audio-only monologues and dialogues of up to 15 exchanges; identify a speakers or writers opinion and supporting arguments; prepare and make 15-minute presentations to an audience, on topics that interest, inform, and propose ideas or action; summarise and evaluate persuasive texts; understand a wide range of features of formal written English and text cohesion; read a variety of persuasive and discussion texts evaluating arguments, claims and recommendations, and comparing them to other evidence and beliefs to form a balanced view of a text; independently write, edit and revise texts of approximately 20 sentences in a coherent structure with paragraphs and varied sentence structure; compose persuasive texts of at least 500 words arguing for or against a particular view on an issue of topical, or personal interest. Students who progress further will: speak accurately and fluently in a series of connected utterances with good control of basic language structures and appropriate use of more advanced forms. Students who make slower progress will: deliver a series of connected utterances with reasonable accuracy and without undue hesitation.

Key structures and functions


Use of emotive and persuasive language persuasive words and phrases: Sorting your finances couldnt be easier. Drive away an SXi for under 100. Persuasive definitions: Save face as well as money with one of the best looking well-equipped cars in its class. Rhetorical questions: A new company car. Hardly taxing is it? Condescension, concession, pandering: Picanto: the thinking persons small car. Deliberate ambiguities: Probably the safest system in the world.

Vocabulary
Advertising: aggressive, attract, audience, aware, consumer, contrast, effective, encourage, exaggerate, focus (on), inform, lead/mislead, persuade, pressure, peer pressure, promote, symbol, target/target group, slogan, keeping up with the Joneses, bombard, etc. Opinions: admire, approve/disapprove, concerned, consequently, convince, keen (on), moreover, object (to), regard (as), support, etc.

341 | Qatar English scheme of work | Grade 12A | Unit 12A.7 | Advertising

Education Institute 2005

Standards for the unit


11 hours
5 hours Advertising and audience targeting 2 hours Press advertising 12A.1.5 4 hours Role-play and writing 12A.1.6 12A.1.2

Unit 12A.7
CORE STANDARDS Grade 12A standards
12A.1.1 Recognise, understand and use at least 4500 words for listening, speaking, reading and writing, extending and consolidating the active vocabulary words from Grades K9.

SUPPORTING STANDARDS including Grade 11A standards


Apply an understanding of word parts, word relationships and context clues to determine the meaning of specialised vocabulary and to understand grade-level vocabulary.

EXTENSION STANDARDS Grade 12A standards

12A.1.3

Recognise and investigate euphemism and connotation. Expand their range of idiomatic expressions from both UK and US English using basic English dictionaries of idioms to extend understanding. Recognise and investigate ways in which English acquires neologisms. Consolidate use of bilingual dictionaries in paper-based format and online. Use such dictionaries to find word meanings and alternative words and phrases to enhance speech and writing. Define new vocabulary in Arabic if there is a direct equivalent or in simple English if there is no equivalent, with alternative English phrases or expressions. Consolidate understanding of roots from Grades 711. Extend ability to recognise and spell root words, generate new words and determine the spelling of unfamiliar words from a wide range of affixes.

12A.2.1

12A.3.2

Understand and respond to persuasive arguments, debates and discussions with two or more participants.

342 | Qatar English scheme of work | Grade 12A | Unit 12A.7 | Advertising

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11 hours
12A.4.2

SUPPORTING STANDARDS including Grade 11A standards


Interact in group, paired and more formal discussion: actively participate, contributing relevant opinions, examples and suggestions to the discussion; challenge ideas and get the interlocutor to justify their point of view where appropriate; show independence by initiating new ideas and taking responsibility for keeping the discussion going. 12A.4.1

CORE STANDARDS Grade 12A standards


Speak accurately, using a series of 12 or more clear, connected, simple and complex utterances with: accurate and appropriate use of grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation, including appropriate stress and intonation; control of basic language structures and use of advanced language structures: a variety of complex utterances with subordinate clauses, linked with appropriate conjunctions, use of all tenses, active and passive voice, modals, conditionals, gerunds and infinitives; appropriate cohesive devices to link ideas within utterances and organise ideas at discourse level; readily comprehensible content, requiring little interpretation; and where pronunciation enhances communication; speech sustained throughout with few pauses or stumbling;

EXTENSION STANDARDS Grade 12A standards

12A.4.3

Use a variety of interactive and language-repair strategies to initiate, maintain and conclude a conversation of at least 20 minutes involving a variety of linguistic and paralinguistic communication strategies.

12A.4.4

Speak fluently: stay on the topic and maintain relevance; use rich content ideas developed with elaboration and detail, backed by relevant examples and minimised use of redundancy; cooperatively develop the topic; show independence by eliciting more from the interlocutor; negotiate meaning, and keep talking; take longer turns and allow others to develop their longer turns; process and express more complex ideas; talk at length without hesitation and at normal speed; deal with unexpected questions or comments.

12A.5.3

Use a variety of functional phrases to enhance a presentation to an audience for greeting, introducing, stating the purpose, giving an overview, linking ideas, referring to visuals, summarising, recommending, concluding and dealing with questions.

12A.5.4

Prepare and make to an audience a 15-minute presentation on a topic that interests and informs (current or past events).

12A.5.6

Summarise and evaluate persuasive texts and presentations, distinguishing fact from opinion, seeking clarification, giving relevant feedback, discussing merits, issues, options, preferences and proposing alternatives.

343 | Qatar English scheme of work | Grade 12A | Unit 12A.7 | Advertising

Education Institute 2005

11 hours

SUPPORTING STANDARDS including Grade 11A standards


12A.7.5

CORE STANDARDS Grade 12A standards


Consolidate ability to read persuasive texts critically by analysing the organisational and language features of particular texts and by comparing a variety of texts serving similar purposes paying particular attention to: Respond to, evaluate and criticise a range of persuasive texts, drawing on evidence from the text to illustrate and justify views: assess the validity of the point of view presented in relation to its internal coherence and objectivity, distinguishing fact from opinion; evaluate arguments, claims recommendations etc, comparing them to other evidence, beliefs and values; analyse the use of figurative and persuasive language intended to attract the reader, or imply half truths; compare and contrast texts on similar themes, alternative versions of the same theme, or with the same purpose; present a balanced and objective evaluation of a persuasive argument to others, on an issue of topical or personal concern.

EXTENSION STANDARDS Grade 12A standards

12A.7.6

11A.8.2

Consolidate ability to plan a piece of writing in note or diagrammatic form showing the main points in sequence.

12A.9.3

Drawing on experience of reading, compose information texts which present information based on personal knowledge or research, showing ability to: construct a clear plan in the form of notes, a summary, a flowchart, or concept map showing the main elements and the connections between them, as a basis for writing; tailor the text to a particular audience; synthesise information from a range of sources; select vocabulary and typical language to suit the purpose; organise texts in ways appropriate to their content by chronology, priority, comparison and signpost this clearly for the reader; use ICT to organise and present the text attractively and in ways that help the reader, using headings, lists, paragraphs, diagrams and, where possible, illustrations that are drawn, scanned or pasted as appropriate; follow basic conventions of recording and acknowledging sources in footnotes, bibliographies or forewords by attributing reported speech, mentioning a book, website, author in the text, as relevant.

344 | Qatar English scheme of work | Grade 12A | Unit 12A.7 | Advertising

Education Institute 2005

11 hours
12A.8.5

SUPPORTING STANDARDS including Grade 11A standards


Consolidate use of common wordprocessing software such as Microsoft Word to plan, compose, edit and present own writing. 12A.9.4

CORE STANDARDS Grade 12A standards


From Grade 11 Advanced extend writing of persuasive texts, in a variety of forms. Argue for or against a particular view on an issue of topical, or personal interest: structure the argument clearly with titles and introductory statements to capture the readers attention, clearly articulated position, supporting arguments and elaboration, conclusions to reiterate or summarise, use appropriate language devices to persuade; acknowledge sources of evidence and views in the text, as footnotes, in a list or short bibliography, as appropriate to the text; use ICT to organise and present persuasive writing to particular audiences use formatting to capture interest and emphasise key messages, structure points and paragraphs, illustrate, compare; experiment with presenting the same argument in different forms or converting one form to another, showing ability to adapt the language and organisation of the text to differing purposes.

EXTENSION STANDARDS Grade 12A standards

345 | Qatar English scheme of work | Grade 12A | Unit 12A.7 | Advertising

Education Institute 2005

Activities
Objectives
5 hours Advertising and audience targeting Students are able to: use key vocabulary to explain the purpose of advertising; recognise and investigate ways in which English acquires neologisms; identify and critically understand emotive and persuasive language and how it is used to manipulate perceptions; [continued]

Unit 12A.7
Possible teaching activities
In groups, students complete a quiz to raise awareness of the power of advertising. Questions should require students to identify logos, slogans and jingles from well-known brands and the advertisements used to promote them. Include a range of products (e.g. cars, mobile phones, fast-food restaurants, sports wear, cleaning products, sweets). Discuss the use of proprietary eponyms that are known in Qatar (e.g. Hoover, Kleenex, Xerox, Biro, Jacuzzi). Use the results of the quiz to lead into a short general discussion on the purpose of advertising. In groups, students brainstorm the ways in which we are exposed to advertising. Each group reports back to the whole class, starting with the group with the longest list. Make a list on the board, for example: in newspapers and magazines on television and radio on the Internet by junk mail on public transport in bill boards

Notes
A full lesson plan with worksheets on branding and brand names can be found on the British Council website for English teachers at: www.teachingenglish.org.uk/try/ plans/brand/brand.shtml An alternative introduction: Ask students to think if they have ever bought anything they didnt really need or want. What was it? Why did they buy it? Students tell a partner about it. Lead into a general discussion on advertising.

School resources
This column is blank for schools to note their own resources (e.g. textbooks, worksheets).

346 | Qatar English scheme of work | Grade 12A | Unit 12A.7 | Advertising

Education Institute 2005

Objectives
[continued] apply an understanding of word parts, word relationships and context clues to work out the meaning of new vocabulary; give and ask for opinions, agree and disagree; understand and respond to persuasive arguments, debates and discussions with two participants; follow the progression of points in a discussion, infer speakers points of view and intention and distinguish fact from opinion.

Possible teaching activities


Display a well-known advertisement from a newspaper or magazine. Elicit students reaction to the advertisement by asking a series of questions, for example: Have you seen this advertisement before? Where? What do you think of it? Does it make you want to buy the product? Why/Why not? Which group of people is it aimed at? How do you know? Students discuss first in pairs and small groups and then as a whole class. Teacher monitors and feeds in vocabulary as required. They identify the use of emotive and persuasive language in the advertisement and how it is used to manipulate perceptions. They note the use of: persuasive words and phrases (e.g. Sorting your finances couldnt be easier. Drive away an SXi for under 100.) persuasive definitions (e.g. Save face as well as money with one of the best looking wellequipped cars in its class.). rhetorical questions: (e.g. A new company car. Hardly taxing is it?) condescension, concession, pandering: (e.g. Picanto: the thinking persons small car.). deliberate ambiguities: (e.g. Probably the safest system in the world.). Identify and investigate euphemism and connotation in the text, if appropriate (e.g. Generously cut mens crease-resistant trousers.

Notes
Advertisement should include a picture, some text and a slogan. Alternatively, record and show a TV commercial. .

School resources

347 | Qatar English scheme of work | Grade 12A | Unit 12A.7 | Advertising

Education Institute 2005

Objectives

Possible teaching activities


Students read a text about audience profiling in the advertising industry. Students work in pairs. They apply an understanding of word parts, word relationships and context clues to work out the meaning of new vocabulary. Students think of the types of advertisement that appear in commercial TV programmes that they know and discuss how the adverts match the audience. Set a homework task: students watch TV and keep a record of the programmes and the types of advertisement shown.

Notes
Profiling: The advertising industry classifies people according to earnings, education and social habits and gender. The general classifications are: Higher managerial, administrative or professional (upper middle class) Intermediate managerial, administrative or professional (middle class) Supervisory or clerical and junior managerial, administrative or professional (lower middle class) Skilled manual workers (skilled working class) Semi-skilled and unskilled manual workers (working class) State pensioners or widows, casual or lowest grade workers (those at the lowest levels of subsistence)

School resources

C1

C2 D

In small groups, students compare and contrast two or three television or magazine advertisements for the same kind of product (e.g. mobile phones, washing powders, perfumes, soft drinks, cars) and decide which they like best or think is most effective, and why. Remind students to identify and investigate the use of emotive and persuasive language as well as euphemism and connotation in the texts. Monitor group-work for correct usage of language of giving and asking for opinions, agreeing and disagreeing. Each group prepares to present their ideas to the rest of the class. Before they prepare, review features of a good presentation, including: a consistent structure; use of appropriate language for introducing, developing main ideas, summarising and concluding, opinions clearly presented with supporting reasons; speaking with few hesitations from notes; use of paralinguistic features; ability to handle anticipated and unexpected questions from the audience and, where appropriate, maintain a dialogue with them. Groups prepare and make a presentation to the rest of the class.

348 | Qatar English scheme of work | Grade 12A | Unit 12A.7 | Advertising

Education Institute 2005

Objectives

Possible teaching activities


Students listen to two speakers talking about advertising on television. They complete comprehension tasks to demonstrate ability to follow the progression of points, infer speakers points of view and intention, and distinguish fact from opinion. Students express their own views on the topic, referring to what was said in the text. Students read a variety of claims by insurance companies and other advertisers who use statistics to promote their product, for example: Nine out of ten owners say their cat prefers Frisky. They note references to survey results and other statistics in footnotes or small print. Students discuss the effect and validity of the claims.

Notes

School resources

2 hours Press advertising Students are able to: prepare and make to an audience a 10-minute presentation on a topic that interests and informs; compose information texts which present information based on personal knowledge or research; use a dictionary and a thesaurus to select vocabulary and typical language to suit the purpose.

Students work in groups of four. Give each group a copy of a broadsheet and a copy of a tabloid newspaper. Students prepare to answer the question What do the advertisements tell about the typical readership of a publication? Students estimate the percentage of the whole paper that is given over to advertising by counting the total number of pages and the number of pages that consist of adverts; they record this figure. They divide the adverts into categories according to the target audience that they recognise (with reference to the audience profile from the reading text). They compare: the number of A, B and C1 adverts to the C2, D and E ones; the male to female elements of the adverts, etc. Groups prepare a summary of their findings and present to the whole class. In groups, students look at online newspapers and compare the types of advert theyre promoting. Does traditional audience profiling still apply to this medium? Or are there other factors at play? To help students prepare to write a report of approximately 500 words on their findings, discuss the content of the report before students begin writing. Students prepare a plan in the form of notes, a summary, a flow-chart or concept map showing the main elements and the connections between them, as a basis for writing. They use a dictionary and a thesaurus to select vocabulary and typical language to suit the purpose. They use ICT to organise and present the text attractively and in ways that help the reader, using: headings; lists; paragraphs; diagrams; where possible, illustrations that are drawn, scanned or pasted as appropriate. Most websites rely on advertising for revenue to pay for their service costs.

349 | Qatar English scheme of work | Grade 12A | Unit 12A.7 | Advertising

Education Institute 2005

Objectives
4 hours Role-play and writing Students are able to: interact in paired and group discussions and more formal discussion; prepare and make to an audience a 10-minute presentation on a topic that interests and informs; compose information texts which present information based on personal knowledge or research; read persuasive texts in a variety of genres presenting and arguing for a particular point of view, comparing the organisation and language features of texts serving similar purposes; respond to, evaluate and criticise a range of persuasive texts, referring to the texts for evidence; compose a persuasive text, arguing for or against a particular view on an issue of topical interest.

Possible teaching activities


Students imagine that they have just joined an advertising company and have been asked to advertise several products with a budget of 50 000. They must choose the best medium in which to advertise each product. They write a 50-word promotion for each product or a short script for TV and radio adverts (being careful to keep to the time limit). Products might include a soap or shampoo, a toy, a soft drink, etc. Students work in groups of 45 to complete a grid, for example: Medium Newspaper TV Magazine Local radio Online Product Expected audience profile Cost of advertising XXXX per half page XXXX per 30-second spot XXXX per half page XXXX per 20-second spot XXXX per 100 000 page impressions

Notes
In order for the simulation to work, provide students with real advertising costs from local papers, TV and radio stations.

School resources

They present their plans to the rest of the group. Students read a persuasive letter or article about a controversial aspect of advertising, for example, advertising junk food, cigarette advertising or sponsorship of major sporting events by tobacco companies. Students identify typical organisational and language features of a persuasive text. They assess the validity of the point of view presented in relation to its internal coherence and objectivity, distinguishing fact from opinion. They evaluate arguments, claims, and recommendations comparing them to other evidence, beliefs and values. They analyse the use of persuasive language intended to imply or create half-truths or pseudo-truths. Students individually compose a 500-word essay on a controversial aspect of advertising, for example Does advertising make you buy things you dont need? Brainstorm the content and elicit organisational and language features typical of a discussion essay as necessary. Use ideas to develop assessment criteria. Students draft their essay using ICT. They edit and improve their work using the assessment criteria as a guide. See standard 12A.9.4 for a list of typical features of persuasive language.

350 | Qatar English scheme of work | Grade 12A | Unit 12A.7 | Advertising

Education Institute 2005

Assessment
Assessment
Listening

Unit 12A.7
Notes
Listening carries approximately 20% of the assessment weighting for this grade.

Possible assessment activities


Students listen to a discussion between two or more people on a topic related to advertising. They demonstrate comprehension by responding to true/false statements or multiple-choice questions. Students present an advertisement, describe it, discuss the target group and give their own opinion about its effectiveness. Alternatively, in small groups students compare and contrast two or three different advertisements for a product and discuss their effectiveness.

School resources

Speaking

Speaking carries approximately 30% of the assessment weighting for this grade.

Reading

Students read a selection of short texts (e.g. adverts or cuttings from brochures) followed by multiple-choice questions or true/false/doesnt say statements about the writers intentions and opinions, target group, etc. Students write an essay of approximately 300 words on a topic related to advertising, for example Does advertising make you buy things you dont need?

Reading carries approximately 20% of the assessment weighting for this grade.

Writing

Writing carries approximately 30% of the assessment weighting for this grade.

351 | Qatar English scheme of work | Grade 12A | Unit 12A.7 | Advertising

Education Institute 2005

352 | Qatar English scheme of work | Grade 12A | Unit 12A.7 | Advertising

Education Institute 2005