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The Lean Workforce

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Executive Overview A Perspective on Workforce Management Defining the Lean Workforce Seven Principles of The Lean Workforce A Word about Incentives Business Transformation The Lean Enterprise Benefits of The Lean Workforce Summary

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Executive Overview
Ever since the industrial revolution supplanted individual craftsmen as the means to get products to consumers, there has been a continual quest to drive time and cost out of the production and delivery process, what we now call the supply chain. This quest is often expressed colloquially as better, cheaper, faster. The path to better, cheaper, faster has always been paved with improvements in technology, process, or a combination of the two. Steam-powered machines launched the industrial revolution; Henry Fords assembly line process enabled mass production; and the computer made information and workflow an integral part of supply chain improvement initiatives, to name just a few examples. But better, cheaper, faster is associated with the traditional push model for supply chain improvement. Today, the consumer is king. The Internet has become the ultimate vehicle for immediate gratification, helping to replace the push model with a consumer-driven pull model more aptly expressed as perfect, free, now. While this consumer wish list may not be truly attainable, clearly those companies that can come closest to this ideal will be the winners in the highly competitive global marketplace. The question is how do we transform supply chain operations to capitalize on the pull model? There are currently two process improvement philosophies in vogue to exploit the consumerdriven supply chain pull model: Demand Driven Supply Networks (DDSN) and Lean Manufacturing (Lean). Both concepts focus on mapping information flow from the consumer down through the supply chain and then adjusting production to respond to this demand. Where the two differ is that DDSN concentrates on using the inbound information flow to trigger appropriate production, while Lean concentrates on driving non-value add elements, principally waste and time, out of the outbound production flow. You might think of them as opposite sides of the same coin. While both concepts concentrate on inventory, production and distribution, they pay scant attention to one important and costly element the workforce needed to execute these plans. RedPrairie previously addressed the integration of workforce issues into DDSN strategy in the white paper The Demand-Drive Workforce . This white paper will show how workforce management should employ Lean principles to reduce workforce waste and time, creating The Lean Workforce .
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Just as DDSN and Lean are complementary supply chain improvement philosophies, The DemandDriven Workforce and The Lean Workforce are complementary strategies for improving workforce planning, scheduling, utilization and productivity. Both white papers are available on the RedPrairie web site at RedPrairie.com.

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A Perspective on Workforce Management


This paper will present a methodology for applying the principles of Lean to workforce management in order to meet the challenges of todays consumerdriven supply chains. However, although the concepts of Lean and consumer-driven supply chains are relatively recent, it is important to note the foundation for the workforce management principles underlying The Lean Workforce is based on over a century of research and management practice. The person acknowledged as the founder of scientific management, that is, the application of scientific principles to workforce management, was Frederick W. Taylor. Taylor conducted numerous experiments and wrote extensively on workforce management in the early part of the last century. Interestingly, though faced with entirely different cultural norms, levels of automation and business climate from today, his findings are remarkably consistent with current thought leadership on workforce management, and serve as the backdrop for The Lean Workforce. For example, just as current management practice has too often focused on optimizing production schedules and inventory levels with little thought given to workforce optimization, Taylor found a similar lack of attention to workforce issues a century ago. He wrote in a collection of essays published in 1911, We can see and feel the waste of material things. Awkward, inefficient, or ill-directed movements of men, however, leave nothing visible or tangible behind themfor this reason, even though our daily loss from this source is greater than from our waste of material things, the one has stirred us deeply, while the other has moved us but little. Taylors comments are reflected today in the fact neither DDSN nor Lean philosophies contain any meaningful provision for the workforce necessary to execute those plans. And since labor costs average over 50 percent of distribution costs for most companies, this is a fairly significant oversight. Not only is labor expense a large portion of distribution cost, companies without workforce management programs average only 67 percent of expected productivity levels for their facilities. Taylor would expect this to be the case because he felt workers, left to their own devices, would be inherently inefficient and that the remedy for this inefficiency lies in systematic management, which he defines as a true science, resting upon clearly defined laws, rules, and principles, as a foundation. Taylors theories are a precursor to the concept of The Lean Workforce that a systematic approach based on best practice standards will drive inefficiencies out of the supply chain. This is also consistent with the teachings of Gene Gagnon, the father of modern labor management, who created a system of preferred methods and labor standards starting in the 1960s. Thus, current thinking on methods for addressing workforce optimization within the consumer-driven supply chain is based on principles in use for decades. What is different is its application within the Lean framework.

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Frederick W. Taylor, The Principles of Scientific Management, 1911, Fordham University, Modern History Sourcebook, 2006 Ibid

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Defining the Lean Workforce


The question becomes, then what exactly is a Lean Workforce? For the purpose of this paper we will define a Lean Workforce as one with the right number of workers, with the right skill sets for the job at hand, working safely and productively without errors. This has numerous implications, as will be discussed in the section below on the seven principles of The Lean Workforce. But first we must understand how the concept of Lean applies to the workforce. The concept of Lean manufacturing evolved from the work of Taiichi Ohno, the production engineer who developed the Toyota Production System, a highly efficient manufacturing workflow process. Ohno based his approach on what he considered the seven wastes of manufacturing. By eliminating these wastes, the Toyota Production System became the envy of the world and the standard-bearer for Lean. Thus from the start, lean has been associated with removing waste from workflow processes. As world economics have evolved from manufacturing-centric to the broader supply chain, the idea of eliminating waste has also evolved to encompass wider scrutiny of all supply chain operations. According to AMR Research, at its core, a Lean supply chain is one that adds value to customers by eliminating waste and time from the order to delivery process, so as to deliver the highest quality products at the least cost. An important step in finding where potential supply chain waste exists is value stream mapping. In this exercise, the order flow is traced from the customer up stream to the supplier, and then the resulting material flow is traced down stream from the supplier to the customer. All steps in this process loop are examined to evaluate if they add value to the customer. Those that dont are candidates for elimination. This value mapping process can be extended to distribution workforce operations, as well as to other workforce groups within the enterprise, to identify work activities that dont add value to operations or the customer. Examples include unproductive work methods, non-productive or indirect time, excessive travel distances, or other work habits and conditions that dont add value. AMR Research recommends as areas for consideration: elimination of redundant or manual processes, working toward elimination of errors, improving information flow, and removing non-value steps wherever possible. The breadth of this definition implies two things: there is tremendous opportunity to root out waste and time in workforce operations; and because of this, The Lean Workforce is not a one-time exercise, but rather a framework for continuous improvement.

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Judy Sweeney, Colin Masson, Bill Swanton, Lean Manufacturing, Part 2: Value Stream Mapping, AMR Research, April 6, 2006 Judy Sweeney, Lean: Its Not Just for Manufacturing Anymore, AMR Research, June 7, 2006

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Seven Principles of The Lean Workforce


In deference to Taiichi Ohnos seven wastes, this paper will present the seven principles of The Lean Workforce that can help companies to eliminate workforce waste and drive greater value to their customers. Best practices are developed through a combination of industrial engineering experience and observation. Industrial engineers observe multiple workers performing a job to determine current best methods, and then apply engineering principles and previous experience from evaluating similar jobs to arrive at the best practice for that job. The best practice will not necessarily be the fastest way to perform the job, but rather the method that supports the optimal combination of safety, quality and efficiency on a consistent basis. This will be covered more fully in the fifth principle below. Once set, best practice methods are not static, either. If elements of the job change, for example if compliance labeling requirements are expanded, the method should be adjusted accordingly. Also, workers may devise better ways to perform a job based on their experience with the best practice. These incremental improvements should be rolled into the preferred method to leverage the benefit across all workers. The engineers also examine the wider scope of operations to consider issues such as workflow, travel distances, slotting and other possible wastes of time and motion. In this context, best practices encompass much more that the optimal way to perform a given task. Thus, implementing these broader best practices can improve operational performance over and above what is attained by getting workers from 67 percent to 100 percent productivity.

1. Best Practices
The first and biggest hurdle to creating a Lean workforce is the status quo. Attitudes such as weve always done it that way and if it aint broke, dont fix it imply that current methods are not only acceptable, but preferable. The problem is, real world experience shows just the opposite. Existing distribution work methods for most companies produce results that average only 67 percent of potential productivity defined as a fair days work for a fair days pay. This does not imply the average worker is lazy or incompetent, just that the methods used are inefficient. This is normally caused by the lack of defined optimal methods, or best practices, for performing routine tasks, or failure to properly train workers on such methods if they exist. This explains why many labor management system implementations fail to achieve the expected increases in performance. Traditionally, labor management systems track and report on performance against historical goals such as units per hour. But those goals were set using methods that on average produced only 67 percent of potential productivity. Therefore, simply tracking and reporting on progress against those goals will never foster achievement of optimum performance because the bar is set too low and the true potential, and the methods for achieving it, are never defined. Thus, the development of best practices and training on their use is the foundation for effective workforce management programs and The Lean Workforce.

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Seven Principles of The Lean Workforce


2. Goals, Standards and Adaptable Precision
Once waste is designed out of workforce operations through deployment of best practices, it is important to ensure the best practice methodologies are being used by the workforce. As will be discussed later, properly training and coaching workers is a critical first step. But on an on-going basis, supervisors cant hover over workers to make sure they follow the approved methods. A simple and effective tool to ensure each worker uses the right methods is to impose goals or standards for the length of time it should take to complete each job or task. With provision for safety and quality as described below, workers will not be able to achieve the standards unless they are using the most efficient methods as defined by the best practice. Tracking and reporting software can keep supervisors informed at all times through mobile communications devices of any workers who are not reaching their goals so they can take immediate corrective action, such as coaching the worker how to apply the preferred method. There are many different ways to establish goals and standards, with associated degrees of accuracy. The simplest, but least accurate, are historical averages. As mentioned above, historical averages are not based on best practices and do not account for variances in job content. For example, a standard based on cartons per hour picked does not differentiate between an order for 20 cartons of a single product picked from one location and an order for 20 cartons of 20 different products spread across the warehouse. Clearly, the work content and the time required to perform these two tasks are vastly different, but would not be reflected as such by the simple historical standard. A more accurate and fair approach is engineered labor standards, developed using time studies, an established database of granular movements called master standards data, or a combination of both. These examine individual jobs based on the work content to define an appropriate length of time for each task that reflects weight, cube and dimensions of the product, the equipment used and the distance traveled. An important consideration when embarking on a Lean Workforce program is to decide what level of accuracy your operations require now and in the future. In general, the more accurate the standards, the more they will contribute to fairness, productivity and worker acceptance. However, more accurate standards can be more work to establish and maintain. It is perfectly reasonable to begin with a lower level of accuracy and then migrate to higher levels over time. RedPrairie refers to this approach as adaptable precision and recommends companies employing this approach make sure the technology used to monitor adherence to the standards can support this migration.

3. Planning, Scheduling and Simulation


The inability to determine the actual number of workers and hours required to respond to dynamic work demands often result in fixed or estimated staffing levels and job assignments. This fosters waste in the form of excess labor during slow periods and excessive overtime and temporary help during peak periods.

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Seven Principles of The Lean Workforce


But once best practices are in place and accurate standards are created, understanding how long a given job should take or how many workers are required to fill a group of orders becomes a simple mathematical equation. Technology is available to translate order demand information, seasonal trends, special promotions and other demand signals into workforce plans that indicate how many people with what skills are needed to complete the proscribed work within a given timeframe such as a shift, day, week or longer period. This planning information can be combined with human resource data on skills, seniority, preferred shift or work days, hours worked in the pay period, employment regulations and other pertinent information to develop proper staffing schedules. This will ensure the right number of workers with the right skills are available when needed to complete the work at hand, while eliminating the waste associated with overstaffing or unnecessary overtime or temporary help. It also can be used real-time to assess when excess labor capacity in one area can be shifted to support areas with temporary shortages. Another advantage of understanding work content and timeframes is the ability to evaluate the impact of changes to work methods, equipment or layout, and calculate the return on investment for these changes. For example, an upcoming promotion may suggest re-slotting the forward pick face to make it faster to pick the promotional items. However, will the efficiency gained in picking out-weigh the cost of the re-slotting moves? By using simulation technology to understand both the labor expense to perform the re-slotting and the picking labor saved on the promotion, the true ROI can be accurately determined.

4. Productive vs. Non-productive Time


One of the shortcomings of many labor management programs is they only measure the productivity of workers while engaged in production jobs, such as fulfilling an order. They fail to account for time spent between assignments or indirect time. This leads to questions such as: is an associate who works at 105% of standard, but takes a half-hour rather than the allotted 15 minute break more productive than an associate who works at 95% of standard, but adheres to the 15 minute break schedule? Or is an associate who works at 100% of standard, but finds frequent need to recharge batteries or clean the work area more productive than an associate working at 90% of standard who seldom participates in these indirect activities? Not all wasted time is this obvious, however. Work often expands to fill the time allotted. Workers are incredibly inventive at finding ways to make the work assigned fit their shift so they can be paid for a full eight-hour day. To understand the true productivity of the workforce, and drive out waste, requires a total view of all on-site time. RedPrairie research has found that without this visibility, workers average 75 minutes of unproductive time per eight hour shift. Therefore, productivity data must be combined with time & attendance information and visibility to all indirect time in order to provide a true picture of performance. Only with this complete view can waste be eliminated from all workforce operations.

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Seven Principles of The Lean Workforce


5. Quality and Safety
The typical perception of workforce management programs is they are strictly intended to make workers work faster. This is not the case. The intent of these programs is to help workers work smarter. This is accomplished through employing best practice methodologies, training workers and supervisors how to properly use the best practices, and by removing barriers to productivity. Incorporating provisions for quality and safety are important steps in establishing best practices. Mistakes cost time and money, notes JoAnn Lilek, chief financial officer for DSC Logistics, a national third party logistics provider. Anything that enables us to execute flawlessly is important. Enforcing quality and safety standards is especially important if reward or incentive plans are used. Workers will try to cut corners to improve their productivity numbers, but the cost of mistakes and accidents that ensue, including damaged inventory and equipment, injuries, penalties, returns, and other customer service issues, can far outweigh the savings from productivity gains. To enforce quality and safety standards, RedPrairie recommends an employee balanced scorecard approach. Under this approach, workers are evaluated across a number of dimensions, including productivity, quality, safety and attendance. Productivity is measured as performance against standards. Quality can be measured by number of errors. Safety is judged by the lack of accidents as well as subjective evaluation of adherence to proper work methods. Attendance may incorporate factors such as tardiness and observance of break and meal schedules. If incentive plans are in use, it is common to set quality and safety, and sometimes attendance, thresholds before which incentives will be paid. The employee balanced scorecard provides the data for these decisions, and may be supplied to workers to explain why incentives were or were not paid.

6. Training, Monitoring and Coaching


The best practices in the world will do little good if workers dont understand how to use them. Likewise, if supervisors dont understand the best practices or dont know how to coach workers how to use them, it will be impossible to build and sustain a Lean Workforce. Therefore, a thorough, well thought out, multi-level training program is essential to workforce improvement programs. Begin with training workers and supervisors on the concepts of workforce management, including the importance of best practices and performance standards. Next, involve the workers and supervisors in defining the best practices and standards. Not only does this ensure the best practices and standards are appropriate for your operations, it helps get buy-in that the standards are fair and accurate. When ready to roll out the program, train the trainer instruction should be given. Usually, this will be for front-line supervisors who will be charged with both initial training on best practices for the workers, as well as providing coaching for those who have difficulty employing them to achieve performance objectives. Once the program is in place, monitoring software is used to measure compliance with methods and standards. When results dont meet expectations, the supervisor is alerted so any barriers to productivity can be removed and methodology problems can be corrected with additional training and coaching. The underlying philosophy of training, monitoring and coaching is to create a Win-Win-Win environment. The workers win because they better understand their jobs and what is expected of them, and can get further training and coaching if they have difficulty reaching their goals. They also are confident they are being evaluated fairly and objectively. In addition, they may earn extra pay if incentive programs are implemented.

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Seven Principles of The Lean Workforce


The supervisors win because they have an objective way to schedule, monitor and evaluate their workers, and will know who their better performers are and which ones need additional help. They also have the training and tools needed to be more effective managers so they can reach their own goals. And of course the company wins because productivity, consistency, quality, morale and retention will all improve. Not surprisingly, this concept of workers and supervisors working in partnership to reach common goals is not new. Frederick Taylor described it this way, Each man should daily be taught by and receive the most friendly help from those who are over him, instead of being, at the one extreme, driven or coerced by his bosses, and at the other left to his own unaided devices. This close, intimate, personal cooperation between management and the men is of the essence of modern scientific or task management. Gartner predicts the importance of this collaboration between workers and management will increase. Future successful companies will have a symbiotic relationship with the future individualized workers, as opposed to an authoritarian relationship. Companies that operate as if they own and control people will become obsolete. Thus, a Lean Workforce is one where all parties, workers, front-line supervisors and management, are all working constructively toward common goals.

7. The Metrics Driven Enterprise


Although most of the principles discussed so far deal with the interaction between workers and management in specific locations or functions, The Lean Workforce is really an enterprise-wide initiative. The real benefit is in optimizing all workforces across the enterprise to their true potential. But optimizing workforces across the enterprise cannot be done with the same face-to-face techniques described above. Instead, management must use aggregate information to understand performance trends and problems in order to take corrective action. To be effective, this information must be current, readily available and easily understood. Dashboards that pull information from across the enterprise in near real time, display it in personalized, graphical views, and provide analytical tools for analysis will fill this need. By supplying management with the metrics required to understand workforce performance across the enterprise, and the tools to analyze trends, drill down to uncover the root cause of problems and determine which groups are high or low performers and why, management can initiate programs to cut waste out of all workforce operations. It is at this level that The Lean Workforce really begins to impact a Lean supply chain in meaningful ways.

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Frederick W. Taylor, The Principles of Scientific Management, 1911, Fordham University, Modern History Sourcebook, 2006 Diane Morello and Betsy Burton, Future Worker 2015: Extreme Individualization, Gartner, March 27, 2006

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A Word about Incentives


Incentive programs were not addressed as part of the seven principles of The Lean Workforce because they are entirely optional. Companies can create Lean Workforces without incentive plans. However, incentives can be a powerful tool to help drive waste out of workforce operations. A study by ARC Advisory Group found 76 percent of companies who employed incentive programs in distribution operations achieved productivity gains of at least 10 percent, with 13 percent reporting gains of over 30 percent. The same study found the overriding reason companies did not use incentive programs was they did not have accurate performance data, and therefore, felt these programs would not be fair. There was also significant concern about the clerical burden these programs can entail. All of these concerns can be eliminated by implementing modern labor management systems along with granular labor standards. Because of the high potential gains and the availability of software applications and engineering services to eliminate potential concerns, RedPrairie recommends careful consideration of incentive plans as an additional results driver in any Lean Workforce program.

Business Transformation
Going from traditional supply chain practices to a Lean supply chain is a significant business transformation. AMR Research notes, One reason for the gap between a lean supply chain vision and reality is often the sheer magnitude of the cultural shift. Similarly, going from a traditional workforce management culture to a Lean Workforce is no small undertaking. It involves the transformation of the way workers, supervisors and management think about the roles of workers and supervisors. Under traditional workforce management practices, workers will do only as much as they have to in order to avoid discipline. This often leads to cherry-picking of the easier jobs by the more experienced workers. Supervisors are there to drive production by closely watching over the workers. Essentially, this is the big stick approach. Under The Lean Workforce approach, workers are accountable for their own production. They know how to do their jobs and how long each job should take. They monitor their performance through the feedback provided. There is no cherry-picking or other inequities in performance because they are measured against the true job content, not historical averages. Supervisors are not there to drive production, but rather, to train and coach workers, and to remove any barriers to their success. This is neither a big stick nor a carrot approach because workers are self-motivated through self-accountability. If desired, a carrot can be added to drive even greater performance through an incentive program once workers have achieved 100 percent of standard.

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Steve Banker, Incentive Pay in the Warehouse, ARC Advisory Group, April 2006 Stephen Hochman, The Lean Supply Chain, AMR Research, June 8, 2006

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Business Transformation
Obviously, there is a big difference between a traditional workforce culture and a Lean culture. Anytime there is a large gulf between current state and future state such as this, there will be resistance to change. Gartner states this resistance is natural and cannot be eliminated, only mitigated. Based on the resistance pyramid developed by professors Nieder and Zimmerman of the University of Bremen in Germany, Gartner defines three levels of resistance to change:

Not able proper training gives workers and supervisors confidence they can do their jobs under the new practices. The knowledge that supervisors are available to coach them should they have problems further reassures workers. Not willing Regardless what other new practices are put in place, this will continue to be a problem if single-variable performance measurements, such as units per hour, are left in place, for this will reward old behaviors. Only the use of engineered standards that measure performance against true job content can shift the culture from avoiding work to self-accountability.
Thus, to transform your business from a traditional workforce management culture to a Lean Workforce culture requires a well thought-out and executed change management program that accounts for workers and supervisors natural resistance to change. It must include proper training, consistent involvement and appropriate reward structures.

Not knowing when workers know something is happening, but dont know what it is or how it impacts them. Not able when workers fear they may not have the skills or knowledge to succeed in the new environment. Not willing when workers are still rewarded, either financially or psychologically, for doing things the old way even after change has been put in place.
These levels of resistance can be successfully dealt with through a change management program that includes:

Not knowing get workers and supervisors involved early on. Give them training on the reasons for employing best practices and standards, and involve the workers and supervisors in establishing them. This creates both understanding and buy-in.

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Diane Morello, Achieving Agility: Plan for Workforce Reconfiguration, Expect Resistance, Gartner, April 10, 2006

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The Lean Enterprise


Although the concepts presented in this paper have been slanted toward distribution workers, it is important to note they apply equally well across all enterprise workforces. Workers and supervisors in manufacturing, transportation and logistics, especially truck drivers, customer service, and dock and yard workers can all help drive waste out of supply chain operations. For retailers, there is tremendous opportunity to create lean workforces in stores, where headcount is significantly higher than in distribution operations. The key is to apply the seven principles of The Lean Workforce across each of these groups. Though the application of the principles may change slightly based on the group to which they are applied, the concepts are still all relevant to any workforce group. Employment of best practices not only ensures the most efficient, safe and error-free methodologies are used, it makes operations more consistent. This reduces training costs, improves quality, and enhances customer service. The use of granular standards and discrete measurement software enables activity-based costing. This helps management to better understand the cost to serve each customer by product or service provided. This information can be very helpful in bidding and price negotiations, as well as in determining true margin contributions by product, customer, service, location or business unit. The collaborative partnership established in a performance focused culture improves the morale and retention of workers and supervisors. Given the high costs of attracting, employing and training new associates, this often overlooked benefit can significantly impact bottom-line results. Self-motivated and accountable workers with higher morale will provide better, more friendly and responsive customer service. This improves customer satisfaction and loyalty. There will be other benefits from creating a Lean Workforce depending on the group and environment to which it is applied. There is also virtually no down-side risk. Lean Workforce programs invariably improve performance and produce return on investment in less than one year. The key is to apply the seven principles of The Lean Workforce across each of these groups. Though the application of the principles may change slightly based on the group to which they are applied, the concepts are still all relevant to any workforce group.

Benefits of The Lean Workforce


The elimination of wasted time and effort as discussed in this paper is the obvious benefit of The Lean Workforce. But many other benefits flow from this approach. Elimination of wasted time and effort improves productivity and throughput, thus reducing costs and improving service Proper workforce planning and scheduling reduces overstaffing, overtime and the need for temporary help. Modeling and simulation tools enable management to evaluate the true costs of changes to methodologies, equipment or layout in order to calculate ROI. Transformation to a self-accountability culture eliminates cherry-picking and other work avoidance activities. This improves productivity and morale, since all workers are evaluated fairly and equitably.

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Summary
Combining the perfect, free, now mentality of todays pull economy with the complexities of global supply chains requires a new look at how to drive cost and time out of supply chain operations. Using Lean principles offers a viable method for addressing this challenge. Lean principles can also be applied to workforce management. The Lean Workforce is based on the research of Frederick Taylor conducted a century ago, the 1940s production principles of Toyotas Taiichi Ohno, and the labor management methodologies of Gene Gagnon first developed in the 1960s, all applied within the recent framework of the Lean supply chain. It is a new concept founded on very established principles. A Lean Workforce is one with the right number of workers, with the right skill sets for the job at hand, working safely and productively without errors. It requires the development of best practices and training on how to perform each job, and standards incorporating efficiency, quality and safety to measure results. It utilizes performance monitoring software to uncover training issues and other barriers to success, as well as to identify and reduce non-productive and indirect time. And it deploys dashboards and analysis tools to help management evaluate workforce performance and trends across the enterprise. Employing a Lean Workforce creates a Win-WinWin situation where workers are self-motivated and self-accountable, supervisors become coaches, and management has a more productive workforce with higher morale and retention. However, this requires a significant business transformation which will encounter natural resistance. It can be accomplished through a change management program using training, involvement and rewards to overcome the three levels of resistance. The result of deploying a Lean Workforce program with proper change management will be a significantly more productive organization with improved quality, consistency and customer service.

About RedPrairie
RedPrairie delivers productivity solutions to help companies around the world in three categoriesinventory, transportation and workforce. RedPrairie provides these solutions to manufacturers, distributors and retailers looking to reduce cost, increase sales and create competitive advantage. With 20 global offices providing services to over 40,000 sites in 50 countries, companies trust RedPrairie inventory, workforce and transportation solutions to deliver an immediate increase in productivitywith the flexibility to adapt as business needs change. At RedPrairie, we understand todays operational demands and were committed to delivering solutions that work. Were committed to delivering solutions for the real world.

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