Ancient Egyptian architecture

Ancient Egyptian architecture is the architecture of ancient Egypt, one of the most influential civilizations throughout history, which developed a vast array of diverse structures and great architectural monuments along the Nile, among the largest and most famous of which are the Great Pyramid of Giza and the Great Sphinx of Giza. Characteristics Due to the scarcity of wood,[1] the two predominant building materials used in ancient Egypt were sun-baked mud brick and stone, mainly limestone, but also sandstone and granite in considerable quantities. [2] From theOld Kingdom onward, stone was generally reserved for tombs and temples, while bricks were used even for royal palaces, fortresses, the walls of temple precincts and towns, and for subsidiary buildings in temple complexes. The core of the pyramids came from stone quarried in the area already while the limestone, now eroded away, that was used to face the pyramids came from the other side of the Nile River and had to be quarried, ferried across, and cut during the dry season before they could be pulled into place on the pyramid.[3] Ancient Egyptian houses were made out of mud collected from the Nile river. It was placed in molds and left to dry in the hot sun to harden for use in construction. Many Egyptian towns have disappeared because they were situated near the cultivated area of the Nile Valley and were flooded as the river bed slowly rose during the millennia, or the mud bricks of which they were built were used by peasants as fertilizer. Others are inaccessible, new buildings having been erected on ancient ones. Fortunately, the dry, hot climate of Egypt preserved some mud brick structures. Examples include the villageDeir al-Madinah, the Middle Kingdom town at Kahun,[4] and the fortresses at Buhen[5] and Mirgissa. Also, many temples and tombs have survived because they were built on high ground unaffected by the Nile flood and were constructed of stone. Thus, our understanding of ancient Egyptian architecture is based mainly on religious monuments,[6] massive structures characterized by thick, sloping walls with few openings, possibly echoing a method of construction used to obtain stability in mud walls. In a similar manner, the incised and flatly modeled surface adornment of the stone buildings may have derived from mud wall ornamentation. Although the use of the arch was developed during the fourth dynasty, all monumental buildings are post and lintel constructions, with flat roofs constructed of huge stone blocks supported by the external walls and the closely spaced columns. Exterior and interior walls, as well as the columns and piers, were covered with hieroglyphic and pictorial frescoes and carvings painted in brilliant colors.[7] Many motifs of Egyptian ornamentation are symbolic, such as thescarab, or sacred beetle, the solar disk, and the vulture. Other common motifs include palm leaves, the papyrus plant, and the buds and flowers of the lotus.[8] Hieroglyphs were inscribed for decorative purposes as well as to record historic events or spells. In addition, these pictorial frescoes and carvings allow us to understand how the Ancient Egyptians lived, statuses, wars that were fought and their beliefs. This was especially true when exploring the tombs of Ancient Egyptian officials in recent years. Ancient Egyptian temples were aligned with astronomically significant events, such as solstices and equinoxes, requiring precise measurements at the moment of the particular event. Measurements at the most significant temples may have been ceremonially undertaken by the Pharaoh himself.[9] The Giza pyramid complex The Giza Necropolis stands on the Giza Plateau, on the outskirts of Cairo, Egypt. This complex of ancient monuments is located some 8 kilometres (5 mi) inland into the desert from the old town of Giza on the Nile, some 20 kilometers (12 mi) southwest of Cairo city center. This Ancient Egyptian necropolis consists of the Pyramid of Khufu (also known as the Great Pyramid and the Pyramid of Cheops), the somewhat smaller Pyramid of Khafre (or Kephren/Chefren), and the relatively modestsized Pyramid of Menkaure (or Mykerinus/Mycerinus), along with a number

of smaller satellite edifices, known as "queens" pyramids, and the Great Sphinx.[10] The pyramids, which were built in the Fourth Dynasty, testify to the power of the pharaonic religion and state. They were built to serve both as grave sites and also as a way to make their names last forever. [11] The size and simple design show the high skill level of Egyptian design and engineering on a large scale.[12] The Great Pyramid of Giza, which was probably completed c. 2580 BC, is the oldest and largest of the pyramids, and is the only surviving monument of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.[13] The pyramid of Khafre is believed to have been completed around 2532 BC, at the end of Khafre's reign.[14] Khafre ambitiously placed his pyramid next to his fathers. It is not as tall as his father's pyramid but he was able to give it the impression of appearing taller by building it on a site with a foundation 33 feet higher than his father's. [15] Along with building his pyramid, Chefren commissioned the building of the giant Sphinx as guardian over his tomb. The face of a human, possibly a depiction of the pharaoh, on a lion's body was seen as a symbol of divinity among the Greeks fifteen hundred years later.[16] The Great Sphinx is carved out of huge blocks of sandstone and stands about sixty-five feet tall.[17] Menkaure's pyramid dates to circa 2490 BC and stands 213 feet high making it the smallest of the Great Pyramids. [18] Popular culture leads people to believe that Pyramids are highly confusing, with many tunnels within the pyramid to create confusion for grave robbers. This is not true. The shafts of pyramids are quite simple, mostly leading directly to the tomb. The immense size of the pyramids attracted robbers to the wealth that lay inside which caused the tombs to be robbed relatively soon after the tomb was sealed in some cases. [19] However, there are sometimes additional tunnels, but these were used for the builders to understand how far they could dig the tomb into the crust of the Earth. Also, it is popular thought that due to grave robbers, future Kings were buried in the Valley of the Kings to help keep them hidden. This is also false, as the Pyramid construction continued for many Dynasties, just on a smaller scale. Finally, the pyramid construction was stopped due to economic factors, not theft. It is widely believed that the pyramids were able to be constructed due to slave labor. Some scholars believe that they were essentially built by farmers during the off season.[20] Either way, the pyramids represent a lifestyle of the nobles that could not exist without the presence of slave labor.[21] Karnak The temple complex of Karnak is located on the banks of the River Nile some 2.5 kilometers (1.5 mi) north of Luxor. It consists of four main parts, the Precinct of Amon-Re, the Precinct of Montu, the Precinct of Mutand the Temple of Amenhotep IV (dismantled), as well as a few smaller temples and sanctuaries located outside the enclosing walls of the four main parts, and several avenues of ram-headed sphinxes connecting the Precinct of Mut, the Precinct of Amon-Re and Luxor Temple. The key difference between Karnak and most of the other temples and sites in Egypt is the length of time over which it was developed and used. Construction work began in the 16th century BC. Approximately 30 pharaohs contributed to the buildings, enabling it to reach a size, complexity and diversity not seen elsewhere. Few of the individual features of Karnak are unique, but the size and number of features is overwhelming. Luxor Temple The Luxor Temple is a huge ancient Egyptian temple complex located on the east bank of the River Nile in the city today known as Luxor (ancient Thebes). Construction work on the temple began during the reign ofAmenhotep III in the 14th century BC. Horemheb and Tutankhamun added columns, statues, and friezes – and Akhenaten had earlier obliterated his father's cartouches and installed a shrine to the Aten – but the only major expansion effort took place under Ramesses II some 100 years after the first stones were put in place. Luxor is thus unique among the main Egyptian temple complexes in having only two pharaohs leave their mark on its architectural structure. The temple proper begins with the 24 metre (79 ft) high First Pylon, built by Ramesses II. The pylon was decorated with scenes of Ramesses's military

Egyptian.Greek.Roman.Islamic | 1

The clear light and sharp shadows give a precision to the details of landscape. the Minoan and the Mycenaean. The light is often extremely bright. and thus often referred to as a Dark Age. with the earliest dating from around 350 BC. the Hellenic and the Hellenistic. particularly those of the Nubian and Ethiopian dynasties. that of Crete possibly because of volcanic devastation. and two standing – but only two (both seated) have survived. leaders who rose from the merchant or warrior classes.323 BC)[10] with sculpture being further divided into Severe Classical. The architecture of Ancient Rome grew out of that of Greece and maintained its influence in Italy unbroken until the present day. which also dates back to Amenhotep's original construction. and decorating their pottery with bands of marching soldiers rather than octopus and seaweed. or ornately sculpted to reflect the sun. symmetry and balance not apparent in similar pottery from Crete and Mycenae. Colonnades encircling buildings.. building citadels. and in colonies in Asia Minor and Italy for a period from about 900 BC until the 1st century AD. These qualities were to manifest themselves not only through a millennium of Greek pottery making. Hence temples were placed on hilltops. Art The art history of the Hellenic era is generally subdivided into four periods. curved. This finely grained material was a major contributing factor to precision of detail. presumably to accommodate the three pre-existing barque shrines located in the northwest corner. both of structure and decoration. Athens. cast graded shadows and change in colour with the ever-changing light of day. and for their pottery painted with floral and marine motifs. and then by the Roman Empire which absorbed much of Greek culture.. Through the pylon gateway leads into a peristyle courtyard.[5] The gleaming marble surfaces were smooth. the art of logic developed.[11] The major development that occurred was in the growing use of Ancient Greek architecture The architecture of Ancient Greece is the architecture produced by the Greek-speaking people (Hellenic people) whose culture flourished on the Greek mainland and Peloponnesus. Ancient Greek architecture is distinguished by its highly formalised characteristics.[2] Nikolaus Pevsner refers to "the plastic shape of the [Greek] temple. Limestone was readily available and easily worked.[1] Ancient Greek architecture is best known from its temples. later pharaohs.Greek. Other architectural forms that are still in evidence are the processional gateway (propylon). After the peristyle courtyard comes the processional colonnade built by Amenhotep III – a 100 metre (328 ft) corridor lined by 14 papyrus-capital columns.Islamic | 2 . was influenced by the influx of Ionian people from Asia Minor. fortifications and tombs rather than palaces. while theatres were often an enhancement of a naturally occurring sloping site where people could sit. the Ancient Greek architects constructed buildings that were marked by precision of detail. most often raised on high ground so that the elegance of its proportions and the effects of light on its surfaces might be viewed from all angles. This is particularly so in the case of temples where each building appears to have been conceived as a sculptural entity within the landscape. but also in the architecture that was to emerge in the 6th century. Beyond the colonnade is a peristyle courtyard.. [3] The formal vocabulary of Ancient Greek architecture. The successive styles of Neoclassical architecture and Greek Revival architecture followed and adapted Ancient Greek styles closely. and later by ―tyrants‖. white marble both on the mainland and islands. This area. firstly throughout lands conquered by Alexander. and rugged mountain ranges with few substantial forests. and the pylon. [5] The light of Greece may be another important factor in the development of the particular character of Ancient Greek architecture. fluted. The best preserved columns are on the eastern side. maintained a strongly ordered and conservative character.[9] This led to a period with few remaining signs of culture.500 BC) and the Classical (500 . such as Sparta. The most freely available building material is stone. the monumental tomb (mausoleum) and the stadium.[1] The first signs of the particular artistic character that defines Ancient Greek architecture are to be seen in the pottery of the Dorian Greeks from the 10th century BC. The southern side of this courtyard is made up of a 36-column hypostyle court that leads into the dark inner rooms of the temple. Already at this period it is created with a sense of proportion.. the public square (agora) surrounded by storied colonnade (stoa). pale rocky outcrops and seashore. the Geometric (900-700 BC). but also roof tiles and architectural decoration. the Ionic Order and the Corinthian Order.[7] The Hellenic period commenced circa 900 BC. Some cities. During the Hellenistic period. revivals of Classicism have kept alive not only the precise forms and ordered details of Greek architecture. (with substantial works of architecture appearing from about 600 BC) and ended with the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC.[6] The climate of Greece is maritime. two civilizations had existed within the region. like that of the Mycenae.placed before us with a physical presence more intense.1500–1100 BC) and was quite different in character. when the other one was taken to Paris where it now stands in the centre of the Place de la Concorde. through Amun's arrival at Luxor at the end of that wall. It was used not only for pottery vessels. also recorded their victories there. The second important type of building that survives all over the Hellenic world is the open-air theatre. the public monument.AD 30. Influences Geography The mainland and islands of Greece are rocky. with the earliest remaining architectural works dating from around 600 BC. This main entrance to the temple complex was originally flanked by six colossal statues of Ramesses – four seated. Both these civilizations came to an end around 1100 BC. mostly as ruins but many substantially intact. in particular the division of architectural style into three defined orders: the Doric Order. Friezes on the wall describe the stages in the Opet Festival. 2800–1100 BC). but his names have been replaced with those of Horemheb. many of which are found throughout the region. and ordered neatly into zones on defined areas of each vessel. and concluding with his return on the opposite side. the Aegean Islands. In this cultural diversity. Minoan is the name given by modern historians to the people of ancient Crete (c. with deeply indented coastline. The towns established by the Dorian people were ruled initially by aristocracy. and that of Mycenae because of invasion from Dorian people of the Greek mainland. Hellenic culture was spread widely. This led to a lifestyle where many activities took place outdoors.triumphs (particularly the Battle of Qadesh). on the other hand. This clarity is alternated with periods of haze that varies in colour to the light on it. From the Renaissance. was to have profound effect onWestern architecture of later periods. with both the coldness of winter and the heat of summer tempered by sea breezes. Modern visitors can also see a 25 metre (82 ft) tall pink granite obelisk: this one of a matching pair until 1835. from sacrifices at Karnak at the top left. The decorations were put in place by Tutankhamun: the boy pharaoh is depicted.[4] There is an abundance of high quality Egyptian. that adorned Ancient Greek architecture. History The history of the Ancient Greek civilization is divided into two eras. more alive than that of any later building". with both the sky and the sea vividly blue. 323 BC . rather than a containing structure. [5] Deposits of high quality potter's clay were found throughout Greece and the Islands. The decoration is precisely geometric. the Archaic (700 . with major deposits near Athens. particularly Paros and Naxos. and with it the notion ofdemocracy. The Mycenaean culture occurred on the Peloponnesus (c. both architectural and sculptural. were built at an oblique angle to the rest of the temple. High Classical and Late Classical. known for their elaborate and richly decorated palaces. In this characteristic environment. also built by Ramesses II.Roman. the Protogeometric (1100-900 BC). their exteriors designed as a visual focus of gatherings and processions. but also its concept of architectural beauty based on balance and proportion. where some traces of original colour can be seen. or surrounding courtyards provided shelter from the sun and from sudden winter storms.[1][8] Prior to the Hellenic era. the town council building (bouleuterion).

a dressing-room. and the stadium for foot racing. Artemis. in the open. The temple did not serve the same function as a modern church. It is probable that many early houses had an open porch or "pronaos" above which rose a low pitched gable or pediment. The Classical period was marked by a rapid development towards idealised but increasingly lifelike depictions of gods in human form. This led to the development of temples. According to Aristotle. Delphi. the hunt and the wilderness. activities and passions were depicted.000 people. which gives good elevation to virtue and towers over the neighbourhood". often directly before the temple. Apollo. his wife and goddess of marriage.Greek. helmets and weapons. Behind the orchestra was a low building called the skênê.[9] The earliest forms of columns in Greece seem to have developed independently. by the architect Polykleitos the Younger. It employed wooden columns with capitals.[5] Worship. and Stoa temple. Epidarus and Ephesus. Remnants of bouleuterion survive at Athens. However. Architectural character Early development There is a clear division between the architecture of the preceding Mycenaean culture and Minoan cultures and that of the Ancient Greeks. and also as a backdrop to the action taking place in the orchestra. [18] Greek towns of substantial size also had a palaestra or a gymnasium.Islamic | 3 . god of fire and metalwork. the best known being at Epidaurus. Athens.[9] This architectural form did not carry over into the architecture of Ancient Greece. and in particular. the supreme god and ruler of the sky.[12] This development had a direct effect on the sculptural decoration of temples. was done in community. as many of the greatest extant works of Ancient Greek sculpture once adorned temples. and had rows of tiered seating set in a semicircle around the central performance area.[2] Small circular temples. rather than a simple application of a set of working rules. the highest mountain in Greece. man was no longer perceived as being threatened by nature. god of the sea. Temples served as the location of a cult image and as a storage place or strong room for the treasury associated with the cult of the god in question. reason. Agora. baths. were once housed in them. Hera.[19] The propylon or porch. The domestic architecture of ancient Greece employed walls of sun dried clay bricks or wooden framework filled with fibrous material such as straw or seaweed covered with clay or plaster. goddess of wisdom. god of commerce and medicine. Demeter. God of war. as well as small temple-like buildings that served as treasuries for specific groups of donors. law.[8] At the same time. by 600 BC. but reappeared about 400 BC in the interior of large monumental tombs such as the Lion Tomb at Cnidos (c. on a base of stone which protected the more vulnerable elements from damp.[1] The development in the depiction of the human form in pottery was accompanied by a similar development in sculpture. 1906 and 2004 Olympic Games. applied order and reason to their creations. but as its sublime product. These were used for both public meetings as well as dramatic performances. Ancient Greek domestic architecture centred on open spaces or courtyards surrounded by colonnades. Hermes. god of the sun. Some Greek temples appear to have been oriented astronomically. rather than towards grand domestic architecture such as had evolved in Crete. Their humanist philosophy put mankind at the centre of things. goddess of love. like many other activities. and as a place for devotees of the god to leave their votive offerings. tholos were also constructed.[15] The Ancient Greeks perceived order in the universe. the gods were often represented by large statues and it was necessary to provide a building in which each of these could be housed. [4] Roofs were probably of thatch with eaves which overhung the permeable walls. the latter having held up to 1200 people.[17] During the late 5th and 4th centuries BC. of which examples exist at Olympia. Aphrodite. and promoted well-ordered societies and the development of democracy. toilets and club rooms. Poseidon. Ancient Greek The rectangular temple is the most common and best-known form of Greek public architecture. temple architecture. '"the site should be a spot seen far and wide. and in turn. The bouleuterion was a large public building with a hypostyle hall that served as a court house and as a meeting place for the town council (boule). goddess of the earth. was of trabeated form like that of Ancient Greece. [7] The evolution that occurred in architecture was towards public building. the respect for human intellect demanded reason. This form was adapted to the construction of hypostyle halls within the larger temples. Towns were also equipped with a public fountain where water could be collected for household use. The architecture of the Ancient Greeks. Little is known of Mycenaean wooden or domestic architecture and any continuing traditions that may have flowed into the early buildings of the Dorian people. goddess of the moon. The completely restored Stoa of Attalos can be seen in Athens. since the altar stood under the open sky in the temenos or sacred precinct. logic. The development of regular town plans is associated with Hippodamus of Miletus. A number of Greek theatres survive almost intact. town planning became an important consideration of Greek builders. [21] Every Greek town had an open-air theatre.[16] The temple was generally part of a religious precinct known as the acropolis. such as statues. 600 feet in length. The Minoan architecture of Crete. and were sited so that they related to each other architecturally. the orchestra. Athena.[14] Religion and philosophy The religion of Ancient Greece was a form of nature worship that grew out of the beliefs of earlier cultures. Olympia and Miletus. its mythology. such as the lost chryselephantine statues of Zeus at the Temple of Zeus at Olympia and Athena at the Parthenon. and for order and symmetry which is the product of a continual search for perfection.[8] The natural elements were personified as gods of completely human form. unlike earlier cultures.[2] Types of buildings Main articles: Ancient Greek theatre. 350 BC). which served as a storeroom. The most important deities were: Zeus. responds to these challenges with a passion for beauty. the techniques and an understanding of their style being lost when these civilizations fell. being narrow at the base and splaying upward. As with Minoan architecture. and the increasing surety with which humanity. challenge. The theatre was usually set in a hillside outside the town. with towns such as Paestum and Priene being laid out with a regular grid of paved streets and an agora or central market place surrounded by a colonnade or stoa.[4] Mycenaean art is marked by its circular structures and tapered domes with flat-bedded. while the Panathinaiko Stadiumin Athens. formed the entrance to temple sanctuaries and other significant sites with the best-surviving example being the Propylaea on the Acropolis of Athens. both over 40 feet high. Ares. music and poetry. and promoted a passion for enquiry. a pupil of Pythagoras.[5] The home of the gods was thought to be Olympus. and problem solving.[21] Other buildings associated with sports include thehippodrome for horse racing. [13] and many of the largest recorded statues of the age.Roman. was restored in the 19th century and was used in the 1896. the social centre for male citizens which included spectator areas. but the columns were of very different form to Doric columns. Acropolis. and very human behaviour.[21][22] Structure Column and lintel Egyptian. However. The tiny stylised bronzes of the Geometric period gave way to life-sized highly formalised monolithic representation in the Archaic period. of which only remnants have survived. which seats 45. first and foremost the temple.[18][19][20] Public buildings became "dignified and gracious structures".the human figure as the major decorative motif. cantilevered courses. and Hephaestus.

with the pan and cover tile forming one piece. This is evidenced by the nature of temple construction in the 6th century BC. the light to the naos entering through the door.18–1. The signs of the original timber nature of the architecture were maintained in the stone buildings. Triglyph 9. Metope 10. [24][25] Door and window openings narrowed towards the top. the spaces might be filled with rubble. Above the architrave is a second horizontal stage called the ―frieze‖. in regular courses and large sizes to minimise the joints. unnecessary if roof trusses are employed as an integral part of the wooden roof. and meet each other at a joint directly above the centre of each column. such as the Temple of Zeus Olympus and the Olympieion at Athens being well over 300 feet in length. the upper. It has been suggested that some temples were lit from openings in the roof. which carried wooden lintels. The entablature is the major horizontal structural element supporting the roof and encircling the entire building. the early builders did not have the concept of the diagonal truss as a stabilising member. 3.Architrave 14. this space contains columns to support the roof. but the finest ashlar masonry was usually employed for temple walls. The upper band of the entablature is called the ― cornice‖. or internal space. Resting on the columns is the architrave made of a series of stone ―lintels‖ that spanned the space between the columns. but in the Doric Order. The posts and beams divided the walls into regular compartments which could be left as openings. Gutta 12. the entablature and the pediment. the architectural form being known as hypostyle. although the architecture of Ancient Greece was initially of wooden construction. It is likely that many early houses and temples were constructed with an open porch or "pronaos" above which rose a low pitched gable or pediment. They were much larger than modern roof tiles. [23] A few of these temples are very large. The cornice retains the shape of the beams that would once have supported the wooden roof at each end of the building. The indication is that initially all the rafters were supported directly by the entablature.57 in) thick and weighing around 30 kg apiece. which is generally ornately decorated on its lower edge. These early roof tiles showed an Sshape. It appears that some of the large temples began as wooden constructions in which the columns were replaced piecemeal as stone became available. with mortar hardly ever being used.43 in) long.5 feet wide at the top). being plain in the Doric Order. It appears that.e.[7] Ancient Greek buildings of timber. the relief decoration runs in a continuous band. i. and retain the form of the wooden beams that would once have supported the roof. It is composed by three parts. with several.[23] Entablature and pediment The columns of a temple support a structure that rises in two main stages.[28][29] Only stone walls. Abacus 16.[2] The stone columns are made of a series of solid stone cylinders or ―drums‖ that rest on each other without mortar. [25] Temples were constructed without windows. later replaced by the more durable stone temples many of which are still in evidence today. below)[25][26][27] Roof The widest span of a temple roof was across the cella. The part of the capital that rises from the column itself is called the ―echinus‖. it is composed of upright beams (posts) supporting horizontal beams (lintels). The triglyphs are vertically gro oved like the Doric columns. generally of three steps. being up to 90 cm (35. bronze or iron fixed in lead to minimise corrosion. The columns are wider at the base than at the top. dowels and rods of wood. columns on the exterior of buildings and carrying stone lintels being closer together than those on the interior. 2. Tympanum. Fluting 19. including mouldings. Doric and usually Ionic capitals are cut with vertical grooves known as ―fluting‖. (See Architectural Decoration. In the case of Ionic and Corinthian architecture. Alternately. Masonry walls were employed for temples from about 600 BC onwards. Masonry Every temple rested on a masonry base called the crepidoma. lathes or straw and covered with clay daub or plaster. built to enshrine statues of deities. tapering with an outward curve known as ―entasis‖. [24] A door of the Ionic Order at the Erechtheion. including rubble. and an entablature supported on console brackets. It differs according to the order.Greek. The frieze is one of the major decorative elements of the building and carries a sculptured relief. of which the upper one which carried the columns was the stylobate. This. At the front and back of each temple. with vertical posts supporting beams which carried a ridged roof. on which rests the lintels.Regula 11. With the rise of stone architecture came the appearance of fired ceramic roof tiles.Islamic | 4 . which came into use in Greek architecture only in the 3rd century BC. but were sometimes centred with a bronze pin. [7] The earliest temples. Echinus 17. it is clear that the origin of the style lies in simple wooden structures. Acroterium. clay and plaster construction were probably roofed with thatch. The distance between columns was similarly affected by the nature of the lintel. which in a stone building limited the possible width of the opening.[7] The blocks were rough hewn and hauled from quarries to be cut and bedded very precisely. Column 18.Sima 4.Freize 8. were probably of wooden construction. but most were less than half this size. Stylobate The architecture of Ancient Greece is of a trabeated or "post and lintel" form. Blocks. Taenia 13. particularly those of columns and parts of the building bearing loads were sometimes fixed in place or reinforced with iron clamps. The triangular space framed by the cornices is the location of the most significant sculptural decoration on the exterior of the building.56 in) wide. walls and hypostyle. retains many of its features intact. being square and called the ―abacus‖. where the rows of columns supporting the roof the cella rise higher than the outer walls. [4] Openings Door and window openings were spanned with a lintel. 70 cm (27. rather than on a trussed wooden frame. This fluting or grooving of the columns is a retention of an element of the original wooden architecture. Each column has a capital of two parts. 3–4 cm (1. In a large building.Parts of an Ancient Greek temple of the Doric Order: 1. Masonry of all types was used for Ancient Greek buildings. which were replacing the Egyptian. (17 feet high and 7. Although the existent buildings of the era are constructed in stone. it is divided into sections called ―metopes‖ which fill the spaces between vertical rectangular blocks called ―triglyphs‖. Mutules 7. the entablature supports a triangular structure called the ―pediment‖.Roman. Capital 15. fluted in the Ionic and foliate in the Corinthian. or filled with sun dried bricks. Cornice 5. at least was the interpretation of the historian Pausanias looking at the Temple of Hera at Olympia in the 2nd century AD.

and the other defining their distribution. like the Theseion in Athens. prostyle tetrastyle. (figure 7. were strong enough to support the weight of a tiled roof. often completely surrounding the naos. which elevated the structure above the ground on which it stood. fern fronds. dipteral octastyle. and were approximately twice as long as they were wide. [32] Examples:  Distyle in antis describes a small temple with two columns at the front. peripteral hexastyle. which are set between the projecting walls of the pronaos or porch. a windowless room which housed the statue of the god. is termed Pseudo-periteral heptastyle. (figure 4.[32] Proportion and optical illusion Plans of Ancient Greek Temples Top: 1. while a few were large. 2. stood rows of columns. 9. it has been assumed that the new stone and tile construction also ushered in the end of overhanging eaves in Greek architecture. and are referred to as tholos. Some rooms appear to have been illuminated by skylights. Tetrastyle indicates that the columns are four in number. like the Temple of Nemesis at Rhamnus. amphidistyle in antis. with two terms: one describing the number of columns across the entrance front. 6 and 9. such as the Temple of Zeus at Olympus.[24] On the stylobate. The iconic Parthenon on the Athenian Acropolis occupies a midpoint at 235 The ideal of proportion that was used by Ancient Greek architects in designing temples was not a simple mathematical progression using a square module. like those of the Temple on the Ilissus in Athens. have three.[31] Spreading rapidly. as they were to become in Ancient Roman architecture. 7.) Heptastyle means that it has seven columns across the entrance front. Each temple was defined as being of a particular type. but begin to appear in tombs (in a "beehive" or cantilevered form such as used in Mycenaea) and occasionally. (see left. for the optical illusions that make edges of objects appear Egyptian. with the naos surrounded by a double row of columns.Greek. exedrae of voussoired construction from the 5th century BC. with six columns across the front. tholos. Western Asia Minor. The ratio is similar to that of the growth patterns of many spiral forms that occur in nature such as rams' horns. with some notable exceptions such as the enormous Temple of Zeus Olympus in Athens with a length of nearly 2 1/2 times its width. The determining factor in the mathematics of any notable work of architecture was its ultimate appearance.) with ten columns across the entrance front.[32] The core of the building is a masonry-built "naos" within which was a cella. 4. and perhaps a second chamber or "antenaos" serving as a treasury or repository for trophies and gifts. nautilus shells. like the Parthenon.Islamic | 5 . 8. A number of surviving temple-like structures are circular. Athens. Bottom: 6.) [32]  Amphiprostyle tetrastyle describes a small temple that has columns at both ends which stand clear of the naos. pseudoperipteral hexastyle. Southern and CentralItaly. roof tiles were within fifty years in evidence for a large number of sites around the Eastern Mediterranean. as they made the need for an extended roof as rain protection for the mudbrick walls obsolete. because its encircling colonnade has pseudo columns that are attached to the walls of the naos. have two steps. 3.pseudodipteral octastyle Most Ancient Greek temples were rectangular.) [32]  Dipteral decastyle describes the huge temple of Apollo at Didyma. fitted with a wrought iron grill.) with eight columns across the front. but the majority.) [32]  Peripteral octastyle describes a temple with a single row of columns around the naos. (figs. The dome and vault never became significant structural features. The architects calculated for perspective. figure 1.[33] The Ancient Greek architects took a philosophic approach to the rules and proportions.[32]  The Temple of Zeus Olympius at Agrigentum. The cella generally had a porch or "pronaos" before it. The math involved a more complex geometrical progression.[7] Temple plans feet long by 109 feet wide.Roman.amphiprostyle tetrastyle. (figure 6. the so-called Golden mean. being over 300 feet long and 150 feet wide. like the Parthenon. where fired tiles began to replace thatched roofs at the temples of Apollo and Poseidon between 700 and 650 BC. as an external feature. distyle in antis. and vine tendrils and which were a source of decorative motifs employed by Ancient Greek architects as particularly in evidence in the volutes of capitals of the Ionic and Corinthian Orders. with the exceptional example of the Temple of Apollo at Didyma having six. The chambers were lit by a single large doorway. 5.) [32]  Peripteral hexastyle describes a temple with a single row of peripheral columns around the naos. including Mainland Greece. their introduction has been explained by the fact that their fireproof quality would have given desired protection to the costly temples. The majority of Temples were small. Early examples. (figure 7. (figure 8.[32] The temple rises from a stepped base or "stylobate".[31] Being more expensive and labour-intensive to produce than thatch.[31] As a side-effect. being 30 –100 feet long. [30] Vaults and arches were not generally used.earlier mudbrick and wood walls.[30] The earliest finds of roof tiles of the Archaic period in Greece are documented from a very restricted area around Corinth.

and from the late Hellenic period stood on a square plinth similar to the abacus. proportions. It did not reach a clearly defined form until the mid 5th century BC. The columns at the ends of the building are not vertical but are inclined towards the centre.[36] The Doric entablature is in three parts. There was some variation in the distribution of decoration. studied and emulated by architects of later ages.[23] The early Ionic temples of Asia Minor were particularly ambitious in scale. is surmounted by a horizontal band that scrolls under to either side. (486-460 BC) the sculptors had solved the problem by having a standing central figure framed by rearing centaurs and fighting men who are falling. in Asia Minor and the Aegean Islands. are a reminder of the timber history of the architectural style. Each triglyph has three vertical grooves.[36] The columns of an early Doric temple such as the Temple of Apollo at Syracuse. The frieze is divided intotriglyphs and metopes. with the columns.[11] The Corinthian Order was a highly decorative variant not developed until the Hellenistic period and retaining many characteristics of the Ionic. The frieze. details and relationships of the columns. in which a curved echinus of similar shape to that of the Doric Order. although sometimes fewer. and above the centre of each lintel. Because of these factors. is separated from the other members by rows of small projecting blocks. while the column height to entablature ratio at the Parthenon is about 3:1. the orders also governed the form. The horizontal spread of a flat timber plate across the top of a column is a common device in wooden construction. the triglyphs do not fall over the centre the column. A column height to diameter of 6:1 became more usual. The usual number of flutes is twenty-four but there may be as many as forty-four.6 inches above the outer corners. The entasis is never sufficiently pronounced as to make the swelling wider than the base. The base has two convex mouldings called torus. deeper and with greater curve in later. [34] The renowned sculptor Phidias fills the space at the Parthenon (448-432 BC) with a complex array of draped and undraped figures of deities who appear in attitudes of sublime relaxation and elegance. while at the same time reinforcing the load-bearing strength of the lintel itself.[38] The architrave of the Ionic Order is sometimes undecorated.[36] A refinement of the Doric Column is the entasis. having a 9:1 ratio with the diameter. The architrave is composed of the stone lintels which span the space between the columns. At either end of the building the pediment rises from the cornice. of which the echinus is like a circular cushion rising from the top of the column to the square abacus on which rest the lintels. Sicily. the Ionic Order retains signs of having its origins in wooden architecture. simply extending the width of the last two metopes at each end of the building. [34] Banister Fletcher calculated that the stylobate curves upward so that its centres at either end rise about 2. known as "fluting".6 inches. [33] The most obvious adjustment is to the profile of columns. meaning "teeth". [35] Style Orders Stylistically. In the Hellenistic period. the architrave. Doric conventions of solidity and masculinity dropped away.[36] The pediment is decorated with figures that are in relief in the earlier examples. giving a thin upright a wider area on which to bear the lintel. However. [36] A triglyph is located above the centre of each capital. as stated elsewhere in this article. until a few examples in the Hellenistic period. the architects adjusted the plans so that the major lines of any significant building are rarely straight. the Temple to the Goddess Athena on the Acropolis in Athens. which run the length of the column and are usually 20 in number. but gently curved so that each columns appears to have a slight swelling. the frieze and the cornice. the triglyphs. with relatively crude details.5:1. the capital is rectangular. [7] Orders of Ancient Greek architecture Doric Order The Doric order is recognised by its capital. may have a height to base diameter ratio of only 4:1 and a column height to entablature ratio of 2:1. They are referred to as dentils. which runs in a continuous band. but almost freestanding by the time of the Parthenon. The echinus appears flat and splayed in early examples.[3] Helen Gardner refers to its "unsurpassable excellence". four-fronted Ionic capitals became common. called entasis below the middle. [38] The Ionic Order is altogether lighter in appearance than the Doric. more refined examples. but more often rises in three outwardly-stepped bands like overlapping timber planks. and crossing the terminating arrises. and below them. [36] Doric columns are almost always cut with grooves. and smaller and straight-sided in Hellenistc examples. with a joint occurring above the centre of each abacus. forming spirals or volutes similar to those of the nautilus shell or ram's horn. pediment and the stylobate. The cornice is a narrow jutting band of complex moulding which overhangs and protects the ornamented frieze. a necessity in wooden architecture to spread the load and protect the base of a comparatively thin upright. Ancient Greek architecture is divided into three ―orders‖: the Doric Order. The Doric Order developed on mainland Greece and spread to Italy. It's designed to be viewed frontally but the capitals at the corners of buildings are modified with an additional scroll so as to appear regular on two adjoining faces. slightly below the narrowest point. the names reflecting their origins. at the corners of the building. shallow flutes that do not meet at a sharp edge but have a flat band or fillet between them.[7] These outer columns are both slightly wider than their neighbours and are slightly closer than any of the others. while the whole entablature was also much narrower and less heavy than the Doric entablature. which narrow from base to top. seemingly connected. with the decoration of the temple of Zeus at Olympia. with those at the corners being out of plumb by about 2. It is decorated on the underside with projecting blocks. mutules. Doric columns have no bases. the Ionic Order and the Corinthian Order. the narrowing is not regular. further suggesting the wooden nature of the prototype. there is hardly a straight line in the building. to be surveyed. are small strips that appear to connect the triglyphs to the architrave below.Islamic | 6 . The ancient architects took a pragmatic approach to the apparent "rules". Formalised bands of motifs such as alternating forms known as "egg and Egyptian. While the three orders are most easily recognizable by their capitals.concave and for the fact that columns that are viewed against the sky look different to those adjacent that are viewed against a shadowed wall. It was popularised by the Romans. it is controlled by a slight reduction in the rate of decrease of diameter. Ionic Order The Ionic Order is recognised by its voluted capital. including base and capital. but their origin is clearly in narrow wooden slats which supported the roof of a timber structure. as Gardner points out. one of the major areas of sculptural decoration.Roman.Greek. kneeling and lying in attitudes that fit the size and angle of each part of the space. During the Hellenistic period. 600 BC.[38] Like the Doric Order.[7] The Parthenon. Early architectural sculptors found difficulty in creating satisfactory sculptural compositions in the tapering triangular space. entablature. and 4. but decorated with stylised ornament. being favoured by the Greek cites of Ionia. In plan. similar to the columnar fluting. However. the columns always have bases. a gentle convex swelling to the profile of the column. is the epitome of what Nikolaus Pevsner called "the most perfect example ever achieved of architecture finding its fulfilment in bodily beauty".3 inches on the longer sides. c. The flutes meet at sharp edges called arrises. with the slender and unfluted columns reaching a height to diameter ratio of 7. At the top of the columns. like the edge of an overhanging wooden-framed roof. On this rests the frieze. It was firmly established and well-defined in its characteristics by the time of the building of the Temple of Hera at Olympia. which prevents an optical illusion of concavity. are three horizontal grooves known as the hypotrachelion. framed by moulding of similar form. Likewise. such as the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus.[2] The different orders were applied to the whole range of buildings and monuments. The Ionic order coexisted with the Doric. [38] The columns are fluted with narrow. A slightly greater adjustment has been made to the entablature. [37] By the Early Classical period. Yet.

Benjamin Robert Haydon described the reclining figure of Dionysus as ". as at the Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Basae (c. 180-160 BC) has a frieze (120 metres long by 2.. which is often emphasised by flowing draperies.[41][42] Ionic cornices were often set with a row of lion's masks. [41] In later Ionic architecture. At this date images of terrifying monsters have predominance over the emphasis on the human figure that developed with Humanist philosophy. and described by D. acroteria were sometimes sculptured figures. is all essential to the architecture of which it is a part. Leochares and Skopas. presiding over a battle of Lapiths and Centaurs. the corners and surmounting the pediment. The frieze represents the battle Egyptian. splayed above them. and being ornamented with a double row of acanthus leaves above which rose voluted tendrils. who took his inspiration from a basket of offerings that had been placed on a grave. and was initially of much the same style and proportion. with a flat tile on top to protect the goods. and the legs in a running or kneeling position. particularly around doorways. fear. both in the rendering of expression and motion. [1] Little architectural sculpture of the period remains intact.[37] Both images parallel the stylised depiction of the Gorgons on the black figure name vase decorated by the Nessos painter (c. but with the dynamic figure of Neoptolemos as he seizes the aged king Priam and stabs him.Roman. but their works are known mainly from Roman copies. In the Doric order. except for that at the centre of the east pediment which is the work of the architect. of the Parthenon. Corinthian columns were sometimes built without fluting.[40] The Corinthian Order was initially used internally. the revetments no longer served a protective purpose and sculptured decoration became more common. overlapping patterns and foliate motifs. which are grooved and sometimes turned upward at the tip. Strong as the "most powerful piece of illustration" for a hundred years. During the Hellenistic period. stemming from turned wooden prototypes. and then on a huge scale at the Temple of Zeus Olympia in Athens.. [40] Decoration Architectural ornament Early wooden structures. respectively. The ratio of capital height to diameter is generally about 1.[38] Caryatids. in strong contrast to that of the eastern pediment for its depiction of violent action.16:1. the central space taken up. Late Classical and Hellenistic. The Temple of Asclepius at Epidauros had sculpture by Timotheos working with the architect Theodotos.456 BC).See "Architectural sculpture"[43] In the three orders of Ancient Greek architecture. not with a commanding God. Early decorative elements were generally semi-circular. [43] The acroteria were sculptured by Timotheus. and ornamental discs.450 BC) is represented by the pedimental sculptures of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia.. the figures of Zeus and the competitors being severe and idealised representations of the human form . in a better preserved state. are the lifelike products of the High Classical style (450 -400 BC) and were created under the direction of the sculptor Phidias. Perseus slaying the Gorgon Medusa.[39] Corinthian Order The Corinthian Order does not have its origin in wooden architecture. no longer perfectly square. The sculpture is always located in several predetermined areas.[46] The western pediment has Apollo as the central figure. the sculptural decoration. a bell-shaped mixing bowl.[40] The capital was very much deeper than either the Doric or the Ionic capital. there is greater diversity in the types and numbers of mouldings and decorations. there is no variation in its placement. Some temples.[41] With the introduction of stone-built temples.dart" were a feature of the Ionic entablatures. being shaped like a large krater. with open mouths that ejected rainwater.Greek. a frieze of stylised foliage or the ornate sculpture of the pediment. with the capital taking up more than 1/10 of the height. showing the Sack of Troy.[24][42] From the Late Classical period. particularly temples.[40] It was popularised by the Romans. The Pergamon Altar (c. cruelty and lust for conquest. but later of roughly triangular shape with moulded ornament.[43] Hellenistic architectural sculpture (323 . But the figures are more violent in action.[40] The ratio of the column height to diameter is generally 10:1. At the corners of pediments they were called acroteria and along the sides of the building. The eastern pediment shows a moment of stillness and "impending drama" before the beginning of a chariot race. but distinguished by its more ornate capitals. Sicily. The scene appears to have filled the space with figures carefully arranged to fit the slope and shape available. be it a simple half round astragal. including Timotheos. Sometimes a decorative frieze occurred around the upper part of the naos rather than on the exterior of the building. The clay ornaments were limited to the roof of buildings. but this was not always the case. In 334 BC it appeared as an external feature on the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates in Athens. The remaining fragments give the impression of a whole range of human emotions. which. often palmate. poised against the wind. and how it varies depending upon its position and the stresses that action and emotion place upon it. (174 BC AD 132).[47] The pedimental sculpture represents the Gods of Olympus. while the frieze shows the Panathenaic procession and ceremonial events that took place every four years to honour the titular Goddess of Athens. Praxiteles. were ornamented and in part protected by fired and painted clay revetments in the form of rectangular panels.Islamic | 7 . the capital was invented by a bronze founder. Callimarchus of Corinth. like the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. along with the bands of dentils.[48] The names of many famous sculptors are known from the Late Classical period (400 323 BC). The palmate acroteria have been replaced here with small figures.31 BC) was to become more flamboyant. supporting the corners of the abacus. the eastern pediment being surmounted by a winged Nike.[45] The Severe Classical style (500 . occurring at several buildings including the Siphnian Treasury at Delphi in 525 BC and at the Erechtheion. were a feature of the Ionic order. antefixes. 600 BC). horror. draped female figures used as supporting members to carry the entablature. about 410 BC. The external frieze often contained a continuous band of figurative sculpture or ornament. shows. had friezes of figures around the lower drum of each column. Fragments of the eastern pediment survive. separated from the fluted section by a bold moulding. (470 . as with earlier east pediment of the Temple of Zeus at Olympus. notably the Parthenon. "majestic" and "remote". and "egg and dart" moulding which alternates ovoid shapes with narrow pointy ones. Wider mouldings include one with tongue-like or pointed leaf shapes.[45] A metope from a temple known as "Temple C" at Selinus. combined with all the essential detail of actual life". The basket had been placed on the root of an acanthus plant which had grown up around it. where voluted brackets sometimes occur supporting an ornamental cornice over a door.[24][26][41] A much applied narrow moulding is called "bead and reel" and is symmetrical. Architectural sculpture Architectural sculpture showed a development from early Archaic examples through Severe Classical. [47] The frieze and remaining figures of the eastern pediment show a profound understanding of the human body.3 metres high) of figures in very high relief. decorating the cornice. These Ionic-style friezes around the naos are sometimes found on Doric buildings. E.450-425 BC).[46] The shallow reliefs and three-dimensional sculpture which adorned the frieze and pediments. It grew directly out of the Ionic in the mid 5th century BC. Many fragments of these have outlived the buildings that they decorated and demonstrate a wealth of formal border designs of geometric scrolls. the Nike Samothrace which decorated a monument in the shape of a ship being a well known example. such as that at the Erechtheum. with the face and shoulders turned frontally. Reliefs never decorate walls in an arbitrary way.[1] Remnants of the Archaic architectural sculpture (700 . According to Vitruvius. High Classical.500 BC) exist from the early 6th century BC with the earliest surviving pedimental sculpture being remnants of a Gorgon flanked by heraldic panthers from the centre of the pediment of the Artemis Temple of Corfu. who added a number of refinements and decorative details. the metopes and the pediment.the most heroic style of art.

Multi-story apartment blocks called insulae catered to a range of residential needs. a structure which survives to this day. There are examples in the Roman port town of Ostia. France. Romans didn't wash with soap and water as we do now. together with a sound knowledge of building materials. The Romans were indebted to their Etruscan neighbors and forefathers who supplied them with a wealth of knowledge essential for future architectural solutions. particularly in the version rebuilt by Hadrian. and at the end of the session. Roman architecture flourished throughout the Empire during the Pax Romana. tenants able to afford a degree of luxury painted colourful murals on the walls. and implemented it in their own building. Later they absorbed Greek and Phoenician influence. significant developments in public and private baths and the hypocaust. They were reproduced at smaller scale in most important towns and cities in the Empire. such as the Aqueduct of Segovia and the eleven aqueducts in Rome itself. such as thePont du Gard. with iron security bars. guarding valuables. This symbol of power was transformed and utilised within the Christian basilicas when the Roman Empire of the West was on its last legs: The arch was set before the altar to symbolize the triumph of Christ and the afterlife. and piped hot in Pompeii and Ostia). the aqueduct at Segovia and the remains of the Aqueducts of Rome itself. Roman temple. Wealthier Romans were often accompanied by one or more slaves. as well as swimming. The design of thermae is discussed by Vitruviusin De Architectura. Examples have been found of jungle scenes with wild animals and exotic plants. A smaller lighthouse at Dover. facing the street. this can be seen in the introduction and use of the Triclinium in Roman villas as a place and manner of dining. and after further conquests inScotland. unhealthy. [1] and is the site of the earliest forum of the empire. The Pantheon in Rome has survived structurally intact because it has been continuously used for worship since it was built. List of Roman amphitheatres. Bathing was an important part of the Roman day. Exercise might include wrestling and weight-lifting. The dome permitted construction of vaulted ceilings without crossbeams and provided large covered public space such as public baths and basilicas. thebasilicas and Colosseum. that date back to the reign of Trajan. such as Aqua Claudia and Anio Novus. Examples include the aqueducts of Rome. Every city had a forum of varying size. such as Hadrian's Pantheon in the city of Rome. as well as perform a public function. Insulae were often dangerous. They were used for gladiatorial contests. and often the scene of diverse activities. town houses and forts. and prone to fires because of overcrowding and haphazard cooking arrangements. as well as its progenitor. at a very low cost subsidized by the government. over 2000 years ago.[49] Housing Main article: Insula (building) The Ancient Romans were responsible for housing and public hygiene. including political discussions and debates.Islamic | 8 . both in Provence. where some hours might be spent.[citation needed] The Pantheon is an example of this. pathos and triumph. and Forum (Roman) All Roman cities had at least one Thermae. Roman theatre (structure). and which over the centuries has served. particularly in the Western Hemisphere. etc. public meetings and bullfights. which remains perfectly preserved. The arch and the dome articles: Roman aqueduct. Roman bridge. The arch is seen in aqueducts. rendezvous. a scraper made of wood or bone. Imitation windows (trompe l'oeil) were sometimes painted to make the rooms seem less confined. An arch is a very strong shape as it transmits load evenly and is still commonly used in architecture today. some of which are still in daily use. over 220 being known and many of which are well preserved. meetings. To brighten up the small dark rooms. such as hydraulics in the construction of arches. The Romans based much of their architecture on the dome. The use of vaults and arches. Italy. such as the town walls of Lugo in Hispania Tarraconensis. the Baths of Diocletian and the Baths of Caracalla. a forum was a gathering place of great social significance. or by aqueduct. for example. The light would have been provided by a fire at the top of the structure. The Romans first adopted the arch from the Etruscans. exercising and socializing. Amphitheatre. The Romans did not feel restricted by Greek aesthetic axioms alone in order to achieve these objectives.for supremacy of Gods and Titans. Windows were mostly small. who performed any required tasks such as fetching refreshment. creating a new architectural style. Some of the most impressive secular buildings are the amphitheatres. public displays.Roman. Egyptian. Some surviving structures are almost complete. The same emperor left his mark on the landscape of northern Britain when he built a wall to mark the limits of the empire. The Ancient Romans intended that public buildings should be made to impress. and employs many dramatic devices: frenzy. The best known example is probably in Rome. Many lighthouses were built around the Mediterranean and the coasts of the empire. for example at Mérida in Spain. The same concepts produced numerous bridges. Roman architecture was often at its most beautiful and impressive when adapted to the needs of Roman religion. Roman Forum. to convey the sense of conflict. and the Pont Julian and the bridge at Vaison-la-Romaine. Art historians such as Gottfried Richter in the 1920s identified the Roman architectural innovation as being the Triumphal Arch. Roman bath-houses were also provided for private villas. Common building types Main articles: Thermae. a popular facility for public bathing. and List of Roman domes The Roman use of the arch and their improvements in the use of concrete and bricks facilitated the building of the many aqueducts throughout the empire. England also exists as a ruin about half the height of the original. Their survival is testimony to the durability of their materials and design. apparent in many aspects closely related to architecture. as the inspiration for countless public buildings. the tradition of which still survives in Spain. They were normally supplied with water from an adjacent river or stream. such as that at Arles. for example their latrines. the lightest and most desirable at the top. under-floor heating in the form of (examples in Ostia Antica). or northern Spain. especially in the many surviving examples. applying olive oil to their masters' body which was then scraped off with a strigil. In addition to its standard function as a marketplace. enabled them to achieve unprecedented successes in the construction of imposing structures for public use. mica glazing and cold water (examples Ancient Roman architecture From Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia Ancient Roman architecture adopted certain aspects of Ancient Greek architecture. it is the finest and largest example of a dome built in antiquity still surviving. The cheapest and darkest rooms were at the bottom. the Baths of Diocletian and the Baths of Caracalla. Context Factors such as wealth and high population densities in cities forced the ancient Romans to discover new architectural solutions of their own. including the Tower of Hercules at A Coruña in northern Spain. providing towels. which would then be plastered and sometimes painted.Greek. the Colosseum in Rome. the Antonine wall was built to replace Hadrian's Wall. Although its interiors were altered when worship changed from paganism to Christianity. External walls were in "Opus Reticulatum" and interiors in "Opus Incertum".

pozzolana. and the Rüstem Pasha Mosque. Thus. with court and hypostyle prayer hall. concrete's strength freed the floor plan from rectangular cells to a more free-flowing environment. and art. culture. The Great Mosque of Samarra. From these four types. The Dome of the Rock(Qubbat al-Sakhrah) in Jerusalem (691) is one of the most important buildings in all of Islamic architecture. The shift to Baghdad influenced politics.[1][2] Influences Specifically recognizable Islamic architectural style emerged soon after Muhammad's time. and then from Baghdad to Samarra.1258[6]) witnessed the movement of the capital from Damascus to Baghdad. Abu Dalaf in Iraq. After the Moorish invasion of Spain in 711 AD the form was taken by the Umayyads who accentuated the curvature of the horseshoe. the White Houseand the Lincoln Memorial.D. [8] The Great Mosque of Samarra in Iraq.Islamic | 9 . the general Sulla returned with what is probably the most well-known element of the early imperial period: the mosaic.g. The desert palaces in Jordan and Syria (for example. and grottoes in geometric and pictorial designs. When the framework was removed. completed in 847 AD.Materials Tile covered concrete quickly supplanted marble as the primary building material and more daring buildings soon followed. It featured interior vaulted spaces. great houses. although the church itself was renovated several times in the Islamic period [3]). They invented the inward curving horseshoe arch in Spain and used them as one of their main architectural features. Ancient Roman concrete was a mixture of lime mortar. Other significant features employed as motifs include columns. the Palace and the Fort. radiating structures. The Hagia Sophia also served as a model for many Ottoman mosques such as the Shehzade Mosque. water. metric patterns. a circular dome. domes and arches of Rome echo in the New World too. perhaps in the form of a porch with Doric columns and a pediment. The materials were readily available and not difficult to transport. The Abbasid dynasty (750 A. government buildings. Roman architects perfected Roman concrete and used it in buildings where it could stand on its own and support a great deal of weight. The Hagia Sophia in Istanbul also influenced Islamic architecture. considered as the ancestor of all the mosques in the western Islamic world. domes). the Tomb. or in a fireplace or a mosaic shower floor copied from an original in Pompeii or Herculaneum. where in Washington DC not only do we see the Capitol Building. or the Great Mosque of Damascus (completed in 715 by caliph Al-Walid I)[5] on top of the ancient temple of Jupiter and in place of the basilica of St. Islamic architecture Egyptian. walls.775-6) demonstrated the "despotic and the pleasure-loving character of the dynasty" in its grand size but cramped living quarters. Founded in 670 AD. the great mosque in Tunis. a row of purely decorative columns in front of a load-bearing wall. Abbasid architecture in Iraq as exemplified in the Fortress of AlUkhaidir (c. in banks. the free encyclopedia Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the foundation of Islam to the present day. In Britain. even small houses. and the use of stylized repeating decorative arabesque patterns. fractal geometry has been a key utility. a decoration of colourful chips of stone inset into cement. The first use of concrete by the Romans was in the town of Cosa sometime after 273 BCE. and stones.[9] The Great Mosque of Kairouan is constituted of a massive square minaret. and Khirbat alMafjar) served the caliphs as living quarters. marked by a strong Byzantine influence (mosaic against a gold background. and a central plan that resembles that of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. This building served as a point of reference for builders (and for art historians) for the birth of the Arab plan. and many of the grandest country houses and mansions are purely Classical in style. but there exists a Senate and the same (in name) Republican and Democrat parties. reception halls. Most of these developments are described by Vitruvius writing in the first century AD in his work De Architectura. The freedom of concrete also inspired the colonnade screen. once the largest in the world. the vocabulary of Islamic architecture is derived and used for buildings of less importance such as public baths. Other major mosques built in the Abbasid Dynasty include the Mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo. In this respect. Modern influence During the Baroque and the Renaissance periods. The principal Islamic architectural types are: the Mosque. a similar enthusiasm has seen the construction of thousands of neo-Classical buildings over the last five centuries. This tiling method took the empire by storm in the late first century and the second century and in the Roman home joined the well known mural in decorating floors. and were decorated to promote an image of royal luxury. From Wikipedia. the most sacred site in the city. The mighty pillars. with great pillars supporting broad arches and domes rather than dense lines of columnssuspending flat architraves. the symmetrical facades with their pilasters. When the Ottomans captured the city from the Byzantines. a large courtyard surrounded by porticos and a huge hypostyle prayer hall covered on its axis by two cupolas.. This surface could be smoothed and faced with an attractive stucco or thin panels of marble or other coloured stones called revetment. but already bearing purely Islamic elements. The Germanic Visigoths in Spain also contributed to Islamic architecture. The wooden frames could be used more than once. not least in Italy. John the Baptist. influencing the design and construction of buildings and structures in Islamic culture. combined the hypostyle architecture of rows of columns supporting a flat base above which a huge spiralingminaret was constructed. Distinguishing motifs of Islamic architecture have always been ordered repetition. the Suleiman Mosque. Though most would consider concrete the Roman contribution most relevant to the modern world. especially for mosques and palaces. as Byzantine Christian. they converted the basilica to a mosque (now a museum) and incorporated Byzantine architectural elements into their own work (e.Greek. and rhythmic. On return from campaigns in Greece. who ran the Roman Empire. the domes and statuary that would have seemed familiar to Caesar and Augustus. In smaller-scale architecture. Although concrete had been used on a minor scale in Mesopotamia. was built for the new capital. Roman and Greek architectural styles again became fashionable. Mshatta. with huge domes gilded or decorated inside with the same or similar themes that were popular in Rome. such as the great epigraphic frieze.Roman. and baths. fountains and domestic architecture. both civic and domestic. allowing builders to work quickly and efficiently. [8] is one of the best preserved and most significant examples of early great mosques. Concrete construction proved to be more flexible and less costly than building solid stone buildings. inspired by Islam with addition of localized adaptations of the former Sassanid and Byzantine models. The ancient builders placed these ingredients in wooden frames where it hardened and bonded to a facing of stones or (more frequently) bricks. In wealthy provincial parts of the US such as the great plantations of 18th and 19th century Louisiana. an obvious example being Buckingham Palace. [7] The Great Mosque of Kairouan (in Tunisia). the "Arab plan".[4] Religious and civic architecture were developed under the Umayyads. the new wall was very strong with a rough surface of bricks or stones. with vast flights of stone steps sweeping up to towering pillared porticoes. sand with stone rubble. Qasr Amra. when new concepts and new plans were put into practice. it dates in its present form largely from the Aghlabid period (9th century). the Empire's style of architecture can still be seen throughout Europe and North America in the arches and domes of manygovernmental and religious buildings. and stronger than previously-used concrete. truly became a functional type with the construction of the Umayyad Mosque. Today we still see those influences all around us. All across the US the seats of regional government were normally built in the grand traditions of Rome. but all over Europe. there too are the pillars and porticoes.

Besides elaborate funerary monuments. These domes soon numbered dozens in Isfahan. The mosque is noted for its striking interior arches. [16] The Abbasid architecture of the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1513) was strongly influenced by Sassanid architecture. played a critical role in Fatimid ceremonial and procession. Their other.[18] Construction of the Great Mosque at Córdoba (now a cathedral known as the Mezquita) beginning in 785 CE marks the beginning of Moorish architecture in the Iberian peninsula and North Africa (see Moors).[16] They also added the mihrab to mosque design. an important example of Fatimid architecture and architectural decoration. with which they covered the exterior of their domes. with its open and breezy interior spaces adorned in red. which is the typical Damascene house. strong fortifications. first appearing in 691 with the construction of the Dome of the Rock. but one example is the Juatha mosque in Saudi Arabia. Styles Early history There are few buildings dating from the era of Prophet Muhammad. despite many later depredations. over several centuries) was initiated. which. Iranian architecture and city planning also reached an apogee under the Timurids. with the Naqsh-e Jahan Square as the centerpiece of his new capital. Its usage spans centuries. [17] A mosque at Balkh in what is now Afghanistan was about 20 by 20 metres (66 by 66 ft) square. Both of the Samarra mosques have spiral minarets. creating richer patterns. with walls covered in glazed tile.[14] Umayyad architecture is distinguished by the extent and variety of decoration. courtyards. together with its adjacent institution of higher learning (al-Azhar University). [25] The colours that the Persians favoured where golden. wall painting. their capital. sculpture and carved reliefs with Islamic motifs.[20] Seljuq architecture synthesized various styles. as they would on the interior. Fatimid architecture in Egypt followed Tulunid techniques and used similar materials. Arabic inscriptions. making it the 3rd largest and the tallest masonry dome ever erected.[10] The role of domes in Islamic architecture has been considerable.[16] The mosque inMedina built by al-Walid I had the first mihrab.[26] The extensive inscription bands of calligraphy and arabesque on most of the major buildings where carefully planned and E g y p t i a n . This very distinct style of architecture was inherited to them from the Seljuq dynasty. Islamic architecture thus borrows from Persian architecture and can be some what called an extension and further evolution of Persian architecture. The Great Mosque of Samarra built by al-Mutawakkil was 256 by 139 metres (840 by 456 ft).[21] The Il-Khanate period provided several innovations to dome-building that eventually enabled the Persians to construct much taller structures. such as Nishapur and Ghazni(Afghanistan). organized and interwoven with alternating sequences of niches and colonnettes. In Persia and Central Asia. 1073–1094). the only examples in Iraq. Islamic domes had been incorporated into Western architecture. The renaissance in Persian mosque and dome building came during the Safavid dynasty. since destroyed. in fits and starts. R o m a n . a niche on the qibla wall. the magnificent palace/fortress of Granada. and art was a vital element of this competition. and the distinct. or seven.piers and arches. The walls are decorated with stylized foliage motifs. including mosaics. Another important architectural trend to arise in the Seljuk era is the development of mausolea including the tomb tower such as the Gunbad-iqabus (circa 1006-7) (showcasing a Zoroastrian motif) and the domed square. became one of the wealthiest cities in the Near East and the center of artistic and intellectual activity. 996–1013). for travellers and their animals. a process that enabled them to apply more colours to each tile. survivals such as the Bab Mardum in Toledo. Reflecting the light of the sun. which measures 50 m in height and 25 m in diameter. A flat wooden roof was supported by columns. As late as the 19th century. Iran. but Umayyad architecture introduced new combinations of these western and eastern styles. and arabesque design work. Persian style The Islamic conquest of Persia in the 7th century led early Islamic architects to borrow and adopt many traditions and ways of the fallen Persian empire. Religious zeal made them generous patrons of architecture and art. blue. sometimes rendering precise attributions difficult. Funerary architecture was also cultivated. the Tahirids. sweeter to the eye. with rubble masonry. and gold. marked by extensive use of exterior ceramic tiles and muqarnas vaulting within. The mosque was decorated with marble panels and glass mosaics. The earliest was the mosque that al-Mansur built in Baghdad. supporting nine vaulted domes. and minimal comfort. became the spiritual center for Ismaili Shia.[24] The distinct feature of Persian domes. blue. but also developed those of their own. double-shelled dome was reinforced by arches between the layers. The Abbasid mosques all followed the courtyard plan. Ghaznavids. and Ghurids struggled for power in the 10th century. The pinnacle of IlKhanate architecture was reached with the construction of the Soltaniyeh Dome (1302–1312) in Zanjan. but it was perfected during the Safavids when they invented the haft. Trade and agriculture flourished under Mamluk rule. opening on the inside with a fountain as the house's centre piece. [17] The prayer hall of the Abu Dulaf mosque at Samarra had arcades on rectangular brick piers running at right angles to the qibla wall. white and turquoise patterns on a darkblue background. was the colorful tiles. these domes appeared like glittering turquoise gem and could be seen from miles away by travelers following the Silk road through Persia. an example of which is the tomb of the Samanids in the city of Bukhara (circa 943). other surviving Fatimid structures include the Aqmar Mosque (1125)[19] as well as the monumental gates for Cairo's city walls commissioned by the powerful Fatimid emir and vizier Badr al-Jamali (r. or the caliphal city of Medina Azahara. or caravanserai. and Cairo. in the words of Ibn Khaldun. The Umayyad Caliphate (661–750) combined elements of Byzantine architecture and Sassanid architecture. including the carmen.colored shape would dominate the skyline of the city. and soaring minarets spread across the city. their first congregational mosque was al-Azhar mosque ("the splendid") founded along with the city (969–973). who for centuries had used it in their mosque building.colour style of tile burning.[13] The horseshoe arch appears for the first time in Umayyad architecture. Under the Seljuqs the "Iranian plan" of mosque construction appears for the first time. Lodging places called khans. generally displayed utilitarian rather than ornamental architecture. which separates them from those domes created in the Christian world or the Ottoman and Mughal empires. Samanids. and recurring even up until the 17th century with the Taj Mahal. This almost immediately became a standard feature of all mosques. smaller. both Iranian and Syrian.[23] The tomb of Öljeitü in Soltaniyeh is one of the greatest and most impressive monuments in Iran. "the center of the universe and the garden of the world".[15] The Umayyads introduced a transept that divided the prayer room along its shorter axis. In Cairo.rangi. which seems to have represented the place where the Prophet stood when leading prayer. Moorish architecture reached its peak with the construction of the Alhambra. [11][12] The reign of the Mamluks (1250–1517 AD) in Egypt marked a breathtaking flowering of Islamic art which is most visible in old Cairo. with three rows of three square bays. These changes later paved the way for Safavid architecture. Great cities were built. G r e e k . The Rashidun Caliphate (632–661) was the first state to use Islamic Architecture. which emphasized the religious and political role of the Fatimid caliph. Moorish architecture has its roots deeply established in the Arab tradition of architecture and design established during the era of the first Caliphate of the Umayyads in the Levantcirca 660AD with its capital Damascus having very well preserved examples of fine Arab Islamic design and geometrics. I s l a m i c | 10 . and later by Central Asian styles. and the construction of the Great Mosque of Isfahan (which would continue. in particular with the monuments of Samarkand. when Shah Abbas.[22] The thin. The Mosque of al-Hakim (r. This made Cairo. with majestic domes. in 1598 initiated the reconstruction of Isfahan. later to evolve to its most advanced form in alAndalus. or caravansarais.

was transformed by the Ottomans through a dynamic architectural vocabulary of vaults. to let the patron wander and enjoy the garden without prescription. Spectacular and stately edifices erected by Timur and his successors in Samarkand and Herat helped to disseminate the influence of the Ilkhanid school of art in India. elements of Hindu architecture were employed. it is a fusion of Arab. The style is largely derived from Persian architecture. This symmetry extended to the building of an entire mirror mosque in red sandstone to complement the Mecca-facing mosque place to the west of the main structure. which started with the pivotal Tomb of Humayun. Reaching 53 meters in height. E g y p t i a n . which obtained influence from Byzantine. The mosques have flared Buddhist style roofs set in walled courtyards entered through archways with miniature domes and minarets. Axial symmetry is a characteristic of all major Timurid structures. R o m a n . of which two of the most important are Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul and Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. The roof of a typical Chinese building is curved. with tall. these are more capable of withstanding earthquakes. but wooden structures are the most common. In northwest China where the Chinese Hui have built their mosques.[29] For almost 500 years Byzantine architecture such as the church of Hagia Sophia served as models for many of the Ottoman mosques such as the Shehzade Mosque. which connotes a sense of grandeur. who was appointed head of the royal library and Master calligrapher at the Shah's court in 1598. in Central Java. I s l a m i c | 11 . and Bangladeshi architecture Another distinctive sub-style is Indo-Islamic architecture in South Asia. with 14 m spanning between the two layers. For centuries. thus giving rise to the celebrated Mughal school of architecture. which includes famous landmarks like Palace of the Shirvanshahs. Persian and Syrian-Arab designs. as in nature herself.Malaysia. The Red Fort in Delhi and Agra Fort are huge castle-like fortified palaces. Islamic religious architecture which until then consisted of simple buildings with extensive decorations. was built for Akbar in the late 16th century.[dubious – discuss] The Taj Mahal is completely symmetrical except for Shah Jahan's sarcophagus.[32] The Shirvan-Absheron school unlike Nakchivan style used stones instead of the bricks in the construction. Apprentices of Sinan later built the famous Blue Mosque in Istanbul and the Taj Mahal in India. Brunei. which resemble temples. G r e e k . and resting on an octagonal dome chamber. slender minarets. Chinese buildings may be built with either red or grey bricks. Most mosques have certain aspects in common with each other however as with other regions Chinese Islamic architecture reflects the local architecture in its style. Central Asian and Persian elements with the local Hindu architecture. China is renowned for its beautiful mosques. However in western China the mosques resemble those of the Arab World. Double domes of various shapes abound.[34] An important lathan feature in Chinese architecture is its emphasis on symmetry. Turkish architects implemented their own style of cupola domes.executed by Ali Reza Abbasi. The Great Mosque of Xi'an. does not replicate many of the features often associated with traditional mosques. but are vulnerable to fire. The most famous of Ottoman architects was (and remains) Mimar Sinan. and the Rüstem Pasha Mosque.shelled dome. Instead.[35] Indonesian-Malay architecture Main article: Architecture of Indonesia Main article: Mosques in Indonesia The predominantly-Muslim regions of South East Asia have been slow to adopt Middle Eastern architectural styles for Islamic sites. the Suleiman Mosque. which tends to be as asymmetrical as possible. and the abandoned city of Fatehpur Sikri. but is best known for the Taj Mahal. and achieving perfect harmony between inner and outer spaces. large arcades and arches each supported by several pillars. they had a multi-tiered roof (of Javanese or even Chinese influence) comparable with the multilevel pagodas of neighbouring Bali. In South Asia. An example of the first direction in the Azerbaijani Islamic architecture is the mausoleum of Yusuf. Ilkhanid works like Oljeitu Tomb and earlier Seljuk and Anatolian Beylik monumental buildings and their own original innovations. this applies to everything from palaces to mosques. refined elegance and a hint of heavenly transcendence. Some Chinese mosques in parts of western China were more likely to incorporate minarets and domes while eastern Chinese mosques were more likely to look like pagodas. where the domeless Tomb of Jahangir is also located. A famous example of the charbagh style of Mughal garden is the Shalimar Gardens in Lahore. Turkistan (Timurid) architecture Timurid architecture is the pinnacle of Islamic art in Central Asia. It was built as a double. Instead. Pakistani architecture. built in 1162. and the Philippines. One notable exception is in the design of gardens. whose current buildings date from the Ming Dynasty. Ottoman architecture Main article: Ottoman architecture The standard plan of Ottoman architecture was inspired in part by the example of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople/Istanbul. The mosque was transformed from being a cramped and dark chamber with arabesque-covered walls into a sanctuary of esthetic and technical balance. which is placed off center in the crypt room below the main floor. as well as light and shadow. there are strict classifications of gable types. The architecture of Javanese mosques had a clear influence on the design of other mosques in Indonesia. who lived for approximately one hundred years and designed several hundreds of buildings. [27] while Shaykh Bahai oversaw the construction projects. Azerbaijani architecture The Islamic conquest of Persia in the 7th century also helped Islamic architecture to flourish in Azerbaijan. notably the Shah-e Zendah in Samarkand and the mosque of Gowhar Shad in Mashhad. but were later superseded by Persian designs. the principle underlying the garden's composition is to create enduring flow. there is a combination of eastern and western styles. demonstrated further preIslamic influence on local Islamic architecture. Like Chinese scroll paintings.[33] Sino-Islamic architecture Main article: Chinese mosques The first Chinese mosque was established in the 7th century during the Tang Dynasty in Xi'an. comparable with the classical orders of European columns.[29] Indo-Islamic architecture Main articles: Mughal architecture and Indo-Islamic architecture See also: Indian architecture. The extensive use of precious and semiprecious stones as inlay and the vast quantity of white marble required nearly bankrupted the empire. The Ottomans mastered the technique of building vast inner spaces confined by seemingly weightless yet massive domes. and the outsides are perfused with brilliant colors. domes. At the same characteristics of this trend were the asymmetry and stone carving. curvy arches and dome shaped roofs. The most numerous and largest of mosques exist in [Turkey]. it follows traditional Chinese architecture.[28] Persian-style mosques are also characterized by their tapered brick pillars.[30][31] The country became home of Nakchivan and Shirvan-Absheron architecture schools. most Javanese mosques lacked a dome. the dome of Masjed-e Shah (Shah Mosque) would become the tallest in the city when it was finished in 1629. semidomes and columns. The most famous examples of Mughal architecture are the series of imperial mausolea. The minaret of the Menara Kudus Mosque. 26 miles (42 km) west of Agra. completed in 1648 by emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal who died while giving birth to their 14th child. Timurid architecture started with the sanctuary of Ahmed Yasawi in present-day Kazakhstan and culminated in Timur's mausoleum Gur-e Amir inSamarkand.

The 13th century Al Gami University consisted of a rectangular base with a large cylindrical tower architecturally unique in the Islamic world. one centered on Friday prayer. Somali-Islamic architecture The peaceful introduction of Islam in the early medieval era of Somalia's history brought Islamic architectural influences from Arabia and Persia. At Kumbi Saleh. Foliage is a frequent motif but typically stylized or simplified for the same reason. sundried bricks. Human and animal forms are rarely depicted in decorative art as God's work is considered to be matchless.From the 1940s onwards. [40] Sehan The traditional Islamic courtyard.[39] Fakr ad-Din. constitute an infinite pattern that extends beyond the visible material world. nature of the creation of theone God ("Allah" in Arabic). A sehan—courtyard is in within almost every mosque in Islamic architecture. The courtyards are open to the sky and surrounded on all sides by structures with halls and rooms. these forms. however. subsequently. A mosque courtyard is used for performing ablutions. constructed from mud on timber. contained seven rooms.[38] Concordant with the ancient presence of Islam in the Horn of Africa region. To Muslims. One architectural feature that made Somali mosques distinct from other mosques in Africa were minarets. these mosques gradually fell out of popularity. the only mosques in East Africa to have minarets. the Islamic Arabesque artist E g y p t i a n . In Southern Somalia the preferred medieval shrine architecture was the Pillar tomb style while the North predominantly built structures consisting of domes and square plans. one of which was sixty-six feet long. I s l a m i c | 12 . 1. Sahelian-Islamic architecture Main article: Sudano-Sahelian In West Africa. Traders lived in stone houses in a section which possessed 12 beautiful mosques (as described by al-bakri). the Friday mosque of Merca (1609) and Fakr ad-Din (1269) were. the use of grandiose forms such as large domes. Spain. In addition to having one large dome at the center. Notable Islamic architectural types include the early Abbasid buildings.[40] One of the most notable hypostyle mosques is the Mezquita in Córdoba. they in fact symbolize the infinite. international style. because of the warm Mediterranean and Middle Eastern climates. taken together. [37] Sahelian architecture initially grew from the two cities of Djenné and Timbuktu. Glazed tiles were also used in the decoration of the mihrab. was two stories high. water.[42] This style was heavily influenced by the Byzantine religious architecture with its use of large central domes. a sehan in Arabic (ar: ‫)نحص‬. one of which bears a dated inscription. is found in secular and religious structures. Islamic merchants played a vital role in the Western Sahel region since the Kingdom of Ghana. and the widespread use of limestone in Somali architecture. R o m a n . Arabesque Main article: Arabesque (Islamic art) An element of Islamic art usually found decorating the walls and window screens of mosques and Muslim homes and buildings. and a protected and proscribed place where the women of the house need not be covered in the hijab clothing traditionally necessary in public.[36] The king is said to have owned several mansions. surrounded by a great enclosure. with the typical. The choice of which geometric forms are to be used and how they are to be formatted is based upon the Islamic view of the world.[43] To many in the Islamic world. Islamic architecture has been called the "architecture of the veil" because the beauty lies in the inner spaces (courtyards and rooms) which are not visible from the outside (street view). there are often smaller domes that exist offcenter over the prayer hall or throughout the rest of the mosque.[40] The Ottomans introduced central dome mosques in the 15th century and have a large dome centered over the prayer hall. G r e e k . as well as Charbaghgarden of Mughal architecture. Interpretation ofAnatolia. and natural light. and as a result. and the central-dome mosques The tomb of Hafez is a primary example of a Persian garden. and a 'patio' for rest or gathering. T-Type mosques. The Sankore Mosque in Timbuktu. The concept of paradise garden was commonly used the Persian gardens. as the building is supported by over 850 columns. enclosed space. locals lived in domed-shaped dwellings in the king's section of the city. shapes and sometimes animals (specifically birds). a practice that would continue over and over again throughout the following centuries. mosques in Somalia are some of the oldest on the entire continent. Shrines to honor Somali patriarchs and matriarchs evolved from ancient Somali burial customs. Indonesian mosques developed a more standard. Most early hypostyle mosques have flat roofs on top of prayer halls. Arab-plan or hypostyle mosques are the earliest type of mosques.[41]Frequently. water channels and large trees that provide cooling shades. the arabesque is an elaborate application of repeating geometric forms that often echo the forms of plants. Gardens Main article: Islamic Gardens Common interpretations of Islamic architecture include the following: The concept of God or Allah's infinite power is evoked by designs with repeating themes which suggest infinity. and therefore uncentralized. Historically. Arab-plan mosques were constructed mostly under the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties. was similar in style to the Great Mosque of Djenné. the simplicity of the Arab plan limited the opportunities for further development. Many of the new architectural designs such as mosques were built on the ruins of older structures. during summer heat. and large courtyards are intended to convey power. forty-two feet wide. 2. with the walls and chambers filled with sculpture and painting. which stimulated a shift from drystone and other related materials in construction to coral stone. and source of breezes into the structure. for cooler space with fountains and shade. necessitating the use of numerous columns and supports. The Qur'an uses the garden as an analogy for paradise and Islam came to have a significant influence on garden design. in fact. and often a shaded semiopen arcade. pioneered under the Umayyad Dynasty. Furthermore. architectural elements. which dates back to the MogadishanGolden Age. These mosques are square or rectangular in plan with an enclosed courtyard and a covered prayer hall. towering minarets. For centuries. the courtyard served to accommodate the large number of worshippers during Friday prayers. was built with marble and coral stone and included a compact rectangular plan with a domed mihrab axis. with a dome and minaret. Architecture Forms and Styles of mosques and buildings in Muslim countries Main article: mosque Forms Many forms of Islamic architecture have evolved in different regions of the Islamic world. The oil-wealth of the 20th century drove a great deal of mosque construction using designs from leading modern architects. Arabic Calligraphy is used to enhance the interior of a building by providing quotations from the Qur'an. where prayer is not performed. Sehans usually feature a centrally positioned ritual cleansing pool under an open domed pavilion called a howz . When within a residence or other secular building is a private courtyard and walled garden. It is used for: the aesthetics of plants. hypostyle mosques have outer arcades so that visitors can enjoy some shade. Arba Rukun (1269). Furthermore. and had a staircase.

The use of Islamic geometric patterns and foliage based arabesques. with one end entirely open. Focus both on the interior space of a building and the exterior E g y p t i a n . meaning "light").             as seen in the Great Mosque of Damascus. calligraphy in the Arabic alphabet. if the style is Persian or Indian (Mughal). walled on three sides. a Persian term for a portal projecting from the facade of a building. Compare the Registan complex of Uzbekistan to the Al-Azhar University of Cairo. paler sandstone and grey stones are preferred among Arab buildings. R o m a n . The minaret of the Great Mosque of Kairouan in Tunisia is considered as the oldest surviving minaret in the world. Calligraphy Arabic calligraphy is associated with geometric Islamic art (the Arabesque) on the walls and ceilings of mosques as well as on the page. which were inherited from the first mosque built byr hall (originally a feature of the Masjid al-Nabawi). embellishing and repetitive Islamic art instead of using pictures of humans and animals (which is forbidden Haram in Islam). Central fountains used for ablutions (once used as a wudu area for Muslims). Domes and Cupolas. Elements of Islamic style Islamic architecture may be identified with the following design elements. hence the derivation of the word from the Arabic nur. has played a vital role in the development of the Arabic language. G r e e k . Arabesque is used in mosques and building around the Muslim world. Instead of recalling something related to the reality of the spoken word. [45][46] Iwans to intermediate between different pavilions. The holy book of Islam. Proverbs and complete passages from the Qur'an are still active sources for Islamic calligraphy.conveys a definite spirituality without the iconography of Christian art.[44] A four-iwan plan. minarets and portals. The use of decorative Islamic calligraphy instead of pictures which were haram (forbidden) in mosque architecture. as used at the Alhambra. and by extension. a unique Arabic/Islamic space-enclosing system. Calligraphy has arguably become the most venerated form of Islamic art because it provides a link between the languages of the Muslims with the religion of Islam. with three subordinate halls and one principal one that faces toward Mecca Mihrab or prayer niche on an inside wall indicating the direction to Mecca. The use of bright color. Note that in secular architecture. The use of mocárabe and muqarnas. calligraphy for the Muslim is a visible expression of spiritual concepts. al-Qur'ān. and it is a way of decorating using beautiful. Contemporary artists in the Islamic world draw on the heritage of calligraphy to use calligraphic inscriptions or abstractions in their work. for the decoration of domes. I s l a m i c | 13 . a vaulted hall or space. [44] It has the shape of a square massive tower of three superimposed sections. and geometric designs. usually the main prayer hall of a mosque. human and animal representation was indeed present. glazed tilework. usually decorated with calligraphy bands. Pishtaq is the formal gateway to the iwan.

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