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# EXPERIMENT 5 FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING (FSK)

1. Objective Generation of Frequency Shift Keying FSK. 2. General Information In FSK (Frequency Shift Keying), the instant frequency of carrier signal is varied corresponding to the values of pulse-sequence code. If the base band signal is assumed to have only 0 or 1, modulation process can be considered as a keying operation. In order to carry the binary information (zeros and ones), two different waveforms must be used as shown below. A sin(0t) 0 , , 0<tT otherwise

0(t) =

1(t) =

A sin(1t) 0

, ,

0<tT otherwise

0(t) and 1(t), used to represent data stream of 1s and 0s, are the sinusoidal signals with two different frequencies 0 and 1. Each signal takes nonzero values for 0<tT, where T
denotes the duration of the signals; T also corresponds to 1-bit interval. A simple modulator consisting of two oscillators and one key is illustrated in Figure 1.

## Figure 1. Production of FSK signal

Bandwidth of the FSK modulated signal depends on the distance between oscillator frequencies: B= 1 - 0 + 2 here 0 and 1 are oscillator frequencies and 0

1,

## = 2/T and << 0(1), where T represents duration of the signals.

Demodulation of FSK Signal: In modulation the system illustrated in Figure 2 can be used.

1(t)
Integrator

(t)

## Decision making circuit Threshold = 0

0(t)

Figure 2. Demodulation of FSK signal In Figure 2, decision maker examines the coming signal and determines for each period T which one of the two sine inputs is most likely present. If the outcome l of the summer is positive (l>0) then the decision maker produces a binary 1, if l is negative (l<0) then a binary 0 is produced. 3. Experiment Set PC & LabView Software

4. Experimental Procedure In order to transmit the binary signal (square-wave signal for this experiment) composed of 1s and0s, use two sine waves with the frequencies of f0 = 100 Hz and f1 = 50 Hz respectively. Create these two signals by using simulate signal function of LabView. Generate a square wave signal with the frequency of 25 Hz as the binary pulse signal. This will be the base-band signal which will be FSK modulated. Design a FSK modulator as given in Figure 1 so that signal with f0 is transmitted when the binary pulse is 1, and the signal with the frequency of f1 is transmitted when the binary pulse is 0. Calculate the bandwidth B of the FSK signal produced and display the FSK modulated signal in frequency domain.