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Kerala State Electricity Board

A Technical Presentation Melvin Koshy

College of Engineering, Trivandrum August 18, 2010

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Introduction

Power sector - One of the important sectors fuelling the GDP growth Private sector participation has increased recently - pushed by policies and regulations Complexities increased manifold Renewable energy - thrust area - REC R & D initiatives required in optimising system management shift from command control to contractual control

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

World Power Scenario

Demand for electricity is closely linked to economic growth The share of electricity in total energy consumption 2002 - 16% 2030 - 20% During past thirty years, growth of global economy - 3.3% per year electricity demand - 3.6% Electricity demand by 2030 would be doubled

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Probable Scenario in 2030

Developing countries demand tripled Developed countries, growth of 1.4% per year
Indonesia - 5.2% India - 4.9% China - 4.5%

Sectoral growth
Residential electricity consumption - 119% Services sector - 97% Industry - 86%

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Sources of Power

Dominant fuel in the past - Oil Last 30 years - More Coal Present Trend - More LNG Gas preferred to coal for
environmental advantages lower capital costs operational exibility

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Sources of Power

Nuclear stations
Long term cost advantage as base load Major impediment - safety hazards

Hydro
Environmental issues Cost of development in the rural areas. Salination of river deltas Erosion and siltation of dams Alienation of productive farmland Destruction of forests

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

World Power Scenario

Fossil Fuels
Increased pollution due to sulphur dioxide, nitric oxides and carbon dioxide Trans-boundary issues such as acid rain Stratospheric ozone depletion Greenhouse eect

By 2030, power generation will account for nearly half of world consumption of natural gas

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Power scenario in India

Growth of Economy - 7 8%
Power sector growth required - 10 12% about 12000 MW capacity addition per annum

Percapita consumption - 733 kWh Projected for 2012 - 1000 kWh Power shortage
8% on average basis 12% on peaking basis

Hydro Power
Potential - 150,000 MW Utilised - 32,000 MW Target for 2017 - 50,000 MW

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Installed Capacity

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Power System Operation - Basics

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Management of Electricity

Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities Production to match with consumption in real-time Power ow depend only on the laws of Physics Electrical Network needs to be Controlled andCoordinated technically and economically Hence, a need for Load Dispatching

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Load Dispatching

Coordination of
Generation system Transmission system Distribution system and Load

Ensuring
Safety Stablity Power quality Economical rate

Optimum Load Generation Balance

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Functions of Load Dispatch

Power System Control Objective: Safe and Secure Operation Control parameters Voltage Frequency Power System Coordination Objective: Most economic operation Control parameters Schedule of generation Arrangement of transmission system Crisis Management

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Load Generation Balance

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Load Generation Balance

Real time The actual demand has to be met with power availability
Sources
Internal from the control area itself External to the control area Thermal Hydel Others

Long term (Control period)


Energy requirement for the control period is to be met

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Demand of Control Area

Demand depends on Weather Social factors - festivals/holidays, examinations, major cricket matches etc. Political factors Availability of transmission, distribution system due to technical reasons Predictable/Unpredictable reasons

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Integrated Operation

The power system is operated on integrated mode. This provides Better stability Better reliability Low spinning reserve requirement Possibility of economic operation Requirements Extensive transmission network Complex control and coordination

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

India - Power Map

Indian Power System is divided into Five Regional Grids Northern Region Western Region Eastern Region North-Eastern Region Southern Region

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Electrical Regions

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

All India Power demand Peak in MW

Peak demand Peak demand met Decit

April 2010 121220 102894 18326 (15.1%)

April 09 - March 2010 119166 104009 15157 (12.7%)

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Southern Region Power position Peak in MW

Peak demand Peak demand met Decit

April 2010 31087 29054 2033 (6.5%)

April 09 - March 2010 32178 29049 3129 (9.7%)

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Southern Region Power position Energy in MU

Peak demand Peak demand met Decit

April 2010 20410 18245 2165 (10.6%)

April 09 - March 2010 220576 206544 14032 (6.4%)

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Power System Control

Control parameters Frequency ACTIVE POWER Voltage REACTIVE POWER Loading POWER FLOW

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Frequency Control

Control parameter: Active power Generation to match with load at any instant Generation control Manual Automatic Load control Consumers choice Contingency Imposed by utility

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Generation control Manual


Sources Hydel Thermal Gas Liquid Fuel Combined cycle Open cycle Nuclear Non-Conventional Wind Solar Small Hydel Others

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Automatic Control

Instantaneous response Governor Control FGMO RGMO Frequency based automatic schemes

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Load Control
Power shortage Constraints Contingency Imposed by utility

Load shedding
Energy shortage Choices Aordability Choice for consumer

Power Cut
Melvin Koshy Kerala State Electricity Board

Demand Management

Starts acting when f < 49.7 Hz Load shedding below f < 49.5 Hz Automatic under frequency load shedding
Plain UF df/dt

SCADA based selective remote tripping to maintain control area error at lower frequencies

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

System Performance Parameters

Main factors Generation


Spinning Reserve Size of grid Interconnection

Transmission n1 n2

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Allowed Voltage variation (as per IEGC)

Nominal 765 400 220 132 110 66 33

Maximum 800 420 245 145 121 72 36

Minimum 728 380 198 122 99 60 30

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Factors aecting voltage

Voltage balance Reactive power Reactive sources


Reactors Capacitor banks Transmission line SIL, length of line

Loading constraints Compensation Location

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Power Map of Southern Region

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Active power ow

Depend on laws of physics KVL and KCL hold good Principle - Power ow by displacement

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Principle of HVDC

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Activities in Load Dispatching

Data Monitoring Data Analyzing Optimal Decision making

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Data Requirement

Output of Generators Power Flow through Grid Inter State Power Flow Bus Voltage System Frequency Reservoir Levels Fuel Position Power availability

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Power System SCADA

SCADA Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition SCADA makes entire power system available to the operator for control It also permits the operator to interfere in the grid by remote switching in exigencies It is integrated up to national level with drill-down facility

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Information ow

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

SCADA GUI - SLDC, Kalamassery

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

SCADA in Kerala

32 Remote Terminal Units covering all generating stations, 220 kV substations and 110 kV grid stations Broadband backbone with OF/MW links Radial connections through PLCC Three sub load dispatch centres and one state load dispatch centre

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Control Levels in Power System

National Load Dispatch Centre, Delhi Regional Load Dispatch Centres State Load Dispatch Centres Sub Load Dispatch Centres

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Hierarchy of Controls

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Power system Coordination

Parameter to be controlled - Cost Control variables Schedule of generators Arrangement of transmission network Basically an optimisation problem

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

India - Power Map

Interconnected grid Generation outside geographic boundaries Principle of displacement

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Typical Demand Pattern

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Constraints in Generation

Nuclear power - Strictly base load plant Coal based - 75% to 100%, Limited start stops Combined cycle - 75% to 100%, Limited start stops Open cycle - Cost high Hydel - Water discharge commitment, Spillage/Shortage of water

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

System based constraints

Transmission constraints Voltage constraints Minimum generation Spinning reserve

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Enforcement of optimisation - Tari

Tari determines charges, penalties and incentives To facilitate enforcement of optimisation, Availability Based Tari (ABT) was introduced, which has three components Capacity charges (Fixed cost) Energy charges (Variable cost) Unscheduled interchange (UI charges)

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Mechanism of the ABT

The commercial mechanism of the ABT disciplines of all three entities in the grid - the generator, transmitter and the beneciaries The UI charges combined with capacity charge on availability basis facilitates the marketing of both capacity and energy on a continuous basis, and enforcement of grid discipline Availability Based Tari is appropriate as it reects all elements of capacity made available as well as capacity utilised

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Unscheduled Interchange (UI)

Demand of the grid is not constant Frequency of the grid is not constant Depending on various conditions, the tie line ow varies from instant to instant Thus UI is unavoidable in an integrated network UI can be harnessed eectively to the advantage of the constituents if system permits Rate depends on frequency

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

UI Rate for dierent frequencies w.e.f. 03-05-2010

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Beneciary UI

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Generator UI

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

VAR Rates

Payable at10 ps./kVARH for VAR injection at Voltages above 103% of rated voltage VAR absorbed at Voltages below 97% of rated voltage Receivable at 10 ps./kVARH for VAR drawal at Voltages above 103% of rated voltage VAR injection at Voltages below 97% of rated voltage

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Merit order Dispatch

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Trading of power

Act 2003 and Electricity policy recognises trading of Electricity as a distinct activity Open access is provided in transmission sector so that any utility can buy power from any source in India or even from abroad Transmission charges are payable to the transmission company Losses associated are to be borne

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Necessity of electricity trading

Quality of power is determined by the overall behaviour of all agencies


Manufacturers (generators) Customers (SEBs/DISCOMs) Transporters (transmission and distribution agencies)

No agency is able to control the quality of his production or purchase in an integrated network. Power trading contributes to
Better grid conditions Grid discipline Reduction of the overall cost

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Players in the eld

Trading can be
Bilateral Through traders approved by regulatory commissions Direct

Through Exchanges
Indian Energy Exchange Power Exchange India Ltd.

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Advantages of trading
Resources optimization Reducing peaking shortage by ensuring transfer of electricity from surplus region to decit region on day to day basis and even on real time basis Signal for investment in generation (Evident from the number of generators coming up on merchant basis and willing to sell power to the needy consumers by participating in tender formalities) Harnessing of various sources of power such as co-generation, captive, wind power etc. Better utilisation of transmission assets eectively reduces the overall transmission cost as Short term trading is done by utilizing the inherent margin of the transmission network

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Transactions through power exchanges

Most of the trade in power exchanges is through day-ahead market. The requirement/availability for the next day can be quoted on hourly basis. There is no obligation on time period for oers, the quantum of requirement Prices quoted are to be considered as true reection of the merit order of purchasers. The oered price by sellers is based on market conditions

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Features of Power Exchanges

Pre-conditions like must buy for a time period, say o-peak along with peak, day time with o-peak etc. are common Ensure scheduling of the plant above technical minimum throughout the day Possibility of subsidising some portion of o peak sale with the margin available during peak or day-time Agreements for longer period-typically week ahead or month ahead Swap covering several months also possible

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

Signicance of Power Exchanges

Purchase can be restricted to the essential period alone in case of power shortage This preserves the overall merit order-Even purchase for 4 h (say), peak at a rate higher than the costliest internal station may prove to be in merit order Very low prices discovered in exchanges in some period can be utilised for meeting energy shortage

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board

THANK YOU

Melvin Koshy

Kerala State Electricity Board