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Automation in SCADA, Substation & Metering

National Workshop on Emerging Technologies in Electrical Power Engineering


17-18 February 2012 Silicon Institute of Technologies Bhubaneswar, Orissa

ARUNACHALAM ADDITIONAL DIRECTOR

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CPRI, BANGALORE

Outline
Power System Automation
SCADA DA

SUBSTATION AUTOMATION Metering System Smart Grid

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CPRI, BANGALORE

Central Power Research Institute MINISTRY OF POWER GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ESTABLISHED IN 1960 AUTONOMOUS SOCIETY IN 1978

RESEARCH TESTING CONSULTANCY


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Central Power Research Institute - Units

1) Central Power Research Institute, Bangalore. 2) Switchgear Testing & Development Station, Bhopal. 3) Ultra High Voltage Research Laboratory, Hyderabad. 4) Regional Testing laboratory, Noida. 5) Thermal Research Centre, Nagpur. 6) Regional testing Laboratory, Kolkata 7) Regional testing Laboratory, Guwahati

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Testing of power apparatus for 1. Electrical test 2. Insulation test 3. Thermal test 4. Stress test 5. Environmental test 6. Mechanical test 7. Seismic qualification test 8. Short time current test up to 300 kA rms 9. Direct testing upto 2500 MVA capacity 10.Synthetic testing 11.HV test upto 800 kV 12.Impulse test 13.Ingress protection test 14.Dielectric property test 15.EMI-EMC test 16.Heat run test 17.Flame proof test 18.Test for energy efficiency and many more.
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CPRI FACILITIES ISO 17025 ISO 9000

PROTOCOL LABORATORY a) IEC 62056 b) IEC - 60870- 5- 101 c) IEC - 60870- 5- 103 d) IEC - 60870- 5- 104 . e) IEC - IEC 60870-6 . f) DNP 3.0 g) IEC 61850
CCAR - CENTER FOR COLLABORATIVE RESRACH

OVERVIEW ON POWER SYSTEM AUTOMATION


POWER SYSTEM AUTOMATION

Availability of Information From end points meters, DTR, Feeders, RMUs Acquisition of Information Communication and networking, DAS, AMR Analysis of the Information Applications EMS, DMS Decision making O&M, Control, Planning, MIS, ERP, MBC

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Generic - Automation Architecture


MCC Master Control Center IT systems

Communication Connectivity

VSAT, MPLS, FOC, GPRS

SUBSTATION
System strengthening Feeder re-configuration Conductor size LT: HT ratio DTR Load balancing Improving tail end voltage
Automation RMUs. Sectonalisers Auto re-closers Fault Pass Indicators (FPI) Communication systems. DMS functions.

SUBSTATION

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Typical Automation Functions


System Centric Function Customer Centric Function MIS Related Function Technical loss reduction Commercial loss reduction

Substation monitoring & Reduced outage control (Local & Remote) DTR monitoring Reduced interruption

Remote control of RMU & sectionalizes


Planned system operation Power transformer monitoring Load monitoring & control Condition monitoring & maintenance

Better voltage
Planned load shedding Improved reliability Quick service restoration Billing & Payment TCMS / IVRS

System information for planning


Load forecast Optimal network planning Energy audit GIS mapping Asset management
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Automation - Drivers
AMBIENCE
Indian electricity act Open access De-regulation Reforms Energy conservation act

THE STANDARDS
Open systems Communication protocols Information access

TECHNOLOGY
Computing platforms Measuring technology Interfacing Networking It enabling Communication

THE NEED
Data / information Customer Management Operation Historical Efficiency improvement
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Network application overview


The SCADA systems caters to the whole of Karnataka state which has five Distribution companies and 23 major generating stations and major IPPs and Central Generation Share

Courtesy - KPTCL

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Courtesy - KPTCL

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Objectives Common integrated solution to cater to the network extending to the entire state of Karnataka covering 854 Stations of Transmission, Generation and Distribution companies in the I phase.
Integrated Solution for Energy Auditing, Energy Billing and Availability Based Tariff to meet regulators requirement. Integration of all Sub-station and Generating Station Automation systems Data to all ESCOMs for scheduling and monitoring Facilitate Integration to other Distribution Systems of ESCOM. down the line

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BLR 144
RTU

TUM 111

MYS 152

HAS 28

BGL 237

GUL 150
RTU

822 ( 400/220/110/66/33) SS
Transmission SCADA

BLR

DR - HUB
MCC-1 MCC-2

ALDC

ALDC

6 - ALDC
OUTLINE ARCHITECTURE - SCADA/EMS/DMS Project
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Features
SCADA from all receiving stations ranging from 33kV to 400kV SCADA from all Major Generating stations and IPPs. Data from all feeders from 11 kV to 400 kV. Area Load Dispatch Centre for Six Transmission Zones Distribution Control Centre for five ESCOMs Up-gradation of State Load Despatch Centre Exclusive Control Centre for Bangalore City EB/EA/ABT system to perform Energy Billing, Energy Audit and Availability Based Tariff functions Sub-system to perform Open Access operations. Real time Energy Data Acquisition from all Interface points. Energy Management System and Distribution Management System VSAT Hub and network with leased bandwidth from INSAT 3A Disaster Recovery Hub

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Functional Structure of EM Centers


Energy Management System

Base Functions Data Acquisition Supervisory Control Alarm Processor Logical Alarm Sequence of Events Funct

Generation Functions Load Forecasting Unit Commitment


Economic Dispatch and AGC

Network Analysis Functions Topology Processing State Estimator Network Parameter Adaptation Dispatcher Power Flow Network Sensitivity Funct

Interchange Transaction Scheduling

Historical Data base


Load shedding Funct Automatic Data collection Safety Management
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Security Analysis Funct


Security Dispatch Function Voltage Control Funct Optimal Power flow

DISTRIBUTION AUTOMATION SYSTEM (DAS)

Stages involved in Power Distribution

MV

LV

Distribution Automation The distribution automation includes - automation that is used in the planning, engineering, construction, operation, and maintenance of the distribution power system, including interactions with the transmission system. Manuel to Automatic MV network is the focus

DMS Functions The typical DMS functions are i. Loss Minimization via Feeder Reconfiguration (LMFR) ii. Load Balancing via Feeder Reconfiguration (LBFR) iii. Fault Management and System Restoration (FMSR) iv. Outage Management v. Peak Management vi. Workforce Management vii. Voltage VAR control (VVC) viii. Network Connectivity Analysis (NCA) ix. State Estimation (SE) x. Load Flow Application (LFA) xi. Operation Monitor (OM) xii. Distribution Load forecasting (DLF) xiii. Distributed Planning Operational planning Assessing planned outages load forecasting

System strengthening Feeder re-configuration Adding additional feeders Increasing conductor size in selected segments Reducing LT: HT ratio Adding more distribution transformers Load balancing on existing feeders and DTRs Improving tail end voltage wherever required. Revamping of sub-stations Re-conditioning required DTRs.

Automation RMUs on the MV network. Sectonalisers Auto re-closers Fault Pass Indicators (FPI) Communication connectivity. DMS functions.

R T U

Control Room Operators

Communications
Master Station

Operational analysis, decisions, issue controls Outage Analysis

Substation

R T U

3
Radio

5
5

Line

4
Optical Fibre, Cable Microwave

R T U

Reporting Analysis

KEY ELEMENTS of DAS


Data & Control 18-Feb-12 Pathway

2 3

RTU

Primary Plant Interface

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4 5

Master Station

Control Room, 21 Corporate Usage

DAS Functional/Architectural Overview


Decision Support Systems OMS

Maintenance Management

Other Applications Crew Management

GIS

DMS Applications

Corporate Data Accessibility and Availability

DMS

SCADA Functions

SCADA

SCADA Platform Environment

COMMUNICATIONS

User Interface

Data Acquisition

RTU

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Indian utilities statistics

Substation

No. of interruptions 48

Duration of Interruptions 47:42:00

S1

S2

50

23:16:15

S3

48

16:14:15

Example Failure Rates


Overhead Failure Rates
Voltage 12kV Main Lateral 4kV Main Lateral 241 161 111 70 0.092 0.087 309 217 190 201 0.123 0.185 Circuit km Failures Over 5 Years Failures Per km Per Year

Underground Failure Rates


Voltage 12kV XLPE EPR 360 116 231 242 33 9 64 13 0.018 0.016 0.055 0.011 Circuit km Failures Over 5 Years Failures Per km Per Year

PILC
PE 4kV XLPE EPR PILC PE

28 12 160 10

1 2 30 0

0.007 0.033 0.038 0.000

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Number of Sustained Outages

100

120

140

160

20

40

60

80

0
lu re

Eq ui pm en tF ai

Ac tiv ity /F or ei gn O bj ec t n

Un kn ow

Ve ge ta tio n Di st rib ut io n Su pp ly Fa ilu re W ea th er

Example Causes of Failure Equipment Failures

Average (1996-2001)

(Resulting In Sustained Outages)

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El ec tri ca lO ve rlo ad g O pe ra tin Er ro r Im pr op ui t er Co ns tru ct io n O th er Ci rc

6 Year Average

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Outage Management System


Automatically infers fault location based on customer trouble calls or other indications Shows fault location on geographical display of power system so crews can be dispatched immediately to this location Displays can be used to show crew positions and reflect repair status as switches are opened and closed Tracks number of interrupted customers and corresponding outage durations
Reduces repair times, keeps customers better informed, and provides more accurate reliability data!

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After Automation ( Average time to restore Power Supply to healthy section 1-2 Minutes)

Automation Philosophy
R/S feeder R/S feeder Automated RMU / DT with FPI R/S feeder Circuit Breaker FPI indicates passage of fault current CB Trips R/S feeder

Circuit Breaker

Normally open point

Normally open point

R/S feeder Circuit Breaker Remote Operation of RMU Switch & Partial Restoration of supply typically 1-2 mins

R/S feeder

R/S feeder Circuit Breaker Additional network restored, total time 11-18 mins

R/S feeder

Normally open point

Remote operation to close switch

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Impact of Automation System


Without Automation
Customer Reports Outage Travel Time Investigation & Patrol Time Power Restored to Customers on Healthy Sections of Feeder Time to Perform Manual Switching Feeder Back to Normal Fault Occurs Fault Located

Repair Time

5 10 minutes

15 30 minutes

15 20 minutes 45 75 minutes

10 - 15 minutes

1- 4 Hours

With Automation
Power Restored to Customers on Healthy Sections of Feeder Fault Occurs Customer Reports Outage Field Crews On- Scene Patrol Time

Feeder Back to Normal Repair Time

Travel Time

1 2 minutes

15 30 minutes

5 - 10 minutes

1- 4 Hours

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Typical Distribution Control Room Environment


Crew Management Current State Analysis (Incorporates Load Modelling and Network Analysis Outage Management Future State Analysis

ERP, GIS Corporate Asset Data and Model Design

Planning

Updates to Network Model and Diagrams

Outage Analysis r/t state

Network Operational Model NOM


r/t state

Switching Management

Switching Planning

Outage Reporting

SCADA

Operational Diagrams

Reports and History CIS IVR Calls

Asset Maintenance

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Typical Distribution Control Room Environment


Crew Management

DAS
Current State Analysis (Incorporates Load Modelling and Network Analysis Future State Analysis

ERP, GIS Corporate Asset Data and Model Design

Planning

Outage Management

Updates to Network Model and Diagrams

Outage Analysis r/t state

Network Operational Model NOM


r/t state

Switching Management

Switching Planning

Outage Reporting

SCADA

Operational Diagrams

Reports and History CIS IVR Calls

Asset Maintenance

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Reliability Performance Indices


With moves toward deregulation and open competition, access to accurate and timely outage information is critical in order to maximize operational efficiency, minimize customer complaints, and maintain electric system reliability. In this respect, it is common practice to track and benchmark reliability using standard performance indices such as CAIDI, SAIFI, and SAIDI. These indices serve as valuable tools to compare utility reliability performance, but care must be taken to ensure they are being calculated in the same manner.
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Index Definitions
System Average Interruption Frequency Index
SAIFI Total Number of Customer Interruptions Total Number of Customers Served
Interruptions/Customer/Yr

System Average Interruption Duration Index


SAIDI

Customer Interruption Durations


Total Number of Customers Served

Minutes/Customer/Yr

Customer Average Interruption Duration Index

CAIDI

Customer Interruption Durations


Total Number of Customer Interrupti ons

Minutes/Interruption/Yr

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AIL 0 1 2 3 4 5

Conclusions

SAIFI Before After 3.2 3.2 3.2 0.8 3.2 3.2 3.2 1.8 3.2 0.6 3.2 0.6
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SAIDI Before After 12.4 12.4 12.4 2.95 12.4 7.6 12.4 8.25 12.4 2.7 12.4 1.5

No. of Permanent Faults Before After 192000 192000 192000 48000 192000 192000 192000 108000 192000 36000 192000 36000

Man Fmas Savings in Crew Power Savings Scada Power @ 40 No. of Vehicles Savings Savings Scada Cost % LF Before After 105 105 0 0 0 0 0 105 26 3365.4 561 97.6 759.5 6.1236 105 105 0 561 97.6 872 3.1104 105 59 1959.6 561 97.6 872 2.6892 105 19 3663.6 561 97.6 1172 6.2856 105 19 3663.6 561.00 97.6 1584.5 7.0632
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Pay Back Period( Yrs) 0 0.2 1.87 0.36 0.29 0.39


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Example of Automated GOS

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Example of Automated Load Break Switches/Line Reclosers


SF6 LBS Air-Break LBS

Vacuum LBS Line Recloser

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Example of RMU (Pad-Mounted Switches)

Generally, if not automation ready, can be retro-fit with motor or solenoid operating mechanism
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Substation Automation

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SS Architecture - wired
STATION LEVEL

BAY LEVEL

PROCESS LEVEL

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SS Architecture Networked IEC 61850


STATION LEVEL

ETHERNET

BAY LEVEL

PROCESS LEVEL

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IEC 61850 - ARCHITECTURE


HMI Gateway

TO RCC

Substation Bus Ethernet OFC 100/1000 Mbps


GOOSE

IED (Relay)

IED (BCU)

IED (METER)

INTEROPERABLE

Process Bus Ethernet OFC 100/1000 Mbps MU

MU

LEGACY IED
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MU
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IEC 61850 SALIENT FEATURES


1. Freedom to allocate function to devices 2. Interoperability IEDs of different mfrs can co-exist and exchange info. 3. One or more logical node in a physical device 4. Sampled values of Voltage and Current exchange 5. High speed IED to IED communication [GOOSE] 6. Interface to legacy system

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MACRO - MICRO

LOGICAL DEVICE LOGICAL NODE DATA&OBJECTS M/CT/ST ATTRIBUTE U/MF/SIGN PHYSICAL DEVICE

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Smart Grid

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CPRI

THE ENERGY SECURITY

Demand for energy all forms - unsustainable


Coal Fossil Fuel Oil

KYOTO PROTOCOL
Climate change Global warming restrict GREEN house gas CO2 - emissions

Need at least 50% more energy in 2030.

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CPRI

THE KEY DRIVERS

Need for more energy Increased usage of renewable energy resources Sustainability Competitive energy prices Security of supply Ageing infrastructure and workforce

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CPRI

Power statistics - India


Energy consumption Demand for energy 3.4% of global level 3.6% per annum

Installed capacity as of September 2010.


Sector MW State Sector 80,844.12 Central Sector 51,867.63 Private Sector 32,124.05 Total 1,64,835.80 Per capita usage 612 kwh
Energy = -12.1%

%age 52.5 34.0 13.5

Peak Demand = - 10.6%

Distribution smart grid


DG DSM/DR
DEMAND

Peak periods

peak shaving
peak shifting 0 Time 24

Balance Demand with Supply Reduce Losses Customer participation in Supply DSM / DR Time of USE - TOU Green initiatives - RE
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CPRI
SMART GRID

A reform process which aims at optimally utilising the available energy with demand

DG Distributed Generation

Integrated Intelligence Network I2N

DR Demand Response

Courtesy - IEEE

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Characteristics of SG

1. Self-Healing and Adaptive Rapidly detects, re-configures and restores power supply.
2. Interactive with consumers and markets - Motivates and includes the consumer and stakeholders. 3. Optimized to make best use of resources and equipment Optimizes assets and operates efficiently. 4. Predictive rather than reactive the system operation can be planned to avoid emergencies. 5. Distributed Generation - Accommodates all generation and storage options
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Smart Grid Vision Definition an automated, widely distributed energy delivery network characterized by a two-way flow of electricity and information, capable of monitoring and responding to changes in everything from power plants to customer preferences to individual appliances.

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Smart Grid Challenges


Financial Resources The regulators will require extensive proof before authorizing major investments based heavily on societal benefits. Government Support The industry may not have the financial capacity to fund new technologies without the aid of government programs to provide incentives to invest. Compatible Equipment Some older equipment must be replaced as it cannot be retrofitted to be compatible with smart grid technologies. This may present a problem for utilities and regulators since keeping equipment beyond its depreciated life minimizes the capital cost to consumers. Early retirement of equipment may become an issue.

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Smart Grid Challenges


Speed of Technology Development The solar , the basement fuel cell, and the chimney wind generator were predicted 50 years ago as an integral part of the home of the future.

Policy and Regulation The state financing the project may not always be the one benefiting most from it. Unless an attractive return on smart grid investments is encouraged, utilities will remain reluctant to invest in new technologies.
Cooperation The challenge for diverse utilities will be the cooperation needed to install critical circuit ties and freely exchange information to implement smart grid concepts.

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The Functionalities

1. 2. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

AMI Smart Distribution Smart Pricing Demand Control Building / Home automation Renewable Integration Plug in Electric Vehicle - Bay Condition Based Maintenance

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CPRI

Smart Grid Control Scheme


MDM CP ANALYTICS OMS PM Two way communication

SG Control Center

DA SA CBM

Power network & apparatus


Two way communication

DG
SOLAR PV WIND BIO MASS

consumers [smart meters]


AMI SMART METERS HAN
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Typical System Architecture

IT LAYER

COMMUNICATION LAYER

NETWORK LAYER

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Metering

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Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) AMI and its role: The AMI is the nerve center of any smart grid implementation. AMI constitute Smart meters at consumer premises. Two way communication network between CC and end points. MDAS that will act as Front end to field devices and MDMS IT system comprising of HW and SW running MDMS located at the SGMC. The role of AMI is vital and would facilitate Periodic flow of customer meter data and network data in to the data base. Disseminate DSM / DR programs Facilitate MDM Customer empowerment through consumer portal

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Why Immediate Attention?


Meter data is becoming vital part in deciding many of the performance and planning parameters of utilities. Many of utilities are looking for automation to manage huge amount useful data generated from meters and other sources of grid/network. AMR is becoming part of DA/DSM/SCADA leading to AMI / Smart metering solution. AMR / AMI is becoming best tool to check AT & C losses and control / detect pilferages.

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Smart Meter The Notion


An intelligent device which enables a customer to participate in the utilities initiatives for energy management. The initiatives are put forth by utility through its policies and functions. Lead to Smart metering - Not only collecting information but also sending information.

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Smart Metering
Typical functions are: Interval meter data (load profile. Meter reading Meter management (reduction, disconnection, demand management, etc). Measurement of consumption and generation by distributed units.

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Smart Metering
Meter parameterisation such as tariff structures, contractual power, meter interval, etc. Message transfer from market players to the customer price signals. Information display on the meter and / or communication port for external display Power quality measurement (incl. Continuity of supply and voltage quality)..
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HOST

METERS THAT MATTER


SS Meters 11/33/66/110/220/400 kV

FEP
BOUNDARY / BANK METERS - ABT

HT

HT D C&I M2

DATA ROUTING NETWORK

FEP
DTR LT

M4

FEP
M1 A
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M3
BJ / KJ

OTHERS

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Metering management
Automated meter reading (AMR) Meter Date Management (MDM)

It is crucial that the party responsible for collecting and administrating meter data makes data accessible to all other authorised market players in a non-discriminatory way. If the customer is expected to react to price signals, actual demand etc...then easy access to meter data, for instance on a display, is needed.

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Need for protocol


APPLICATION APPLICATION

LINK LAYERS

LINK LAYERS

PHYSICAL LAYER

PHYSICAL LAYER

PSTN

PLC

RF

TCP/IP

CELLULAR

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AMR impediments

1. 2. 3. 4.

No common meter reading protocol Many manufacturers many communication protocols. Non availability of protocol information Integration issues - different make meters at the field level.

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THE APPROACH
Homogeneity at meter end Accessibility at all times Interoperability
Choose OPEN PROTOCOL - A General practice

HOST

METER WITH STANDARD PROTOCOL

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Open Protocols
The IEC 62056 is an open protocol exclusively evolved for Metering purpose. It operates at meter level. A wide range of data types can be read either selectively or in groups. The parameters are identified through unique codes. The protocol can work with many common communication medium. The protocol implementation can be verified for conformance with the dedicated test tool. India has been aligning with IEC for standardization. In the present effort to bring in uniform protocol and based on the relative merits and demerits, IEC 62056 protocol would become the natural choice for metering purposes in India.
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IEC 62056 (dlms) FEATURES


OBJECT MODELLING

ADOPTED BY IEC

- COmpanion Specification for Energy Metering [COSEM] DATA IDENTIFICATION Object Identification System [OBIS] & IC

MEASUREMENT

COMPUTATION
METER

COMMUNICATION

MANDATORY OBJECTS ADDITIONAL OBJECTS


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INSTANTANEOUS VALUES PROFILES TARIFF READINGS POWER QUALITY PARAMETERS AND OTHERS CPRI, BANGALORE

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The smart meters shall have the following minimum features: 1. Measure and Compute electrical parameters. 2. Store and communicate requested data as per programmed interval. 3. Detect, resolve abnormal & tamper events and store the same 4. Inbuilt memory to store all relevant meter data, events for a required period. 5. Meter communication protocol shall be as per open standard. 6. Options for both Prepaid and postpaid metering. 7. Shall be configurable remotely. 8. Interface to a Home Display Unit 9. Support remote firmware upgrade 10. Support remote load management 11. Load Reconnect / Disconnect switch
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IEC 62056 DLMS / COSEM A Overview


Steady state values - Instantaneous Dynamic values - Profiles Harmonics - Power Quality Import / Export - Four Quadrant Event recording / reporting Time Stamping Unit & Scaler representation Unique identification codes - OBIS Country / Manufacturer specific codes In built support for common communication profiles Access and Data Security Interoperable
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Smart meters - communication

1. Power line communication Broadband Narrowband 2. Low power RF Mesh networks - Zigbee

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HAN Architecture

HDU

ZC ZC ZC

Contact or

Geyser

GSM

ZGW

Contact or

AC

Contact or

Room Heater

DCU

ZC

Contact or

Fridge

1 / 3 AC
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Zigbee
Zigbee is a new wireless technology built on the IEEE 802.15.4 networking standard for wireless personal area networks (WPANs). ZigBee is targeted at RF applications that require low data rate low power low cost Worldwide ZigBee operates in 2.4 GHz, the ISM radio bands which do not require license. The composite IEEE standard (Physical and Mac layers) and Zigbee (network and application layers) standard has enabled enormous applications for home automation, wireless sensors, automatic meter reading etc.
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CPRI

Device types

The Zigbee system is a network of three different types of generic devices namely ZigBee coordinator(ZC), ZigBee Router (ZR) ZigBee End Device (ZED).
ZC Root of the network tree , generally one per network. Store information about the network Monitor performance Configure parameters. Function as a router / intermediate router Passing data from other devices Stretching the reach. Only discharge designated function Example - controlling a light. ZED can talk to ZC or ZR Cannot relay data from other devices.
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ZR -

ZED -

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Wireless Control That Simply Works

Topology

Mesh

Star

ZigBee Coordinator

Cluster Tree

ZigBee Router ZigBee End Device

The Topology is the configuration of the hardware components and how the data is transmitted through that configuration. The Zigbee networking supports three topologies - Star, Mesh and Cluster Tree.
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BPLC

URBAN / RURAL NETWORK


LV / MV DATA RATE > 10 Mbps
DSL ISP NODE INTERNET CLOUD

Sub station
11 kV

DTR

DTR

MCC
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FOC + PLC - COMBI FOR POWER SECTOR AND INTERNET

HOST
DSL

FIBRE BACK BONE

DSL

SS

MV 50

DTR
DSL

CPE CPEs BB-ROUTER


HT

CPE
AMR LV 10

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Thank you

varun @ cpri.in
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