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MEEN 364 Lecture 23, 24

Parasuram April 1, 2003

HANDOUT E.24 - EXAMPLE HANDOUT ON STABILITY MARGINS AND COMPENSATION
Example 1: Consider the system, whose open-loop transfer function is given by G ( s) = K . s (0.2 s + 1)(0.05s + 1)

Determine the value of K for a phase margin of 40°. For the value of K computed, determine the gain margin. Sol: The phase margin relation is given by
PM = ∠G ( jω ) + 180, 0.2ω 0.05ω − tan −1 + 180, 1 1 ⇒ tan −1 0.2ω + tan −1 0.05ω = 50, ⇒ 40 = −90 − tan −1  0.25ω   = 50, ⇒ tan −1   1 − 0.01ω 2    ⇒ ω = 4 rad / sec

At this frequency, the magnitude must be equal to 1. Hence

G ( jω ) ⇒

ω =4

= 1, K = 1,
ω =4

ω

( 0.04ω + 1)( 0.0025ω + 1)
2 2

⇒ K = 5.2. To determine the gain margin, first compute the frequency where the phase is equal to -180 degrees. Therefore, we get
− 90 − tan −1 0.2ω − tan −1 0.05ω = −180, ⇒ tan −1 0.2ω + tan −1 0.05ω = 90,

1

25ω ⇒ →∞ 1 − 0. 0.208) = 13. we get G ( jω ) = ω ( 0. s ( s + 1) Design a Lead compensator so that kv = 12 sec-1 and Pm > 40°.0025ω + 1) 10( 5 )( 1. α Ts + 1 For the design. 2 2 K = 5.64 dB. such that the plant transfer function reduces to KK 1 G ( s) = . where α < 1.01ω 2 Therefore the denominator must be equal to zero. Hence Parasuram April 1. ⇒ω2 = Substituting this value of frequency in the magnitude.01 ⇒ ω = 10. Use MATLAB to verify that your design meets the specifications.208. 24  0.01ω 2    0. Example 2: Consider a type I unity feedback system with G ( s) = K .01ω 2 = 0.04ω + 1)( 0. ⇒ tan −1   1 − 0. Sol: The transfer function of the Lead Compensator is given by D( s) = K1 Ts + 1 .2 Therefore the gain margin of the system is GM = 0 − 20 log(0.MEEN 364 Lecture 23. 2003 1 − 0.25ω   = 90. 1 . consider K1 always with the plant.25 ) = 0. s ( s + 1) 2 .

KK 1 = KK 1 = 12. s ( s + 1) (1) Step 2: Plot the Bode plot of the transfer function given by equation (1) and compute the phase margin of the uncompensated system. obtain the value of the gain. margin(sys) The plot is given below. sys = 12/(s*(s+1)). s=tf('s'). s →0 s →0 ( s + 1) Therefore the plant transfer function reduces to k v = lim sG ( s ) = lim G ( s) = 12 . The Bode plot of the above system with KK1 = 12 is given by following the sequence of MATLAB code given below. 3 .MEEN 364 Lecture 23. 24 Parasuram April 1. 2003 Step 1: For the given steady state error constant. grid on.

23.4 + 7 = 32. α  12  1  ⇒ 20 log = −10 log . 2  0. D( s) = (Ts + 1) (0.2956s + 1) = . Therefore T= T= 1 ω max α . 24 Parasuram April 1. (α Ts + 1) (0. Put φ 1 =φ max and using the relation α = 1 − sin φ 1 + sin φ max max . 2003 Step 3: It can be seen that the phase margin of the uncompensated system is 16. Step 5: Choose the above frequency as the maximum frequency given by the relation ω max = 1 T α . 1 + sin(33) Step 4: Using the value of α calculated. compute the frequency where the magnitude is equal to –10log(1/α).0871s + 1) 4 . obtain the value of α. α = 1 − sin(33) = 0. 1 (6.6 ≈ 33. Therefore.2948 ) ⇒ T = 0.4 degrees.2948. Therefore the phase increase that is to be provided by the lead compensator is φ 1 = 42 − 16. 1 G ( jω ) = −10 log . . Therefore the Lead compensator is given by the transfer function. The required phase margin should be greater than 40 degrees. Note that 7° is used as a margin of safety.2956. Let us design for 42 degrees.23)( 0.MEEN 364 Lecture 23.2948  ω ω +1 ⇒ ω ≈ 6.

24 Parasuram April 1.  s  s  s + 1 + 1  1. Example 3: For the system with open-loop transfer function K . sys = 12/(s*(s+1)).) Plotting the Bode plot of the compensated system using the following sequence. 2003 (Note that K1 is not considered in this transfer function. margin(sys*comp) From the bode plot it can be seen that the phase margin is 44. Hence the design specifications have been satisfied.0871*s+1). as it had already been accounted for in the plant transfer function.47 degrees. grid on. comp = (0.MEEN 364 Lecture 23. we get s=tf('s').2956*s+1)/(0.4  3  design a lag compensator such that the phase margin is approximately equal to 40° and the steady state velocity error constant is 10 sec-1. G ( s) = 5 .

MEEN 364 Lecture 23.  s  s  s + 1 + 1  1. s →0  s  s  + 1 + 1   1. 24 Sol: Parasuram April 1. k v = lim sG ( s ) = lim s →0 Kα = Kα = 10. assuming a margin of safety of 5 degrees. 6 . the gain α is always considered with the plant transfer function so that the plant transfer function reduces to G ( s) = Kα .4  3  Step 2: Since the specified phase margin is 40 degrees. obtain the value of Kα. let us design the compensator such that the final phase margin of the system is 45 degrees. α Ts + 1 For the case of design.  s  s  s + 1 + 1  1. 2003 The transfer function of the Lag compensator is given by D( s) = α Ts + 1 . The bode plot is given below.4  3  Therefore the plant transfer function reduces to G ( s) = 10 .4  3  Step 1: For the given steady state error constant. Compute the frequency at which the Bode plot of the system gives a phase margin of 45 degrees.

807 rad/sec. (128. i. Therefore G ( jω ) ω = 0.39s + 1) .. 2003 From the Bode plot.0807. the frequency ωc2 at which the phase margin is 45 degrees is 0.e. ω c 2 = 0.35. Step 3: Using the frequency computed.39.253s + 1) 7 . 24 Parasuram April 1. Therefore the transfer function of the Lag compensator is given by D( s) = (12. Step 4: Choose.807 = = = 0. 10 10 T ⇒ T = 12.MEEN 364 Lecture 23.807 rad/sec .701 = 20 log(α ). 1 ω c 2 0. ⇒ α = 10. compute the magnitude of the system at that frequency and equate it to 20log(α).

2003 From the above Bode plot.45. Hence the design specifications are satisfied. Recommended Reading “Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems” Fourth Edition. 24 The Bode plot of the compensated system is given below. by Gene F. Recommended Assignment “Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems” Fourth Edition.al – pp 417 – 442.al – problems 6.66 degrees. Parasuram April 1.48. 6. 8 . Franklin et. Franklin et. it can be seen that the phase margin of the above system is approximately equal to 39.MEEN 364 Lecture 23. by Gene F.