1. The normal ejection fraction is? a. <50 % b. 55-70% c. >70% d. 80-90% 2.

The main compensatory mechanism of left ventricle when there is congestion is to? a. Increase the pumping mechanism b. Increase muscle size c. Decrease pumping capacity

d. Decrease muscle size 3. The main pathophysiologic event in myocardial infarction is? a. Thrombus formation in the myocardial wall b. Atherosclerosis in the coronary vessels c. Decrease oxygenation of the myocardium d. Obstruction of coronary blood flow 4. The difference between pain in angina versus myocardial infarction is a. It is relieved by rest b. It required higher pain killer to stop the pain c. Pain is not relieved by nitrates d. All of the above 5. Which of the following risk factors for coronary artery disease cannot be modified? a. Cigarette smoking b. Diabetes c. hypertension d. family history of heart disease

Atherosclerosis impedes coronary blood flow by which of the following mechanisms? a.Which of the following signs is commonly seen among client with right sided heart failure a. Plaques obstruct the artery c. Cough . Aortic Stenosis b. Blood clots form outside the vessel wall d. Right Ventricular Hypertrophy d. Truncus arteriosus c. Dyspnea b. Coarctation of aorta 9. Leg edema c. Patent ductus arteriosus b.6. The nurse noted that the infant’s femoral pulse is absent upon palpation. This manifestation commonly is found in? a. Machinery like murmur c. Overriding of Aorta 8. Pulmonic Stenosis c. Hardened vessels dilate to allow the blood to flow through 7. Which of the following is not included in the defect of Tetralogy of Fallot? a. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome d. Plaques obstruct the vein b. Frequent nose bleed d. Jaundice 10. The main manifestation of client with Patent ductus arteriosus is a. Cyanosis b.

All of the above 15. Ketones are produced because of lipolysis d. Allows the glucose to enter the cell . Synthesis of fats for glucose conversion d. Negative feedback c. Neutral control d. Hyperglycemia promotes severe diuresis and dehydration b. All of the above 14. Serve as a receptor or binding site for glucose b.The main pathophysiologic defect occurring in Type 2 DM is? a. Insulin is not binding with the cell receptor site c. Digestion and metabolism of glucose c.Which of the following is the main function of insulin? a.Which of the following may be a complication if diabetes is not controlled a. the cell do not breakdown fats as source of glucose c. Because there is little insulin produced. Pancreas is not producing insulin b.d.Normal level of hormones is marinated by which mechanism a.Which of the following is not true regarding Diabetic Ketoacisosis a. 13. Positive feedback b. Heart attack c. Glucose is not properly metabolized by the cells 12. Client usually has sweet or fruity breath odor. There is over production of insulin d. Renal damage b. Left ventricular hypertrophy 11. Stroke d.

If the person is on chronic use of steroids and suddenly stop taking it. In primary.16. pituitary gland is not producing TSH but the thyroid gland is still producing the hormone. ACTH 17. Diabetes Mellitus . T3 d. In secondary. Hyperthyroidism c. Hypothyroidism b. Cushing Syndrome b. c.The main stimulus for the secretion of hormones from the thyroid gland is? a. ADH c. Both A and B d. b.Which of the following is an etiologic factor for hypothyroidism? a. 18. All of the above 20. pituitary gland is not producing TSH but the thyroid gland is not responding to the stimulation. Surgical removal of the thyroid gland c. In primary the pituitary gland is producing TSH but the thyroid gland is not responding to the stimulation. In secondary. Radiation treatment of the thyroid gland d. this condition may lead to? a. TSH b.Goiter or thyroid enlargement is a common manifestation among? a. Large consumption of cabbage and broccoli b. None of the above 19. d.Which of the following best describe the difference between primary and secondary hypothyroidism? a. the pituitary gland is under producing TSH and the thyroid gland is responding to the stimulation.

The goblet cells is active in the production of mucous c.Which of the following mechanism is occurring for client suffering from gastritis? a.If the lower esophageal sphincter is incompetent and acid from the stomach is back flowing in the esophagus. this condition leads to a. Helicobacter pylori b.c.The main defense of the stomach to prevent itself from auto digestion is? a. Diabetes Insipidus 21. Pepsin d. Gastro esophageal reflux disease c. The cardiac sphincter if allowing the HCl to back flow in the esophagus b. Stress . The pepsin secreted by the parietal cell b. it primarily requires? a. The mucous secreted by the goblet cells d. The neutralization of hydrochloric acid 22. The presence of food every 4-5 hours c. Progesterone b. Prostaglandin c. Peptic ulcer disease d.Which of the following is implicated as the cause of peptic ulcer a. The mucous is not sufficient to coat the gastric lining 23. There is decrease secretion of pepsin d. Gastritis b.For the goblet cells to produce mucous. Protease 24. Liver cirrhosis 25. Addison’s Disease d.

Fluid in the peritoneal space will infiltrate the lungs .Which of the following will worsen the bleeding possibility of client with liver cirrhosis? a. Accumulation of ammonia in the blood c. Risk for infection c. Accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity 30. Inability to synthesize Vit.c. Pain killers d. All of the above 26.If ascites is not managed. d. Accumulation of urea in the blood d. Lack of albumin production 27. K d. Risk for bleeding d. Altered thermoregulation 28. The liver is unable to convert ammonia to urea. Inability to convert ammonia to urea c. ity can cause respiratory distress by which mechanisms a.Which of the following mechanisms explain the presence of Ascites in liver cirrhosis a. b.Brain damage is a potential complication of liver cirrhosis due to? a. Lack of albumin production 29. Immature RBC b. Sodium is highly secreted c. Acute pain b. Accumulation of bilirubin in the blood b.What is your priority nursing diagnosis for client who developed portal hypertension due to liver cirrhosis a.

33. c. b. a. c. Maintaining the pressure in the cranium by decreasing one of the components when one component is increased. d. The absence of albumin caused the paralysis of diaphragm c. 34. a. The abdominal organs will crowd the thoracic cavity limiting lung expansion 31. intracranial pressure is maintained by a. Increases the pressure when the other components are decreased b.Which of the following is not true among adult’s skull a.According to Monroe-Kellie Hypothesis. d. Portal hypertension leads may lead to bleeding of pulmonary arteries and veins. It is capable of expanding b.b. All of the above . Pressure may built up due to brain edema c. Decreases the pressure when all pressure are increased c. 35. b. All of the above 32. d. Brain may herniated in the foramen magnum d. d.

d. . 36. d. c. a.a. a. b. 37. b. c. d. c. b.

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