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Briefly explain any 2 motivational theories that you know and how effective these theories in developing employees in an organization. Companies rely on their employees to produce products or provide services in a timely fashion. And while employees can easily learn the tasks and procedures required to carry out their roles, organizations can benefit from providing motivational incentives for exceptional job performance. Motivational theory in an organization has to do with the way in which a company motivates its employees to perform as a group and within their individual job roles. The way an organization manages its employees plays a significant role in influencing productivity and morale levels. An organization functions as a whole to achieve its stated objectives and also functions as a set of individual departments. As such, organizational management takes place at the company level as well as at the department level. Organizational management practices often incorporate motivational theories in order to best utilize a company's human resources. In effect, organizations use motivational theories to develop systems that promote productive work environments on both departmental and organizational levels. There are a few of motivational theories which we can practice according to situation. Among them, there are two motivational theories which are quite popular to be used. They are Expectancy Theory and Equity Theory. According from one of the sources from the website, Expectancy Theory suggests that motivation is based on how much we want something and how likely we think we are to get it. The formal framework of expectancy theory was developed by Victor Vroom. This framework states basically that motivation plus effort leads to performance, which then leads to outcomes. According to this theory, three conditions must be met for individuals to exhibit motivated behavior. The three conditions are effort-to-performance expectancy must be greater than zero; performance-to-outcome expectancy must also be greater than zero; and finally the sum of the valances for all relevant outcomes must be greater than zero. So, how do these three conditions have to be met for the individuals to exhibit motivated behavior?
For the first condition which is effort-to-performance expectancy. Performanceto-outcome expectancy is the individual's perception that performance will lead to a specific outcome. Instrumentality is the qualifications and abilities an employee has to perform the work necessary to produce a desirable outcome. An outcome that the individual does not want has a negative valance. An outcome that an individual wants has a positive valance. This expectancy ranges from 0 to 1. which is an index of how much an individual desires a particular outcome. Recruiters are responsible for providing a selection of candidates that are suitably qualified and likely to stay with the company. a writer whom already holds a Master of Arts in sociology from the University of Missouri-Kansas City wrote that Expectancy theory describes an employee's tendency to perform his job tasks at a level that's equal to the type of response he expects from the employer. Expectancy theory is manifested in recruitment and selection. it is the individual's perception of the probability that effort will lead to high performance. This expectancy ranges from 0 to 1. interviewing and employee performance. Therefore. The goal is to meet the expectations of human resources and corporate . In one of the report written by Ruth Mayhew. In other words he also stated that valence in Expectancy Theory refers to the level of confidence an employee has to expect a desirable outcome for his actions and behavior. the valance is zero. An individual may experience a variety of outcomes in an organizational setting. with 1 being a strong belief that effort will lead to high performance. recruiters who construct in-house job postings do so in a manner that generates interest in the current workforce. Expectancy is the outcome an employee anticipates in response to his actions or behavior. Each outcome has an associated valance. expertise and interest the organization needs. Expectancy Theory is considered to be effective when it is applied to motivate the employees in an organization. When the individual is indifferent to the outcome. Outcomes are consequences of behavior. A high performance-to-outcome expectancy would be 1 or close to it. This is an example of expectancy theory because promoting from within is a policy that supports employee retention efforts. Human resources and corporate leadership hold recruiters accountable for assembling a qualified pool of applicants whenever a vacancy occurs. The first stage in the employment relationship is recruitment and selection. Human resources recruiters and employment specialists develop a strategy to attract applicants with the qualifications.
Employees base their level of work. . makes the hiring decision a rational and well-informed one. For the next stage which is interview techniques. Expectancy theory is evident during many interviews and from both sides of the desk. The quality of work is relative to the level of response the employee expects as a result of the effort and time she puts into her tasks. Interviewees study company literature and brush up on their presentation skills with the expectation that they will impress the company's hiring manager enough that she will issue and invitation for a second interview or extend a job offer. develop a line of questions to determine how potential candidates will react to certain workplace situations. output or quality in anticipation of the employer's response. The response could be a pay bonus or elimination of her name from the list of employees to be laid off. which in turn. this might include a pat on the back. For example. an information technology expert who improves the method for capturing business data generally does so with the expectation that her employer will reward her with some form of positive response. They formulate their questions based on the type of response they want to elicit from candidates. Interviewers. on the other hand.leadership. a positive performance appraisal or better work assignments. Success is based on the recruiter's ability to find well-qualified and promotable candidates from the existing employee base.
Most of research done in therapy focuses on creating new coping skills and better problem solving. and the amount of sleep and rest you get. External factors include the physical environment. overall health and fitness levels. such as losing one’s job. but from a biological point of view. This has been stated in Mountain State Centers for Independent Living article which provides a course to the person who are under stress with some basic information on stress and some simple recommendations for dealing with stress. or positive experience. challenges. and expectations you're confronted with on a daily basis. of what others think of us. stress also can be defined as simply a fact of nature which forces from the inside or outside world affecting the individual. It is pertinent that stress is reduced to a minimum level. and physiological symptoms that accompany feeling overwhelmed by various situations. Stress is your body's way of responding to any kind of demand. financial struggles or relationship conflict. including your job. In general. the external stress-inducing factors. and deal with. These chemicals give people more energy and strength. if their stress is in response to something emotional and there is no outlet for this extra energy and strength. Stress results from feelings. The individual responds to stress in ways that affect the individual as well as their environment. and all the situations. Discuss some of the techniques to reduce stress among employees in an organization. . or of what our role should be. the better we can deal with stress. Most of us think of a definition of stress involving the component of us feeling unpleasant in some way. Stress can come from real events. which can be a good thing if their stress is caused by physical danger. your relationships with others. thoughts. The better our coping skills are . negative. When people feel stressed by something going on around them. Internal factors determine your body's ability to respond to. stress can be a neutral. But stress also can come from our own perceptions of how the world works. But this can also be a bad thing. emotional well-being. we usually think of stress as a negative experience. The definition of stress is complicated because different people use this word in different ways. your home. stress is related to both external and internal factors. Internal factors which influence your ability to handle stress include your nutritional status. difficulties. Other than that. Because of the overabundance of stress in our modern lives.3. their bodies react by releasing chemicals into the blood. Stress is dynamic and common in any workplace. It can be caused by both good and bad experiences.
Employees stress is a growing concern for organizations today. opportunities. the term stress has a negative implication and this negative aspect of stress is termed as distress. It may also bring out the best in individuals at times. It may induce an individual to discover innovative and smarter way of doing things. But usually. and other to break records. we can say that stress causes some people to break. stress is not always negative. or loss of something they desire and for which the consequence is both unpredictable as well as crucial. . In workplace. stress can be defined as a lively circumstance in which people face constraints. Stress is the response of people to the unreasonable/excessive pressure or demands placed on them. From this aspect. This positive dimension of stress is called as enstress. For instance when a subordinate is harassed or warned by his superior or experienced unhappiness of unsuitable job.
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