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Engineering Design

What is Design ?
As many definitions as many there are designs because process of design is such a common human experience As per Websters Dictionary

To fashion after a plan


Is this definition complete? If Yes..What is missing in it.?

the essential fact that to design is to create something that has never been
Engineering Designer, artist, sculptor, a composer, a playwright and other creative members practice design by this definition Professional practice of Engineering is concerned with Design

Conclusion Essence of Engineering is DESIGN

Then what is the .Formal Definition of Design..?


Design establishes and defines solutions to and pertinent structures for problems not solved before or new solutions to and which have previously been solved in a different way

Ability to Design is both a Science and an Art


Science : is learned through techniques and methods used Art : is best learned by doing Design Discovery : o Is getting the first sight of, or first knowledge of something o We can discover what has already existed but has not been known before

Design should not be confused with Discovery


o Invention Design is the product of Planning and Work :

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Design may or may not involve invention as some are truly inventive but most are not

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What is a Good Design ?


Good design requires both Analysis and Synthesis
Analysis o Decomposing problem into manageable parts To understand performance/behavior of parts in service using appropriate discipline of science/engineering and computational tools Usually involves simplification of real world problems though models Synthesis o Identification of Design Elements that will comprise Product Its decomposition into parts Combination of part solutions into a total workable system

What is a Real World Problem that you intend to design ?


o Rarely neat and defined o May need many engineering (fluid, solid mechanics etc) and non-engineering discipline (economics, finance, law etc) o Input data may be best but out of the scope of the individual o Constraints may be time, money, societal, environmental or energy regulations etc.

What is Final Design ?


o Is it the best, most efficient..Only time will tell.!!!!! o Rarely known the correct answer o One is hopeful that His Design will Work

Conclusion
Engineering Design extends beyond the boundaries of Science As Design Engineer during professional career you may have the opportunity
o To create dozens of designs o Have satisfaction of seeing them become working reality

As Scientist during professional career you may have the opportunity


o To make one creative addition to human knowledge in your whole life and many never do so o Can discover a new star bur\t can not make one o Have to ask an Engineer to do it for him

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DESIGN PROCESS

Product Design
Consumer goods Appliances, missiles, jets, planes

Complex Engineering System


Electric power generating system Petrochemical plants Building/bridge design

Emphasis in this Course


As many Engineers (YOU) will apply your design Skills Without extensive specialized knowledge you will be able to grasp problems

IMPORTANCE OF PRODUCT DESIGN

70~80% = for Design commitment 25% = for manufacture ME-362

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5% = for design 95% = for material, manufacture, labor, capital 142181758.doc

Impact of Design
Decision made in the design process: Costs are very little in terms of the overall product cost but have a major effect on the cost of the product Quality can not be built into a product unless it is designed into it Design process should be conducted so as to develop, quality cost competitive products in the shortest time possible

Static Product Vs Dynamic Product


Static Product A change in design concept takes long time period Incremental changes occur at subsystem and component level Examples: refrigerators, automobiles etc Exists in market where customer is not eager to change and does not demand significant improvement Fashion or styling play a little role Market characterized by stable number of large producers High price competition and little research Product are similar to each other Technology is stable and mature Users dont demand significant improvements Industries standards may even restrict change Because of importance of cost, emphasis is more on process research than on product research Dynamic Product Basic design concept varies frequently as the underlying technology changes Examples: telecommunication systems, software etc Customers may even drive change Customer seeks to reduce product cycle time Market is characterized by many small producers Involves active market research Companies seek new product Technology is rapidly advancing There is a high product differentiation and low industry standardization More emphasis is placed on product research than on process research

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PROBLEM SOLVING METHODOLOGY IN DESIGN PROCESS

Problem Definition

Gathering Information

Generation of alternative solution

Evaluation of alternatives

Communication of Results

PROBLEM DEFINITION (CH-2) Most critical step True problem is not always as it seems at first glance As this step takes a very small time so often overlooked Formulation starts by writing down problem statement Should include o Objectives o Goals o Current state of affairs and the desired state o Any constraints placed on solution of the problem o Definition of any special technical terms

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GATHERING INFORMATION (CH-4) Most frustrating Problem may be of in the area not related to your previous background or single reference mat not be available related to subject You may get a mountain of reports of previous work So whatever the situation, the immediate action is to identify needed pieces of information and find or develop that information Questions concerned with obtaining information o What do I need to find out? o Where can I find it and how can I get it? o How credible and accurate is the information? o How should the information be interpreted for my specific need? o When do I have enough information? o What decisions result from the information? GENERATION OF ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS (Ch-5) It is vital to a successful design Involves o Use of creativity o Application of physical principles and qualitative reasoning o Ability to find and use information EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES (Ch-5, 12, 14) Selecting systematically the best among several designs, often in the face of incomplete information Evaluation basis involve o Engineering analysis (about service performance) o Cost estimation (cost comparison) o Design for manufacture (life cycle) o Simulation and simulated service testing o Experimental testing of full sized prototypes COMMUNICATION OF RESULTS (Ch-17) Purpose of design is to satisfy the needs of a customer or client Final design must be communicated properly Communication is usually oral or in written design report form A per recent survey design engineers spend o 60% time in discussing designs and preparing written documentation of designs o 40% time in analyzing design and doing designs Deliverables: detailed engineering drawings, computer programs, working models Not only one time occurrence but a continual oral and written dialogue

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DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF DESIGN PROCESS


Morris Asimow at first gave a detailed description of complete design process

SEVEN PHASE OF DESIGN PROCESS


Phase-1 Conceptual Design Phase-2 Embodiment Design Phase-3 Detail Design

Phase-4 Planning for Manufacture

Phase-5 Planning for Distribution

Phase-6 Planning for Use

Phase-7 Planning for Retirement of Product

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ORGANIZATION FOR DESIGN Organization is arranged based on


Function Project

Functional Organization

Each individual has only one boss All reports to single vice president Economics of scale, deep expertise develop, clear career paths for specialists Organizational links are between people of similar functions Interactions are forced at level of unit manager Acceptable for a business with a narrow and slowly changing set of product line Can be a problem for a dynamic product situation

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Project Organization

People with different functional expertise are grouped together for product development (development team) Each development group reports to a project manager (Overall responsible) Chief advantage is that it focuses the needed specialty talents on attainment of goals of the project Often project organization is time limited People are reassigned back to the functional units after the goal is achieved Disadvantages of Project Organization Experts tend to9 loose their cutting edge functional capabilities with such intense focus on project goal Less economical than functional organization Very common in start up companies where indeed company project are synonymous Large corporations establish project organization for large critical projects

Matrix Organization

Combines the advantages of both functional and project organizations Each person is linked according to the function and project they work on Each individual has two supervisors ( Functional manager &Project manager) One always is predominates

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Light Weight Project Organization (Functional)


In this functional links are stronger than project links so called functional organizations Works well in stable business environment where product pre-dominates in market due to technical excellence Project Manager Functional Manager Responsible for Budget Personnel matters Performance evaluation

Responsible for Scheduling Coordination Arranging meetings

Heavy Weight Project Organization (Functional)

Has the advantage in introducing radically new products, especially where speed is important Project Manager Functional Manager Although each person belongs to functional unit but has little authority and control

Has complete budgetary authorities Make most of the resource allocation decisions Plays a strong role for personal evaluation

Light Weight Project Organization

Heavy Weight Project Organization

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CONCURRENT ENGINEERING
Conventional Engineering (Serial Design Process)

All functions carried out serially in distinct and separate departments with little interaction between them Easy to see how design teams will make decisions Cost for serial design process is high (large percentage cast is committed at conceptual and embodiment stage when changes become necessary) Actual process is more in the nature of spiral

Concurrent Engineering (Systematic Integrated Product Design Approach)


Shortens product development time Improves quality Reduces product life cycle costs Main objective: to bring in as many view points and talents at Design Phase so that decisions will be valid for downstream parts of product development cycle like mnfg & field service

Main elements of Concurrent Engineering


Cross-functional teams Parallel design Vendor partnering

Cross-functional teams

It is a heavy weight project organization used most frequently with Concurrent Engineering Skills from functional areas embedded in design teams provide quick and easy decision making communication with functional units Must be approved by the managers of the functional units with decision making authorities Functional units and cross-functional teams must build mutual respect and understanding for each others needs, requirements and responsibilities

Parallel Design (Simultaneous Engineering)


Refers to each functional area Implementing their aspect of design at the earliest possible time roughly in parallel All groups provide input to the development of product design specifications Nearly continuous communication between functional units and design teams is necessary Decidedly different from the old practice

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Vendor Partenering

It is a form of parallel engineering Technical expertise of vendor for certain components is employed as an integral member of cross-functional design teams In conventional process vendors are selected by a bidding process after the design has been finalized In CE, key vendors, known for proficient technology, reliable delivery and reasonable costs are selected only in design process before parts have been designed So a strategic partnership is developed It reduces the amount of part design that must be done in house Integrates vendors manufacturing expertise into the design Ensures a degree of allegiance and cooperation that should minimize the time for receipt of parts

Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) in Design


Engineers were the first professional group to use computer FORTRAN (first high level language) Drafting automation, 3-D Solid modeling, conversion to 2-D engineering drawings, FEA, design optimization, simulation, rapid prototyping and CAM, Interaction between CADCAM Data base management system (DBMS), spread sheet software, MathCAD, MatLab, Mathmatica, Maple etc

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DESIGN TO CODES AND STANDARDS


Much designs are not very different from what has been done in the past CHIEF ASPECTS 1. Makes the best practice available to everyone, ensuring efficiency and safety 2. Promotes interchangeability and compatibility CODE Collection of laws and rules that assists a Government agency in meeting its obligation to protect the general welfare by preventing damage to property or injury or loss of life to persons

STANDARD A general agreed upon set of procedures, criteria, dimensions, materials and parts

Tell the engineer what to do and when under what circumstances to so it Usually are legal requirements, e.g. building code, fire code etc. Often incorporate national standards into them by reference

Tell engineer how to do it Usually regarded as recommendations, that do not have force of law This way standards become legally enforceable

TWO BROAD FORMS OF CODE


PERFORMANCE CODE

PERSPECTIVE/SPECIFICATION CODE

Stated in terms of specific requirements i.e. expected to be achieved However methods to achieve results is not specified

States requirements in terms of specific details in specific situations Leaves no discretion to the designer

TYPES OF DESIGN STANDARDS


PERFORMANCE STANDARDS

TEST METHOD STANDARDS For measurement of properties e.g. Yield strength, thermal conductivity, sensitivity etc.

CODE OF PRACTICE Provides detailed design methods for a repetitive technical problem e.g. design of piping, heat exchanger Pressure vessel etc. ASME, BS (PD)

Published products

for

many

e.g. seat belts, auto crash safety etc.

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STANDARDS PREPARATION
1. Often prepared by individual companies for their own proprietary use e.g. dimensions, tolerances, forms, processes etc. 2. By group of companies of the same industrial sector (Sponsored by Industry Trade Association) AISC, ANSI, ISO etc. 3. Government Specification Standards, as Govt. is the purchaser of large number of goods and services 4. Defense Product Standards

ADVANTAGES OF STANDARDS

Standards play an important role for Protecting public Providing firm basis for negotiation and better understanding between buyer and seller Reducing cost of design of products stock (standardized components and tools etc) One of the main Goal of Engineering Design Process In new designs, 20% components are new, 40% are existing with minor modifications and 40% are reused without modifications

ROLE OF CAE, GROUP TECHNOLOGY AND CADCAM IN DESIGN STANDARDIZATION


CAE plays an important role in design standardization Group Technology Provides formal way of recognizing and exploiting similarities in design (shape, manufacturing process) Coding and classification systems used to identify similarities Computerized GT database provides quick methodology (so duplication avoided) Provides standardization for creating parts and part features Due to feed back of manufacturing costs, high cost design features are avoided CADCAM Interfacing and communication between various computer devices and manufacturing machines National institute of standards technology provided Initial graphics Exchange Specifications (IGES) and Product Data Exchange Specification (PDES) IGES and PDES represent a Neutral Data Format for transferring geometric data between equipment from different CAD systems

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DESIGN REVIEW

Vital aspect of Design Process Provides an opportunity for specialists from different disciplines to interact between generalists to ask critical questions and exchange of vital information Provides a systematic method for identifying Problems with design Aids in determining possible courses of action Initiates action to correct the problem areas Design review teams consist of representatives from Design, manufacturing, marketing, purchasing, quality control, reliability engineering and field service Chairman (Project manager/Chief Engineer) of Design Review should Have broad technical and products knowledge Have not direct responsibility for design under review Design Reviews should be held from 3~6 times in the life of the project Minimum review schedule consists of Conceptual Reviews (greater impact on design, changes can be made at this stage at lower costs) Interim Reviews (When embodiment design is finalized, product architecture, subsystems and performance characteristics are established) Final Reviews (At the completion of detailed design and establishes whether the design is ready for transfer to manufacture)

Two Aspects of Design Review concerned with Elements of design itself (Product Design Specification PDS) concerned with Business of the product Product Design Specification (PDS) Essence of Technical Review of design is to compare the finding against detailed PDS A detailed document that describes what design must be in terms of performance requirements, environment in which it must operate, product life, cost, reliability and host of other design requirements Basic reference document for both product design and design review Business Aspect Concerned with tracking the cost incurred in the project, design effect on marketing and sale, maintaining time schedule Review determines what changes in sources, people and money are required to produce appropriate business outcome

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RE-DESIGN

A common situation in Design Process As a result of Design Review Details of design are changed many times as prototypes are developed and tested

Categories of Re-design Fixes Design modification required due to less than acceptable performance once the product has been introduced into the market place Updates Usually planned as part of the products life cycle before the product is introduced to the market An update may add capacity and improve performance or incorporate its appearance to keep it competitive

Most common situation in re-design is the modification of an existing product to meet new requirements e.g. banning of the use of fluorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants because of Ozone-hole problem, required the extensive re-design of refrigeration system Often re-design results from the failure of the product in service

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PRODUCT AND PROCESS CYCLES

Each product goes through cycle from Birth, into an initial growth stage, into a relatively stable period, and finally into a declining state that eventually ends in the death of the product Birth Stage Initial Growth Stage Mature stage Decline stage

Introductory stage: Product is new, consumer acceptance is low, so sales are low, rate of product change is rapid as management tries to maximize its performance or uniqueness Growth Stage: Knowledge of the product and its capabilities reaches to growing number of customers Maturity Stage: Product is widely accepted, sales are stable, grow at the same rate. o Products at this stage experience considerable competition o Great emphasis is on reducing the cost of a mature product When product reaches at this stage, attempts should be rejuvinate it by incremental innovation or development of still new applications Decline Stage: At some stage each product enters in this stage o Sales decreasebecasue a new better product is in the market to fulfil the same societal needs

Product Life Cycle

Expanded Product Life Cycle

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