Engineering Design

 What is Design…… ?
• • As many definitions as many there are designs because process of design is such a common human experience As per Webster’s Dictionary

“To fashion after a plan”
Is this definition complete…? If Yes…..What is missing in it….?

“the essential fact that to design is to create something that has never been”
• • Engineering Designer, artist, sculptor, a composer, a playwright and other creative members practice design by this definition Professional practice of Engineering is concerned with Design

Conclusion Essence of Engineering is ‘DESIGN’

 Then what is the ………….Formal Definition of Design…..?
“Design establishes and defines solutions to and pertinent structures for problems not solved before or new solutions to and which have previously been solved in a different way ”

 Ability to Design is both a Science and an Art
• • • Science : is learned through techniques and methods used Art : is best learned by doing Design Discovery : o Is getting the first sight of, or first knowledge of something o We can discover what has already existed but has not been known before

“Design should not be confused with Discovery”
• o Invention Design is the product of “Planning and Work” :


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“Design may or may not involve invention as some are truly inventive but most are not” ME-362 Page 2 of 18 142181758.doc .

environmental or energy regulations etc. solid mechanics etc) and non-engineering discipline (economics. societal. What is a Good Design…… ? “Good design requires both Analysis and Synthesis” • Analysis o Decomposing problem into manageable parts  To understand performance/behavior of parts in service using appropriate discipline of science/engineering and computational tools  Usually involves simplification of real world problems though models Synthesis o Identification of Design Elements that will comprise  Product  Its decomposition into parts  Combination of part solutions into a total workable system •  What is a Real World Problem that you intend to design…… ? o Rarely neat and defined o May need many engineering (fluid.doc .!!!!! o Rarely known the correct answer o One is hopeful that “His Design will Work” Conclusion  “Engineering Design extends beyond the boundaries of Science”  As Design Engineer during professional career you may have the opportunity o To create dozens of designs o Have satisfaction of seeing them become working reality  As Scientist during professional career you may have the opportunity o To make one creative addition to human knowledge in your whole life and many never do so o Can discover a new star bur\t can not make one o Have to ask an Engineer to do it for him ME-362 Page 3 of 18 142181758.Only time will tell…. law etc) o Input data may be best but out of the scope of the individual o Constraints may be time. most efficient.  What is Final Design…… ? o Is it the best.. money. finance.

manufacture. planes • • • Complex Engineering System Electric power generating system Petrochemical plants Building/bridge design • • Emphasis in this Course As many Engineers (YOU) will apply your design Skills Without extensive specialized knowledge you will be able to grasp problems IMPORTANCE OF PRODUCT DESIGN 70~80% = for Design commitment 25% = for manufacture ME-362 Page 4 of 18 5% = for design 95% = for material.doc . labor.DESIGN PROCESS Product Design • • Consumer goods Appliances. jets. missiles. capital 142181758.

Impact of Design  Decision made in the design process: Costs are very little in terms of the overall product cost but have a major effect on the cost of the product  Quality can not be built into a product unless it is designed into it  Design process should be conducted so as to develop. quality cost competitive products in the shortest time possible Static Product Vs Dynamic Product Static Product  A change in design concept takes long time period  Incremental changes occur at subsystem and component level  Examples: refrigerators. software etc  Customers may even drive change  Customer seeks to reduce product cycle time  Market is characterized by many small producers  Involves active market research  Companies seek new product  Technology is rapidly advancing  There is a high product differentiation and low industry standardization  More emphasis is placed on product research than on process research ME-362 Page 5 of 18 142181758.doc . emphasis is more on process research than on product research Dynamic Product  Basic design concept varies frequently as the underlying technology changes  Examples: telecommunication systems. automobiles etc  Exists in market where customer is not eager to change and does not demand significant improvement  Fashion or styling play a little role  Market characterized by stable number of large producers  High price competition and little research  Product are similar to each other  Technology is stable and mature  Users don’t demand significant improvements  Industries standards may even restrict change  Because of importance of cost.

doc .PROBLEM SOLVING METHODOLOGY IN DESIGN PROCESS Problem Definition Gathering Information Generation of alternative solution Evaluation of alternatives Communication of Results  PROBLEM DEFINITION (CH-2) • Most critical step • True problem is not always as it seems at first glance • As this step takes a very small time so often overlooked • Formulation starts by writing down ‘problem statement’ • Should include o Objectives o Goals o Current state of affairs and the desired state o Any constraints placed on solution of the problem o Definition of any special technical terms ME-362 Page 6 of 18 142181758.

12. often in the face of incomplete information • Evaluation basis involve o Engineering analysis (about service performance) o Cost estimation (cost comparison) o Design for manufacture (life cycle) o Simulation and simulated service testing o Experimental testing of full sized prototypes  COMMUNICATION OF RESULTS (Ch-17) • Purpose of design is to satisfy the needs of a customer or client • Final design must be communicated properly • Communication is usually oral or in written design report form • A per recent survey design engineers spend o 60% time in discussing designs and preparing written documentation of designs o 40% time in analyzing design and doing designs • Deliverables: detailed engineering drawings. the immediate action is to identify needed pieces of information and find or develop that information • Questions concerned with obtaining information o What do I need to find out? o Where can I find it and how can I get it? o How credible and accurate is the information? o How should the information be interpreted for my specific need? o When do I have enough information? o What decisions result from the information?  GENERATION OF ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS (Ch-5) • It is vital to a successful design • Involves o Use of creativity o Application of physical principles and qualitative reasoning o Ability to find and use information  EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES (Ch-5. 14) • Selecting systematically the best among several designs.doc . working models • Not only one time occurrence but a continual oral and written dialogue ME-362 Page 7 of 18 142181758. GATHERING INFORMATION (CH-4) • Most frustrating • Problem may be of in the area not related to your previous background or single reference mat not be available related to subject • You may get a mountain of reports of previous work • So whatever the situation. computer programs.

doc .DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF DESIGN PROCESS  Morris Asimow at first gave a detailed description of complete design process SEVEN PHASE OF DESIGN PROCESS Phase-1 Conceptual Design Phase-2 Embodiment Design Phase-3 Detail Design Phase-4 Planning for Manufacture Phase-5 Planning for Distribution Phase-6 Planning for Use Phase-7 Planning for Retirement of Product ME-362 Page 8 of 18 142181758.

clear career paths for specialists Organizational links are between people of similar functions Interactions are forced at level of unit manager Acceptable for a business with a narrow and slowly changing set of product line Can be a problem for a dynamic product situation ME-362 Page 9 of 18 142181758.doc . deep expertise develop.ORGANIZATION FOR DESIGN Organization is arranged based on • • Function Project Functional Organization • • • • • • • Each individual has only one boss All reports to single vice president Economics of scale.

Project Organization • • • • • • People with different functional expertise are grouped together for product development (development team) Each development group reports to a project manager (Overall responsible) Chief advantage is that it focuses the needed specialty talents on attainment of goals of the project Often project organization is time limited People are reassigned back to the functional units after the goal is achieved Disadvantages of Project Organization • Experts tend to9 loose their ‘cutting edge’ functional capabilities with such intense focus on project goal • Less economical than functional organization Very common in start up companies where indeed company project are synonymous Large corporations establish project organization for large critical projects • • Matrix Organization • • • • Combines the advantages of both functional and project organizations Each person is linked according to the function and project they work on Each individual has two supervisors ( Functional manager &Project manager) One always is predominates ME-362 Page 10 of 18 142181758.doc .

especially where speed is important Project Manager Functional Manager Although each person belongs to functional unit but has little authority and control • • • Has complete budgetary authorities Make most of the resource allocation decisions Plays a strong role for personal evaluation Light Weight Project Organization Heavy Weight Project Organization ME-362 Page 11 of 18 142181758.doc .Light Weight Project Organization (Functional) • • In this functional links are stronger than project links so called functional organizations Works well in stable business environment where product pre-dominates in market due to technical excellence Project Manager Functional Manager Responsible for • Budget • Personnel matters Performance evaluation Responsible for • Scheduling • Coordination • Arranging meetings Heavy Weight Project Organization (Functional) • Has the advantage in introducing radically new products.

requirements and responsibilities Parallel Design (Simultaneous Engineering) • • • • • Refers to each functional area Implementing their aspect of design at the earliest possible time roughly in parallel All groups provide input to the development of product design specifications Nearly continuous communication between functional units and design teams is necessary Decidedly different from the old practice Engineering Design-ME362 Page 12 of 18 142181758.doc .CONCURRENT ENGINEERING Conventional Engineering (Serial Design Process) • • • • All functions carried out serially in distinct and separate departments with little interaction between them Easy to see how design teams will make decisions Cost for serial design process is high (large percentage cast is committed at conceptual and embodiment stage when changes become necessary) Actual process is more in the nature of spiral Concurrent Engineering (Systematic Integrated Product Design Approach) • • • • Shortens product development time Improves quality Reduces product life cycle costs Main objective: to bring in as many view points and talents at Design Phase so that decisions will be valid for downstream parts of product development cycle like mnfg & field service Main elements of Concurrent Engineering • • • Cross-functional teams Parallel design Vendor partnering Cross-functional teams • • • • It is a heavy weight project organization used most frequently with Concurrent Engineering Skills from functional areas embedded in design teams provide • quick and easy decision making • communication with functional units Must be approved by the managers of the functional units with decision making authorities Functional units and cross-functional teams must build mutual respect and understanding for each other’s needs.

design optimization. reliable delivery and reasonable costs are selected only in design process before parts have been designed So a strategic partnership is developed It reduces the amount of part design that must be done in house Integrates vendor’s manufacturing expertise into the design Ensures a degree of allegiance and cooperation that should minimize the time for receipt of parts Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) in Design • • • • Engineers were the first professional group to use computer FORTRAN (first high level language) Drafting automation. simulation. rapid prototyping and CAM. Interaction between CADCAM Data base management system (DBMS). Maple etc Engineering Design-ME362 Page 13 of 18 142181758.doc . conversion to 2-D engineering drawings. spread sheet software. 3-D Solid modeling. known for proficient technology. FEA. MathCAD.Vendor Partenering • • • • • • • It is a form of parallel engineering Technical expertise of vendor for certain components is employed as an integral member of cross-functional design teams In conventional process vendors are selected by a bidding process after the design has been finalized In CE. key vendors. MatLab. Mathmatica.

doc . e. fire code etc.g. auto crash • safety etc.g. Promotes interchangeability and compatibility CODE Collection of laws and rules that assists a Government agency in meeting its obligation to protect the general welfare by preventing damage to property or injury or loss of life to persons • • • STANDARD A general agreed upon set of procedures.g. materials and parts Tell the engineer what to do and when • under what circumstances to so it Usually are legal requirements. dimensions. Often incorporate national standards into them by reference Tell engineer how to do it Usually regarded as recommendations.g. thermal conductivity. • building code. design of piping. ASME. seat belts. • Engineering Design-ME362 Page 14 of 18 142181758. that do not have force of law • This way standards become legally enforceable TWO BROAD FORMS OF CODE PERFORMANCE CODE • • PERSPECTIVE/SPECIFICATION CODE • • Stated in terms of specific requirements i. Yield strength. sensitivity etc.DESIGN TO CODES AND STANDARDS ‘Much designs are not very different from what has been done in the past’ CHIEF ASPECTS 1. • CODE OF PRACTICE Provides detailed design methods for a repetitive technical problem e. heat exchanger Pressure vessel etc. Makes the best practice available to everyone. criteria. BS (PD) Published products for many • • e. ensuring efficiency and safety 2.e. expected to be achieved However methods to achieve results is not specified States requirements in terms of specific details in specific situations Leaves no discretion to the designer TYPES OF DESIGN STANDARDS PERFORMANCE STANDARDS • TEST METHOD STANDARDS For measurement of properties e.

3. Government Specification Standards. tolerances. By group of companies of the same industrial sector (Sponsored by Industry Trade Association) AISC. processes etc. manufacturing process) • Coding and classification systems used to identify similarities • Computerized GT database provides quick methodology (so duplication avoided) • Provides standardization for creating parts and part features • Due to feed back of manufacturing costs. high cost design features are avoided CADCAM • Interfacing and communication between various computer devices and manufacturing machines • National institute of standards technology provided • Initial graphics Exchange Specifications (IGES) and Product Data Exchange Specification (PDES) • IGES and PDES represent a ‘Neutral Data Format’ for transferring geometric data between equipment from different CAD systems Engineering Design-ME362 Page 15 of 18 142181758. ANSI. Often prepared by individual companies for their own proprietary use e.doc . 2.STANDARDS PREPARATION 1. ISO etc. dimensions. as Govt. is the purchaser of large number of goods and services 4. 20% components are new. forms. GROUP TECHNOLOGY AND CADCAM IN DESIGN STANDARDIZATION • • • CAE plays an important role in design standardization Group Technology • Provides formal way of recognizing and exploiting similarities in design (shape. 40% are existing with minor modifications and 40% are reused without modifications ROLE OF CAE.g. Defense Product Standards ADVANTAGES OF STANDARDS • Standards play an important role for • Protecting public • Providing firm basis for negotiation and better understanding between buyer and seller • Reducing cost of design of products stock (standardized components and tools etc) • One of the main Goal of Engineering Design Process • In new designs.

product architecture. marketing. people and money are required to produce appropriate business outcome Engineering Design-ME362 Page 16 of 18 142181758. design effect on marketing and sale.doc .DESIGN REVIEW • • • • • • • Vital aspect of Design Process Provides an opportunity for specialists from different disciplines to interact between generalists to ask critical questions and exchange of vital information Provides a systematic method for identifying • Problems with design • Aids in determining possible courses of action • Initiates action to correct the problem areas Design review teams consist of representatives from • Design. product life. changes can be made at this stage at lower costs) • Interim Reviews • (When embodiment design is finalized. maintaining time schedule • Review determines what changes in sources. reliability and host of other design requirements • Basic reference document for both product design and design review Business Aspect • Concerned with tracking the cost incurred in the project. cost. quality control. subsystems and performance characteristics are established) • Final Reviews • (At the completion of detailed design and establishes whether the design is ready for transfer to manufacture) Two Aspects of Design Review • concerned with Elements of design itself (Product Design Specification – PDS) • concerned with Business of the product Product Design Specification (PDS) • Essence of Technical Review of design is to compare the finding against detailed PDS • A detailed document that describes what design must be in terms of performance requirements. purchasing. environment in which it must operate. manufacturing. reliability engineering and field service Chairman (Project manager/Chief Engineer) of Design Review should • Have broad technical and products knowledge • Have not direct responsibility for design under review Design Review’s should be held from 3~6 times in the life of the project Minimum review schedule consists of • Conceptual Reviews • (greater impact on design.

g. banning of the use of fluorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants because of Ozone-hole problem. required the extensive re-design of refrigeration system Often re-design results from the failure of the product in service Engineering Design-ME362 Page 17 of 18 142181758.RE-DESIGN • • A common situation in Design Process As a result of Design Review • Details of design are changed many times as prototypes are developed and tested Categories of Re-design • Fixes • Design modification required due to less than acceptable performance once the product has been introduced into the market place • Updates • Usually planned as part of the product’s life cycle before the product is introduced to the market • An update may add capacity and improve performance or incorporate its appearance to keep it competitive • • Most common situation in re-design is the modification of an existing product to meet new requirements • e.doc .

into an initial growth stage. consumer acceptance is low. rate of product change is rapid as management tries to maximize its performance or uniqueness Growth Stage: Knowledge of the product and its capabilities reaches to growing number of customers Maturity Stage: Product is widely accepted. grow at the same rate. attempts should be rejuvinate it by incremental innovation or development of still new applications Decline Stage: At some stage each product enters in this stage o Sales decreasebecasue a new better product is in the market to fulfil the same societal needs Product Life Cycle Expanded Product Life Cycle Engineering Design-ME362 Page 18 of 18 142181758. sales are stable. into a relatively stable period. and finally into a declining state that eventually ends in the death of the product Birth Stage Initial Growth Stage Mature stage Decline stage • • • • Introductory stage: Product is new.doc .PRODUCT AND PROCESS CYCLES • Each product goes through cycle from Birth. so sales are low. o Products at this stage experience considerable competition o Great emphasis is on reducing the cost of a mature product When product reaches at this stage.

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