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Chem 17 Experiment 8 Guide Questions Experimental Detail: Formation of Ca(OH)2 precipitate 1.

Explain the purpose of adding excess NaOH in the production of the Ca(OH)2 ppt. 2. Why is NaOH added dropwise and with constant stirring? 3. What is the purpose of washing the filtered Ca(OH)2 ppt with distilled water? With 98% ethanol? With acetone? Preparation of the KCl salt solutions 4. Explain the purpose of serial dilution in the preparation of the KCl salt solutions. Formation of the cloudy Ca(OH)2 solution in different media 5. In adding the Ca(OH)2 solid to the media (distilled water, KCl salt solution, Ca(NO3)3 solution), what is the meaning when the resulting solution becomes cloudy? What is its significance to the measurement on the solubility of Ca(OH)2? What is the effect on the calculated solubility if addition of the ppt didnt reach the cloudy state? What is the effect on the calculated solubility if addition of the ppt was continued even the cloudy state has been reached? 6. Why is the cloudy solution need to be filtered first before titration with HCl? What is the effect on the calculated solubility if the cloudy solution was titrated without filtration? 7. What is the advantage of Whatman filter paper over the usual one, which makes it more useful in the filtration of the cloudy solution? Results and Discussion 1. What is the trend of the titration volumes in the data? What is the expected trend in the titration volumes? Does your trend coincide with the expected trend? If yes, explain the deviation. 2. Show pertinent formula for the calculation of Ksp from the titration data 3. Calculate the experimental Ksp of Ca(OH)2 from data in the distilled water medium. Calculate the % error of Ksp with the literature Ksp value. Account for errors. 4. Plot solubility vs. ionic strength plot using titration data values from the KCl solution media. What is the trend of the graph. Explain thoroughly the principle behind this trend. What is its effect to the Ksp value? Calculate and present Ksp values of Ca(OH)2 in the KCl media to support the proposition. 5. Compare solubility of Ca(OH)2 in Ca(NO3)2 solution with the solubility of Ca(OH)2 in distilled water. What is the reason behind the difference in solubility? Explain thoroughly, either by mathematical means or by equilibrium principles. 6. Discuss possible errors in the experiment, and their effects on the calculated solubility. Give also the ways on how to minimize or eliminated, if possible, each error. Other Notes: 1. In the Introduction, just discuss the principles of solubility-product equilibria, in such a way that you will not copy the introduction in the lab manual. 2. In the recommendation part, just write the possible improvements in the experiments 3. Dont forget to write possible applications of the experiment in the Applications part in your FR. 4. Cite references properly. And Im requiring you to include in your FR the part in your reference where you got your cited statement. Please highlight the exact statement that you cited in the reference copy that you will attach.

If thats from a book, photocopy the page, highlight the cited statement, and write the author(s) and the title of the book in the upper right part of the photocopied page. If thats from a journal article, photocopy (if its a hard copy) or print (if its a soft copy) the page of the cited statement, highlight the cited statement, and write the author(s), the title of the journal article and the title of the journal publication in the upper right side of the page. If you submit your FR without this, then I will not accept it. 5. No more internet references (except for online journal articles only). Use your book reference. Use the library.