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1- Form work:
Its is an artificial support provided below and around the precast or cast in situe concrete work.precast or cast in situe concrete work. construction & casting is of prime importance in concrete industry. It share a significant amount of concrete cost. Form work is designed according to The ACI document SP-4. Types of form work
– Steel form work – Wooden form work Steel formwork is made of – steel sheets – Angle Iron – Tee Iron Wooden form work consists of – Props – Planks battens – Ledgers – sheeting Removal timing is very important for a planning engineer, Time of form work removal depends on the following factors: 1. Type of Cement
Time of Removal of form work: Time of Removal of form work For the For normal works cost of concrete formwork is about 30%-40%of cost. Ratio of concrete mix Rich ratio concrete. Weather condition Hydration process accelerates in hot weather conditions as ratio concrete gain strength earlier as compared to weak compared to cold and humid weather conditions.Rapid hardening cements require lesser time as compared to OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement) 2. special works cost of form work is about 50%-60%of the concrete cost. . 3.
Struts. Suspended Scaffolds It consists of Ropes. Single Scaffolds It consists of Standards (v – Standards (v posts)(10 cm) Putlogs (7.5 m Shores are provided.5 x 7. 1.5). Working platforms.2. It is used above ground level 5. 15 cm. Cantilever Scaffolds It consists of Cantilever. Double Scaffolds It consists of Two rows of standards. Standards. Types of Scaffolding Scaffolding 1.Scaffolding: It‟s a temporary structure to provide a platform at different levels of a building for workers and Materials.Ropes can be raised Manually or mechanically Used for light construction and finishing works of multistory buildings.Used for superior works 3. 6. Ledgers Wooden boards Braces Used for ordinary buildings 2. Nuts & washers Wedge & Clip . Ladder Scaffolds It consists of Brackets for Plate form. Steel or Tubular Scaffolds It consists of Steel tubes (1-1/2” –2-1/2” diameter) Coupler or Clamps (to hold pipes in different positions) Prop nuts (to hold single pipes) Bolts. Putlogs and Plate forms. 4.
ground 8 m2 / day. Needles.Shoring: it is the method of providing temporary support (shores) to an unsafe structure. foundations. lintels 5 m2/day Form work-Walls 8 m2 / day Form work-Circular. Types of Shoring Shoring Horizontal shoring or flying shoring It consists of Dead shores. arches. special shapes 4 m2/day Form work. Vertical shoring or dead shoring It consists of Rackers. Needles. pedestals 6 m2/day.3.Making timber shutters 8 m2/day . Shuttering Carpenter productivity : Form work-Footings. Braces and Sole plate Used to strengthen a wall.Sole plates. Form work-Beams and slabs 8 m2/day Form work-Tie beams. Form work-Columns. Props Used for rebuilding of walls.Cleats.
Organisation.This objective of planning and scheduling procedures will be achieved if : Planners/schedulers fully understand the scope of the project and are pro-active both in interpreting the Clients requirements and producing project schedules. and the sequencing. within the overall plan. Productivity/Efficiency: Ratio of hours earned versus hours expended. Cost. Scheduling: Detailed assignment of logic. May be based on a critical path network (CPN). budget & contract duration Network: A network diagram in which the nodes symbolise the project event selected for its importance in the project and/or objectives set by Management at Commencement. Critical Path Network (CPN): A representation of activities and/or events with their inter-relationships and dependencies. duration & start/finish dates to project activities. Planning and scheduling information and documentation is produced which can be effectively utilized by project team members. Risk. PROGRESS MEASUREMENT: The used Planner/Scheduler throughout the is project responsible are a for fair ensuring representation that of the the various actual progress project measurements As a progress. HSE. PBS Project Breakdown Structures: – defines an hierarchical structure by which the work is to be done – can include structures for Work. The project team effectively ‘buys-in’ and owns the projectschedule. planning departmental budgetary control and maintenance of the quality procedures. resourcing and strategy of those events. minimum. Any Specific project requirements should be identified and included in the Project Quality Plan The objectives of the Global / Regional / Industry / Quality Systems are met The Planning Manager is responsible for allocating planning resources. the following should be provided: . Any restraints identified being reviewed with all appropriate project team members. Precedence activities. Contract. Performance Measurement Baselines: The original project quality. Resources etc. The schedule is pro-actively analysed & reviewed to identify any potential restraints to progress. PLANNING DEFINITIONS: Planning: The breakdown of work into its component events. including the Project Manager. Milestone: An activity/deliverable. Schedule/ Programme: Pictorial or tabular representation of the time phased events or activities required to execute the project.
award and completion dates for each construction contract package. earliest and possible material stage. accessible project. From issue the project approved resource budgets manpower assess the quantities to Project of major Manager and resources Lead required. tendering period. Discipline discipline requirement Engineers and determine if the supply may be a limiting factor. phased project wall and facilitate and is readily integrated which Alignment mounted can constraints strategies should be successful time the form of the detailed schedules as well as recording key risks. quantities using to the best provide available data. tender return. agreed project construction parties. Procurement: Schedule of planned. information These tasks to assist but with are the not management limited to: At the resources include.Recommend other actions such as work sharing. summary of inquiry PO packages issued. Work-hours expended vs budget work-hours. tender evaluation.Studies/Engineering/Design: Actual % complete vs scheduled % complete. RESOURCE PLANNING The Planner/Scheduler of is also required responsible to execute for the providing work. to the sessions may be held vendors by with and all the Client sub-contractors. Productivity. Where limitations occur pro-actively identify resolution by: providing co-ordinating sufficient warning and so that re-sequencing resources can be activities obtained . assumptions and opportunities. actual and forecast order and delivery dates. (including. Provide and update forecasts of discipline manpower requirement and other facilities INTERACTIVE PLANNING: At and various the stages Project with to the in each team intention the major essential. etc. highlights with bar the This the key chart basis contractors) is key execution which designed obtaining production issues The to schedule schedule execution. Construction: Actual % complete vs scheduled % complete. . Contracts: Schedule of tender compilation and issue. of interactive where buy-in of which main all tool parties an impact is involved a in planning relevant. by with assessing an the overall Scope of Services management resource overview of the project.Forecast workhours at completion. sub-contracting.
and prior to the first issue of the agreed Project Schedule. the project will be controlled with advanced 30 day or 60 day project initiation action list / Start Up Schedule to ensure that early activities are identified and acted upon to protect the overall schedule. will along be with the Project The Manager. stated in the Project Procedures. This produce can documents only be that achieved if help such co-ordinate. Upon receipt of instructions to proceed with the project.TYPES OF SCHEDULE The the Planner/Scheduler schedule of a must project. agreed with the Project Manager and Discipline Leads and issued in a timely fashion. Each as to project which should types be of examined schedules and. TYPES OF SCHEDULE The following types of schedules have been categorized for convenience: LEVEL 1 – MAJOR MILESTONE SCHEDULES . documents are inform well and optimize thought out. schedules a to determination be utilized shall made be appropriate.
restricted to engineering. short duration. reflecting major construction Applications of Major complexity. and complexity. breakdown of Level 1 procurement. proposals small and studies. Contents procurement. with at a the low planning level stages of of a major project. and the critical path. Contents activities and commissioning. significant bar per discipline. LEVEL II – INTERMEDIATE MILESTONE SCHEDULES Schedule shall construction milestones and/or identify and constraints.e. . manning levels. due dates. other one INTERMEDIATE MILESTONE SCHEDULES Purpose To inform groups of major constraints. Typical level milestones. contract milestones. few small activities studies. Schedule for will each be a phase further i. progress achievement. etc. Typical engineering Applications projects Proposals. construction engineering projects with contract a medium payment projects. as a monthly summary of Level II and III schedules. operations Normally significant milestones. engineering.MAJOR MILESTONE SCHEDULES Purpose Generally used to summarise the overall project performance for project management and client information purposes.
Typical on Applications smaller On projects all complex where engineering-only elements of projects the and all schedule EPC are projects. Layout/Format actual progress. schedule precedence 6. The with also and The identifiable schedule schedule critical includes should will work identify normally path a activities key be identified. Also extremely critical and.6 Attachment risk analysis example. Progress „S‟ histogram will indicate each phase manning Curve for each phase will indicate schedule % complete and actual % complete. need to be managed at this level. Contents which issue can activities Schedule be detailed “rolled-up” for into to deliverable Level types. Manpower histograms will be produced to identify individual „S‟ Curves will be generated (per discipline) to monitor scheduled vs Manpower histogram discipline manning requirements. controllable II. hence. . hence. The and The identifiable schedule schedule should will work identify normally activities key be generated from precedence logic network with critical path identified Typical on Applications smaller On projects all complex where engineering-only elements of projects the and all schedule EPC are projects. LEVEL III – DETAILED WORK SCHEDULES Purpose To inform all disciplines as to the status and progress of individual work packages. need to be managed at this level. Also extremely critical and. Contents which issue generated refer to can activities from Schedule be detailed “rolled-up” for into to deliverable logic as Level types.Manpower requirement. network typical which controllable II. and of critical path issues.
Layout/Format As per the project needs. productivity unapproved budget. purchase Delivery necessary data orders. Display summary information on project notice boards Timing/Frequency As required. materials. at the durations to productivity to this level current the schedule critical within should activities these ensure go for Material deliveries to and be analysed for to paths schedule resourcing levels the the should top 5 team. Dates to etc. Typical Project Application Controls On any project that in has special the scheduling Project needs defined Procedures. be will produced contain approved % to original change achieved. III Scheduling line RoS activities of lists. requisitions. be robustness. Contents specifications. completion. schedule float usage etc Timing/Frequency after the close-out date. On may Site be drawings. by the Every Manager construction project that involves direct control of the labor. should consistency site. productivity work-hours at go. Two week look-ahead’s are rolling every week and issued at least two working days before the first week and should be reviewed at the progress meeting as to their viability.g. This activity should be done by the individual disciplines. process the Level systems. Forecast that individual deliverable. properly sheets. . to 6. current achieved. will It notices. Display summary information on project notice board Typical critical The continually Forecast be Trend analysis on man Analysis paths logic Typically and and addressed hours / analysed key parameters e. LEVEL IV – SCHEDULING STUDIES/LOOK-AHEADS ETC Purpose To finitely manage aspects of the master schedule. Two week look-ahead‟s for field activities.Summary overview budget. / etc. within manage the project. To be issued monthly by the 5th working day discipline leads and field personnel informed of upcoming tasks. forecast refer to work-hours Attachment complete as and typical of DD&E and Site Reports. highlighted critical pipe work productivity. forecast WBS of Report the – project change work-hours to Document status. expended. To keep the Update continually.7 provide an work-hour notices.
to Non The maintain – ISO accreditation. filing out key and & project of methodology for Close use recorded requirements.AUDITS / RECORDS It is expected against by the that. . be Baseline and data. parameters project to detailed scope record The for and system Project subsequent schedule is a should quality all contract record. subsequent Out on procedure further projects requires and an cost schedule metrics & benchmark data. The changes document reporting. kept post analysis & schedule within project of the database the close key upkeep updates. this project as part of on & the an Quality annual System basis. raised may project will be will be closed specific audited out procedure planner conformances manager planning planning require audits more frequently. manager.
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