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FOOD AND BEVERAGE INDUSTRY: ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AND PROTECTION

Ang, Corinne, S15 Corinneang12@yahoo.com Cayco, Nadia, S15 Freaking_cool49@yahoo.com Francisco, Barbara Kates, S15 Kates.francisco@delasalle.ph Lupac, Homer, S15 Baldhomer_28@yahoo.com De La Salle University - Manila College of Computer Studies Bachelor of Science in Information and Communications Technology Management
ABSTRACT This paper aims to identify and solve the environmental issues of the food and beverage industry by discussing the root source of the problems and possible ways of protection and environmental preservation. This paper also discusses environmental issues such as the pollution caused by food processing; sustainability of the resources used and food packaging waste, which are also some major factors that contribute to environmental destruction. The novel aspect of this contribution is that it differs from others because it does not only cover the environmental issues in a worldwide perspective, but it also tackles specific cases that happened in the Philippine setting. In addition, current and future solutions have been presented to mitigate and prevent further damages done to the environment by food processing technologies. Opening the possibilities of solutions to the dilemma is the objective of this paper. Through this, the growing problem that is depleting and destroying Mother Nature could be reduced or put to an end. 1. INTRODUCTION 2. KEY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES The Food and Beverage Industry is one of the biggest industries worldwide mainly because it addresses the most basic need of humans. Because of this, food manufacturers are sprouting like mushrooms. As a result, factories generate millions of waste per year that goes straight to the environment. These industrial activities produce wastes, which include rubbish, hazardous waste and special wastes. Thus, several environmental issues have occurred as a result Due to the explosion of various environment-related diseases, manufactures from the leading industries have started turning their attention to environmental issues such as waste disposal, oil dependency, air pollution and resource scarcity. As the idea of making the world a greener place enters the majority thought, the food and beverage industry can also feel the pressure of ensuring that their company’s of food manufacturing, packaging and processing technologies. The food and beverage industry have emerging technologies that improved food processing, production and packaging. With these new modes of production and emerging trends, come environmental issues as a result of these technologies used. Environmental issues arise as we become more conscious of the deteriorating effects on our planet. Consumer pressure and increased regulation have made environmental awareness increasingly important in the food industry. Now more than ever, it is essential for food manufacturers to understand the environmental impact of their activities and raise their production standards. Definitely, concern about the protection of the environment has become a major issue for many people. Consumers are now demanding products and packaging that do not damage the environment. Manufacturers are responding with improved processing techniques, more environmentally friendly packaging and sustainable food supply. Some manufacturers now make environmental protection a priority.

activities are environmentally sensitive. The food processing industry now has special concerns not only for the health and safety of the consumer but also for the welfare of the environment. 2.1. Pollution from Food Processing Among the key environmental issues for the food industry, pollution from food processing has caught the attention of the authors. It is due to its numerous effects to the environment also considered as the most critical environmental issue in the industry. The main contributors of pollution are none other than the waterwaste and solidwaste. According to the Watereuse Association, wastewater is the kind of water that has been previously used by a municipality, industry, or agriculture and has suffered a loss of quality as a result of use. It may conctain biochemical oxygen demand (BOD); total suspended solids (TSS); excessive nutrient loading namely nitrogen and phosporus compounds; pathogenic organisms which are a result of animal processing; and residual chlorine and pesticide levels. On the other hand, solid waste includes both organic and packaging waste which will be discussed in the later part of the paper. Organic wastes are the rinds, seeds, skin, and bones from the raw materials, resulting from processing operations. Inorganic wastes typically include excessive packaging items that are, plastic, glass, and metal.

products and waste streams, which are high in BOD. IN return, these might cause dreadful disease spread by pathogenic organisms carried and transmitted by livestock, poultry, and seafood. This sector is often considered to be the most regulated and monitored. The wastes in this sector do not just affect the industry negatively, but it also has positive effects. Their wastes can be categorized into the following: process wastewaters; rejected or unsatisfactory animals; carcasses and skeleton waste; fat, oils, and greases; animal feces; blood; and eviscerated organs. They are high in protein and nitrogen content such that they can be used as excellent sources for the recycled pet food. Skeleton remains are then converted into bonemeal, which is an excellent source of phosphorus for fertilizers. FOG waste finally is used as a base raw material in the cosmetics industry. Same with the fruit and vegetables sector, wastewater and solid waste are the primary waste streams for the beverage and fermentation sector. The remains of spent grains and materials used in the fermentation process were converted to solid wastes. While the fermentation processes are high in BOD for the soft drink processes that turns to wastewater. The last sector to be discussed is the dairy sector where majority of the wastewaters comes from start-up and shutdown operations performed in the pasteurization process. This waste is pure milk raw material mixed with water. Another waste stream of dairy sector is from equipment and tank-cleaning wastewaters which are usually acquired during the last phase of pasteurization. 2.2. Food Packaging Waste Especially in today’s “throw away” society, where one third of all rubbish is packaging, designers must consider ways to minimize the amount of packaging a food product has and limit its impact on the environment. (Booker, Monks, Roberts, & Stafford, 2004) Food packaging affects the environment in two ways. First, food packaging uses resources like minerals, oil and wood to produce the packaging, thus sustainable food production will be a real challenge for the future. A lot of natural resources are being used for the manufacturing of food packaging. Second, it creates pollution as a result of packaging disposal. (Campbell, Clapton, & Tipton, 2002)

Fig. 1 Wastewater Treatment These primary issues can be divided into four major sectors into four major sectors including fruit and vegetables, meat, poultry and seefood; beverage and bottling; and dairy operations. For the fruit and vegetable sector, wastewater and solid waste are the primary cause of pollution. Their wastewater is high in suspended solides, organic sugars and starches that may contain residual pesticides. Solid wastes include the materials from mechanical preparation processes that are rinds, seeds and skins from the raw materials. Currently, thesolid waste that is not resold as animal feed is handled by conventional biological treatment or composting. Under the meat, poultry and seafood sector, their processing facilities offer a more difficult waste stream to treat. The killing and rendering processes create blood by-

recycled indefinitely and made into food containers. However, collection and sorting of these can be labor intensive and tedious, but there are some developed systems available for the recycling of these products. (Campbell, Clapton, & Tipton, 2002) 2.2.1.3. Paper and Card Paper and card is normally used to package goods. It can be recycled five times before the paper fibers weaken. There are waste management systems designed specifically for the collection and recycling of paper. The only downside of paper recycling is that recycled paper is often a lower standard than virgin paper. (Campbell, Clapton, & Tipton, 2002) 2.2.1.4. Plastics To make new plastics, oil and gas reserves are used, thus resulting in air pollution. Recycling plastics can greatly reduce these problems. Waste management systems are used to recycle seven different types of plastic used for packaging. Furthermore, waste generated from the manufacture of plastic packaging can also be reprocessed. 2.2.2. Reducing the Amount of Packaging Used Food packaging designers can consider reducing the weight and thickness of packaging, which will then use less material. An example of a good innovation in this aspect is that plastic bottles are now a third lighter than they used to be. The table below shows the food packaging waste growth in Year 2008. 3. LOCAL CASES IN THE PHILIPPINES The problems posed by hazardous wastes are beginning to be a priority concern of the new Philippine government due to the increasing number of factories and firms which are generating wastes considered hazardous to health and the environment. The Philippines, like any Third World country is not properly equipped in terms of equipment and technical expertise to deal with these wastes. The Environmental Management Bureau (EMB), a policy making body of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) is seeing that hazardous waste management is made an integral part of the industrial planning process. Though they are responsible for environmental monitoring and the regulation of hazardous waste disposal in the country, there are still cases of environmental regulation violations of these companies.

Fig 2. Food and Beverage Packaging Wastes The Food and Beverage Industry is solving these problems caused by packaging through recycling, redesigning and reducing the amount of packaging used. 2.2.1. Recycling Food packaging made from glass, metal and paper can all be recycled. Some kinds of plastics may also be recycled. Packaging designers need to consider using materials that can be easily recycled. In order to support the biodegradation process and recycling cycle of materials, they also need to use materials that have already been recycled, such as recycled paper. (Campbell, Clapton, & Tipton, 2002) However, the responsibility of making sure that packaging is actually recycled and not just thrown away lies more on the side of the consumers and not just the manufacturers. Consumers should also recycle food packages and follow the correct disposal of trash, such as with the correct use of the biodegradable and nonbiodegradable trash bins. Recycling can help preserve the natural resources and reduce air pollution. Also, waste management systems should be properly used as these can help us in recycling certain materials. The consumers should be encouraged to buy food products in reusable packaging. Manufacturers should promote recycling to customers through labeling and advertising. 2.2.1.1. Glass In terms of recycling, glass is an excellent packaging material to be used. This is because recycling glass use less energy than producing new ones. Moreover, glass can be recycled over and over again. 2.2.1.2. Metal Foils and Cans A good way to greatly reduce pollution in our environment is to recycle aluminum and tin cans. Both of them can be

Table 1. Food Packaging Waste Growth, 2008 3.1. Banana Plantation’s Use of Harmful Pesticide Causes Air Pollution Among the industries, the food industry also contributes a great part in the environment destruction including in the local scene. According to the article “EnvironmentPhilippines: Aerial Spraying Case - Profits Vs Public Health”, big agribusiness corporations in Davao employ aerial spraying to kill ‘Sigatoka’, a fungus that attacks the leaves of banana plants and causes premature aging of fruits. Bananas, primarily grown in Davao, are a valued export crop and earn for the Philippines over 400 million US dollars in export revenue each year. Dithane, which Banana plantations use, contains cancer-causing elements. Plantations are discontinuous and patchy, and the planes used for the spraying are known to stray into the buffer zones around inhabited areas, violating rules specified in environmental compliance certificates issued to the companies. Davao city officials, convinced that aerial spraying harms humans health and the environment, passed an ordinance last year banning the aerial spraying of pesticides. They instead encouraged banana growers to use ground spraying as it’s safer. (Sarmiento, 2008) According to the case study entitle “Philippine banana and Japan”, there are several factors that contributed to the environmental damages. One is that there are extremely toxic substances applied during the production. Clear cutting at riverbank and inadequate waste disposals are also major causes. Aside from that, Waste water with chemical residues coming from packaging plants and plantations ending up in rivers without any treatment. There is also a lack of monitoring system for water, soil and air conditions in relation to pesticides. The following are the damages caused by the banana food production:  Water, soil, marine, and air contamination        Permanent soil contamination with copper resulting in permanent effects Sediment production and transport to watersheds and seas Death of animals, especially fish, caused by pesticide poisoning Pesticide intoxication of workers and neighbors Appearance of secondary plagues resulting from excessive application of pesticides Deforestation Water euthrophication (Azuma, 2001)

Pesticides are diverse and omnipresent. All pesticides are toxic by their nature, and hence, they cause human and animal health hazards through exposure or dietary intake. Pesticide residues to the local environment (air, soil and surface water) affect the lives of birds, wildlife, domestic animals, fish, livestock and human beings. According to the “Report on the Pesticides in the Philippines”, a total of 273 cases of poisoning were reported in the Philippines, in which Insecticides from food manufacturing industry account for 71.3% of the poisoning incidents. 3.2 Increasing Number of Plastics Generated from Food and Beverage Packaging Plastics are synthetic substances produced by chemical reactions. Almost all plastics are made from petroleum."Plastics" derived their name from their properties to be molded, cast, extruded or processed into a variety of forms, including solid objects, films and filaments. These properties arise from their molecular structure. Plastics are polymers, very long chain molecules that consist of subunits (monomers) linked together by chemical bonds. The monomers of petrochemical plastics are inorganic materials (such as styrene) and are not biodegradable. Plastic has many properties which have made it a raw material of choice for manufactures of plastic bags and

packing materials. Cost of production, light weight, strength, easy process of manufacture, and availability are few of the properties. Nowadays, man has simply not put the plastic to the right use/ or using it without taking proper care of other related norms of usage. Even though plastic bags can preserve food and can be used for growing vegetables in a controlled environment, their method of disposal has creates unprecedented pollution problem. The hazards plastics pose are numerous. The land gets littered by plastic bag garbage presenting an ugly and unhygienic seen. The "Throw away culture" results in these plastic containers finding their way in to the city drainage system, the resulting blockage cases inconvenience, difficult in maintaining the drainage with increased cost, creates unhygienic environment resulting in health hazard and spreading of water borne diseases. This littering also reduces rate of rain water percolating, resulting in lowering of already low water levels in our cities. The soil fertility deteriorates as the plastic bags form part of manure remains in the soil for years. It has been observed that the animals eating the bags sometimes die. Plastic goes into the ocean which is already a plastic infested body of water. Fish and other marine species in the water ways, misunderstanding plastic garbage as food items swallow them and die. Plastic pollution in the Philippines is very noticeable. Pollution has been one of the major problems faced by the government. On the heart of the country, the waste coming from plastics is the second largest contributor. The largest would be kitchen waste, which also contains waste from the food packaging that they consume. Noticeably, Manila Bay is considered one of the most polluted bays in Asia, and plastics comprise most of the floating litter on its surface. In the article “Waste survey exposes extent of plastic pollution in Manila Bay”, plastics such as disposable packaging used in mostly in the food and beverage industry is said to be the main plastic culprit in Manila Bay. The immense volume of assorted plastic garbage littering its coasts and floating in its currents is symbolic of the trashing of Manila Bay, and serves as a visual reminder of the pollution that is slowly killing the seas.

4. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION The Food and Beverage Industry consumes a large amount of resources from water to other raw materials in order to manufacture a very large variety of products. Consequently, the waste, pollution, or simply put as environmental risks are also just as high. In connection with this, the industry is now faced with a great challenge to create innovations or changes to reverse the negative contribution of the industry in different environmental problems or issues world-wide. In order for the system to work out without losing profit and gain while at the same time implementing environmental protection policies, the industry together with the big and small organizations that are affected must come up with innovations especially in terms of waste segregation and product packaging. These are in line with the observation of the group that starting to reduce the disposal costs would mean a decrease in the volume of waste material and byproducts generated in the production process. If less waste is generated, then less material needs to be disposed of. Minimized disposal would yield to a healthier community for us and for the next generations. The following are just the technological innovations that can contribute largely in environmental protection in the industry: Some Technological Innovations A. Advanced Wastewater treatment process – This method or innovation aims to surpass the function and effectiveness of the other technologies. This will enhance the process more beyond just secondary treatment. B. Improved Packaging – this pertains to the practice of using packaging materials that are less destructive, those that are too excessive, and of course those that are environment friendly. One example from the Philippines are the green bags being used by SM Supermalls as a substitute for plastic bags. C. Improved Sensors and Process Control- This is the use of advanced techniques that will cancel out the wasted and improve productivity. D. Food Irradiation – Radiation most often than not give humans very bad side effects when exposed. But in the case of food and beverages, the radiation will cripple the spread of unwanted pathogenic micro-organisms that cause diseases. E. Water and Wastewater/ reduction – This means either the Reduction or total elimination of effluent from the manufacturing process. 5. CONCLUSION The Food and Beverage Industry has proven to be the ultimate industry. Profit is continuous, production is consistent in terms of volume and it has the most consumed products world-wide, since these are basic necessities.

Fig 3. Waste Contributors in Metro Manila

While food and beverages are being manufactured, the same amount of diseases, pollution or wastes are generated and this is where the food and beverage industry must be reminded of their corporate responsibilities, moral obligations, and ethical considerations. It is indeed taken for a fact that the complex effects of the environmental risks that the industry generates posts as a threat not only to a few selected consumers but to many more. Protecting the environment is a partnership between the consumers and manufacturers. It is important to examine the environmental impact of every stage of the food production process, starting from the farming practices in raw material production to packaging the final product. Food product designers and manufacturers should consider the environmental issues when designing products in order to reduce its adverse effects on the environment, and they should contribute to environmental protection as well. On the side of consumers, the consumers should be educated buyers and support products advocate recycling, that have recycled materials or come from recycled packaging. 6. FUTURE RESEARCH 6.1. Regulations and Standards International standards developed by the Geneva -based International Organization of Standardization, called ISO 14000, represent the latest attempts to provide a global environmental management system. ISO 14000 was intended to help organizations manage and evaluate the environmental aspects of their operations without being prescriptive. The International Organization of Standardization intends to provide companies with a framework to comply with both domestic and foreign environmental regulations. ISO 14000 contains sections calling for implementation of pollution prevention programs. 6.2. Industry Trends There are several ongoing trends and research and development activities apparent within the food-processing community in the areas of pollution prevention and clean technology implementation. 6.2.1 Solid Waste Reduction Companies will continue to look at ways to reduce solid waste generation, use less or reusable packaging, and use biodegradable packing products. Excessive packaging has been reduced and recyclable products such as aluminum, glass, and HDPE are expected to continue being used to a wider degree in packaging situations. 6.2.2 Mechanical Versus Chemical Processing Companies will show increased consideration for

using mechanical methods for food processing (e.g., the fruit and vegetable sector). Mechanical processing can be used to perform many of the same functions as chemical processing. 6.2.3 Pretreatment Options, Water Conservation, and Wastewater Reduction Pretreatment opportunities and water conservation will continue to be principal targets for pollution prevention source reduction practices in the food-processing industry. Pretreatment options look to minimize the loss of raw materials to the food-processing waste streams. Water used in conveying materials, facility cleanup, or other noningredient uses will be reduced, which in turn will reduce the wastewater volume from food-processing facilities. Wastewater treatment will continue to be the pollution prevention treatment focus for food-processing companies. The industry will continue to implement advanced innovative techniques to lessen the environmental impact of food processing discharge wastewaters. (Unido, 2007) Some of the technologies being developed to reduce waste in the Philippines: 6.2.3.1. Third Generation Polystyrene Melting Oven Locally, PCPP and Department of Science and Technology Material Science Division has developed a newly improved third Generation of melting oven for foam polystyrene. Enhancement of its features made it easier for the recycling of foam polystyrene. This third generation melting unit had passed the alleged non-environmental issues. Some useful products that can be produced from the melted polystyrene are table tops, cat walk, boards, bricks, synthetic timber plank and now even plastic planters are being discovered from the recycled foam PS.A team of engineers have taken garbage recycling up another level with a new low-cost wastewater treatment technology straight from the trash bin. (Polystyrene Packaging of the Philippines, 2003)

Fig 4. Improved PS Melting Oven

6.2.3.2. Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Boiler
The Nestle CDO factory’s atmospheric fluidized bed boiler is a state-of-the-art technology that burns and recycles spent coffee grounds into bunker fuel, which the factory uses for its operations. Spent coffee grounds are the remains of ground roasted coffee after extraction. The AFBB helps reduce environmental pollution and save energy costs. It also prevents emission of air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, which are natural by-products arising from the combustion of fossil fuels. (Filipinas, 2008) 7. RECOMMENDATIONS For the F&B industry to be able to effectively manage the impacts while optimizing water, energy, and resource use and improving working practices, there should be a certain adoption of the industry-specific good-manufacturing practice, quality management systems (including ISO 9000 series, ISO 22000), risk management systems (e.g., Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points, HACCP), and environmental management standards. Based from the major environmental issues in the industry such as wastewater, solid waste, and air emissions, the group recommended some measures on how to prevent and control the generation of such issues. For the solid waste, there should be minimal inventory storage time for raw materials to reduce losses from putrefaction; monitoring of regular refrigeration and cooling systems during storage and processing activities to minimize product loss, optimize energy consumption, and prevent odors; clean, sorted, and graded raw foodstuffs at an early stage in order to reduce organic waste and substandard products at the processing facility; consideration of disposal through composting and/or use for soil amendment; then organic and non-organic debris / soil, solid organic matter, and liquid effluents, including sludge from wastewater treatment, which remain after the implementation of waste prevention strategies should be recycled as a soil amendment (based on an assessment of potential impacts to soil and water resources) or other beneficial uses such as energy production. Wastewater, being the most critical issue, can be nonetheless alleviated in various ways. First, huge amount of such should be reduced by preventing raw materials, intermediates, product, by-product and wastes from unnecessarily entering the wastewater system. Second, companies can use of techniques for treating industrial process wastewater which include grease traps, skimmers or oil water separators for separation of floatable solids; flow and load equalization; sedimentation for suspended solids reduction using clarifiers; biological treatment, typically anaerobic followed by aerobic treatment, for reduction of soluble organic matter (BOD); biological nutrient removal for reduction in nitrogen and phosphorus; chlorination of effluent when disinfection is required; dewatering and disposal of residuals; in some instances composting or land

application of wastewater treatment residuals of acceptable quality may be possible. Additional engineering controls may be required to contain and neutralize nuisance odors. Turning the attention now to air emissions, companies should be reminded that the main air pollutants from food and beverage processing operations consist of particulate matter (PM) and odor. PM may arise from solids handling, solid reduction and drying. Odor may be released by thermal processing steps such as steam peeling, blanching and dehydrating and by microbial action in stored solid waste. In meat processing, odor may also be emitted from cooking and smoking activities. PM can be rather lessened through the help of techniques such as covering of skips and vessels, and stockpiles, especially outdoors; enclosin silos and containers used for bulk storage of powders and fine materials; usage of closed conveyors equipped with filters to clean transport air prior to release; usage of cyclones and, if necessary, and fabric filters to remove dust from exhaust air; lastly, removal of particulate matter from the gas stream using dry cyclones, venturi scrubbers, electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) or dry filter systems, as necessary. Odor in the same manner can be prevented and controlled by these techniques: use of wet scrubbers to remove odor if the plant is in close proximity to residential areas. Wet scrubbers are used to remove odors with a high affinity to water, such as ammonia emitted during the rendering process and during the procurement of air emission systems for smoking units, it is best practice to install integrated systems that combine air cleaning, incineration, and heat recovery. Such systems are highly effective with regard to the reduction of odor emissions, production / energy efficiency; lastly, re-circulate exhaust gas from frying and other cooking operations to the burner. Organizations that fall under this industry are to implement these new rules, policies, and techniques that would allow a new view of what must be the direction of the developments in the industry. The new policies that are even backed-up not only by implementing strategies but also by the technological advancements will be more effective. 8. REFERENCES [1] Booker, J., Monks, B., Roberts, H., & Stafford, J. (2004). Maximize Your Mark: Food Technology Revision Guide. Nelson Thornes. [2] Campbell, B., Clapton, B., & Tipton, C. (2002). Food Technology. Heinemann. [3] WateReuse Association. Retrieved March 11, 2009, from http://www.watereuse.org/informationresources/about-water-reuse/glossary-1

[4] Azuma, R. (2008). TED Case Studies. Retrieved March 10, 2008, from Philippine Banana and Japan: http://www.american.edu/ted/philippine-banana.htm [5] Filipinas. (2008). Retrieved March 10, 2009, from Coffee firm converts waste to energy : http://business.inquirer.net/money/breakingnews/view/2008 0809-153661/Coffee-firm-converts-waste-to-energy [6] Greenpeace. (2006). Retrieved March 11, 2009, from Waste survey exposes extent of plastic pollution in Manila Bay : http://www.greenpeace.org/seasia/en/press/releases/wastesurvey-exposes-extent-of [7] Polystyrene Packaging of the Philippines. (2003). Retrieved March 10, 2009, from Third Generation PSMelting Unit - Developed : http://www.ppcp.org.ph/ [8] Sarmiento, P. (2008). Global Issues. Retrieved March 10, 2009, from Environment-Philippines: Aerial Spraying Case Profits Vs Public Health: http://www.globalissues.org/news/2008/12/22/120