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“This is the Taste of Death”
A fleeing Egyptian bureaucrat reveals what life was like in ancient Canaan
By Anson F. Rainey Sidebar: A Bestseller from Ancient Egypt
Roving Asiatic traders are depicted this 8-foot-long, 19th-century B.C. mural at Beni Hasan, Egypt, about 150 miles south of Cairo. Pastoral or trading groups such as this one may have transported the Egyptian official Sinuhe, just a century earlier, through Canaan to Byblos, and from Byblos to the Levantine interior (see map of Sinuhe’s route).
Excavations of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1906–1907; Rogers Fund, 1908. (08.200.5) Photograph © 1982 The Metropolitan Museum of Art
In the Tale of Sinuhe, the eponymous hero flees from Egypt to Canaan during the period of uncertainty after the death of Pharaoh Amenemhet I (1991–1962 B.C.), shown here in a relief from Amenemhet’s mortuary temple at
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however. Sinuhe is in the field with the Egyptian army.C.org/print. messengers arrive to inform Senuseret that his father has died (in fact.C. Egypt was once again reunited under the Middle Kingdom.a Egyptian texts describe the unsettled conditions that prevailed after the collapse of the Old Kingdom in the 22nd century B. A number of scholars—including Alan Gardiner. But how long did this intermediate period last? By the end of the third millennium B. Whether or not Sinuhe actually lived. they say.C. and he overhears a messenger http://members. which in the text is called Tnw.C.2 the editor of the critical text of the Tale of Sinuhe—believe that the story was originally composed for the tomb of a real person named Sinuhe..5 A higher degree of civilization prevailed in Canaan-Syria in the 20th century B. the text was probably written in the 20th century B. as a close reading of Sinuhe’s story will demonstrate.7 Sinuhe learns that Amenemhet’s other sons have also been summoned to the court. who is married to the pharaoh’s son and co-regent. One night. Canaan still lay under the cloud of a pastoral. As the tale begins. According to many archaeologists. Senuseret—who eventually becomes the 12th Dynasty’s second king. The Tale of Sinuhe has even been used to support this view: The consensus has always been that the famous Egyptian refugee spent many years among pastoral nomads before returning to Egypt.4 a pastoral people struggled to procure cereals and other foods they had previously been able to acquire by trade with Early Bronze Age III urban centers. he was assassinated).C. This period is known as the Intermediate Bronze Age or Middle Bronze Age I.C.). Middle Bronze Age IIa. In Syria.bib-arch. tribal regime characteristic of Middle Bronze Age I. may help resolve scholarly debates about social conditions in Canaan-Syria (also known as the Levant) in the early second millennium B. as we know from the archaeological record of such places as Hama and Ugarit.1 composed during Egypt’s Middle Kingdom. In the first centuries of the second millennium B. about 50 miles south of Cairo. than many archaeologists have thought—a civilization characteristic not of Middle Bronze Age I but of the subsequent period.6 Sinuhe is a nobleman employed by Pharaoh Amenemhet’s daughter. In the story. and how does this picture fit with the archaeological record? In the ancient Near East.asp?PubID=BSAO&Volume=1&Issue=4&ArticleID=13&UserID=0& Página 2 de 11 . a severe decline in the standard of living occurred.C. an abbreviated form of Rtnw (Retjenu. raises a family and finally returns to Egypt in order to live out his days among his own people and receive a proper burial. led by Senuseret.) and Senuseret I (1971–1928 B. It is told in the first person by Sinuhe himself.C.) urban settlements. The Tale of Sinuhe. In Canaan3 and Transjordan. later Retenu).—a time known as Egypt’s First Intermediate Period. a high official in Amenemhet’s court who leaves Egypt.The BAS Library | Print 24/04/13 17:36 death of Pharaoh Amenemhet I (1991–1962 B. Sinuhe’s story takes place during the reigns of the first two pharaohs of Egypt’s 12th Dynasty: Amenemhet I (1991– 1962 B. a period of disruption followed the destruction of Early Bronze Age III (2700–2200 B. Although the earliest manuscripts of the tale date to later in the 12th Dynasty (see the sidebar to this article).).C.C. the story does show a detailed acquaintance with the land of his sojourn. the standard Egyptian name for Canaan (and perhaps north Syria). But this view is mistaken. the period of disruption lasted much longer in the Levant. while the army marches home with booty and prisoners. though no such tomb has yet been discovered. travels to Canaan. The question is. shown here in a relief from Amenemhet’s mortuary temple at Lisht. Can a folktale from the Middle Bronze Age provide us with information about the remote past that has eluded even extensive archaeological expeditions? The answer is yes. on a campaign against the Libyans. What can Sinuhe’s adventure tell us about the prevailing social and cultural conditions in Retenu/Canaan at the time.
brought me in that he might say to me: “You are happy with me since you hear the language of Egypt. much less serve. he boiled milk for me. local rulers of humble villages. The pottery from these tombs was made in either Transjordan or Cisjordan. I assumed a crouching position in the underbrush for fear that the sentries serving daytime watch on the wall might see me. and that he might not escape with his life. the kind of place to which foreigners migrated. We take up the story as he makes his escape from Egyptian territory: I directed my steps northward. it is not identified in Sinuhe’s text as a city. recognized me. heading north toward the delta.The BAS Library | Print 24/04/13 17:36 speaking to one of them. Sinuhe journeys from Byblos to Qedem.asp?PubID=BSAO&Volume=1&Issue=4&ArticleID=13&UserID=0& Página 3 de 11 . Fearing that there might be trouble over the succession. Egyptian dignitaries simply did not visit. Sinuhe continues his journey northward to Retenu (Canaan): Country (hÉ3st) gave me to country (hÉ3st). probably first for the import of wood (the cedars of Lebanon). since the Semitic qedem means “east.” But where? It is from Qedem that Sinuhe arrives at (Re)tenu: ’Ammu-insái. He then crosses the Nile on a rudderless barge and reverses direction.9 Sinuhe arrives at Byblos. These Egyptians have access to ’Ammu-insái. One lonely cup made of Nile silt did show up in a site in the southern desert.” He said this because he had learned of my character and had heard of my ability since the Egyptians who were there with him had testified of me. no scarabs. During the subsequent period of Middle http://members. pottery or other artifacts indicating cultural contact with Egypt have been found. the ancient commercial ally of Egypt on the Mediterranean coast of modern Lebanon. This peculiar practice by the narrator has deceived most commentators. The identification of the “land of Qedem” is one of the geographical mysteries of the story. A hallmark of the Middle Kingdom was the renewal of maritime trade with the Lebanese coast. not the determinative for a town (dmi). Byblos at the time was probably a significant city. after I had gone with him to his clan (wh\yt). Sinuhe flees. while an attack of thirst overtook me and I was parched and my throat was dry. who had been in Egypt.8 Is it only an odd coincidence that the leader of this pastoralist group recognizes Sinuhe? It seems reasonable to infer from this passage that one of Sinuhe’s duties as a court official was to deal with desert dwellers seeking entry into the Nile Delta. They treated me well. and then he makes his way to the ruler of Retenu/Canaan. In all likelihood an Egyptian commercial and diplomatic mission was maintained at Byblos. Of the hundreds of excavated Middle Bronze Age I tombs in Canaan. The place itself was certainly a city. First he turns south. The author uses only the determinative for a country (hÉ3st).10 Thus we learn that there are already Egyptians in the court of the ruler of Retenu. But Sinuhe’s very arrival in Byblos suggests the opposite. and he heeds their recommendations. in the 20th century B. “This is the taste of death!” But I took courage and pulled myself together after I heard the sound of the lowing of cattle and caught sight of some pastoralists (styw). to trample those who traverse the sands. who take it as evidence that Byblos. had not yet become an urban center and still lay in the throes of Middle Bronze Age I. the ruler (h\q3) of Upper Retenu. However. One would expect a place to the east. I said. traveling along the western side of the Nile.b There I spent a year and a half. I moved on when it was dark and I had reached Petny by daybreak. notably from around Jerusalem and other hill-country areas.org/print. I set out for Byblos but turned back to Qedem.. having made my halt on the island of Kem-wer. The archaeological testimony is overwhelming. an important seaport. This clearly would not have been the case in a Middle Bronze Age I pastoralist society.C. I reached the Walls of the Ruler built to repel the pastoralists (styw).bib-arch. Then he gave me water and. The leader (mtn) among them.
Araru (or Alalu?) was its name. There was no limit to all its cattle. After discussing the demise of the late pharaoh. a paeon to Egypt’s new king. It was from the choicest (lands) that he had. Egyptian cultural contacts are amply attested by artifactual finds. He grants his new son-in-law the privilege of choosing a territory for his own.bib-arch.asp?PubID=BSAO&Volume=1&Issue=4&ArticleID=13&UserID=0& Página 4 de 11 .The BAS Library | Print 24/04/13 17:36 Bronze Age IIa. During the many years I spent. its olives profuse. Amenemhet I. on the border with another land (há3st) that he let me chose from his realm. each one ruling his own clan (wh\yt).12 Figs were in it as well as vines. More abundant was its wine than water. He appointed me ruler (h\q3) of a clan (wh\yt) from among the elite of his land (há3st).C. Sinuhe’s narrative is.). Of even more significance is Sinuhe’s description of his new territorial possession: It was a good land. Its honey was plentiful. my children grew into warriors (nhátw). and then succeeded his father as the second pharaoh of the 12th Dynasty. It happens to border on a neighboring land so that Sinuhe will in effect be guarding his father-in-law’s country in the face of a neighboring territory. Every fruit was on its trees. I will treat you well. ’Ammu-insái and Sinuhe get down to business. (Provisions) were snared for me and placed before me. Barley was there along with emmer wheat. ’Ammu-insái addresses himself once again to Sinuhe: “So you are here! While you stay with me. Amenemhet I.13 British Museum Sinuhe was employed by the wife of Senuseret I (1971–1928 B. But it also describes Sinuhe’s life among http://members. Many dainties were prepared for me. besides what my own dogs brought in.” He even placed me ahead of his own children and it was to his own daughter that he married me. shown above in a granite bust from Memphis. milk in all kinds of cookery. Great was that which accrued to me as a consequence of (his) love for me. however.11 This passage depicts a ruler who has control over considerable territory. in part. Senuseret served as co-regent with his father.org/print.
But pharaoh is often depicted in his tent when on campaign (as is Achilles at the siege of Troy). against it I made my victorious attack.”15 Another decisive passage establishing the type of social order envisaged by the tale is Sinuhe’s description of warfare. developed populations. So the story of Sinuhe’s contest with a rival champion is further proof that he was not living in a pastoralist society. and I rescued the one who had been robbed. It was after he saw that my arms were flourishing in strength that he placed me at the head of his children. by my maneuvers and by my excellent planning that I slew its citizens.asp?PubID=BSAO&Volume=1&Issue=4&ArticleID=13&UserID=0& Página 5 de 11 . They are foreign to the behavior of nomadic pastoralists.14 these humble settlements were hardly venues for visiting Egyptian expatriates or Egyptian diplomats. he having subdued it all. I gave water to the thirsty. the battles between Achilles and Hector in the Iliad and between David and Goliath in 1 Samuel).19 This battle of champions between Sinuhe and his challenger has been discussed extensively in relation to similar duels in other literary traditions (for example. After he came to love me and to recognize my valor. He takes “countermeasures” against “the tribesmen (styw) who became so insolent as to oppose the rulers of the lands (h\q3w há3swt). I found favor in his heart. by my bow. driving (it) from its pasturage and wells after I had plundered its cattle and carried off its serfs.The BAS Library | Print 24/04/13 17:36 the Canaanites—presented as a civilized.17 Could there be a clearer picture of a sedentary agricultural society and its rulers in conflict with the non-sedentary dwellers of the steppe? Sinuhe also conducts military operations against neighboring sedentary countries: This ruler (h\q3) of [Re]tenu had me carry out many missions as commander (“marshaller”) of his army. Another argument raised by those who insist that 20th-century B. it is conflict between the established societies of the region. This involves references in Sinuhe’s story (and other Egyptian texts) to the Retenu as “sandhttp://members.18 This is not tribal warfare.org/print. vineyards. and as for every land (há3st) that I went out against. I put the lost one back on the road. Sinuhe greets envoys “going north and south to the (Egyptian) palace … I entertained everyone (as my guest). Canaan-Syria was dominated by nomadic tribes can be easily countered. a champion was he without peer. This picture of multifaceted agriculture—with fruit plantations. Among the visitors to whom Sinuhe extends his hospitality are Egyptian emissaries.C. He said he would fight with me. There is also the incident of Sinuhe’s duel with a local champion: There came a warrior (nhát) of [Re]tenu to insult me in my tent.”16 Sinuhe is responsible for defending the “rulers of the lands” against the raids of pastoralists (styw). But what matters here is that duels between champions are characteristic of sedentary. agricultural people capable of controlling extensive territories. Although there were small farming communities in the Levant during Middle Bronze Age I.bib-arch. The scene in which Sinuhe is insulted in his tent is often quoted as proof that he was living among nomads. For author Anson Rainey. traditional cereal crops and extensive herds and flocks—does not describe a people still under the shadow of Middle Bronze Age I.C. this suggests that the prevalent view among archaeologists—that the Levant of the 20th century B. he planned to plunder me. was dominated by tribal nomads—is wrong. It was by my scimitar. he meant to seize my cattle on the counsel of his clan.
” This term must have been coined much earlier. 21 http://members.asp?PubID=BSAO&Volume=1&Issue=4&ArticleID=13&UserID=0& Página 6 de 11 .) inscription. fig trees. It was after it had slain its troops by many myriads that this army returned in peace. but it was later applied to all the populations occupying the lands of the Retenu (Canaan and Syria).dwellers”—with strongholds.C. for example.20 Donald Redford has seen the incongruity in the assumption that these “sand. It was after it had cast fire in all its [palaces?] that this army returned in peace.bib-arch.” Weni says.org/print.The BAS Library | Print 24/04/13 17:36 dwellers” or “sand-farers. It was after [it had carried] off many [troops] as prisoners that this army returned in peace. The Egyptians typically reckoned foreigners as inferior creatures unworthy to be called rmt (“mankind”)—Nubians to the south. 2345–2180 B. Libyans to the west and Asiatics (‘3mw) to the northeast. a military commander under Pharaoh Pepi I. describes the campaigns of Weni. It was after it had cut down its fig (trees) and its vines that this army returned in peace. But such name-calling simply reflects Egyptian chauvinism. It was after it had plundered [its] strongholds that this army returned in peace. “his majesty sent me at the head of this army”: It was after it had ravaged the land of the sand-dwellers that this army returned in peace. A 6th Dynasty (c. Weni’s description of his campaigns reveals a society that can hardly be classified as nomadic or pastoral: “When his majesty took action against the Asiatics who are upon the sand. when the Egyptians first encountered the nomads of the Sinai desert.” Map showing route of Sinuhe’s flight from Egypt to Canaan. It was after it had trampled the land of the sand-dwellers that this army returned in peace. against the “sand-dwellers.
my fruit trees.? Some confirmation about the society in Retenu during the period of Sinuhe comes from 12th Dynasty Execration Texts. There is no commoner for whom the like has been done. A master sculptor carved it. The royal children find it hard to believe that the rustic character standing before them is an Egyptian nobleman.” they are also a civilized people who control extensive territories and maintain diplomatic ties with Egypt. Sinuhe’s correspondence cited in the narrative is accompanied by extensive praise for the pharaoh.”22 But “sand-dwellers” derives from the Egyptians’ view that the peoples of Canaan-Syria were no better than the nomadic tribes of the Sinai desert. giving us a picture of life in Canaan-Syria in the early second millennium B. It is frequently a moving story with vivid narrative details.”21 His suggestion was that “upon the sand” should be rendered as “at/beside/across the sand. Sinuhe then returns to Egypt and is received by Senuseret I. Sinuhe is rewarded by being restored to his noble status. my arms weak. namely that all Semites must have been “tribesmen. A stone pyramid was built for me in the midst of the pyramids. too. May I be conducted to the city of eternity!” But can we rely on the Tale of Sinuhe as a historical document.The BAS Library | Print 24/04/13 17:36 vineyards and perhaps even palaces—were primitive “desert dwellers. I was in the favor of the king. These diplomatic contacts between Sinuhe’s adopted country and his homeland eventually lead to his being invited back to Egypt by Senuseret I. The masons who built tombs constructed it.C.bib-arch. Those http://members. Now. my legs fail to follow. he discharges his affairs and departs: I was allowed to spend one more day in Araru (Alalu). The heart is weary. After cleaning himself up. perhaps unwittingly. Even in the 19th century.asp?PubID=BSAO&Volume=1&Issue=4&ArticleID=13&UserID=0& Página 7 de 11 . And he achieves the ultimate dream of every Egyptian: honorary burial in Egypt.23 The pastoralists who accompany Sinuhe to Egypt are obviously a desert escort and indicate nothing about the sedentary population farther north.H. I arrived at Horus-ways. A funerary domain was made for me. including many in Retenu.org/print. all my possessions became his: my serfs. he goes south and then reverses direction and heads north. Trumbull had to use Bedouin as caravanners to cross from Egypt to Palestine. my eldest son taking charge of my clan. my herds.24 Sinuhe’s “day of landing” (his death) concludes his tale. All the equipment that is placed in a tomb shaft was supplied. Then his majesty sent an overseer of field workers of the royal palace. accompanied by loaded ships carrying gifts of royal favor for the pastoralists (styw) who came with me to escort me to Horusways. years ago. to life. It was his majesty who ordered it made. as is done for the Companion of the first rank.”) In Sinuhe’s story. if the Retenu are “sand-dwellers. A master draftsman designed it. It had fields and a garden in the right place. as do Sinuhe’s musings on death and his longing to return home: “My eyes are heavy. espoused the Egyptian view. until the day of landing came. Why? Is this simply what happened. vanished suddenly at a tense moment and then lived among a foreign people. my fruit. or does Sinuhe’s vacillation suggest the disorder of his thoughts—or something else? Passages like this help bring the narrative. explorers such as Edward Robinson and H. death is near. The overseers of construction in the necropolis busied themselves with it. When Sinuhe initially flees Egypt. The commander in charge of the garrison sent a message to the palace to let it be known. This servant departed southward. (Many Egyptologists of the past two centuries have. its skirt with electrum. thus revealing one of the main motives for the story: to extol the second king of the 12th Dynasty. as we have seen. Mortuary priests were given to me. My statue was overlaid with gold. handing over my possessions to my children. Sinuhe’s flattery of Senuseret (“The sun rises at your pleasure”) makes sense if we remember that this former official. curses against the pharaoh’s potential enemies. and Sinuhe himself.
Barring religious texts and formulaic inscriptions. was probably correct in asserting that the tale was based on an inscription from the 12th Dynasty tomb of an actual Sinuhe. were commensurate with a sedentary society. Numerous papyrus fragments and ostraca contain portions of the tale. the so-called “B manuscript” (shown above) contains 311 lines of elegant hieratic script. however.C. Sir Alan Gardiner. as this great Egyptologist was to become.asp?PubID=BSAO&Volume=1&Issue=4&ArticleID=13&UserID=0& Página 8 de 11 . builds a career in a foreign land and returns home to die—a very plausible life. A Bestseller from Ancient Egypt Sidebar to: “This is the Taste of Death” Staatliche Museen zu Berlin-Preussischer Kuturbesitz/Karin Marz If the number of copies of a literary work is any indication of its popularity. then the Tale of Sinuhe must have been the prose classic for ancient Egyptian readers. Sinuhe is not a typical epic hero: He does not accomplish miracles or commune with the gods.25 The narrative does have the feel of a personal memoir. is http://members. such as dual rulership in a city-state. the beginning of the story. he leaves Egypt during a time of trouble. Dating to the 12th Dynasty (1985–1795 B.bib-arch. Perhaps we will find it someday. But a comparison of the Execration Texts with contemporaneous business documents from Babylonia shows that certain features of Retenu mentioned in the Egyptian texts. no other work was copied as frequently. with extensive praise of Senuseret I added to glorify Egypt’s king.The BAS Library | Print 24/04/13 17:36 texts have also been misinterpreted by scholars as reflecting a pastoralist society during the 12th Dynasty.). Afraid and uncertain.org/print. Two papyri in Berlin’s Staatliche Museen preserve almost the entire text.
Another reading is “I traveled to Byblos.). and Poetry (New Haven and London: Yale Univ. 3. Ancient Egyptian Literature. vol. “The Intermediate Bronze Age. an Anthology of Stories. See R. Footnotes: a. 159–210. Intermediate Bronze Age by Moshe Kochavi. “The Story of Sinuhe” in William Kelly Simpson.” Israel Oriental Studies 2 (1972).C.” Endnotes: 1. Containing 130 fragmented lines of hieratic script.C. See A. 222–235. 2. and Amihai Mazar. Gardiner. for the sake of simplicity I will use Albright’s terminology (also used by many Israelis).000–586 B. it is one of many copies of the text produced during the New Kingdom period (1550–1069 B.The BAS Library | Print 24/04/13 17:36 missing. ed. Press. 369–408.5 feet long.” Levant 6 (1974).” Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 34 (1990). The subsequent period (2000–1750 B.” which dates to the end of the Middle Kingdom (c. contains 203 lines of the tale. “The Story of Sinuhe. Anson Rainey. 1650). pp. and Simpson. pp. calling the period of Sinuhe’s tale Middle Bronze Age IIa. 1990). 1973). 6.) has been called by various names by different scholars: Intermediate Early Bronze Age-Middle Bronze Age by Kathleen Kenyon. Instructions. unable to afford expensive rolls of papyrus. Middle Bronze Age I by William F. Again. pp. 57–74.). and Early Bronze Age IV-Middle Bronze Age I by Amihai Mazar. 1992). is housed in Oxford’s Ashmolean Museum. Notes on the Story of Sinuhe (Paris: Librairie Honoré Champion. Alan H. b. 4.C. Although I prefer Mazar’s method. Sennedjem must have been very fond of the tale of an Egyptian official’s adventures abroad and triumphant return to the land of his birth. dutifully copied fragments of Sinuhe’s story onto potsherds and ostraca. This version of Sinuhe’s tale—found in the tomb of one Senndjem. a time when master scribes and their apprentices. The Archaeology of Ancient Israel. I will adopt Albright’s choice of names. dating to the reign of Ramesses II (1279–1213 B. 66–116. Most modern translations draw predominantly from these two manuscripts while incorporating textual variants from other papyri and ostraca. and “Preliminary Report on the Excavations at Tell Iktanu. one of the many burials in the workers’ cemetery at Deir el-Medina—was preserved on both sides of a limestone ostracon. 1 of The Old and Middle Kingdom (Berkeley: Univ.asp?PubID=BSAO&Volume=1&Issue=4&ArticleID=13&UserID=0& Página 9 de 11 . measuring over 8 inches tall and about 3. 5. ed. pp. “The Intermediate Early Bronze-Middle Bronze Age: An Interpretation of the Evidence from Transjordan.C. M. Prag. 1–41. for it accompanied him to his tomb. 119–130.. 57–74. 1916). I returned to Qedem.) has been called Middle Bronze Age I by Kenyon and Middle Bronze Age IIa by Albright. Archaeology of the Land of the Bible 10. “The World of Sinuhe. Greenberg (London and New Haven: Yale Univ.” pp. pp. pp. A third major copy. Jordan 1989. pp.E. 151–173. including the beginning. Press and the Open University of Israel. 1973). pp. (London: Lutterworth Press.C. translated by R. See William Kelly Simpson. Middle Egyptian Stories (Brussels: Édition de la Fondation Égyptologique. Albright. Edituer. This period (2200–2000 B.org/print. 1932). Gophna. Blackman. The Literature of Ancient Egypt. See K. http://members..” in Amnon Ben Tor. of California Press. whereby the earlier period is called Middle Bronze Age I. Miriam Lichtheim.bib-arch. The “R manuscript. Syria and Lebanon. Early Bronze Age IV by most American archaeologists.
pp. G. 16. 13. p. “Egypt and Western Asia in the Old Kingdom. Edelstein and I. Blackman. 15. 20 (Hebrew).) alongside the many granary pits at Iktanu on the eastern side of the Jordan Valley (K. p. Jordan: Third Preliminary Report. 119–130. 101– 104. 19. and Benjamin Mazar. p.” Canaan and Israel (Jerusalem: Bialik Institute and the Israel Exploration Society. 24:5.” paper delivered at the Annual Meeting of the American Schools of Oriental Research. “Canaan on the Threshold of the Age of the Patriarchs. 23:2. Middle Egyptian Stories. (Leipzig: Urkunden des ägyptischen Altertums. 24:5–8. 15:7. Middle Egyptian Stories. outside of Jerusalem (See G. 18. pp. 1932–33). “Preliminary Report on the Excavations at Tell Iktanu. http://members. K. 2–23. 24:9. pp.) Therefore. Milevski. 1997. p.” Bulletin of the American School of Oriental Research Supplement 25 . 7. “Egypt and Western Asia. Blackman. p. pp. ed. Donald B. Eisenberg. 9. Middle Egyptian Stories. 20. p. 11:6. n. 17.” Eretz Israel 3 (1954).org/print. Long. pp. 23:3. Blackman. “The Early Bronze IV Fortified Site of Khirbet Iskander.” Excavations and Surveys in Israel 4 . Blackman. Edelstein and E. not a fortress from the EB IV/MB I. pp. Jordan. 16:3. Blackman. Redford. 25:4. pp. Blackman. 107–130. Middle Egyptian Stories.The BAS Library | Print 24/04/13 17:36 7. 25. Prag. 14. 25:7–15. Redford. 12. Incidentally. Sethe. Ancient Egyptian Literature. “Emek Refaim. See Blackman. 126b. 1984 Season. 227. Jordan 1989. “The Rural Settlement of Jerusalem Re-evaluated: Surveys and Excavations in the Repha’im Valley and Mevasseret Yerushalayim. after Lichtheim. 13. pp. Richard and C.” Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt (1986). 10. pp. Blackman.” p. Ancient Egyptian Literature. it has now been discovered that the fortified EB IV/MB I site at Khirbet Iskander in fact had its beginnings in the true EB period. Described in “The Admonitions of Amenemhet I. Nov. 11. “Report on the 1997 Excavations of Khirbet Iskander. 22.) do not radically alter the picture. Ancient Egyptian Literature. it is probably an EB III fortification taken over by the EB IV/MB I population. 24:8–9. 126 and n. 137. Lichtheim.bib-arch. Even the recent evidence of a humble farming community in Emek Rephaim. 15:3. Blackman. (S.” Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 34 . 1974). Napa. 15:1. Urkunden des alten Reichs 2nd. 234. p.” See Lichtheim. p. Richard. p.asp?PubID=BSAO&Volume=1&Issue=4&ArticleID=13&UserID=0& Página 10 de 11 . “The Land of Canaan in the Days of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt.) and the fortifications at Khirbet Iskander (S. CA. p. Middle Egyptian Stories. Middle Egyptian Stories.” Palestine Exploration Quarterly 126 . Middle Egyptian Stories. 22:11. 8. Middle Egyptian Stories. See Benjamin Mazar. 21. Middle Egyptian Stories.
““This is the Taste of Death”. 24.asp?PubID=BSAO&Volume=1&Issue=4&ArticleID=13 (accessed 4/24/2013) http://members. Fall 1998. Blackman. 41:5. pp.. 68-69. et al.” Archaeology Odyssey. Blackman. 25. Middle Egyptian Stories. p. Middle Egyptian Stories. http://members. pp. See my discussion in Yohanan Aharoni.org/print. Anson F. 42-47.The BAS Library | Print 24/04/13 17:36 23. Reference for this article Rainey.bib-arch. 26– 28.org/publication.asp?PubID=BSAO&Volume=1&Issue=4&ArticleID=13&UserID=0& Página 11 de 11 . 1993). The Macmillan Bible Atlas (New York: Macmillan. 40:3. 35.bib-arch.
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