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AERODYNAMICS

1.

We have seen that lift depends on five factors: a. b. c. d. e. The Cross-section Shape of the airfoil. The angle of attack The plan form size of the wing The Density of the air The Velocity of flight through the air

All these factors are represented in the Lift equation.

2.

The Lift Equation:
The lift equation is:

L = CL x S x ½ ρ V2
You will notice that there are only four variables contributing to Lift, despite the list above. The elements in the lift equation are: WhereCL = Co –efficient of lift.

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RESTRICTED S ρ V = = = Wing area. Air density. Velocity

The Coefficient of Lift is a unit-less number which depends on both the cross-sectional shape of the airfoil and on the angle of attack. 3. Unit Analysis of Lift Equation. Unit analysis is based on the observation that in order for any equation to be valid not only the numeric values, but also the units on each side of the equation, must be equal. For example F = ma therefore the units of Force must equal the units of mass times acceleration, since a Newton is equal to a Kg-meter per second squared. 4. Area (S). You may be wondering why we don't use the letter A for area. The reason is that A has been reserved to represent the surface Area of the entire aircraft. S represents the area only of the wing. Based on the Lift equation you should already know what will happen to the amount of lift produced by a wing if its area is doubled (assuming all other variables are not changed.) Therefore, this will make a simple introduction to the scientific research environment. The cornerstone of scientific research is to control the variables so that when we make measurements the results depend only upon one variable. Thus, in this case we must keep the angle of attack, air density, airfoil cross-section shape and velocity constant. 5.

Analysis of Experiment Results

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In an earlier section we did a unit analysis of the Lift equation which revealed that we must use units of feet per second for velocity if we are to get at lift value in units of pounds. Units of Velocity.RESTRICTED If you do have results. (The units would be meters per second to get lift in Newtons for the metric system. Concorde requires hundreds of miles to turn around in cruise at Mach 2. Again we should graph our data. then as a designer the first thing you will likely do is graph your results so that you can see what they look like. but typically flew at less than 100 mph. You will notice that the results are clearly "linear". Simple inspection of the graph leads us to conclude that the relationship is of the general form: 3 RESTRICTED . From this a scientist can conclude that the relationship: 6. Aircraft come in all sorts of speed ranges. Word War I biplanes were very maneuverable. Velocity and Lift. This time we notice that the results are definitely not linear. a.) As a result we will often have to convert Velocity values from Knots to feet per second. Now we will explore the effect of speed (Velocity) on Lift produced.

b = 0) with the slope being equal to n (the exponent we are trying to evaluate. The graph paper is known as Log-Log graph paper. all we have to do is plot this graph and then measure the slope of the graph. Using it saves us the need to calculate the logarithm of each of our data values. if we did not know that we would have to evaluate n using another graphical technique which scientists often perform. We can then evaluate the "unknown" n value. The above technique is so common in science that special graph paper has been devised for this type of experimental analysis.RESTRICTED c. Since we have the advantage of already knowing the Lift Equation we know that n in the above equation is equal to two (2). To do this we take advantage of the mathematical fact that the logarithm of a number raised to an exponent n is equal to n times the logarithm of the number.) Thus. However. Following is an example of a log plot. IE This equation will convert the exponential relationship into a normal straight line equation (Y = mx + b. 4 RESTRICTED . Instead the graph paper does the "calculations" for us.

) Therefore we know that the remaining factor will be a unit-less number.RESTRICTED As you can see the slope of the line is indeed two (2) as expected. In fact our equation looks almost exactly like the Lift Equation except that we have chosen the variable k to be the constant of proportionality. Since we know from before that lift is proportional to both Wing area (S) and Air Density (rho) the Lift equation now looks like this: At this stage in our exploration we have developed almost the entire lift equation. We now can say that lift is proportional to Velocity squared. If we do a unit analysis on the equation at this point we will notice that the equation already produces units of Force (Lift is a force. 5 RESTRICTED .

We already know that it is a unit-less number and that its value will depend upon the Angle of Attack and the cross-section shape of the airfoil. they do show that the lift always peeks at the same angle of attack. lift is: 6 RESTRICTED . The Angle of Attack vs Lift Experiment. Plotted in this form the results are of little value. Thus. We will then consider the effect of different airfoils later.5 into the equation as we have currently developed it. The first step to doing this is to insert the constant . about 14.RESTRICTED 7. We now begin our exploration of the Coefficient of Lift. Coefficient of Lift. However. We will start by plotting our results on a Lift vs Angle of attack graph. a.5 degrees in this case. We will first experiment with changes in angle of attack. Since we know the Coefficient of Lift is going to depend upon two variables (angle of attack and shape of airfoil and also that it is unit-less) it will be more valuable to solve our data for the Coefficient of Lift and plot that against angle of attack.

you must calculate your max coefficient of lift and stalling angle of attack. We notice that although each airfoil has a different Zero lift angle of attack. If we did so we would get different values for Coefficient of Lift for every angle of attack. However. therefore its inclusion simply results in values for Coefficient of Lift which are twice what they otherwise would have been. air density. By making this adjustment we will now evaluate our Coefficient values to be the same values as other Aerodynamicists. regardless of the Velocity.5 is of course unit-less also. We could now repeat this experiment using an airfoil other than the 4412. . 7 RESTRICTED . you can justify it as being in keeping with both Bernoulli's Equation and the definition of Kinetic Energy. For a particular design. and a different stalling angle of attack they all have a fundamentally similar shape. Despite the difference in Coefficient of Lift vs.RESTRICTED The precise mathematical justification for inserting the extra constant .5 is beyond the scope of this course. because the Coefficient of Lift is revealed to be the same at a given angle of attack . This confirms our suspicion that lift will depend on the shape of the airfoil as well as the angle of attack. it is amazing to discover just how similar the plots are. Wing area. etc. We immediately notice that the results are much more useable now. c. We now must re-arrange the equation to solve for Coefficient of Lift: b. Angle of Attack with different airfoils.

RESTRICTED 8. The peak values for conventionally shaped airfoils all fall within the range 1. a.4 and 1. because it can not flow around the wing tip. In the previous section we discussed the shape of the Coefficient of Lift vs Angle of Attack curve for an airfoil. Coefficient of Lift vs Angle of Attack graphs. Thus. b. The Coefficient of lift is zero at some angle of attack. The more camber the airfoil has the lower the zero lift angle of attack will be.1 to 1. At some angle of attack the linear rise in Coefficient of Lift begins to break down. Coefficient of Lift vs Angle of Attack for a Wing . at a slope of approximately .6 9. This angle is greater for thick airfoils than for thin airfoils. It drops off quicker for airfoils with smaller radius leading edges than for airfoils with larger radius leading edges. the air is guaranteed to flow over or under the airfoil. On an aircraft wing in flight however the 8 RESTRICTED . Coefficient of Lift vs.1 per degree regardless of the airfoils shape. Symmetric airfoils will have a zero lift angle of attack of zero (Why?) The curve then rises in a straight line. Angle of Attack graphs for virtually every airfoil have a very similar shape.8 with most falling between 1. a. At some angle of attack the Coefficient of Lift peaks and then begins to drop off. When airfoil lift is measured in an wind tunnel the airfoil section is mounted in the tunnel so that it extends from one sidewall of the tunnel to the other.

but rather to produce just exactly the right amount of lift to support the airplane. but the biggest difference is the stalling angle of attack. in three dimensional flow they are different from the airfoil values discussed above. under or around the tip of the wing. Most of the time in flight however. The graph to the right show the difference between a straight wing aircraft and an aircraft with swept wings. You should be able to identify all the relevant points on the CL vs AOA graph. etc. Wing area. while the wind tunnel values for the airfoil are frequently referred to as two dimensional flow values. However. for wings with low aspect ratio. The maximum CL is slightly reduced. the slope of the Coefficient of Lift vs. Angle of attack curve changes significantly. c. Sept wing aircraft have significantly higher stalling angles of attack than aircraft with straight wings. At this early 9 RESTRICTED . the objective is not to produce some random amount of lift.RESTRICTED air can either flow over. The reason for these differences will be discussed later. Lift in Level Flight. Up to this point in the course we have been considering lift as it varies with the factors. Here is a page which discusses that subject. angle of attack. b. 10. If the wing has a large aspect ratio the values are very close to the two dimensional values. This is referred to as three dimensional flow. Velocity. Air Density. or with sweep. When Coefficient of Lift vs Angle of Attack values are measured for a wing.

Generally. Lift vs Velocity. In a slow aircraft (with a low Wing Loading) the pitch attitude changes noticeably even for a speed change as small as 5 knots. Does Pitch or Throttle Control Speed. the faster your airplane flies the less the pitch must be changed for a given speed change. Coefficient of Lift and Velocity management. 14. climb or descend. 12. You can now learn how much the angle of attack must change as you speed up or slow down in Straight and Level flight. the flying instructor tells his student to control speed by changing the attitude. 11. Therefore. You should learn how to rearrange the lift equation to determine the required CL. Note that we can control Coefficient of lift only by changing the shape of the airfoil (as in extending or retracting flaps) or by changing the angle of attack. As pilots we spend our time managing the balance between Coefficient of Lift and Velocity. Generally you can assume that the same lift is required in a climb or a descent as in Straight and Level Flight. Controlling the amount of lift produced.). etc. That only leaves Coefficient of Lift and Velocity as variables for us to work with as pilots. using the elevators. We will also assume that in a Cimb or descent the lift is also approximately equal to the weight of the airplane. Generally the value of S is fixed (Can you imagine the possibility of an aircraft design in which S is variable?) b. Consider the Lift Equation again: a. If we wish to fly faster (increase in V) we will need to reduce Coefficient of Lift (less angle of attack or change in airfoil shape. One of the common points of contention which frequently arises when pilots get together to talk is whether or not speed is controlled with the throttle or the elevators. Later in the course we will consider the benefits of changing altitude (ie changing Air Density. You have probably learned a rule of thumb which stated that speed would change by 5 knots if you changed the pitch attitude by half a degree.) For now we will consider Air Density to be not under the pilots control. . If you followed the link above and spent some time experimenting you now know that this rule of thumb is very limiting. so that we keep Lift constant (or increase it in turns. turn. we must be able to control the amount of lift produced.) If we slow down we will need to increase the angle of attack or extend the flaps in order to maintain lift equal to weight (L=W). Thus.RESTRICTED stage in our study of Aerodynamics we will assume that in straight and level flight the required lift is equal to the weight of the airplane. Air Density is determined by the altitude we fly at. On the other hand for a fast aircraft (with a high Wing Loading) the pitch attitude changes by only a small fraction of a degree when the aircraft is slowed down by 5 knots. In turns the required lift is greater than weight. from 10 RESTRICTED 13. Since we need a specific amount of lift in order to maintain straight and level flight. We will discuss this extensively in the coming pages.

We will call this CL max AOA. Zero angle of attack would not be enough at 65 knots however. In the graph to the right the Lift vs. Therefore. The Blue line represents the Weight of the Airplane. This explains why the jet pilot will often say that "thrust controls speed. In the coming pages we will develop accurate equations for many aspects of flight including the stall speed. ranging from zero to the CL max AOA. we can conclude that there will be a speed below which we can not fly. At that speed we will require 10 degrees angle of attack. Velocity is plotted for four different Angles of Attack. We know that we must increase Coefficient of Lift as we reduce Velocity.RESTRICTED the pilots perspective the only noticeable change is the reduction in power. 40 knots is the stall speed (see definition of stall speed of the airplane in straight and level flight (with the S and Air Density values as fixed in the experiment." 15. Stall Speed. We can see that zero degrees angle of attack produces just the right amount of lift if we are flying at 116 knots. For now we need to visualize that the stall speed necessarily occurs at the angle of attack which produces the max Coefficient of Lift.) How will the stall speed change if we reduce the weight of the airplane? How will the stall speed change in a turn? 11 RESTRICTED . Thus. From the graph we can see that the lowest speed at which the wings can produce Lift equal to the Weight of the airplane is 40 knots. we also know from the previous section that there is a maximum Coefficient of Lift value for any given airfoil. But. Stall speed is the minimum speed at which the aircraft can produce sufficient Lift for Level Flight.

shown to the left calculate the load factor at 10.70 and 80 degrees of bank. all the acceleration is confined to a plane parallel to the horizon.40.50.30.) From the diagram a very simple relationship is immediately apparent between the Load Factor and the angle of bank.20.60.RESTRICTED When an airplane is in a level turn it is in a state of acceleration. Using the equation for Load factor in a turn.) The Figure to the right shows the two Vectors established at an angle b (the angle of bank. However. Therefore. the vertical component of the Lift Vector must completely balance the Weight Vector (which is vertical by definition. (What is the Load Factor at 90 degrees of bank?) 12 RESTRICTED .

16. This definition however does not give us the insight we need to create an equation which will give us the Maneuvering speed of our airplane. It was quite easy to develop the stall speed equation once we understood the definition of stall speed. b. It is almost insignificant at 30 degrees of bank and only 1. In the last few sections we developed the equation for Stall Speed. we start with a definition. 13 RESTRICTED . One of the most commonly stated definitions of the Maneuvering speed. although it should be limited to “full nose up control deflections” without over-stressing the airplane. To do that we need to consider why there is a speed below which it is impossible to overstress the airplane.4gs at 45 degrees of bank. The above definition is reasonably correct. Stall Speed in a Turn. a.RESTRICTED The results of the calculation requested above are plotted to the right. is the speed at which the pilot can use full control deflections without over-stressing the airplane. The same will be true of the Maneuvering speed. Thus. Now we will perform a similar process for the Maneuvering speed. We can see that load factor increases very slowly at first. It reaches 2 gs at 60 degrees of bank and then escalates at a very rapid rate going almost straight up at 80 degrees of bank.

17. Below this speed the wing can not produce enough lift to overstress the aircraft.8) line shows the minimum speed at which the wing can produce lift equal to the design Load Factor.RESTRICTED In the diagram to the right the maximum lift the wing can produce is shown in red. Maneuvering Speed Formula . This is the definition of Maneuvering speed we need. It is obvious that the Maneuvering speed is closely related to the stall speed. no matter what angle of attack is used. Therefore we can express Va in terms of Vs as: 14 RESTRICTED . c. For most normal aircraft the design load limit is 3. The Maneuvering Speed is the minimum speed at which the wing can produce lift equal to the design load limit.8g. a. The LF=n (n=3. as we learned in the previous section. We could in fact create a formula for Maneuvering speed which is identical to the stall speed equation except with lift equal to n times the weight: This equation is virtually identical to the Stall speed equation: The only difference is that the Maneuvering speed depends upon the square root of nW not just the square root of W. The LF=1 line shows the stall speed.

15 RESTRICTED . We must start by determining the origin and nature of that force. A turn is coordinated when there is no slip (no velocity) along the lateral axis. In a turn the aircraft is in a state of acceleration.RESTRICTED b. c. A component of the Lift vector acts horizontally. such as the Immelmann turn. Radius of turn refers to the amount of horizontal room required to turn an airplane is level flight. In other words there is a net force acting on the aircraft. etc. However. in a coordinated turn the lift force must lie entirely along the normal axis. for the purpose of this section we will assume a coordinated level turn. Thus. as shown in the diagram to the right. It is this component of the Lift vector which provides the Force of Centripetal Acceleration to turn the airplane. Other techniques are available for turning an airplane around.

RESTRICTED In the diagram to the left we see the airplane flying in a circular path. Thus. From Physics we remember the definition of the force of centripetal acceleration: Fac=mV2/r But. This is a very important observation since it means that the size of the aircraft has no effect on the radius of turn. the two variables of significance are Velocity and angle of bank. Effect of Weight on Radius of turn . Therefore. We can see that if the aircraft is flying twice as fast the radius of turn will be four times as great. The force of centripetal acceleration pulls the aircraft toward the center of the turn. This is very important for pilots transitioning to faster aircraft to remember. 19. Effect of Velocity on Radius of turn. Notice in the development of the radius of turn equation that the weight (W) canceled out of the equation. Velocity squared (V2) 3. and substituting the value F ac = W Tan(b) developed above. 18. two aircraft flying at the same angle of bank and velocity will make the same radius of turn even if one is 1000 times larger than the other. we get the equation for radius of turn: The equation to the left is very important since it clarifies what determines the radius of turn. it is not a variable until such time as we start flying aircraft around other planets.) Solving this equation for r. Thus. 16 RESTRICTED . Radius of turn depends on Velocity squared. Angle of bank b g is dependant on the size and density of planet earth. Radius of turn depends on three variables: 1. we also remember that mass and weight are related such that: m = W/g Once we make the substitution for m. g 2. we have the relationship shown above (F ac = WV2/gr.

” As before we will have to place certain restrictions on our analysis. We also will not consider a spin. c. Effect of Bank on Radius of turn. For a utility category airplane we are limited to 4.) This is possible only by slipping. It is also very important to military pilots since tight radius of turn may be the difference between life and death in a “dog fight. the equation correctly shows that there is no turn with the wings level. However. This equation indicates that the LF becomes infinite at 90 degrees of bank. Generally at least a 10% margin above the stall speed should be maintained. is not actually practical. c. Most of us have seen aircraft flying at 90 degrees of bank (and not making infinitely tight turns. b. Minimum Radius of Turn. Thus.RESTRICTED R is proportional to V2 20. Radius of turn is inversely proportional to the tangent of the angle of bank. d. since this will provide the maximum theoretical performance. maneuvers such as the Immelmann can turn an airplane with no horizontal component. Thus.) This will be very important if we must manoeuvre in a confined area such as mountain valley.8 g. these two equations indicate that it is not possible to make a turn at or near 90 degrees of bank because the forces involved become infinite. for a normal category airplane we will be limited to 3. which was assumed not 21. while theoretically possible. For example we will only consider level flight turns. Thus. In this section we will consider how to turn an airplane with the minimum radius of turn (ie how. a. Previously we developed the equation LF= 1/cos(b).4 gs. the equation indicates that a turn of zero radius can be made at 90 degrees of bank. d. 17 RESTRICTED . As the Tan of b approaches 90. For the purpose of simple calculations we will assume that we can fly at the stall speed. Thus. As the Tan of b approaches zero (wings level) tan(b) approaches zero and the radius becomes infinite. R is inversely proportional to Tan(b) a. it should be remembered that operating exactly at the stall speed. We will also assume that we can not exceed to design load limits of the airplane. but are not practical in many situations. to turn in the smallest possible area. tan(b) approaches infinity and the radius of turn approaches zero. even though it to can turn an airplane in a very small horizontal area. Few pilots would consider a ½ turn spin in a mountain valley to be a good technique for turning around in poor weather.

5 989. we are limited to approximately 75 degrees of bank. By slowing to a hover (zero velocity) we can turn "on a dime" as they say.8 269.0 116.9 467. To answer the question posed above we must break out our calculators and use the radius of turn equation to settle the question.5 80 18 RESTRICTED .9 50 0 20. the minimum radius of turn is automatically limited by the stall speed of a given airplane.3 556.1 392.RESTRICTED Looking at the radius of turn equation (shown to the right) we can see two obvious strategies to follow in making the smallest radius turn.8 7289.5 170.9 207.3 3239. IE.9 680.) Thus. The first is to slow down to the slowest possible speed. we must also increase the bank angle from zero.4 185.3 742.0 52.9 1822.2 56. As mentioned in the previous section the radius of turn will become smaller as the bank is increased.5 1467. There is a catch 22 which becomes apparent at this point however. and a lower angle of bank. Analysis of Turn Factors. If we were flying a helicopter that would be the best possible strategy.1 3030.6 479.0 30 0 42.7 157.7 2084.5 809.4 1545.4 226. or at a higher speed and a higher angle of bank? 22.8 515. Simply slowing down to the stall speed will not give us a turn unless we also bank.3 25. So. we can not slow below the stall speed.0 1010.7 100.3 748. we will have to fly at a higher speed if we use a large angle of bank.4 882.2 4806.8 247.0 9921. The stall speed of the airplane will increase as we increase the angle of bank. We will calculate the radius of turn at a variety of speeds ranging from zero to 200 knots and at angles of bank ranging from 10 degrees up to 80 degrees of bank.8 1063.9 2226. the radius of turn would be zero.2 382. Angle of Bank Velocity 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 10 0 202.4 20 0 61.7 70 0 6.8gs. Thus. d.7 1531.0 119.9 324.6 5061. the question is would it be better to do the turn at a slower speed.6 82. at which angle the g force will be 3.8 1569. However.2 3531. but the stress on the aircraft will become infinite at 90 degrees of bank.5 329.8 40 0 30. in an airplane.9 1078.4 2452. Thus. Thus.2 0 98.0 60 0 13. (See the equation to confirm this.8 636.6 308.

2 1669.RESTRICTED 160 180 200 12958 16400 20247 6277.9 629. This line will be different for every airplane of course.5 The graph below shows the data from the table above plotted.6 1052. Note that the stall speed increases with angle of bank. Nevertheless we can see from the graph that the minimum radius of turn.3 2426.0 3446. In the graph above the red lines represent the radius of turn for any airplane. Maneuvering Speed.2 9808. Keep in mind that the radius of turn equation is universal.5 5008. slowly at first. The blue line in the graph is for an airplane with a stall speed of 60 knots in straight and level flight.4 402. then quite rapidly beyond 45 degrees of bank.3 4254..8 6183. at 10.80 degrees of bank..20. therefore this graph is valid for any airplane. c. represented by the intersection of the blue and red lines.7 1917. 19 RESTRICTED . improves with increasing angle of bank.5 1299.5 2995.9 3957. b. from a C-150 to a Boeing 747.7 7945. 23.9 509.2 831.7 2723. a.7 1319.6 2061.

RESTRICTED d. a. e. passenger and aircraft. Recommended angle of bank for Maneuvering. It is the speed at which the airplane is most manoeuvrable. by definition." It was in fact the military which designated the term manoeuvring speed. we can conclude that the minimum radius of turn will occur at the angle of bank which produces the maximum load factor the airplane is designed for. in civilian flying. b. with the airplane operating at 3. By extending the flaps the stall speed is reduced.4gs. Therefore. 20 RESTRICTED . It should now be obvious why Va is known as the Manoeuvring speed. Most airplanes are equipped with flaps. which shifts the blue line in the graph to the left and down. especially in the sense of "dog fighting. 25. b. Looking once again at the graph above we can see that the radius of turn is greatly diminished by increasing the angle of bank from zero to 45 degrees. By limiting the angle of bank to 45 degrees the g forces are reduced to 1. This is much more comfortable for pilot. However.8gs and at the maneuvering speed. very little more is gained by increasing the angle of bank beyond 45 degrees. 24. we recall from the previous section that this is the Manoeuvring speed. Although the theoretical minimum radius of turn occurs at approximately 75 degrees of bank. Use of flaps when turning. this is not a very practical method of manoeuvring. However.

a. Longitudinal stability is created solely by the airfoil. In fact there is only one Coefficient of Lift. can be chosen to guarantee stability. 21 RESTRICTED . Based on our observations in this Module we now know just how true this statement is. the moment coefficient cm is of importance for the behaviour of an airplane . c. The position of the c. and therefore one angle of attack for any speed in straight and level flight. Airplane Types and Moment Coefficient. a tailless plane obviously can't. b. if the pilot has chosen to limit the bank angle to 45 degrees the use of flaps is recommended 26. Wing without sweep (plank) . However. Swept wing. For best allround performance. A plank requires an airfoil with a positive moment coefficient.RESTRICTED c.g. Wing with a low position of the center of gravity (parafoil) . airfoils with low moment coefficients (around zero) are better suited although. While a conventional airplane can compensate the moment of the wing with its horizontal tail. It is possible to use any airfoil. This means that the maximum bank angle is reduced to 60 degrees. The requirements for the moment coefficient of the airfoil is a direct result of the stabilizing mechanism. It is possible to divide tailless airplanes in three groups. Besides lift and drag coefficients. They need smaller amounts of twist. which results in a broader speed range without paying too much penalties off the design point. Pitch controls Airspeed. The moment coefficient is less important and it is possible to use traditional airfoils with negative moment coefficients. 27. but usually airfoils with medium moment coefficients are chosen to achieve higher penetration speeds and a wider speed range. In the graph above the red line represents the stall speed with flaps extended.it has a big impact on the longitudinal stability. depending on how they achieve longitudinal stability. because longitudinal stability can always be achieved by selecting a suitable combination of sweep and twist. Pilots must remember that most airplanes are limited to 2 gs with the flaps extended however.

which makes the momentum derivative dCm/dAlfa (rel. Its location has a small influence on the lift vs. is located too far ahead of the neutral point and the moments of inertia around a spanwise axis are small (as with an unswept flying wing). it will not stabilize itself after a disturbance. there is still one parameter left to compensate for the destabilizing effect of increased camber .it is the location of the maximum camber.) must be located in front of the neutral point.) negative. To achieve dynamic stability oscillations must be damped out. Location of Camber and Moment Coefficient. the angle of attack for a family of airfoils is shown. 22 RESTRICTED . which can be difficult. but a strong impact on the moment coefficient.e. drag polar. the center of gravity (c.RESTRICTED Classes of tailless airplanes and their typical moment coefficients. a. the moment coefficient vs. These requirements lead to the moment coefficients presented above.g. c. Placing the c. The airfoils differ in the location of the maximum camber xc/c. when the c. Luckily.g. in the neutral point results in dCm/dAlfa = 0.g. Remark: To achieve static longitudinal stability. i. Below. making the plane indifferent.g. 28.

Reflex and Moment Coefficient. we find. As we can see. b. We already know. The figure below shows how cm can be controlled: starting from a symmetrical airfoil.the moment coefficient follows the deflection. also shifts the moment coefficient down towards negative values. it is possible to adjust the shape near the trailing edge to achieve nearly any desired Cm. a. a flap is deflected smoothly upwards by 5° and 10° . if we want to compensate the lift loss (introduced by the reflexed camber line) by an increased amount of camber 29. moving the location of the maximum camber backwards. 23 RESTRICTED .RESTRICTED Influence of the location of the camber (xc/c) on the moment coefficient. that the moment coefficient Cm and the shape of the camber line are closely connected. that the shape of the rear part of the camber line has a big influence on Cm. Thus it might be advisable. to concentrate the camber in the first quarter of the chord length. In fact. If we examine airfoils with a reflexed camber line more closely.

vs. The shape and location of the lift and drag polar of the airfoil is the key to airplane performance. 24 RESTRICTED . when the camber line Gets reflexed. Using this trick. b. a high penetration speed and a good L/D ratio . a.RESTRICTED The plot of moment coefficient how cm depends on the amount of reflex. We simply bend the railing edge upward until we achieve the moment coefficient necessary to stabilize our tailless plane. 30. c. how the cd-cl polar changes. drag coefficients for different amounts of reflex. But we probably prefer an airplane. Lift vs. The images below show. Reflex and Lift & Drag. the problem seems to be solved.that's where all the trouble begins. which not only flies safe and stable. but also performs with a low sink speed. angle of attack shows.

Indeed. introduced by the behavior of the boundary layer. which is not exactly our aim. . We have not yet talked about the additional problems. Now we have a problem: while we add reflex to the camber line. we shift the lift vs. this increases the lift. high lift airfoil. . that we actually reduce the lift at a certain angle of attack and. what's even worse. Of course the aerodynamicist already knows a remedy against low lift: he increases the amount of the maximum camber.puts more stress on the boundary layer near the leading edge (suction peaks).puts more stress on the boundary layer (more pressure drop towards the trailing edge). linked closely together. The Figure above and the enumeration below show the most important parameters and how they are linked together. cd shifts towards positive cl values). + cl-max may be increased. Dangers everywhere. . that several parameters. A reduced maximum lift coefficient leads to higher stall and landing speeds. in order to shift the moment coefficient towards the positive values. we also reduce the maximum lift coefficient. 25 RESTRICTED . drag polar down. Increasing the amount of reflex + more stable moment coefficient (more positive). Problems facing the designer of an airfoil for tailless airplanes. 31.RESTRICTED b. Increasing the amount of camber + better lift (cl vs. have an influence on the design of a low moment. This means.less stable moment coefficient (more negative). but also reduces the positive moment coefficient. • • • Moving the maximum camber towards the leading edge + more stable moment coefficient (more positive). We have already learned.

cl-max decreases. four and finally five degrees nose up from 100 knot cruise.000' what is the density of the air? What is the Density ratio? j.1 d.000' at 250 KTAS. density altitude of 25. Can you prove the units are equal on both sides of the equation? b.less lift (cl vs. How does this compare to the rule of thumb you use? f. Does it make any difference if we are talking about IAS vs TAS? What effect will different altitudes have on your answers? i. ssume that a change of AOA of one degree produces a change in Coefficient of lift of . e. 33. Write the lift equation. a. me a particular airplane is known to be most efficient when operated at a Coefficient of Lift of . ume the following data to be reasonably valid for a C-172. . ou are designing a new airplane which you estimate will weigh 5000 lb. Define Load Factor 26 RESTRICTED . If the pilot wished to continue to operate at the optimum Coefficient of Lift. 1 Based on this relationship calculate how much the airplane must slow down if the nose is raised one degree in straight and level flight. The chosen wing will be most efficient operating at a Coefficient of Lift of . What size wing should the airplane have? c. alculate the Coefficient of Lift for cruise at 100 KTAS (169 fps) at sea level. S= 174 square feet .RESTRICTED . 32. Assume the slope of the Coefficient of Lift vs Angle of attack curve is . Problems to test knowledge. W=2400 lb .4. what other elements in the Lift equation can he adjust? Consider the pros and cons of each choice. cd shifts towards negative cl values). Is the relationship between pitch change and airspeed linear? g. as fuel is consumed the aircraft will become lighter. Based on your answer in 3 state a rule of thumb relating changes in pitch to changes in Airspeed.6 Over the course of a flight. Other Sample Questions. a. You believe the aircraft should cruise at 10. h. Repeat the calculations from question 2 for further pitch changes to two then three.

You are flying a supersonic transport aircraft. c. cruising at mach 3. You are flying a light aircraft.RESTRICTED b. By law. What is your radius of turn? (Hint: the equation requires velocity in units of fps. What will your radius of turn be? How long will it take to make the turn? 27 RESTRICTED . The stall speed you calculated above was more than 61 knots. for passenger comfort. the stall speed of a single engine aircraft must be 61 KEAS or less. How much do you need to increase the wing area by in order to reduce the stall speed to 61 KEAS? e. Calculate the Load Factor in a 60 degree bank turn. You are designing a new airplane which you propose to have the following characteristics: Weight Wing Area CLMax 3000 lb 100 ft2 1. What is the maneuvering speed of this airplane. You need to perform a 180 degree turn to go back to base following an emergency route.) g.) d. performing a turn at 30 degrees of bank and 80 KTAS. (Hint: the formula gives the stall speed in units of fps. Your company policy is to limit the turn to 25 degrees of bank. An airplane has a stall speed of 51 KEAS. in the normal category? f.8 Calculate the expected stall speed for your aircraft in KEAS.

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