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NIRANI CEMENT PVT LTD

A
Project Report On Organisational Study At

NIRANI CEMENTS PVT LTD MODHOL
Submitted By Kiran D. Bhat B.B.A. III Semester No.06205026 To Karnatak University, Dharwad, as a partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Bachelor Degree in Business Administration.

Karnatak Law Society’s

Gogte College of Commerce
B.B.A Section Belgaum -590006 2007-2008
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NIRANI CEMENT PVT LTD

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It is my privilege to extend words of thanks to the people who have helped and encouraged me in completing this project successfully. First and foremost, I would like to express my sincere gratitude and profound thanks to our beloved principal Dr. A.B. Kalkundrikar and H.O.D. Prof A.V. Patil, for his encouragement and also for having instilled in me the much needed confidence. My thanks also to Prof. A.V. Patil (Internal Guide) for his constant guidance and support in preparing this project report. I also thank, Mr. Sangamesh Nirani, the Managing Director of Nirani Cement Pvt Ltd, for having granted me permission to undertake my In-plant training and also guiding me during my project work. I owe a debt of gratitude to my parents who are the silent guides in my life without whose never ending support anything would have been possible. Last but not least, I would like to take this opportunity to thank all my friends and well wishers who have directly or indirectly helped me in undertaking this project Kiran D. Bhat
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DECLARATION
I Kiran D. Bhat, of Gogte College of Commerce, B.B.A. III Semester, hereby declare that this project is genuine and original work of study prepared by me. It is based on the data and information collected by me. To the best of my knowledge and belief, the matter presented in this report has not been copied from any report submitted to the Karnatak University, Dharwad, to get the award of B.B.A. or any other courses offered by Karnatak University, Dharwad, or any other University

Signature: (Kiran D. Bhat)

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The Project is a requirement as a part of curriculum of B.B.A Degree Course, The project is undertaken at Nirani Cement Pvt Ltd, Mudhol, Dist Bagalkot. The Cement Factory Industry is one of the largest growing industry in India. The Project is related to the Organsiational Study of the Factory. The main objective of this project is to know the workings of various departments and to study about the production process and other factors related to the factory.

METHODOLOGY
The data has been collected from the below two sources: 1. Primary Data: The data has been collected by personally interacting and conversing with the concerned persons working in various departments and personal talkings with the department heads.
2. Secondary Data: The data hs been collected with reference to the

procedural manuals of the firms, and related documents being made available by Managing Director of the firm, and other members of the company.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

To know the basic idea of Cement Manufacturing Process.

• To Study Working of Various Department in the Factory. • To know the Training Programs given by the trainers to the workers of the company regarding process.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
• The Study was restricted to only one company/firm. • The time provided was only 30 days.
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• The Materials collected are based only on the information provided by the company.

TABLE OF CONTENT SL.NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 PARTICULARS Introduction Unit at a Glance Location of the Plant Objectives of the Enterprise Government Policy Utilities Environment & Social Impact of Cement Study of Various Department Conclusion

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INTRODUCTION

Nirani cement private Ltd. Promoted by Mr.Murgesh R Nirani is primarily setup to venture into cement manufacturing for use in rural and urban residential and industrial building act. The promoter Mr. Murugesh R Nirani has wide experience in running successfully a sugar industry and has now ventured into the cement industry. The plant established by M/S shri Vasupujya cement and allied chemicals Pvt.Ltd .at Ningapura industrial estate in Mudhol taluk never commenced production though most of the machinery were purchased and erected. The plant had been setup in 1994-95 but did not commence production. Recently the KSIIDC who are the main lending institution took over the unit in full and sold same. M/s. L. D. marketing of lchalakaranji in Maharashtra purchased the entire assets on as is where condition. M/s L.D. marketing now propose to run the cement plant under the name of Nirani cement Pvt, Ltd. This is one unit among the several mini cement plants which have come up in Karnataka state in recent years. The technology of manufacturing Portland cement adopted in this unit is known as vertical Shaft Kiln (VSK) technology. The plant set up id having a capacity of 120 TPD. The plant is based on M/s. Mover design and also with mover core equipments, which are one best for this type of plant. Unfortunately they became sick for the reasons best known

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to previous management and were lying stand-still, getting rusted for more than 8 years. This plant after incorporating modification in the kilns and grinding mills is expected to give an output of 200 TDP against its original capacity of 120 TDP that too with very high quality of cement, which will enable the management to market the product at a premium comfortably. Product of mini cement units not being at par with that of large plant has been one of the major reason for the failure of mini VSK plant as the quality , though meeting BIS standards did not match the levels of the large plant and getting poor price for their bags of

cement .

M/s Movers (India) Pvt, Ltd. in all these lean years

of depressed cement scenario have done lots of research and analysis on this subject and have succeeded in making the cement plant up to date technically by introducing electronic feeder in grinding mills, close circuiting of RAW and cement mills with classifier and introduction of conical grate in VSKS for producing high quality of cement clinker and cement very economically saving fuel and electrical energy. The main raw material limestone is abundantly available in and around the taluk, especially in Lokapur, which is hardly 10 KM from the factory. The plant in its present condition is 75% completed but has been lying idle since about 8 years. The new management proposes to complete the plant and machinery required to commence the production and also adopt the improvements done in the field of cement with maximum efficiency.

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Present status of the factory

1

Land 39 acres and 5 guntas of land are available, which has been acquired through KIADB. At Ningapura industrial estate, Mudhol taluk of Bagalkot district.

2 3

Land development has been done by providing fencing on periphery, bore wells, internal roads. Building and civil works : main building for house the vertical shaft kiln cement machinery , crushing section , raw mill section , kiln section , clinker section , raw material storage , godowns , silos , and auxiliary building like administrative blocks , laboratory, canteen, time and security office , work shop etc have been built.

4

Plant and machinery. The plant and machinery were obtained from M/s movers India ltd till the year 1992 and partly erected. Most of the machinery for manufacture of cement has been erected except for the following major items :

a) Parts of machinery in the cement mill section. b) Packing section machinery. c) Mechanical classifier system in mills, conical grates in kiln. d) Clinker handing conveyor.
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Electrical power and diesel generating sets. The present management has taken over the entire assets from KSIIDC

who were the prime lender to the previous management towards the term loan. The entire consideration has been fully paid and possession of the entire assets has been taken over by The management. The management has taken the help experts in the technical field to identify and specify all the required parts, and machinery complete to make the plant capable of manufacturing the Portland cement of desired quality with maximum efficiency. Also the standard manufacturers of such parts and machinery have been identified and the suitable enquiries for supply have been sent to them with a request to send their best offer.

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UNIT AT A GLANCE
Name of the company Address : Nirani Cement Private Ltd. : Ningapura Industrial Area. Mudhol DT, Bagalkot. Karnataka Constitution : Private limited company. Chairman& MD : shri Murugesh R Nirani (Industrialist) Date of Incorporation : 5 -8-2003 State : Bangalore, Karnataka. Size of the Industry : Mini cement plant. Promoter’s class : Industrialist, Local. Product manufactured : Portland cement. Installed capacity : 120 tons per day. Up gradation to capacity : 200 tons per day. Main raw material : Lime stone, Gypsum, Clay, Coke, Breeze etc. End use of the finished goods: Building and other civil constructions. Power requirement : 1250Kva. Water requirement : 1.0 Lakh liters per day. Man power requirement : 117. Land available : 39 Acres. Project Cost
a) Take over from KSIDC b) Cost of land development c) Cost of additional machinery d) Additional civil works

Rs. Lakhs : : : : 75.00 10.00 175.93 30.08

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NIRANI CEMENT PVT LTD e) Contingency f) Deposit with KPTCL+KVA charge g) Working capital margin h) Pre-operative expenses i) Miscellaneous assists

: : : : : : : : :

20.00 51.00 32.83 30.00 93.87 518.71 207.48 311.23 518.71

Total cost of project Means of finance a) Promoters contribution
b) Term loan from F Is

Total

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LOCATION OF THE PLANT WHY IN MUDHOL?
The Bagalkot district has a need for enormous quantity of cement for constriction activity. The Alamatti dam in the district has caused large- scale submergence of the Bagalkot city and neighboring villages. Government of Karnataka has provided alternative sites for reconstruction of the city and the displaced villagers. Though the reconstruction activity did not take off in big way, the recent submergence of large residential area of the city has necessitated alternative residential and city building for the Bagalkot town dweller. Construction activity has been accelerated in recent time. The emergence of banking sector in big way for lending housing loan at cheaper interest rates has also encouraged the citizens to construct houses. Thu there is need for lot of cement in the district. The government of India is also after development of high grade road net work thought the length and breadth of the country and hence would need huge quantity of cement. The neighboring area of factory has abundant limestone especially in Lokapur area. The factory can get adequate quantity of raw material at relatively cheaper cost. The earlier promoters namely shri

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Vasupujya cement and allied chemical Ltd could not commence production due to poor management of the project and inadequate financial resource. The local residents were looking forward to some direct and indirect employment, which did not happen since 1990. The present management being local residents and experience in running sugar factory professionally has felt the need to provide some employment and also supply cement to local area at reasonable price, and making good profit. The availability of all the assets of a cement plant at a good price also was an attraction to take over and operate the plant with lower capital cost. Hence considering the aspects stated above there is an urgent need to commence production of cement after making the plant ready at Mudhol. The production and sale of cement would bring in good profit to the company.

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OBJECTIVES OF THE ENTERPRISE
Objectives:

1. To grow along with is Customers by being a limited quality vendor for domestic and global companies. 2. To Achieve and sustain reputation in quality in national and international market. 3. Provide quality services to customers. 4. To develop and improve the process or product 5. To create a cordial relation & atmosphere within and outside the organization. 6. To maintain mutual/beneficial relationship with dealers, sub contractors, outside people i.e. business associates etc. 7. To conduct business in socially responsible. 8. To trainee, to motivate and involve employers to form a team where LVT treats each other with trust and respect.

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GOVERNMENT POLICY
Government of India has come up with certain policy guidelines to encourage setting up of mini cement plants in remote and inaccessible area having scattered deposits of lime stone suitable for manufacturing Portland cement. As the availability is scattered it is not suitable for setting up large scale cement plant. To exploit the potentials of such scattered deposits of lime stone the government has given importance to setting up of mini cement plant by smaller entrepreneurs. Accordingly the licenses for mini cement plants have been issued in various parts of the country. The statutory permission and sanction necessary for the unit for the unit are listed below; 1 2 3 4 5 Industrial entrepreneur’s memorandum. Land conversion to non agriculture or acquisition thro the KIADB. Consent for establishment from Karnataka state pollution control board. Clearance from department of environment and ecology. Permission from Irrigation department for water drawl from river.

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6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Approval from local authority for setting up permanent structures. Factory inspectorate’s approval of constriction drawings. Factory license. Approval from electrical inspectorate. KPTCL permission for supply of power. Explosive license. Labor commissioners’ permission to employ. Sales tax registration. Excise department registration. Income tax –PANS and TAN. Approvals from department of industries and commerce. Approval of the plant equipments and laboratory facilities from NCCBMCRI.

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Approval of Bureau of Indian standard for plant equipments, testing facilities etc… and grant of license to manufacture and ISI mark on the

product.

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UTILITIES
Cement manufacturing machinery need water and power. The estimated power requirement is based on 105 kWh per Tone of cement produced. It is estimated that the power requirement will have to be met through a source having capacity of 1250 KVA of KPTCL Power. The management proposes to get the KPTCL connection from the nearest substation drawing power of 1250 KVA at 33. KV voltage. The management also proposes to install diesel generators having capacity of 1250 KVA and 750 KVA generations at 415 Volts, 3 ph, 50 Hz. Water is required mainly for noduilization in kiln section, machine cooling and for sanitation, drinking purposes only. The equipment of water is estimated at 1, 00,000 Liters per day. The requirement will be met from the existing bore well and proposed bore well.

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ENVIRONMENTAL & SOCIAL IMPACTS OF CEMENT
Cement manufacture causes environmental impacts at all stages of the process. These include emissions of airborne pollution in the form of dust, gases, noise and vibration when operating machinery and during blasting in quarries, and damage to countryside from quarrying. Equipment to reduce dust emissions during quarrying and manufacture of cement is widely used, and equipment to trap and separate exhaust gases are coming into increased use. Environmental protection also includes the re-integration of quarries into the countryside after they have been closed down by returning them to nature or re-cultivating them. Climate Cement manufacture contributes greenhouse gases both directly through the production of carbon dioxide when calcium carbonate is heated, producing lime and carbon dioxide [1], and also indirectly through the use of energy, particularly if the energy is sourced from fossil fuels. The cement industry produces 5% of global man-made CO2 emissions, of which 50% is from the chemical process, and 40% from burning fuel. Fuels & raw materials

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A cement plant consumes 3,000 to 6,500 MJ of fuel per tonne of clinker produced, depending on the raw materials and the process used. Most cement kilns today use coal and petroleum coke as primary fuels, and to a lesser extent natural gas and fuel oil. Selected waste and by-products with recoverable calorific value can be used as fuels in a cement kiln, replacing a portion of conventional fossil fuels, like coal, if they meet strict specifications. Selected waste and by-products containing useful minerals such as calcium, silica, alumina, and iron can be used as raw materials in the kiln, replacing raw materials such as clay, shale, and limestone. Because some materials have both useful mineral content and recoverable calorific value, the distinction between alternative fuels and raw materials is not always clear. For example, sewage sludge has a low but significant calorific value, and burns to give ash containing minerals useful in the clinker matrix. Local impacts Producing cement has significant positive and negative impacts at a local level. On the positive side, the cement industry may create employment and business opportunities for local people, particularly in remote locations in developing countries where there are few other opportunities for economic development. Negative impacts include disturbance to the landscape, dust and noise, and disruption to local biodiversity from quarrying limestone (the raw material for cement).

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ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
CHAIRMAN
MANAGING DIRECTOR

Productio n Manager

Personnel & Administration Department

Assistant production Manager

H.R.D. Dept

Dispatch Dept

A/c’s Dept

Security Dept

Quality Control

Shift In charge

Lab In charge

Mixing Supervisor

Senior Packing Supervisor

Lab Chemis t

Operators

Packing Supervisor

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Workers

Operators

Workers

DEPARTMENTS 1. Finance Section 2. Procurement Section 3. Store Section 4. H.R. Section 5. Quality Control Section 6. Marketing Section 7. Pollution Control Section 8. Production Process Explanation is being given in below page:

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1. FINANCE & ACCOUNTS SECTION
Finance is the life blood of every business. The objectives of accounts department is to record every transaction taken place in the organization. Shri. Murugesh R nirani looks after the finance he is concerned with the planning and controlling of financial resources, investment Decision, Capital Budgeting Decision and Working Capital of Management, Major Decision are Taken Discussing To-Gather with Murugesh R Nirani Chairman & Managing Director & All the Directors. Deepak (Director) looks after the accounts department of works & employees regarding their salary, wages, incentives etc. The tax matters are handled by one account assistant; the other general accounts are maintained by another invoices purchase through bills, Cheques etc. They also prepare the statement of accounts of the Business & Information about monthly profitably Statement, Stock Statement etc & submit the same to the Managing Director.
BOOKS:

The accounts department maintains the cash book, ledger, and purchase register Sales registers, Stock transfer Note (STN) Register, Sales Day Books etc.
BANKERS:

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KSFC & commercial banks are the main financers of this industry they are financed by ksfc which gives them tan redemption & subsidies.
TAXES:

Sales tax and excise duty are paid by nirani Company .The taxes paid by nirani are only entry tax on miscellaneous spare parts of machinery and petroleum products. (LDO)

ACCOUNTS AND FINANCE SECTION
Chairman and Managing Director

Director

Accounts Assistants

Accounts Executive

Accounts Executive

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THE RAW MATERIAL AVAILABILITY
The raw material required for manufacture of Portland cement is listed below. 1 Lime stone. 2 Clay. 3 Gypsum. 4 Coke breeze. 5 Additives. 1.28MT/MT of cement 0.165MT/MT 0.05MT/MT 0.22MT/MT 0.01MT/MT

Around Lokapur, Mudhol, gokak, and Bagalkot there are large deposits of lime stone well scatted. The deposits occur in different blocks around the plant within a radius of about 50 KM. the lime stone required by the plant for manufactured Portland cement should have about 48-51% lime (Cao) in the ores. From the assessment of the lime stone deposits by the department of mines and geology, the availability of good quality of lime stone is adequate for 100 years for all existing cement units operating in the area. Lime stones occur on surface of ground as low-lying hillocks in the area. Hence it is proposed to carry out open mining, manually. Deposits of lime stone nearest to the plant will be mined in the beginning to reduce on transport cost. The management proposes to initially buy from MMTC and private suppliers. Later the factory will take on lease from Govt.of Karnataka 200 acres of lime stone mines for mining. Mining can be done manually, with the help of
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jackhammers, or by blasting. Initially only manual mining supply is envisaged. The plant requires high plasticity clay having 50-55%, Sio2 and Al2o3. The required quality of clay is available in the nearby area under tanks. The required quantity will be produced from outside suppliers. The Gypsum is required to regulate setting behavior of cement should have above 60% purity. Gypsum has to be produced from outside the area.

Trichy in Tamilnadu state is one of the major sources of Gypsum.
Apart from the above- mentioned raw material for the manufacturing of Portland cement clinkers low volatile, low or medium ash coal, pat coke or coke breeze as fuel are required when the VSK technology is adopted. The coke breeze has a low volatile matter and research is on for alternative bio mass fuel like rice, husk etc. however the coke breeze is available from the steel plants coke oven batteries. The management proposes to procure coke breeze from the steel plant source thro suitable contractors. Other additives required are mild dosing of iron ore dust (blue dust), mill scale for Iron correction and Bauxite fines for Alumina correction in raw mix is available plenty in the near-by area and can be procured.

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PROCUREMENT SECTION
Director
(Materials Production and Stores)

Production Manager

Material procurement in charge

Labour

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STORE SECTION
The cement produced is normally stored in cement silos of adequate capacity. The packing section will pack the silo cement in 50 kg polythene bags for dispatch. Some quantity of the bagged cement is also stored in the packing section. The packing section will have a building with proper masonry side walls and a leak proof RCC roofing.

STORE SECTION
Director

Production Manager

Stores In charge

Labour

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MAN POWER REQUIREMENT
The management proposed to employ about 103 persons in various posts. This would include managerial, administrative, skilled and semiskilled operators, unskilled workers. The managing directors appointed by the board will have overall authority and responsibility to look after the day to day affairs of the company. This would include administrative, personnel, financial and production activities. The proposed list of employees is given below. Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Designation General manager Plant engineer Production manager Electrical engineer Stores officer Accounts officer Chemists Clerks Crusher operator Raw material bunker attainder Raw mill operator Feeder attainder Blender VSK burner operator VSK nebulizer operator Raw meal clinker yard attainder
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Managerial 2 4 1 2 1 3 4 4

Worker

Total 2 4 1 2 1 3 4 4 3 2 3 3 3 9 9 3

3 2 3 3 3 9 9 3

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17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32.

Cement mill operator Feeder attainder Lab gauger Sample boys Helpers Sr. Fitter Fitter/welder Helpers Water attainder Sr. electrician Electrician /DG operator Helpers Material handling labor Packing and loading labor Housekeeping / gardeners Security guards Total Grant total no of employees

3 3 1 3 4 1 4 4 1 1 4 4 5 8 10 5 96

3 3 1 3 4 1 4 4 1 1 4 4 5 8 10 5 117 117

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QUALITY CONTROL SECTION
The quality control department as the name is itself suggests control of checks

the quality is maintained. This department has a crucial role to play during the production, process & after the production process.
Objectives of this department

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1) To ensure that the quality of the products is maintained as per the standards fixed by the Parle Company.

2) Consumers are satisfied and there should not be any complaints about the products

3) To ensure that the raw materials used for the production process all up to the standards.

The quality of the ingredients before using is checked randomly. If any defects is found whole lot is rejected. The qualities of biscuits are also checked randomly during production process, and before packing and also after packing & during dispatching. If there is any defect the batch is rejected. The lat chemist lists the quality of materials. There are also 2 officers appointed by Nirani Company at Nirani to look after the quality.

QUALITY CONTROL SECTION

Director

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Production Manager

Production In charge

Lab In charge

Lab Chemist

MARKETING & SELLING ARRANGEMENENT
Cement is an essential commodity in construction and is considered as one of the core items in the development and progress of the nation. There are more than 50 big and over 100 mini/small cement industries in the country manufacturing about 100 million tons of cement per annum. In spite of the fact that a number of new cement plants, both in the large and mini sectors has been installed in the recent past the supply of the cement has generally been less than the demand. The demand for Cement in the country is
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expected to go up from 100 million tons; consequent upon cement is expected to grow continuously. Even with the proposed new capacities built up during the next few years there will be a sufficient gap between demand and supply and the shortage of Cement is expected to continue for some more time. This is mainly on the account of the slow pace in the growth of the Cement industries and low-level utilization of installed capacities experienced in previous years. Hence, there is a good scope for new Industries. At present there are five large and few mini Cement plants operating in the state with a total installed capacity of 75 Lakh Tones; some of the existing plants have been granted permission for expansion. This would create an additional capacity of 110 Lakh tones. The demand in Karnataka is estimated to be around 150 Lakh tones. Apart from this there will be demand from Industries, complexes, housing and other constructional works. Karnataka Govt. has undertaken several major irrigational and Hyde power project, which consume a major portion of total Cement produced in the State. Thus, a substantial market exists for the proposed mini cement plant.

Selling Arrangements:
The liberalization and financial institution competing to offer easy loan for house building with lowest interest rates the housing sector in rural as well as in urban areas have accelerated. Thus the demand for cement in smaller towns has multiplied. Apart from the rehabilitation townships township in Bagalkot area has necessitated large scale construction. Cement of sufficiently good quality with lower cost would definitely make way in the market.

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NCL will concentrate on selling its cement in the local markets. It will be able to sell its products within 100-150 Kams. Radius. As important, Commercial & industrial centers like Mudhol, Bagalkot, Gokak, Bijapur are near the Plant site. NCL will sell its cement directly to the Consumers. The company will appoint some dealers in large towns for effective Marketing. Cement is placed in 50 Kegs. Bags & kept ready for dispatch. Bulk quantities can be dispatched without any packing and on trailers, tractors and dumpers to save packing cost. From the factory, Cement is transported to different destinations by the consumers own arrangements or through public transport.

POLLUTION CONTROL:
The company will meet the standards of discharge and emissions as per the Water (Prevention and control of pollution) act 1974 and section 21 of the Air (prevention and control of pollution) act, 1981. There will be no Water Pollution in this Cement Plant. The stipulated standards are proposed to be met by adopting the following for controlling the Air Pollution:GOGTE COLLEGE OF COMMERCE, BBA, BELGAUM 33

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1. Required size and heights of chimney as stipulated by the state pollution Control Board connecting each source of emission shall be provided. 2. Provide approached pollution control system for the various emission sources in the plant, so as to achieve the prescribed emission standards. The dust collected from various equipment shall be recycled in the process. The pollution control system shall be upgraded as and when new techniques are availed. 3. All raw – materials, intermediate and finished product storage areas shall be protected as to avoid wind induced fugitive emissions. 4. Continuous & uninterrupted supply shall be ensured to see that the pollution control systems function uninterruptedly. Separate energy meter shall be provided for the pollution control Systems, Power supply of bag filters and other pollution control systems shall be linked to process equipments, so as to ensure automatic stoppage of the plant when the control systems trip. 5. Effective operation and maintenance of the pollution control systems shall be ensured and a separate cell with qualified Engineers / Scientists shall be established. 6. Continuous stack emission monitoring shall be done for all major sources.
7. Environment audit report shall be submitted for the financial year ending

the 31st March in the prescribed Form to the state Pollution Control Board on or before the 31st day of September every year.

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8. All roads inside the factory and open areas shall be properly made and trees planted on either side of the road and in open areas. 9. Peripheral greenbelt by planting tall trees to arrest dust carry over shall be provided. 10.Workers shall be provided with masks and other safety equipments. 11.Cement factory shall submit environmental management plan to the State pollution Control board and Dept. Ecology & environment & obtain prior Consent and Environmental Clearance respectively. 12.For convenience, the standards stipulated by the Karnataka State Pollution Control Board for emissions under the air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, is given below.

Cement Plant capacity 200 Tones per day Total dust (All Section)
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Not to exceed Mg/Nm3 400*

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Greater than 200 Tons per day

Total dust (All Section)

250*

The Plant as per present practice shall provide Control measures capable to control emission within 150 mg/Nm3 as per the details of equipments installed section wise, level of effluents before and after treatment.

• The sections where major dust collection is involved are equipped with Automatically operated, Reverse pulse – jet type, non- woven polyclone Bag Dust collectors supplied by Lakh India. Other areas • The section wise details of the Pollution Control equipments with likely composition level of effluents before and after treatment is given hereunder.

1. Crusher Section a) b) c) d) Dust Burden expected Equipment for Dust control Installed Efficiency of System Dust burden at outlet _ _ 3-4 gems/ cum Cyclone and Fan 90% approximately 125-150 mgs/Nm3

2. Raw Mill Section 2a. I) Tunnel venting Dust Burden expected II) Equipment for Dust Control installed 1-2 gems/cum Fan with set of ducting

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III) Efficiency of system IV) Dust burden at outlet 2b. Raw Mill Main Circuit I)
II)

100% as full dust venting off in mill circuits Nil 500-600 gems/cum Twin Cyclone& Auto

Dust Burden expected Equipment for dust Controlled installed

Reverse-Pulse-jet Bag Dust Collector. III)
IV)

Efficient of the system Dust burden at outlet

99.0% 80-100 mg /NM3

2c. Raw Mill Storage Section i)
ii)

Dust Burden expected Equipment for dust control installed Efficiency of System Dust Burden at outlet

5-8 gm/cum Bag Dust Collector 90-95% 100-150 mg/NM3

iii)
iv)

3. Kiln Section i)
ii)

Dust Burden Expected Equipment for dust control installed

3-4 gems/CUM Large dia, Low

pressure + 30 M
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Ht stacks iii)
iv)

Efficiency of system Dust Burden at outlet

80-90% 100-150 mgs/NM*

4. Cement Mill Section a) Clinker Tunnel Venting
i) ii)

Dust Burden Expected Equipment for dust control installed

1-2 gems/cum Fan with set of ducting.

iii)

Efficiency of system mill circuit.

Almost 100% as full dust venting – off in

iv)

Dust Burden at outlet

NIL

b) Cement Mill Main Circuit i) ii) Dust Burden expected Equipment for dust control installed 50-60 gems/Cum Auto Reserve Pulse –jet Bag Dust collector iii) iv) Efficiency of the system Dust Burden at out let 99.0% 80-100 mgs/NW

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5. Cement Storage Silo i)
ii)

Dust Burden expected Equipment for dust control installed Efficiency of the system Dust Burden at outlet

5-8 gems/Cum Bag Dust Collector 90-95% 100-150 mgs/NM3

iii)
iv)

PRODUCTION PROCESS
A Plant Layout

The plant lay out has been planned with a view to adopt the VKS technology for manufacture of Portland cement. The present designed capacity of the plant is 120 TPD. It is now proposed to increase the capacity to 200 TPD for utilizing the inbuilt capacity of the plant and with addition of third kiln and modifications kilns mills. Necessary balancing equipment and additions required are proposed. The enclosed drawing (Annexure) shows the plant layout at the existing plant. B Machinery

The machinery as it exists at the plant is suitable for a capacity of 120 TPD expandable to 200 TPD. As the previous management had stopped further work in the plant, the plant and machinery erected are incomplete. The annexure gives the list of machinery already supplied and erected. The present management had approached the original plant to submit an offer for supply of balance equipment and also additional equipment required for balancing the
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plant to 200 TPD. Accordingly M/S Movers India Pvt. Ltd have submitted technical cum commercial offer. The annexure gives the list of machinery proposed to be added as missing items and also for balancing to 200 TDP. Based on the recommendations of expert technical consultants the management is also obtained offers for supply of plant and machinery for the project from other reputed manufacturers. Description of major machinery. The process of cement manufacture consists of the following, 1. Mining
2. Crushing the lime stone mined.

3. Storage of lime, gypsum, clay, coke breeze. 4. Mixing, Grinding and blending in raw mill section. 5. Calcinations in kiln. 6. Clinker 7. Grinding the clinker with gypsum in Cement Mill 8. Testing 9. Storage and packing 10.Dispatch • Mining is done in open mines either manually or by jackhammers or by blasting. The mined limestone is transported to the plant by tipper trucks and unloaded to the receiving bunkers.

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• The limestone is then crushed mechanically in the crushed to suitable size and transported with the help of belt conveyors to raw material storage section. • The limestone, coke breeze, clay and other are mixed, grounded & blended in proportion in the raw mill section. The raw mill is stored in the silos. • The raw meal is then transported to the kiln to be burnt at a temperature of about 1450 Deg. C. Here the vertical shaft kilns are adopted. The kiln yield cements clinkers. • The clinkers are stored in clinker yard in heap form and transported to cement grinding mills. Here the clinkers are ground with gypsum to required powdery size and sent to the cement from silos in to 50 Kg. Polythene bags.

HISTORY OF CEMENT
In the 18th century a big effort started in Europe to understand why some limes possess hydraulic properties. John Smeaton often referred to as "father of civil engineering in England" concentrated his work in this field. The French Engineer Louis Vacate, inspired by the work of Smeaton and Parker, began a study of hydraulic limes in 1812 (published in 1818 as "Recherché experimentalism sure les choux de construction". He reported that in the absence of naturally occurring argillaceous components in limestone, quality hydraulic limes could be prepared by the calcinations of fixed ratios of clay proportioned with quicklime.
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In 1818 an English patent was granted to Maurice Leger for "Improvement method of making lime" (Leger used Vicat's method). In 1822, the production of "British Cement" had been started by James Frost at Swanscombe based on a patent for "a new cement or artificial stone".

The invention of Portland cement is generally credited to Joseph Aspedin, an English Bricklayer in 1824. It involves a double kilning such as was described by Vacate.

In 1838 a young chemical engineer, Isaac Johnson, burned the cement raw material at high temperature until the mass was nearly vitrified producing the modern Portland cement.

The German Chemist Wilhelm Michaels proposed the establishment of cement standards in 1875. The earliest kiln is one of William Aspedin bottle kilns from Robins & Aspedin factory at North fleet. The earliest bottle or dome kilns were open kilns with tapered chimney to increase the draft. They were burned in a batch rather than in a continuous fashion and were charged with alternating layers of raw feed and solid fuel. The chamber kiln was an improved design developed and patented by Mr. Johnson. The combustion gases from the kiln dried the raw material so that
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when the kiln was burned out a new charge of dried material is immediately ready for use. The time and heat losses resulting from drawing the clinker, recharging the kiln, and then heating it again led to the design of shaft kiln with continuous burning of the materials, one of the main problem of the new kiln operation was the difficulty of obtaining an even clinker burning, as some of the product would be greatly under-burnt and others be much more heavily clinkered. In 1898 Atlas Portland cement company according to Lewis improved the design by using what is called a rotary kiln, this improvement was a big revolution in the cement industry because the new kiln could produce 200 cement barrels per day compared to a shaft kiln which produced only 40 to max 80 barrels per day; in addition to quick improvement in this new design regarding the mixing, grinding equipments for raw material, grinding equipments for coal, belt conveyor using mix kind of fuel such as natural gas (1904, Iola Portland cement, Iola Kansas). In practice, the operation with the first generation of rotary kiln (Ransoms kiln) was very difficult due to problem of maintaining a sufficient and uniform kiln temperature with excessive balling of raw feed and sticking on the Frederick lining. In 1899 Atlas Cement Company improved the technology of the rotary kiln and fuel economy by replacing fuel oil with powdered coal dust. Furthermore, modifications to the kiln were made by addition of two auxiliary clinker coolers, in which the first hot discharged clinker was received as it fell from

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the kiln and air flowing over it was heated and helped to ignite the coal dust in the rotary kiln. The new clinker produced from the new kiln technology was different than the old clinker especially from the setting time (much faster setting time). The French chemist Pierre Giron solved this problem by adding gypsum to the cement in order to control the setting time. After 1900 there was rapid growth in both rotary kiln and auxiliary equipment technology in the United States. Coal grinding mills were developed and coal burning in cement kilns became the predominant combustion process in the industry. All the equipments related to cement production crusher, raw mill, belt conveyors, bucked elevators were improved. Improvement in the following fields pertaining to cement manufacturing from material science technology has been an ongoing process for 200 years.

What is cement and how is it made?
Cement is a fine, soft, powdery-type substance. It is made from a mixture of elements that are found in natural materials such as limestone, clay, sand and/or shale. When cement is mixed with water, it can bind sand and gravel into a hard, solid mass called concrete.

PORTLAND CEMENT
Portland cement is the chief ingredient in cement paste - the binding agent in Portland cement concrete (PCC). It is a hydraulic cement that, when combined with water, hardens into a solid mass. Interspersed in an aggregate
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matrix it forms PCC. As a material, Portland cement has been used for well over 175 years and, from an empirical perspective, its behavior is wellunderstood. Chemically, however, Portland cement is a complex substance whose mechanisms and interactions have yet to be fully defined. ASTM C 125 and the Portland Cement Association (PCA) provide the following precise definitions: hydraulic cement An inorganic material or a mixture of inorganic materials that sets and develops strength by chemical reaction with water by formation of hydrates and is capable of doing so under ater.
.

Background
Although the use of cements (both hydraulic and non-hydraulic) goes back many thousands of years (to ancient Egyptian times at least), the first occurrence of "Portland cement" came about in the 19th century. In 1824, Joseph Aspedin, a Leeds mason took out a patent on a hydraulic cement that he coined "Portland" cement. He named the cement because it produced a concrete that resembled the color of the natural limestone quarried on the Isle of Portland, a peninsula in the English Channel. Since then, the name "Portland cement" has stuck and is written in all lower case because it is now recognized as a trade name for a type of material and not a specific reference to Portland, England.
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Today, Portland cement is the most widely used building material in the world with about 1.56 billion tones (1.72 billion tons) produced each year. Cement concrete hovers around 3.8 million cubic meters (5 billion cubic yards) per year. Rigid pavements are the largest single use of Portland cement and Portland cement concrete. This section covers the following topics: Portland cement manufacturing The chemical constituents and properties of Portland cement Types of Portland cements The physical properties of Portland cement ENVIRONMENTAL & SOCIAL IMPACTS OF CEMENT

Manufacturing
Although there are several variations of commercially manufactured Portland cement, they each share many of the same basic raw materials and chemical components. The chief chemical components of Portland cement are calcium, silica, alumina and iron. Calcium is derived from limestone, marl or chalk, while silica, alumina and iron come from the sands, clays and iron ore sources. Other raw materials may include shale, shells and industrial byproducts such as mill scale. The basic manufacturing process heats these materials in a kiln to about 1400 to 1600 C (2600 - 3000 F) - the temperature range in which the two materials interact chemically to form calcium silicates. This heated substance,
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called "clinker" is usually in the form of small gray-black pellets about 12.5 mm (0.5 inches) in diameter. Clinker is then cooled and pulverized into a fine powder that almost completely passes through a 0.075 mm (No. 200) sieve and fortified with a small amount of gypsum. The result is Portland cement.

Introduction for manufacturing cement.
Cement manufacturing consists of raw meal grinding, blending, pre- claiming, clinker burning and cement grinding. In short, limestone and other materials containing calcium, silicon, aluminium and iron oxides are crushed and milled
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into a raw meal. This raw meal is blended and then heated in the pre-heating system (cyclones) to start the dissociation of calcium carbonate to oxide. The meal goes further into the kiln for heating and reaction between calcium oxide and other elements to form calcium silicates and aluminates at a temperature up to 1450 co: so-called clinker burning. The cyclone system is attached to the
rotary kiln by a

riser duct. Secondary fuel is fed to the riser duct, the main fuel mixture,

coal/petcock, fires the kiln. Reaction products leave the kiln as a nodular Material called clinker. The clinker will be underground with gypsum and other materials to cement simplified flow sheet presenting the cement manufacturing process. Cement manufacturing from the quarrying of limestone to the bagging of cement.

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Kiln System Chemistry
The chemical reactions that occur in the kiln are illustrated in Figure. Reading the picture from the left-hand side the temperature is increased when going from the meal feed to the burning zone in the rotary kiln. The most important oxides that participate in the reactions are CaCO3, SiO 2, and
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Al2O3And Fe2O3. Up to about 700°C water is removed from the meal. In the reheating section (700- 900° C) calcinations as well as an initial combination of alumina, ferric oxide and silica with lime takes place according to the Figure. However, due to the short residence time in the pre- calciner section (i.e. several seconds), this initial reaction does not occur, but compounds such as spirited, 2(CaO) 2*SiO 2*CaCO3, and sulphate spirited 2(CaO)2*SiO 2*CaSO4 are formed. From 900°C to 1200° C belittle, C2S (= 2CaO*SiO 2), forms, partly from spirited decomposition. Above 1250°C a liquid phase appears and this promotes the reaction between belite and free lime to form alit, C3S (= 3CaO*SiO 2). During the cooling stage the molten phase forms C3A, tri calcium aluminates (= 3CaO* Al2O3) and if the cooling is slow alit may dissolve back into the liquid phase and appear as secondary belittle.

A schematic view of the clinker formation reactions.

Clearly, it is important that the combustion process and the composition of the meals fed to the kiln system is well understood. Usually the production of

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clinker is done in such a way that one type of clinker allows the plant operators to manufacture several well-defined types of cement that comply with the physical demands as specified in the cement standards. It does not show the effect of sculpture and alkali on the melt formation in the kiln, neither does it show the substitution reactions that will occur when alkali, sculpture or trace elements are interchanged with, for example, the elements Ca, Si or Al. Free lime is present as well as percales’ (MgO) and anhydrite (CaSO4). The formation of these phases will be taken into account in the Modeling work later. Iron containing silicates, which are formed during clinker production (such as C4AF, i.e. 4CaO*Al2O3*Fe2O3) are not included in the standard databases of the modeling software. Therefore a separate databank was created and used in the calculations, which contained C4AF, NAS6 (i.e. Na2O*Al2O3*6SiO 2) and KAS6 (i.e.K2O*Al2O3*6SiO2).

Chemical Properties
Portland cements can be characterized by their chemical composition although they rarely are for pavement applications. However, it is a Portland cement's chemical properties that determine its physical properties and how it cures. Therefore, a basic understanding of Portland cement chemistry can help one understand how and why it behaves as it does. This section briefly describes the basic chemical composition of a typical Portland cement and how it hydrates.
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Basic Composition
Table show the main chemical compound constituents of Portland cement. Table Main Constituents in a Typical Portland Cement ( Shorthand Notation C3S C2S C3A C4AF CSH2 Percent by Weight 50 25 12 8 3.5

Chemical Name Tricalcium Silicate Dicalcium Silicate Tricalcium Acuminate Tetra Gypsum calcium Aluminoferrite

Chemical Formula 3CaO SiO2 2CaO SiO2 3CaO Al2O3 4CaO Al2O3 Fe2O3 CaSO4 H2O

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Typical Oxide Composition of a General-Purpose Portland Cement

Hydration
When Portland cement is mixed with water its chemical compound constituents undergo a series of chemical reactions that cause it to harden (or set). These chemical reactions all involve the addition of water to the basic chemical compounds listed in Table 3.12. This chemical reaction with water is called "hydration". Each one of these reactions occurs at a different time and rate. Together, the results of these reactions determine how Portland cement hardens and gains strength.

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Tricalcium silicate (C3S). Hydrates and hardens rapidly and is largely responsible for initial set and early strength. Portland cements with higher percentages of C3S will exhibit higher early strength.

Dicalcium silicate (C2S). Hydrates and hardens slowly and is largely responsible for strength increases beyond one week.

Tricalcium acuminate (C3A). Hydrates and hardens the quickest. Liberates a large amount of heat almost immediately and contributes somewhat to early strength. Gypsum is added to Portland cement to retard C3A hydration. Without gypsum, C3A hydration would cause Portland cement to set almost immediately after adding water.

Tetra calcium Aluminoferrite (C4AF). Hydrates rapidly but contributes very little to strength. Its use allows lower kiln temperatures in Portland cement manufacturing. Most Portland cement color effects are due to C4AF.

Concrete is prepared by mixing cement, water, and aggregate together to make a workable paste. It is molded or placed as desired, consolidated, and then left to harden. Concrete does not need to dry out in order to harden as commonly thought. The concrete (or specifically, the cement in it) needs moisture to hydrate and cure (harden). When concrete dries, it actually stops getting stronger. Concrete with too little water may be dry but is not fully reacted. The properties of such a concrete would be less than that of a wet concrete. The reaction of water with the cement in concrete is extremely important to its properties and
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reactions may continue for many years. This very important reaction will be discussed in detail in this section. Portland cement consists of five major compounds and a few minor compounds. The composition of a typical Portland cement is listed by weight percentage in Table 2. Weight Percentage 50 % 25 % 10 %

Cement Compound Tricalcium silicate Dicalcium silicate Tricalcium aluminates Tetra calcium

Chemical Formula Ca3SiO5 or 3CaO.SiO2 Ca2SiO4 or 2CaO.SiO2 Ca3Al2O6 or 3CaO .Al2O3 Ca4Al2Fe2O10 or

10 % Aluminoferrite 4CaO.Al2O3.Fe2O3 Gypsum 5% CaSO4.2H2O Composition of Portland cement with chemical composition and weight percent. When water is added to cement, each of the compounds undergoes hydration

and contributes to the final concrete product. Only the calcium silicates contribute to strength. Tricalcium silicate is responsible for most of the early strength (first 7 days). Dicalcium silicate, which reacts more slowly, contributes only to the strength at later times. Tricalcium silicate will be discussed in the greatest detail. The equation for the hydration of Tricalcium silicate is given by: Tricalcium silicate + Water--->Calcium silicate hydrate Calcium hydroxide + heat
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2 Ca3SiO5 + 7 H2O ---> 3 CaO.2SiO2.4H2O + 3 Ca (OH)2 + 173.6kJ Upon the addition of water, Tricalcium silicate rapidly reacts to release calcium ions, hydroxide ions, and a large amount of heat. The pH quickly rises to over 12 because of the release of alkaline hydroxide (OH-) ions. This initial hydrolysis slows down quickly after it starts resulting in a decrease in heat evolved. The reaction slowly continues producing calcium and hydroxide ions until the system becomes saturated. Once this occurs, the calcium hydroxide starts to crystallize. Simultaneously, calcium silicate hydrate begins to form. Ions precipitate out of solution accelerating the reaction of Tricalcium silicate to calcium and hydroxide ions. (Le Charlie’s principle). The evolution of heat is then dramatically increased. The formation of the calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate hydrate crystals provide "seeds" upon which more calcium silicate hydrate can form. The calcium silicate hydrate crystals grow thicker making it more difficult for water molecules to reach the unhydrated Tricalcium silicate. The speed of the reaction is now controlled by the rate at which water molecules diffuse through the calcium silicate hydrate coating. This coating thickens over time causing the production of calcium silicate hydrate to become slower and slower.

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Schematic illustration of the pores in calcium silicate through different stages of hydration. The above diagrams represent the formation of pores as calcium silicate hydrate is formed. Note in diagram (a) that hydration has not yet occurred and the pores (empty spaces between grains) are filled with water. Diagram (b) represents the beginning of hydration. In diagram (c), the hydration continues. Although empty spaces still exist, they are filled with water and calcium hydroxide. Diagram (d) shows nearly hardened cement paste. Note that the majority of space is filled with calcium silicate hydrate. That which is not filled with the hardened hydrate is primarily calcium hydroxide solution. The hydration will continue as long as water is present and there are still unhydrated compounds in the cement paste. Dicalcium silicate also affects the strength of concrete through its hydration. Dicalcium silicate reacts with water in a similar manner compared to
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Tricalcium silicate, but much more slowly. The heat released is less than that by the hydration of Tricalcium silicate because the Dicalcium silicate is much less reactive. The products from the hydration of Dicalcium silicate are the same as those for Tricalcium silicate: Dicalcium silicate + Water--->Calcium silicate hydrate + Calcium hydroxide +heat 2 Ca2SiO4 + 5 H2O---> 3 CaO.2SiO2.4H2O + Ca(OH)2 + 58.6 kJ The other major components of Portland cement, Tricalcium aluminates and tetra calcium Aluminoferrite also react with water. Their hydration chemistry is more complicated as they involve reactions with the gypsum as well. Because these reactions do not contribute significantly to strength, they will be neglected in this discussion. Although we have treated the hydration of each cement compound independently, this is not completely accurate. The rate of hydration of a compound may be affected by varying the concentration of another. In general, the rates of hydration during the first few days ranked from fastest to slowest are: Tricalcium acuminate > Tricalcium silicate > tetra calcium Aluminoferrite > Dicalcium silicate. Refer to Demonstration 4 Heat is evolved with cement hydration. This is due to the breaking and making of chemical bonds during hydration. The heat generated is shown below as a function of time.
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Figure 4: Rate of heat evolution during the hydration of Portland cement The stage I hydrolysis of the cement compounds occurs rapidly with a temperature increase of several degrees. Stage II is known as the dormancy period. The evolution of heat slows dramatically in this stage. The dormancy period can last from one to three hours. During this period, the concrete is in a plastic state which allows the concrete to be transported and placed without any major difficulty. This is particularly important for the construction trade who must transport concrete to the job site. It is at the end of this stage that initial setting begins. In stages III and IV, the concrete starts to harden and the heat evolution increases due primarily to the hydration of Tricalcium silicate. Stage V is reached after 36 hours. The slow formation of hydrate products occurs and continues as long as water and unhydrated silicates are present.

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Types of Portland cement
Knowing the basic characteristics of Portland cement's constituent chemical compounds, it is possible to modify its properties by adjusting the amounts of each compound. In the U.S., AASHTO M 85 and ASTM C 150, Standard Specification for Portland Cement, recognize eight basic types of Portland cement concrete (see Table 3.13). There are also many other types of blended and proprietary cements that are not mentioned here. ASTM Types of Portland cement Type I IA Name Normal Normal-Air Entraining Moderate II Sulfate Resistance Moderate IIA Sulfate ResistanceAir Entraining III High Strength Early Used when high early strength is needed. It is has more C3S than Type I cement and has been ground finer to provide a higher surface-to-volume ratio,
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Purpose General-purpose cement suitable for most purposes. An air-entraining modification of Type I. Used as a precaution against moderate sulfate attack. It will usually generate less heat at a slower rate than Type I cement.

An air-entraining modification of Type II.

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both of which speed hydration. Strength gain is double that of Type I cement in the first 24 hours. High IIIA StrengthAir Entraining Used when hydration heat must be minimized in IV Low Heat of large volume applications such as gravity dams. Contains about half the C3S and C3A and double the C2S of Type I cement. Used as a precaution against severe sulfate action V High Sulfate principally where soils or groundwater’s have a high sulfate content. It gains strength at a slower rate than Type I cement. High sulfate resistance is attributable to low C3A content. Physical Properties Portland cements are commonly characterized by their physical properties for quality control purposes. Their physical properties can be used to classify and compare Portland cements. The challenge in physical property characterization is to develop physical tests that can satisfactorily characterize key parameters. This section, taken largely from the PCA (1988), describes the more common U.S. Portland cement physical tests. Specification values, where given, are taken from ASTM C 150, Standard Specification for Portland cement. Hydration Early An air-entraining modification of Type III.

Resistance

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Keep in mind that these tests are, in general, performed on "neat" cement pastes - that is, they only include Portland cement and water. Neat cement pastes are typically difficult to handle and test and thus they introduce more variability into the results. Cements may also perform differently when used in a "mortar" (cement + water + sand). Over time, mortar tests have been found to provide a better indication of cement quality and thus, tests on neat cement pastes are typically used only for research purposes. However, if the sand is not carefully specified in a mortar test, the results may not be transferable. Fineness Fineness, or particle size of Portland cement affects hydration rate and thus the rate of strength gain. The smaller the particle size, the greater the surface area-to-volume ratio, and thus, the more area available for water-cement interaction per unit volume. The effects of greater fineness on strength are generally seen during the first seven days (PCA, 1988). Fineness can be measured by several methods:
• •

Fineness of Portland cement by the turbid meter. Fineness of Hydraulic Cement by the 150- m (No. 100) and 75- m (No. 200) Sieves Fineness of Hydraulic Cement by Air Permeability Apparatus Fineness of Hydraulic Cement by the 45- m (No. 325) Sieve

• •

Soundness

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When referring to Portland cement, "soundness" refers to the ability of a hardened cement paste to retain its volume after setting without delayed destructive expansion (PCA, 1988). This destructive expansion is caused by excessive amounts of free lime (CaO) or magnesia (MgO). Most Portland cement specifications limit magnesia content and expansion. The typical expansion test places a small sample of cement paste into an autoclave (a high pressure steam vessel). The autoclave is slowly brought to 2.03 MPa (295 psi) then kept at that pressure for 3 hours. The autoclave is then slowly brought back to room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The change in specimen length due to its time in the autoclave is measured and reported as a percentage. cement types. The standard autoclave expansion test is: AASHTO T 107 and ASTM C 151: Autoclave Expansion of Portland cement ASTM C 150, Standard Specification for Portland Cement specifies a maximum autoclave expansion of 0.80 percent for all Portland

Setting Time
Cement paste setting time is affected by a number of items including: cement fineness, water-cement ratio, chemical content (especially gypsum content) and admixtures. Setting tests are used to characterize how a particular cement paste sets. For construction purposes, the initial set must not be too soon and the final set must not be too late. Additionally, setting times can give some

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indication of whether or not cement is undergoing normal hydration (PCA, 1988). Normally, two setting times are defined (Mindess and Young, 1981):
1. Initial set. Occurs when the paste begins to stiffen considerably. 2. Final set. Occurs when the cement has hardened to the point at which it

can sustain some load. These particular times are just arbitrary points used to characterize cement; they do not have any fundamental chemical significance. Both common setting time tests, the Vicat needle and the Gillmore needle, define initial set and final set based on the time at which a needle of particular size and weight either penetrates a cement paste sample to a given depth or fails to penetrate a cement paste sample. The Vicat needle test is more common and tends to give shorter times than the Gillmore needle test. Table 3.14 shows ASTM C 150 specified set times. ASTM C 150 Specified Set Times by Test Method Test Method Set Type Initial Vicat Final Initial Gillmore Final The standard setting time tests are:

Time Specification 45 minutes 375 minutes 60 minutes 600 minutes

AASHTO T 131 and ASTM C 191: Time of Setting of Hydraulic Cement by Vicat Needle

AASHTO T 154: Time of Setting of Hydraulic Cement by Gillmore Needles

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ASTM C 266: Time of Setting of Hydraulic-Cement Paste by Gillmore Needles

Strength
Cement paste strength is typically defined in three ways: compressive, tensile and flexural. These strengths can be affected by a number of items including: water-cement ratio, cement-fine aggregate ratio, type and grading of fine aggregate, manner of mixing and molding specimens, curing conditions, size and shape of specimen, moisture content at time of test, loading conditions and age (Mindess and Young, 1981). Since cement gains strength over time, the time at which strength test is to be conducted must be specified. Typically times are 1 day (for high early strength cement), 3 days, 7 days, 28 days and 90 days (for low heat of hydration cement). When considering cement paste strength tests, there are two items to consider:

Cement mortar strength is not directly related to concrete strength. Cement paste strength is typically used as a quality control measure.

Strength tests are done on cement mortars (cement + water + sand) and not on cement pastes.

The strength of concrete is very much dependent upon the hydration reaction just discussed. Water plays a critical role, particularly the amount used. The strength of concrete increases when less water is used to make concrete. The hydration reaction itself consumes a specific amount of water. Concrete is actually mixed with more water than is needed for the hydration reactions.
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This extra water is added to give concrete sufficient workability. Flowing concrete is desired to achieve proper filling and composition of the forms. The water not consumed in the hydration reaction will remain in the microstructure pore space. These pores make the concrete weaker due to the lack of strengthforming calcium silicate hydrate bonds. Some pores will remain no matter how well the concrete has been compacted.

Schematic drawings to demonstrate the relationship between the water/cement ratio and

porosity.
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The empty space (porosity) is determined by the water to cement ratio. The relationship between the water to cement ratio and strength is shown in the graph that follows.

A plot of concrete strength as a function of the water to cement ratio. Low water to cement ratio leads to high strength but low workability. High water to cement ratio leads to low strength, but good workability. The physical characteristics of aggregates are shape, texture, and size. These can indirectly affect strength because they affect the workability of the concrete. If the aggregate makes the concrete unworkable, the contractor is likely to add more water which will weaken the concrete by increasing the water to cement mass ratio.

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Time is also an important factor in determining concrete strength. Concrete hardens as time passes. Why? Remember the hydration reactions get slower and slower as the Tricalcium silicate hydrate forms. It takes a great deal of time (even years!) for all of the bonds to form which determine concrete's strength. It is common to use a 28-day test to determine the relative strength of concrete. Concrete's strength may also be affected by the addition of admixtures. Admixtures are substances other than the key ingredients or reinforcements which are added during the mixing process. Some admixtures add fluidity to concrete while requiring less water to be used. An example of an admixture which affects strength is super plasticizer. This makes concrete more workable or fluid without adding excess water. A list of some other admixtures and their functions is given below. Note that not all admixtures increase concrete strength. The selection and use of an admixture are based on the need of the concrete user.

SOME ADMIXTURES AND FUNCTIONS TYPE AIR ENTRAINING SUPERPLASTICIZERS FUNCTION improves durability, workability, reduces bleeding, reduces freezing/thawing problems (e.g. special detergents) increase strength by decreasing water needed for workable concrete (e.g. special
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polymers) Delays setting time, more long term RETARDING strength, offsets adverse high temp. weather (e.g. sugar ) speeds setting time, more early strength, ACCELERATING MINERAL ADMIXTURES PIGMENT offsets adverse low temp. weather (e.g. calcium chloride) improves workability, plasticity, strength (e.g. fly ash) adds color (e.g. metal oxides)

Durability is a very important concern in using concrete for a given application. Concrete provides good performance through the service life of the structure when concrete is mixed properly and care is taken in curing it. Good concrete can have an infinite life span under the right conditions. Water, although important for concrete hydration and hardening, can also play a role in decreased durability once the structure is built. This is because water can transport harmful chemicals to the interior of the concrete leading to various forms of deterioration. Such deterioration ultimately adds costs due to maintenance and repair of the concrete structure. The contractor should be able to account for environmental factors and produce a durable concrete structure if these factors are considered when building concrete structures.

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Compressive Strength The most common strength test, compressive strength, is carried out on a 50 mm (2-inch) cement mortar test specimen. The test specimen is subjected to a compressive load (usually from a hydraulic machine) until failure. This loading sequence must take no less than 20 seconds and no more than 80 seconds. Table 3.15 shows ASTM C 150 compressive strength specifications ASTM C 150 Portland cement Mortar Compressive Strength Specifications in MPa (psi)
Curing Time 1 day 3 days 7 days 28 days Portland Cement Type I 12.4 (1800) 19.3 (2800) IA 10.0 (1450) 15.5 (2250) II 10.3 (1500) 17.2 (2500) IIA 8.3 (1200) 13.8 (2000) III 12.4 (1800) 24.1 (3500) IIIA 10.0 (1450) 19.3 (2800) -IV 6.9 (1000) 17.2 (2500) V 8.3 (1200) 15.2 (2200) 20.7 (3000)

Note: Type II and IIA requirements can be lowered if either an optional heat of hydration or chemical limit on the sum of C3S and C3A is specified The standard cement mortar compressive strength test is:

Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars (Using 50-mm or 2in. Cube Specimens)

Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars (Using Portions of Prisms Broken in Flexure)

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Tensile Strength Although still specified by ASTM, the direct tension test does not provide any useful insight into the concrete-making properties of cements. It persists as a specified test because in the early years of cement manufacture, it used to be the most common test since it was difficult to find machines that could compress a cement sample to failure. Flexural Strength Flexural strength (actually a measure of tensile strength in bending) is carried out on a 40 x 40 x 160 mm (1.57-inch x 1.57-inch x 6.30-inch) cement mortar beam. The beam is then loaded at its center point until failure. The standard cement mortar flexural strength test is:

Flexural Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars

Specific Gravity Test Specific gravity is normally used in mixture proportioning calculations. The specific gravity of Portland cement is generally around 3.15 while the specific gravity of Portland-blast-furnace-slag and portland-pozzolan cements may have specific gravities near 2.90 (PCA, 1988). The standard specific gravity test is: Density of Hydraulic Cement
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Heat of Hydration
The heat of hydration is the heat generated when water and Portland cement react. Heat of hydration is most influenced by the proportion of C3S and C3A in the cement, but is also influenced by water-cement ratio, fineness and curing temperature. As each one of these factors is increased, heat of hydration increases. In large mass concrete structures such as gravity dams, hydration heat is produced significantly faster than it can be dissipated (especially in the center of large concrete masses), which can create high temperatures in the center of these large concrete masses that, in turn, may cause undesirable stresses as the concrete cools to ambient temperature. Conversely, the heat of hydration can help maintain favorable curing temperatures during winter (PCA, 1988). The standard heat of hydration test is: Heat of Hydration of Hydraulic Cement

Loss on Ignition
Loss on ignition is calculated by heating up a cement sample to 900 - 1000 C (1650 - 1830°F) until a constant weight is obtained. The weight loss of the sample due to heating is then determined. A high loss on ignition can indicate rehydration and carbonation, which may be caused by improper and prolonged storage or adulteration during transport or transfer (PCA, 1988). The standard loss on ignition test is contained in: Chemical Analysis of Hydraulic Cement
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CONCLUSION
As already reported M/s Sree Vasu Pujya Cements Private Limited have been taken over by a new management & are modifying and completing the project for the manufacture of CEMENTS at Village Ningapura, Taluk Mudhol Dist Bagalkot Karnataka state. Plant is based on VSK technology for which the company has already tied-up for the transfer of technology with M/S Movers India Ltd. Which have also supplied the major portion of the plant and machinery? Moreover, the technology which is a modified version of indigenously developed VSK technology and is widely used in the mini cement Plants, therefore no problem is envisaged so far as the erection & commissioning and operation of the plant is concerned. As already reported the project is in the advance stage of completion. The construction of factory building and civil structures is already over and major portion of plant and machinery has already installed and the acquisition and erection the remaining machinery is expected to take around 3 months time. The commercial production is accepted to start in the month of Nov/Dec2003. The proposed project is promoted as a Pvt.Ltd. company by Shri. Murugesh R. Nirani. All the promoters have got relevant experience in industry and trade.

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Further the company has appointed well experienced and professionally qualified personal on its Board of Directors and also Technical Consultants who shall guide the company in its overall management. The proposed site is near to major consumer center and other Infrastructure facilitates such as power, and transportation network etc. are available to the unit without any difficulty. The market outlook for cement at the state level is in general encouraging Moreover establishment of mini cement plants indicate production & consumption and have definite role in reducing freight cost and lessening the burden on Wagon availability. The details of market and demand are discussed in Chapter-iii. The economic significance of the proposed unit lies in its employment generation capacity. The unit would provide employment to more than 100 people on full operation and most of them would be local residents. After analyzing various parameters viz. technical managerial and marketing, it is found that the proposed project feasibility proposal in question is bankable and deserves the support and positive consideration by financial institutions and banks.

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