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1.1

**Lecture 4: Centre of mass
**

Introduction

This lecture deals with

1.2

Key concepts

• Deﬁnition of centre of mass as the point through which the resultant of the gravitational forces acts.

1.3

Centre of mass

The centre of mass (or centre of gravity) of a body is the point through which gravity may be considered to act. In other words, for the purposes of any calculation involving gravity, we can replace the solid body with a light shell and a massive particle at the centre of gravity. This works because the forces of gravity acting on the individual particles of the body are all parallel.1 The following example illustrates the process. Example: the centre of mass of a set of particles Let n particles be attached to a light straight rod which rests on a smooth pivot, as shown. The ith particle has mass mi and is distance di from P , the left end of the rod. The pivot is distance d from one end of the rod. The reaction of the pivot on the rod is R. The system is in equilibrium with the rod horizontal. As always, the ﬁrst move is to draw a good diagram. R d

111111111111111 000000000000000

P

1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 di 0 111111111 1 000000000 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0

1 0 0 1

11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00

1 0 0 1

1 0 0 1

mi g

The blobs in the diagram are the (point!) particles and the ith blob from P , the left end, of the rod has mass mi and is a distance di from P . For equilibrium we need the both the forces and their moments (about any point) to balance. Summing the forces gives

n

mi g − R = 0

i=1

so the reaction of the pivot on the rod is equal to the total weight of the particles — not entirely unexpected! Summing the moments of the forces about P gives

n

Rd =

i=1

di mi g.

**So, provided we choose the position of the pivot according to d=
**

1A

n i=1 di mi , n i=1 mi

formal proof will be given in the last section of the Relativity and Dynamics course.

1

1. ρdx The numerator is the moment of the element of mass at x and the denominator is the total mass. say). We could of course have taken moments about the pivot to obtain the same result: n 0= i=1 (d − di )mi g. we deﬁne the centre of mass to be at the point with position vector mi ri . where ρ(x) is the mass density per unit length at that point.the rod and the masses will balance on the pivot just as if it were a single particle of mass equal to the total mass situated on the pivot. Thus the distance of the centre of mass from the origin (somewhere on the rod. We can extend this to three dimensions. replacing the sum by an integral and the mass at the point with coordinate x by the ρ(x)dx. but had started from this equation for d we would not have had to involve R at all.4 Centre of mass: general deﬁnition Extending the above idea to a general system of particles. The position vector of the centre of mass is rρ(r)dV ρ(r)dV though you may not properly understand these volume integrals until the Vector Calculus course in the Lent term. mi There is an analogous formula for a continuous mass distribution along a one dimensional body (a thin rod. is given by x ¯= xρdx . 2 . not necessarily at the end) x ¯.

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