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Florence. . Uffizi. Supposed to have been painted by himself.MICHELANGELO BUONAROTTI.

CROWELL & CO." "stories FROM LIFE. PUBLISHERS ." ETC." " FAMOUS MEN OF SCIENCE." "famous AMERICAN STATESMEN." "SOCIAL STUDIES IN ENGLAND. Death stands at your elbow. BOLTON AUTHOR OF "poor BOYS WHO BECAME FAMOUS." " FROM HEART AND NATURE." " FAMOUS AMERICAN AUTHORS." Marcus Aurelius.FAMOUS EUROPEAN ARTISTS ^ BY SARAH K. J '3330 SEVEkTii' f^buSAND NEW YORK THOMAS Y. and it is in your power. " Do not act as if you had ten thousand years to throw away." " GIRLS WHO BBCAMB FAMOUS. Be good for something while you live.

THE . C. Typographers and Electrotypers. 1890. PETERS & SON. boston. by Thomas Y. N .. Copyright. ^78 C L. . Crowell & Co. J.> 'i OKK PUBLIC LIBRARY ASTOR.. LENftX AND TH-DEW FOUNDATIONS. 146 High Street..



. look at great men. victorious army." in times to come thinks or acts like them rises up to them. . " . K. is a universal feeling. . the flower of a people. all They of speak one common castes. . Eeverence for what . is as if we saw a language. by reading of these great men some All of these pos- may be led to "think and act like them. S.PREFACE." and thus their circle. marching along. Hermann Grimm great is says. of noble or pariah know nothing and he who now or circle. and is admitted into their Possibly. B. Most were poor in early life. it When we ." "be admitted into sessed untiring industry and a resolute purpose to succeed. .


PAGE.CONTENTS. Michael Angelo 7 Leonardo da Vinci G6 105 155 Raphael of Titian UiiBiNO MURILLO 203 246 Rubens Rembrandt Sir Joshua Reynolds Sir 286 318 Edwin Landseer 367 396 Turner .


'Tis a gem Of purest ray and what a light broke forth . and ennobled by her by her divine art. 'Tis the Past Without. the very centre of art and learning in the fifteenth century. Every tocsin that sounds is a chronicle every bridge that unites the two banks of the river. familiar as household words. she has to-day a charm peculiarly her own. tower. "Every line. as Florence has. "Other though not many as noble. refreshed warmed by her fragrant flowers. treasures as vast ." Pitiful in her struggles for freedom. " Of all — the fairest cities of the earth. None is so fair as Florence. . W'HO has ever stood in Florence. cities have histories but no other city has them living. and ever present in her midst. Each has the mastery. all is enchantment Contending with the Present and in tm'n it ! ! . and been sunlight. every road. without saying with the poet Eogers. every gable. When emerged from darkness Search within. has some story of the past present in . every it. and touched by every baby's hand and peasant's step.MICHAEL ANGELO.

8 MICHAEL ANGELO. where peasants tell their beads in the vast marble silence. called Columbus. the father of Michael An- . Ask for a shoemaker. and you are where the whole city flocked. 1475. ^' The beauty of the past goes with you at every Buy eggs in the market. to look their last upon the dead face of their Michael Angelo. shadowy streetway where the old man Toscanelli drew his charts that served a fair-haired sailor of Genoa. unites also the crowds of the living with the hero- ism of the dead. He was authorisome 6. and you shall find the cobbler sitting with his board in the same old twisting. 1474. Buy a knot of March anemones or April arum lilies." Florence. instead of his birth. which the people so baptized for love of the old painter and the new-born art. and it shall be that Borgo Allegri. and you may bear them with you through the same city ward in which the child Ghirlandaio once played amidst the gold and silver garlands that his father fashioned for the young heads of the Renaissance. Shelley^s "Smokeless City." was the ardently loved born March ties. and you step in Florence. or. according to incarnation of Christ. the Florentines reckoning time from the home of Michael Angelo. Lodovico Buonarotti. buy them where Donatello bought those which fell down in a broken heap before the wonder of the Pause in a narrow by-street in a crowd. crucifix. weeping. at midnight. Stray into a great dark church at evening time.

he was certainly unwise to place the child in the ex- hilarating air of the mountains. active child. designed that his son should become a dealer in silks and woollens.MICHAEL ANGELO. After two years they returned to Florence. being nineteen and he thirty-one. he began to draw as soon as he could use his hands. a noted grammarian. leaving the child at Settignano. and they in turn loved the bright. He all made little progress in his studies. 9 had been appointed governor of Caprese and and had moved from Florence to the Castle of Caprese. his second child. was Chiusi. as probably he would thus amass wealth. on an estate of the Buonarottis\ He was intrusted to the care of a stone-mason's wife. was. gelo. On the walls of the stone- mason's house he made charcoal sketches. and but little more than half his age. He took delight in the work of the masons. Francesca. kept by Francesco of Urbino. born. Living among the quarrymen and sculptors of this picturesque region. who was quite too proud for manual labor. which were doubtless praised by the foster-parents. as nurse. where this boy. When his father to a the boy was old enough he was sent by grammar school in Florence. With such a project in mind. The mother. for nearly of his time was spent in drawing and in visiting the the different artists of the city. three miles from the city. of noble family. ateliers of Vasari . like her hus- band. Lodovico. where nature would be almost sure to win him away from the counting- room.

10 MICHAEL ANGELO. made the quiet. says he was beaten by his father and other elders but the beatings did no good. He was a pupil of one of the best painters in Italy. Granacci. Francesco Granacci. The master had undertaken to paint the choir of the Church of Santa Maria Novella. who was nineteen. Lodovico at last saw that a lad so absorbed in would probably be a failure in silk and wool. when this sketch was shown to Michael Angelo. a talented youth of good family. and made the boy of fourteen more anxious than ever to be an artist. self -poised lad to trade and more devoted to to Fortunately. in these early years. Michael Angelo drew the scaffolding. they probamore indifferent art. and thus the boys were brought into important work. Sixty years afterwards. lovable in nature. he said." He also corrected one of the master's drawings. when he saw it " This youth understands more than I do myself. so perfectly that Ghirlandaio exclaimed. as has so often happened men of genius. when the painters were absent. and Michael Angelo now worked happily together. "I almost think that I : . and placed him in the studio of Ghirlandaio. the draped form of a woman. and a student in art. Michael Angelo found a congenial friend. and ten the third. One day. Domenico Ghirlandaio. eight the second. He loaned drawings to Michael Angelo. with all who worked on it. with the promise of his receiving six gold florins the art first year. bly — indeed.

He founded an academy and placed it under the charge of Bertoldo. through a fortunate opening for Michael Angelo. who opened them to students. All . consideration." had collected ancient and modern contract sculptures and paintings. and painted such a picture that it was mistaken for the original. and unquestioned ability to lead. After a year spent with Ghirlandaio. with their colors. his Lorenzo made himself the idol of the people by generosity. and the like.MICHAEL ANGELO. in the the young people month of May. Lorenzo the Magnificent. and wrote verses to be sung by girls as they danced in the public square. a repre- plate of Martin Schongauer's of Germany. artist now painted his first picture. knew and loved him. while others pinch. Claws. and roll over him. scales. the favorite disciple of Donatello. all help to make up these monsters. " Pater Patriae. and these art treasures were enriched by his grandson. Anthony tormented by devils. horns. and carefully studied the eyes and scales of the fish. and the three-years' was mutually broken. Cosmo de' Medici. one seizes the book hanging from his girdle. One pulls his hair. one his garments. He arranged public festivities. Michael Angelo went to the fish-market." art in 11 I my youth than do in my old The young senting St. with prizes for the best work. knew more age. the master seems to have become envious. one snatches a stick from his hand. and tease.

and." At once Michael Angelo broke out a tooth. began to copy the antique masque of a However." "Well. and thereby gained access At once he thought of his friend. nal. filling the gum as though it had dropped out. and Michael Angelo was soon studying the marbles and pictures of the great Medici. observed the masque and praised it. but said to the boy. when the triumphal procession of Paulus iEmilius was being represented. and." occupation. to the art treasures. "but I live upon the small income of the possessions left me by my ancestors. so far as I can. getting from them a piece of marble.12 MICHAEL ANGELO. . On one of these festive occasions. The boy of fifteen quickly made friends with the stone-masons. and told the boy to send for his father. "look around you. Granacci found an opportunity of winning Lorenzo's favor. was the reply." said Lorenzo. . Lodovico came reluctantly. When Lorenzo came again he was delighted. Lorenzo received him cordially and asked his " I have never followed any business. for he was not yet reconciled to the choice of " art and poverty " which his son had made. to improve them. his work was not like the origifaun. These I endeavor to keep in order. "You have made your faun so old. but the mouth was open so that the teeth were When Lorenzo came among the pupils he visible. and. and yet you have left him all his teeth you should have known that at such an advanced age there are generally some wanting.

Ficino. but he became robust as he grew older." Lodovico received a vacant post in the customhouse. to make a marble bas-relief of the battle of Hercules with the Centaurs. he lived in this regal home. with dark hair. head of the faun is in the Uffizi gallery.MICHAEL ANGELO. and of delicate appearance. . and Michael Angelo was taken into the Me- For three years dici palace and treated as a son. This is still preserved in the Buonarotti family. only apply to me. Michael Angelo now executed a Madonna in bronze. is more than to carve a statue from the marble. who afterwards became Leo X. meeting all the great and learned men of Italy Politian. the head of the Platonic : Academy scholar. small gray eyes. and many Who can estimate such influence over a youth ? Who can measure the good that Lorenzo de' Medici was doing for the world unwittingly ? To develop a grand man from a boy. is in my power shall be done. when eighteen. Politian was the tutor of the two Medici youths. Pico della Mirandola. Giovanni and Giulio. . and Clement VII. and copied the wonderful frescos of Masaccio in the Brancacci Chapel of Santa Maria del Carmine (usually called the Carmine Chapel). The as the sculptor would never part with it. if I 13 Whatever can do anything for you. Michael Angelo was now of middle height. the prince and others. He encouraged Michael Angelo. the poet and philosopher.

which he carved from wood. and was not always wise enough to conceal his contempt for mediocrity. the rewarding the prior by a crucifix almost as large as life." While Michael Angelo was copying these paintings of Masaccio. Eaphael. The youth could but know his superiority to others. One of his fellow-students. probably from some slighting remark. disfiguring his face for life. in the Arena Chapel at Padua. by the Arena and Brancacci Chapels. the same which inspired Era Angelico. "You will be remembered only as the man who pital to a cell in the artist . Torrigiani. and Andrea del Sarto. and the frescos of Michael Angelo and Eaphael in the Vatican. that he struck him with his Michael Angelo fist.14 MICHAEL ANGELO. Dead bodies were conveyed from the hosconvent of Santo Spirit o. is said to have merely replied to this brutal assault. frescos The three history of Italian painting distinct is divided into and well-defined periods. " The importance of these arises from the fact that they hold the same place in the history of art during the fifteenth century as the works of Giotto. work a delight. from which may be dated one of those great and sudden onward steps which have in various ages and countries marked the development of art. hold during the fourteenth. He studied anatomy like a devotee. and gave Ambition made the hours of night to his labors. grew so angry at him. or for the young men who played at life. Each series forms an epoch in painting. he took no holidays.

15 broke my nose. who sons fool. cold outwardly. opened piece of marble and made a purchased a a studio. and to live in the same rooms assigned to him by Lorenzo his Florence. Hercules four feet in height.MICHAEL ANGELO. The Medici was so pleased with the result that he brought the artist to sit at his own table. old at the death of his father the clever one was Giovanni. with childish enthusiasm. Buonarotti mansion. 1492. 1494. in Michael Angelo was so the very prime of his life. It stood for many years in the Strozzi Palace in Florence. overcome that for a long time he was unable to collect his thoughts for work. and the father. is : said to have remarked that " he had three the first good. and is He went home to the now lost. Lorenzo the Magnificent died. and died miserably in the Spanish Inquisition. but a cardinal already by favor of the pope. sent for deep. whose son had married a daughter of Lorenzo's . thirteen years . had a warm and generous heart. . the third a The good one was seventeen Giullano. the second clever." In January. years old. Michael Angelo and bade him form a statue of snow in the courtyard of the palace. The self-reliant young man." Torrigiani was at once banished. and the fool was Piero. Piero de' Medici succeeded to his father Lorenzo. was sold to France. an unusual storm occurred in snow lay from four to six feet Piero. In April.

women and children. that " the people got up in the middle of the night to get places for the sermon. . waiting outside till it should be opened. of every sOrt. Thus they waited three or four hours till the padre entered the pulpit. says Burlamacchi. nor the mud. no sound was to be heard. nor of standing in winter with their feet on the marble and among them were young and old. Piero was proud. to have valued equally with the sculptor a Spaniard who served in his stables. and the attention of so great a mass of people. without the virtues of his and soon alienated the affections of the Savonarola. the Dominican monk of San Marco. all with eyes and ears intent upon the preacher. Florentines. " Then the silence was great in the church. read the service and other prayers.' until the arrival of the children . and came father. with a taper in his hand. was preaching against the luxuries and vices of the age. not even a hush. however. Piero is said. So popular was he. was wonderful they listened so that when the j . ' who sang hymns with so much sweetness that heaven seemed to have opened. And though many thousand people were thus collected together. making no account of any inconvenience.16 MICHAEL ANGELO. each one going to his place and he who could read. going to the sermon as to a wedding. neither of the cold. who came with such jubilee and rejoicing that it was bewildering to hear them. because he could outrun a horse at full gallop. to the door of the cathedral.

and he returned to Bologna. the law required that every foreigner entering the gates should have a seal of red wax on his thumb. and. and of a distinguished family. where he remained for a year. At Aldovrandi's request Michael Angelo completed this work. and return to Florence. In the Church of San Petronio are the bones of Domenico in a marble coffin on the sarcophagus two kneeling figures were to be placed by Nicolo Pisano. They would have been imprisoned save that Aldovrandi. a member of the council. fled to Venice. a contemporary of Cimabue. and the magistrate soon became ardently attached to the bright youth of nineteen. One was unfinished in its drapery. ! . . Michael Angelo foresaw the fall of the Medici. and were at once arrested and fined. So exasperated were the artists of Bologna at his skill that he felt obliged to leave their city.MICHAEL ANGELO. At Bologna. and invited the sculptor to his own Together house. showing permission. What a pitiful exhibition of human weakness St. and the other." Piero's weakness and Savonarola's power soon bore fruit. a kneeling angel holding a candelabrum. set them free. 17 sermon reached its end it seemed to them that it had scarcely begun. This Michael Angelo and his friends neglected to obtain. unwilling to fight for a ruler whom he could not respect. on his way back to Florence. But his scanty- supply of money was soon exhausted. was not even begun. they read Dante and Petrarch.

Lorenzo di Credi. though Michael Angelo received but thirty as his share. hymns were sung in the streets instead of ballads. in the absence of such studies. the cardinal ascertained how he had been imposed upon. even Petrarch and Virgil. buried the statue . "Even Fra Bartolomeo was so carried away by the enthusiasm of moment as to bring his life-academy studies to be consumed on this pyre." was writ- ten over the gates of the Palazzo Vecchio. he could never have risen above low mediocrity. and sensuous works of art. or to have considered the making of a sleeping Cupid a sin. Soon after. forgetful that. When the beautiful work was completed. " Jesus Christ from Florence. Charles made a triumphal entrance and Savonarola had become lawgiver. is the King of Florence. to give it the appearance of an antique. and then sold to Cardinal San Giorgio for two hundred ducats. and invited the artist to Kome. fled Meantime Piero had VIII. the sacrament was received daily. and an attendant upon his preaching. did the same. with the hope that the hundred and seventy ducats could be obtained from the dishonest agent who effected the sale. of France had into the city.18 MICHAEL ANGELO. another the and devoted follower of Savonarola. it was buried in the ground for a season. at the suggestion of a friend. were burned on a huge pile. seems not to have lost his good judgment." Michael Angelo. Vasari states that agent. many persons believed that the and not Michael Angelo. though an ardent admirer of Savonarola. and worldly books.

full of the bustle of the fanatically excited Florence.MICHAEL ANGELO. he takes a new start for his future. Jacopo Galli a Cupid." Michael Angelo's first efforts in Rome were : for a noble and cultivated man. has something in it that awakens thought. the Pieta." Perhaps the artist did not put much heart into the statue of the intoxicated youth. He was still young. Eome. in his scholarly life of the artist. before been led hither and thither by men and by now. the Virgin Mary holding great city. Of this work Grimm says : " The position of . ^' The idea. " that the young Michael Angelo. Denis. 1496. only twenty-one. however. thrown upon his his own indistinct views was led by his fate to time that soil . the French ambassador at sired to leave Kome. executed for Cardinal St. and trod for the first where the most corrupt doings were. nevertheless. He had It was the first step in his actual life. lost sight of in the calm grandeur of the past. which Shelley declared "a revolting misunderstanding of the spirit and the idea of Bacchus. 19 all which seems probable from we know of the artist's upright character. His next work." says Hermann Grimm. now lost. who de- some monument of himself in the made Michael Angelo famous. and a Bacchus. Michael Angelo went to the Eternal City in June. nearly as large as life. series of his and what he now produces begins the masterly works. for gain. own resources. Sonnets were written to the Pieta. the dead Christ.

was only common property. form lying there. sunken body the head droopthe attitude of the whole human ing backwards. — . . — execution . everywhere the purest nature. in harmony both in spirit and exterior. both are provided for. and the noblest elements of the national Jewish expression. and with mild features. . . down sideways from the mother's knee. The artist. every touch was for the first time created by Michael Angelo. whether in idea or in . or his. as if by death he had again become a child whom the mother had taken in her arms at the same time. as she bends over her son in a manner inconsolable and yet sublime. woman* the the body. with weary feet. here. "Whatever previously to this work had been produced by sculptors in Italy passes into shadow. — . which he used because its use was customary. which is gathered together by a band across the bosom the inclination of the head. the more touching does its beauty become. the longish features and parted beard. the falling arm the failing. — . . " Our deepest sympathy is awakened by the sight the two legs.20 MICHAEL ANGELO. hanging of Christ. — . exhausted. as it rests in her arms we feel dead. None before Michael Angelo would have thought of this the oftener the work is contemplated. and that that in which he imitated others in this group. and assumes the appearance of attempts in which there is something lacking. resting on the knees of the fokls of her dress. in the countenance there is a wonderful blending of the old customary Byzantine type.

they go so far as to maintain. he was in love with When a friend said to him. and the circumstances of the time. besides all this. " I have only too much of a wife in my art. and the result is deserves to be called perfect. they will at least live for some time." The Pietk is now in St. Paradise. And. they are the works that I shall leave and if they are not worth much. the first in the world from henceforth. Woe to Lorenzo Ghiberti if he had not made the gates of San Giovanni for his children and grandchildren have sold or squandered all that he left but the gates are still in their place. and she has given me trouble enough. How could . Peter's. says Condivi indeed. As to my children. he says further. 21 the work. " 'Tis a pity that you have not married. . . He had become imbued with great and noble thoughts from Savonarola's preaching. He was the first master in Italy. ^ . Michael Angelo numbered four and twenty years when he had finished his Pieta. that you might have left children to inherit the fruit of these honorable toils. and he believed in his own power." he replied. When some per- . These are so beautiful that they are worthy of being the gates of . art. that Michael Angelo surpassed the bine together . ancient masters." at twenty-four ? Michael Angelo have carved this work His knowledge of anatomy was surprising. years afterwards.MICHAEL ANGELO. com- something tha!. and from his ardent reading of Dante and Petrarch he was eager for fame.

when his son returned. But one night he repaired to St. son criticised the youthful appearance of the Virgin. but penury is bad. " which Michael Angelo had given to this group were such that he there left his name a thing he never did on the cincture which girdles again for any work the robe of Our Lady for it happened one day that Michael Angelo. writes Lodovico.' hearing which. after four years in Eome. Michael Angelo remained silent. and. will do harm both to soul and body. entering the place where it was erected. besides. or rather penury. asking who had done it. Peter's with a light and his chisels. . carrying the money he had saved to establish his brothers in business. who were praising it highly one of them.22 MICHAEL ANGELO. like this one. his father. to engrave his name on the figure." " The love and care. ^ countenance." Michael Angelo was now urged by his father and brother to return to Florence." However. the proud father was not displeased with the "penury. " In Paradise. was told. Economy is good. because it is a vice displeasing to God and to the people of this world." This self- . Our Hunchback of Milan. although surprised that his work should be attributed to another. younger than her son. him : " Buonarotto tells me that you live with great economy. which seems to breathe a spirit as perfect as her form and — — ." says Vasari. and captiously asked where a mother could be found. found a large assemblage of strangers from Lombardy there. the painter answered.

never being frivolous either in thought or work.. Pius. Savonarola and his two principal followers." says Grimm. and perhaps thereby wrought all the more earnestly." Matters had greatly changed in Florence. because of other labors The artist finished but four statues. finest works. calling his court the Romish Babylon. Peter. deeply loved republican Florence. who loved him and also. Cardinal Piccolo- mini. " is one of Michael Angelo's She sits there enTt is life-size. leaning on the left one. had been burned at said in his old age.. " This. the child stands between her knees. the foot of which rests on a block of stone.MICHAEL ANGELO. the people of Florence were Michael Angelo. The marble Madonna in the Church of Notre Dame at Bruges was carved about this time. at the death of the great and good friar. made a contract with for fifteen statues of Carrara marble to embel- lish the family chapel in the cathedral of Siena. and which were pressed upon him. so that it is . While the mob had assisted sad at heart. Gregory. I have always lived like a poor man. veloped in the softest drapery . 23 denial the great artist practised through life for his not always grateful or appreciative family. afterwards Pius ITT. because they had preached against the corruptions of Rome. Paul. was sad Upon him his return to Florence. excommunicated by Pope Alexander VI. He Eich as I am. Three years were allowed for this work. "• the stake.

24 MICHAEL ANGELO. the child also stands. Michael Angelo was willing to undertake the making of a statue. and falls softly. work was a little wax model which he moulded. On this stone raised a little higher than the right. in her look. Others to whom it was offered said nothing could be done with the one block. She is is looking straight forward. to be ready for his beloved statue as soon as the morning dawned. from w^hich the wool-weavers' guild intended to have a prophet made for Santa Maria del Fiore. He was allowed two years in which to complete it. eigh- teen feet high. while the right rests on her lap with a book. on both nance. but more pieces of marble should be added. In her counteis a wonderful majesty. as if she felt the thousand pious glances of the people who look up to her on the sides. and worked alone. He worked untiringly. One sculptor had attempted and failed. a queenly gravity. and seems about to step down. not intrust* . with a monthly salary of His only preparation for the six gold florins. had been brought from Carrara to Florence. His mother holds him back with her left hand. there on her neck and shoulders. He had shut himself away from the public gaze by planks and masonry. a handkerchief placed across her hair. now in the Uffizi. so that he often slept with his clothes on. altar. now presented itself for the already famous sculptor to distinguish himself in own Years before a marble block." An his opportunity city.

came to look at while Michael Angelo was retouching at certain points. chanced that it When the statue was Soderini. whom it greatly " it pleased. that " society is fatal. 1504. to teach the Florentines that as David " had defended and governed justly. and the colossal David stood unveiled before : the people. so they who were then ruling that city should defend it with courage and govern it uprightly. by this work. it know little. and told the . and required forty men four days to drag it by ropes a quarter of a mile to the place where it was to stand in the Piazza della Signoria. Notwith- standing that the praise of the sculptor was on every lip. life." his people The statue weighed eighteen thousand pounds. whether true or false. they said if " It is as great a miracle as a dead body had been raised to life." The great essayist urged that while we may keep our hands in society " we must keep our head in soliGreat thoughts are not born usually in the tude." whirl of social Finally. He felt what Emerson preached years later. and eight persons were arrested and put in prison.MICHAEL ANGELO. when the statue was finished in January." Vasari says Michael Angelo intended. Vasari tells a story which. illustrates the character of those who profess much because they set up. still there was so much jealousy among the artists that some of their followers threw stones at the statue during the nights when it was being carried to the Piazza. 25 ing a stroke to other hands.

but was able to attempt only one. now in the Florentine Academy." But the artist very wisely made no remarks. yet. he thought the nose too short. For the cathedral of Florence he promised colossal statues of the twelve apostles.'' was the reply. suffered a little but without altering the nose. and thus retained the friendship of Soderini. this famous was removed to the Academy of Fine Arts Monastery of St.' Michael Angelo then descended. but the parsimonious Agnolo said he would give but forty. The price was sixty ducats. it who stood below. Matthew. he of the powder to fall. For Agnolo Doni he painted a Madonna. not without compassion for those who desire to appear good judges of matters whereof they know nothing. Michael Angelo at once sent a messenger demanding a hundred ducats oi . Michael Angelo perceived that Soderini was in such a position beneath the figure that he could not see it conveniently . after nearly four centuries. though he knew it was worth more. lest in the distant future it should be injured by exposure. scaffold with his chisel and a hand. and then said to the gonfaloniere. ^you have given it life.26 artist that MICHAEL ANGELO. little he mounted the powder gathered striking lightly from the with the floor in his when chisel. In 1873. to satisfy him. In statue in the old three years he received commissions to carve thirtyseven statues. Mark. now in the Tribune at Florence. ' Look at now/ "'I like it better now. St. Work now poured in upon Michael Angelo.

and Michael Angelo has depicted them climbing the bank. "to describe the separate figures. The bathers rushed to the shore. while Da Vinci was over fifty. The latter was only twenty-nine.'^ ! which. where he had been painting the " Last Supper. " in moments of admiration. not possible. Leonardo da Vinci and Michael Angelo. by such penuriousness. was asked to compete. the opposing forces. not inclined to lose so valuable a work by a famous artist. but. and he dared to accept the offer. of Sir John Hawkwood. He had recently come from Milan. As the weather was very warm. the Florentines had laid aside their armor and were And now bathing in the Arno. buckling on their armor. seized this commander moment to make the attack. 27 the picture. the and with "It all is haste returning the assault. forces Grimm says. or the art with which is depicted. the fore-shortenings.MICHAEL ANGELO. Gonfaloniere Soderini desired to adorn the great Municipal Hall with the paintings of two masters. the all boldness with which the most difficult attitude is it ever chosen. with this " first painter in Italy " the Michael Angelo. Agnolo gladly offered the Offended sixty which he at first refused to pay. Michael Angelo demanded and received one hundred and forty ducats In 1504. He chose for his subject an incident of the Pisan war." says Grimm." first sculptor. . from us the assertion that it is the finest and sublimest composition ever produced by an Italian master.

with his statue above " It all. The mausoleum was to be three stories high with sixteen statues : of the captive liberal arts. my marble would come. Before the artist had finished his painting he was summoned to E-ome by Pope Julius II. Da Vinci's faded. their first studies from it. and others made studies from them. am unhappy about for not for but as long as I have been here. Andrea del Sarto. in the most northern part of task was a difficult one. for the story . His He wrote to his father after he had gone back to Eome. and ten statues of Victory treading upon conquered provinces. who desired a monument for himself in St. and attendant angels. where he remained for eight months. quite contented here I if it Tuscany. " Let cost twice that sum. and. "While these toons thus hung opposite Cellini. for the second.28 MICHAEL ANGELO." Da Vinci's painting represented a scene at the battle of Anghiari.. who made This cartoon was the school for a whole generation of artists. and Michael Angelo's was cut in pieces by some enemy. to the marble At once Michael Angelo hastened quarries of Carrara. more cherubs and apostles. " to each other/' says Benvenuto world." said it the artist. first the sarcophagus of the pope." they formed the school of the Raphael. where the Florentines had decar- feated the Milanese in 1440. we have had good . the great patron of art and literature. "I should be only . two days only. Peter's. will cost a hundred thousand crowns." said the pope.

the river overflowed. a covered way being constructed by the pope between the atelier and the palace. grant it ! When the marble reached Rome. pride the artist left Eome at and hastened to Florence. The sculptor resided in a house near the Vatican. and when Michael Angelo returned from a see second journey to Carrara the pope refused to advance any money. With commendable once. and even gave ocders that he should not be admitted to the palace. I hope all may soon be in order. a bark. If you require me in the future. and placed them under water so that up to this day T have been able to do nothing. that he might visit the artist familiarly and him at his work. God arrived. and that I may begin my work." The proud Julius at once perceived his mistake. so that his good temper may not fail. instead of a tomb. weather. the people were astonished.MICHAEL ANGELO. leaving a letter in which he said. I must endeavor to keep the pope in good humor by empty words. 29 A few days ago. you can seek me elsewhere than in Rome. . Meantime an envious artist was whispering in the ears of Julius that it was an evil omen to build one's monument in one's lifetime. — . for there seemed enough to build a temple. This was not agreeable news. which has just was within a hair's-breadth of perishing. " Most Holy Father. When from bad weather the blocks were conveyed by land. and that he would be apt to die early.

Soderini tried to persuade him that he had better " die siding with the pope. II. " Then Julius II. tor.. and sent a messenger. and exclaimed." An ecclesiastic standing near officiously begged his Holiness not to be too severe with Michael Angelo. than live passing over to the Turk. to bid him return. across the Golden Horn. on pain of But Michael Angelo paid no atten- tion to the mandate. The pope saw that kindness alone would win back the self-reliant and independent artist. and as own art .30 MICHAEL ANGELO. applied to Soderini the Gonfaloniere. We will not for your sake begin a war with the pope. till we should ourselves come to seek you. and finally prevailed upon him to return to Eome. and treated the pope in a You have King of France ! risk the safety of the state. who said to the sculp- as the manner such would not have done There must be an end of trifling with him now. his displeasure." The Sultan Bajazet Angelo's fame. who had heard of Michael now urged him to come to Turkey and build a bridge between Constantinople and Pera. When he arrived. it seems. said. " You have waited thus long. The pope was now fully angry." and meantime wrote Julius that he could do nothing with him. as he was a artists did not their behave except where was concerned. *' Do you venture to say things to this man which You are I would not have said to him myself ? to man know how of no education. half angry. Julius.

a miserable fellow. he is not. cast was unsuccessful. fourteen feet high. am convinced that no one else upon whom this immense task might have been imposed would I have persevered. My belief is that your prayers have kept me sustained and well. The bronze statue was a difficult work. yourself a 31 and man of no education. For no one in Bologna. Or a blessing ? " You are advising the people of Bologna to be wise. Leave our presence. "Give me a sword!" he exclaimed. to be placed before the Church of it St. When the pope wished to know the cost. not even after the successful issue of the . in Bologna. which gives me no rest night or day. but was not sure whether the cast would succeed. Michael Angelo was at once commissioned to this make a bronze statue of Julius. look scholar. " and you shall be paid as much as you require. And what does the raised right hand " denote ? Am I dispensing a curse." him he thought the clay model was ready for the pope to he was asked if he would like to be represented holding a book in his left hand. I scarcely think I should be able to accomplish it." replied Michael Angelo.'^ said the pope. the artist told would be about three thousand ducats." The man was borne out of the hall. "I am no When at. Petronio. " You will mould it until it succeeds. The first The sculptor wrote home. " If I had a second time to undertake this intense work. nearly fainting.MICHAEL ANGELO.

if feel- ings by telling them. thought that I should finish the statue satis. as it had been designed by may be often observed in similar cases. not to complete the monument. at the earnest request of the helpless Buonarotti family. struggling through life is for helpless relatives. Michael Angelo. Granacci and others. They understood it. went back to Florence. and sent for some of his boyhood friends to aid him. and cutting away the paper around the figures. tated to undertake so important a He hesi- work . He therefore began to make designs. unable to wound their and. similar to that of Michael Angelo. but to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.32 cast. " I could almost suppose that Fate. as he had hoped." by a corresponding lack of them in the famThe case of Galileo. MICHAEL ANGELO. in painting. some were . nailing these to the wall. He soon found that his assistants were a hinderance rather than a help. and begged that Kaphael be chosen but the pope would not consent. he shut up the chapel and went away. He was soon summoned again to Eome. From this he marked out the full-sized cartoons or working drawings. to compensate for Michael Angelo's extraordinary gifts ily." After the statue was completed. factorily would succeed. and carried there what he had earned. Grimm naively remarks. before that no one thought that the cast . and. His method was to make the first draught in red or black chalk on a very small scale.

and I will do more for you than all you have lost. " Do not lose courage. . and. and rather part with all your possessions than impose privations on yourself. . rather. His eyes became so injured by holding his head back for his work that for a long period afterwards he could read only by keeping the page above his head. as this chastisement of heaven was to come. that painting was not my profession . but that no harm would result. send and let some one else see. do not rely upon it it is always a doubtful matter. seeing nobody except his color-grinder and the pope. life is not lost. If you do not believe It was soon it. and let not a trace of inward sadness gain ground in you for. " I told your Holiness. . discouraged. exertion. he hastened to the pope. it came at a time when you could better extricate yourself from it than you would perhaps have been earlier able to do. Granacci was not." found that he had made the plaster too wet. Michael Angelo now worked alone. Take care of your health. but always 33 re- mained an earnest friend. saying. Use. if you have lost your property. from the first. Still.MICHAEL ANGELO. and became ill from overIn the midst of his labors and illness. He worked now so constantly that he scarcely took time to eat or sleep. After he had painted for some time the walls began to mould. hurt or offended. For it is of greater consequence to me that you should I . all possible precaution and thank God that. he writes his father. all that have painted is destroyed.

and conwould be finished and the " When "When it. bear- ing enduring all sorts of drudgery. as thou shalt see " And he struck Michael Angelo with the staff which he held in his hand. lacerating my body with many toils. leading a dog's life . Giovanni Simone. who appears little : earned to have spent much and " If you will take care to do well. I can — when holy fathI can and quickly. although a poor man. than that you should perish for the sake of all the money in the world. I will aid you and will soon establish you in a good shop." replied the artist. placing my life itself under a thousand perils.. I have gone about through all Italy for twelve years.. . er. now that I have comthou alone wishest to do that which shall confound and ruin in an hour <} very thing that I have done in so many years and with so many fatigues.'* solely to aid my family ^ and menced to raise it up a little. urged the artist to when work faster. all manner of insults. It cer! I'll make thee finish ! . But Julius sent after him. painting which he tinually asked as eager as a child to see the knew would it help to immortalize himself." He writes also to his younger brother. Your Michael Angelo. Meantime the pope. and gave him five hundred crowns to pacify him. The sculptor at once left the painting and started for Florence. remain alive.34 MICHAEL ANGELO. I can. scaffolding taken down. like the others and to honor and revere your father.

. he commands the waters to bring forth all kinds of animals which can live in the sea he breathes into man the breath of life he forms Eve both are driven the flood from the garden Abel is sacrificed comes Noah and his family are saved in the ark. Grimm thus describes a portion of this marvel- "Adam lies on a dark mountain summit. . . . he creates the sun and moon surrounded by angels. " The ceiling of the Sistine Chapel contains the most perfect works done by Michael Angelo in his long and active life. and feel for the It is as if the first time what life and waking are. its noblest dignity. still lying almost in a dream. Kugler says. . . softly descending like lous painting: . Here his great spirit appears in ." The paintings represent God the Father ing the light from the darkness . 1509. His formation is finished nothing more remains than that he should rise. at Julius's all request the scaffolding was removed. God hovers slowly down over him from above.MICHAEL ANGELO. first emotion of his new condition thrilled through him as if. he divined what was passing around him. . in is its highest purity here the attention not disturbed by that arbitrary display to which his great power not unseparat- frequently seduced him in other works. . . tainly 35 pontiff not to have given would have been a pecuniary saving to the way to his temper and staff used his When half the ceiling was completed. and Kome crowded to see the wonderful work on All Saints' Day.

they were bearing him and his mantle. transparent as woven out of clouds. impelled by that wonderful power which is neither will nor obedience. . all sides. and the back of the fingers rest upon . . . closely thronging round him as . More wonderful still than the mantle which embraces them all is the garment which covers the form : of if God himself. justly said that since Phidias its like has not been formed. Adam on his right side sunk in and completely turned to the spectator. with life-giving power.36 MICHAEL ANGELO. closely surrounding the mighty and beautiful form with its small folds. the spirit moves within him . others look over his shoulder. sleep. he raises his head to his Creator as a flower turns to the sun. countenances some suplovely with appearance. The next picture is the creation of Eve. I have never seen the portrait of a human body Cornelius which equalled the beauty of this. " lies . into Adam's body. port him from below. of his own spirit. as if swelled out by a full gust of wind. Adam lay there powerless. and yet allowing every muscle to appear through it. . violet-gray drapery. "God commands and Adam obeys. and Adam seizes his hand to raise himLike an electric touch. forms a flowing tent These angels are children in around them all. covering him entirely down to the knees. God sends a spark self up. Angel forms surround him on if an evening cloud. . He signs him to rise. One arm falls languidly on his breast.

say she is . sympathetic. and thinking great thoughts. "Raphael. . perhaps. . . 37 . We . lovable Michael Angelo was tender at heart but austere in manner. Kaphael was now working near Michael Angelo in the Vatican palace. . and Raphael " thanked God that he had been born in the same century as Michael Angelo." said Julius. looks poor.MICHAEL ANGELO. feel tempted the most beautiful picture of a woman She is looking and we feel that she breathes for the first time but it seems as if life had not yet flowed through her veins." The pope was anxious "It is to have the scaffolding again erected. Godturned position was not only the first dream-like movement. intense." says Grimm. "But it who should have thought of this before he insisted on its being shown to " They are poor people whom I have the public. which." said the artist . . and called her from her slumber. " they did not wear gold on their garments. . in this which art has produced. though each admired the genius of the other. straight forward : . unnecessary. affectionate. as if the adoring. we see to her completely in profile. position. Raphael was gentle. ." said Michael Angelo. but it is probable that they did not become friends." But there was rivalry always between the followers of the two masters. but as if the Creator himself had formed her. Eve stands behind Adam . "had one excellence." and Julius was pacified. and the figures touched with gold. . doing only great works. painted there. the ground.

no other artist has possessed to such an extent.38 MICHAEL ANGELO. There more no line drawn above or below. closely the average — his works suit is human mind. . both went their . . in . Raphael served the court with agreeable obsequiousness but under the outward veil of this subservient friendliness there dwelt a keen and royal mind. often advancing in the completion only to a certain point. . which bent before no power. Raphael proceeded quietly. . and his portraits are in the delicate manner of Leonardo: a certain grace is almost the only characteristic of his works. in another manner. . as if he had had demigods in his mind. At length he finds himself in Eome. Leonardo sought for the fantastic. . and went its own way solitarily. apparently not jealous at being confounded with others. opposed alone to Michael Angelo then only does the true source of power burst out within him and he produces works which stand so high above all his former ones that the air of Kome which he breathed seemed to have worked wonders in him. and the great accuracy. Angelo. like the soul of Michael difficult . He paints at first in the fashion of Perugino. . at which he rested. stronger generation. just as Schiller's poetical forms." The Sistine Chapel was finished. as long as the world stands. and impressed the stamp of nature on their works. probably. often outstep the measure of the ordinary mortal. Michael Angelo for the both labored with intense own ways. Michael Angelo's ideals belong to a nobler. .

Such a man could well subdue a rebellious people. when we possess such a work. with the highest and noblest conceptions of Dante and Shakespeare. which. waving locks on his breast his nostrils are wide and expanding. every line of which is a tran. through the wilderness and through the sea itself.MICHAEL ANGELO. supposititious records. Cambridge. " The highest aim — of art is not to produce a counterpart of nature." says Grimm. drawing them after him. and his mouth looks as if the words were trembling on his lips. believing it would be "This statue. Christopher Black of Trinity College. Mr. "takes rank with the Prometheus of ^schylus. unless the author or artist puts himself into it. however. great was ever either in achieved without enthusiasm. 39 1512. He worked on the central Moses. letters. " as if on the point of starting up. with great joy. his head proudly raised his hand." " He sits there. in plan figure. script of his mind ? " ^^^ISTothing Emerson truly said. which falls in heavy. under the arm of which rest the tables of the law. is thrust in his beard. or live beyond a decade or two. his own glowing heart and earnest purpose. respecting Michael Angelo. "What need we information. but to convey by a judicious employment of natural . ." says Charles his masterpiece." No work literature or art can ever be great. Black well says. and Michael Angelo returned with ardor to the Julius monument. had been reduced from the original. like a moving magnet.

and at once the answer is ready. were sent to France. . in the most comprehensive life.. . which takes — . are cast off by the soul as she rises. and immortality. the enfeebling of the powerful youthful limbs. . and which. The " Dying Slave " will be recalled by all who have visited the Eenaissance sculptures of the Louvre. between The last -moment. know or possess which touches us so nearly as this. like an empty and magnificent coat of mail. or " Fetwhich were too large after the monument had been reduced in size.. I ask myself what work of sculpture first comes to mind if I am to name the best. and a wise deviation where required. statues of the The tered Slaves. the sentiment which culcate. Grimm says. the terror at once of departing and arriving. I do so remembering the masterpieces of ancient art.40 MICHAEL ANGELO. to have had everything before our eyes. the dying youth of Michael Angelo. in the best and worthiest state of feeling. and to have contemplated that which we have seen. . What work of any ancient master do we. still losing what in a being just developing ? life — — . however. which." it is the artist's object to in- two chained youths. . Man is always limited. When I say that to me it is the most elevated piece of statuary that I know. forms. — hold of our soul so completely as this exemplification of the highest and last human conflict does. It is impossible. " Perhaps the tender beauty of this dying youth is more penetrating than the power of Moses." .

. no stretched . The hand of is arm is placed on his breast the other raised in a bent position behind the head. and it is fettered at the wrist. in such an attitude as in sleep we make a pillow of an arm. making roads over the steep rocks for their transportation. He was a man of taste and culture. and desired to build a monument to himself in his native Florence. and towards is " He across the breast. and the adjacent ones of Serravezza. taking out heavy blocks among the mountains of marble. Pope Julius died. drawn muscle closely together. He therefore commissioned Michael Angelo to build a beautiful.. . in the palace of Lorenzo the Magnificent. at whose side the artist had sat when a boy. all has returned to that repose which indicates death. Meantime. and was succeeded by Leo X." A year after the Sistine Chapel was finished. . sculptured fagade for the Church of San Lorenzo. Michael Angelo writes to his " Dearest . have is no more firmness . 41 chey contained. erected by of Brunelleschi. and studying architecture with great assiduity. this the head inclines as this it falls backwards. below the shoulders . . The knees. seem nevertheless completely to veil it chained to the pillar by a band running his powers are just ebbing the band sustains him he almost hangs in it one shoulder is forced up.MICHAEL ANGELO. Cosmo de' Medici from designs For nearly four years the sculptor remained of Carrara.

and as long as ready to go on working my powers hold out. . must take care of him. him alone. but the offer was refused. must spare no . in order that to the he might have a life free of care. " Take care. and care not .. outward honor a thousand cares and works burden me and thus I have now gone on for fifteen years without having a happy.42 : MICHAEL ANGELO. and see whether you are not still able to get your daily bread and. And I have done all for the sake of supporting you. the cousin of Leo X." Finally the fagade of San Lorenzo was abandoned if it by Leo his X. and writes anxiously to his brother. and then by Clement VII. also. and so desirous was he of keeping the artist in his service that he endeavored to have him take holy orders. and was succeeded by Adrian. I do not do otherwise I live shabbily. for . God forgive us all ! I am as long as I can. who decided to erect a of the church. get through. and attend to his necessities and all of ou. for the reception of new chapel north monuments to Lorenzo. if necessary. Your wife. which you have never acknowledged or believed. Leo died who lived only a year. brother and nephew. Giuliano and artist built the The new sacristy. bringing thither three hundred cart-loads of marble from Carrara. }- expenses. that nothing is lacking in his nursing for I have . quiet hour. with God's help.'^ Later he hears that his father is ill. even should cost us everything. poor but honest. in 1521. He was a warm friend of Michael Angelo. . exerted myself for last too.. father Take care of your health. .

quick intuition he soon perceived that Baglioni. Rome had ninety thousand inhabitants under Leo X. 43 Like the other popes he wished to immortalize name. adjoining San Lorenzo. to superintend the fortifications re- vived the republic. exile. of Germany. warned that he himself was to be assassinated. He showed himself as skilful in engineering as in architecture or painting. Meantime the relatives of Pope Julius were justly angry because his tomb was not completed. fortified the hill of San Miniato. and. he probably wrote his beautiful sonnets to Dante. she had scarcely a third of that number. All art work was soon discontinued through the sacking of Rome by Charles V. was sent to Ferrara by the government to study its fortifications. Here. Upon the inlaid marble floor of the Vatican the German soldiers lighted their fires. and threatened to imprison the sculptor for not fulfilling his contract. whose works he so ardently . Now he loaned his funds freely to the republic. and appointed Michael Angelo and defences of Florence. He had always loved liberty. and also on an embassy to Venice. he fled to Venice. A year after the conquest. and with valuable documents made beds for their horses which stood in the Sistine Chapel.MICHAEL ANGELO. the captain-general of the was a traitor. in admired. his The Florentines now expelled the Medici. and therefore gave the artist the building of the Laurentian library. "VVith Malatesta republic. in 1527.

of architecture. of France eagerly besought the artist to live at his court." SOUTHEY. freedom was dead. For us he did explore the realms of woe And. How Are shall all we speak of him ? for our blind eyes unequal to his dazzling rays. Yet shalt thou know. in thine own despite. to Easier it is blame his enemies. — . Suffering of Siftce in the world there mankind most wrongfully. the artist being too great a man to imprison or kill. In 1534 a massive piece the Medici Chapel was completed. executed at an almost fabulous expense. to whom his native land Refused to open hers. On one side is the tomb of Giuliano de' Medici. ill in body and suffering deeply in heart for his beloved Florence working into the speaking stone his sorrow and his hopes. and bravely helped to defend her to the When the Medici were again triumphant. did high heaven expand Her lofty gates. eating little and sleeping less. shall his glory be. the son of Lorenzo the Magnificent. Than for the tongue to tell his highest praise. and Francis I. therefore. with .44 " MICHAEL ANGELO. lives no greater name. at his coming. For virtue. That thou hast fostered best thy Dante's fame. and thither he returned. and went sadly to his work on the monuments in the Medici Chapel of San Lorenzo. appears more bright. and last. And brighter. but his heart was in Florence. he was publicly pardoned by the pope. Venice offered Michael Angelo all possible inducements to remain. Here he labored day and night. Ungrateful city. when all oppressed.

and convert it wholly into thought. deur and majesty have elsewhere been put into It is all a miracle shape. the grandson of Lorenzo the Magnificent. This statue is one of the things which I look at with highest enjoyment. his statue in a sitting posture. but also with grief and impatience. Kuskin calls these. with a helmet overshadowing the grave features. the baton of a general. are the statues Day and Night. The Italians call it II Pensiero ("Thought. Opposite is the tomb of Lorenzo de' Medici. It is clad in armor." or "Meditation"). . and that by and by I must go away and leave it forever. and to do it through all the obstructions and impediments of drapery. Michael Angelo himself. It is as much a miracle to have achieved this as to make a statue that would rise up and walk. Hawthorne said of this statue. over the tomb. the deep re- — and the deep life within it." ! Some authorities believe that the statue usually was intended for Giuliano. How wonderful To take a block of marble. replied that he "did not suppose people a hundred years later would care much how the dukes looked Under this statue are Dawn and Twilight. .MICHAEL ANGELO. . not of darkness nor of day not oi called Lorenzo ! — . because I feel that I do not come at all to that which it involves. " Four ineffable types. holding in his 46 hand Beneath him. with Night and Day. " No such gran- human pose. when remonstrated with because the portraits were not correct likenesses. and the father of Catherine de' Medici.

then. of a foot resting on a thick bundle of poppy-heads. Not. she had . Giovanni Batista Strozzi wrote a verse." "Bursting herculean from his strong prison. lo. awake me not. she will speak to thee. Oh. but as if. whilst still wrong and shame survive I More grateful in senseless stone to live." Day is a gigantic figure of a man woman in a profound sleep. however. Dawn. the twilight and the dawn. Hush — whisper low. morning nor evening. She is lying outstretched on the gently sloping side of the lid of the sarcophagus. Grimm considers " the most beautiful of all." Twilight is the strong figure of a man. still in sleep. in her " Makers of Florence. and those vast limbs. but of the departure and the resurrection. the Goddess Night! Calmly she sleeps. which were not yet free from the cohesion of the marble. Oliphant says. When this statue was exhibited for the first time. though alive with such strain of action. nothing known of him but the great brow and resolute eyes. resting. of the souls of men. or Morning. half heroic." To which Michael Angelo wrote reply: — the following " Grateful is sleep. and so must living be: Awake her gently. in this marble white Sweetly reposing. and attached it to the marble : — " Carved by an Angel." Of Day. Mrs.46 MICHAEL ANGELO. with her . Gladly both sight and hearing forego. Night.

Michael Angelo's father died. The artist gave him in his a costly burial. (to Him to see again .MICHAEL ANGELO. at the age of ninety. where And hope Be be thanks!) I think thee now. For thee. Buonarotto. and with the was stepping forward and seeking for sure footing. "Already had I I wept and sighed so much. Exhaled in sighs." In 1534. Of thee and me the parent. love inspires A grief unspeakable to vex and Full ninety times the sun had bathed his face In the wet ocean. the lower part is turned . the same year in which the Medici were finished. An entire symphony of Beethoven statues lies in this statue. scarcely more than a boy. moved towards the back to us. and wrote a pathetic poem had His young mother had died years before when he went to Rome. is still is 47 us . and for him who was sting. my brother. The beloved died in Michael Angelo's arms. ending his annual round Ere thou attainedst to the Peace Divine. She lying on her right side is the leg next only feebly bent at the knee . thought all grief forever at an end. if my cold heart raised from earthly mire to where thou art. so that. us. memory. stretching itself out the other is half knee bent out. while the upper part of reclining. There. brother. shed forth in bitter tears. as if it drawn up.

While giving glory to my heavenly Lord. Says M. ^' that I have had this desire and. where every virtue grows. all of whom wished to see the designs for the " Last Judgment." said the cardinal of Mantua. tract." The artist was still at work on Moses. like the others. Sweetser. " It is now thirty years. Paul III. tine Chapel. F. There are three hundred figures and heads in this vast fresco. and he began work on the Sistine Chapel. in his concise and excellent life of Michael Angelo. now that I am pope." grows Clement was now dead.. Michael Angelo excused himself on account of the contract with the heirs of Julius II. . I shall rejoice with thee in Heaven's bliss. was in He. refused to release Michael Angelo.48 MICHAEL ANGELO. gazing mildly at the blessed and redeemed souls Adam and Eve. and Paul III. that shall I not be able to effect I may tear it " ? it ? Where is the con- bringing with One day he appeared in the studio of the painter. desired that Michael Angelo should do some great work to immortalize his reign. the Madonna. "About Christ are many renowned saints. And Still if 'twixt sire and son the noblest love in Heaven. artist to paint the " Last Judgment " in the Sis- and when Paul urged the carrying-out of this plan. Clement had wished the the papal chair. . "This one statue is sufficient to be a worthy monument to Pope Julius. — . him eight cardinals." cried Paul III. The painting was not completed until nearly eight years had passed.

"Tell his Holiness. has put thee in hell." Biagio da Cesena. the Last Judgment was one of the grandest productions of the famous art-century. with ass's ears. to find that the infernal judge Minos. Heaven." Paul finally had the nude figures draped by Daniele . and four others holding the books by which the dead are to be judged. "that this IS a mere trifle. " If the painter had placed thee in purgatory. the pope's master of ceremonies. let him mend the world.^^ Paul IV. complained that so many naked figures made the painting more appropriate for bath-rooms and stables than for a chapel. either into heaven or hell. own portrait . it is useless to have recourse to me. 49 ing apostles. ! He begged the pope to punish the artist but Paul replied. because ex infernis nulla est redemptio. when the painting was thrown open was his to the public. and can be easily done . and desired to have them covered. bearing their emblems. safe in ^ Judge and a group of pleadThese are surrounded by a vast throng of saints and martyrs. I should have used every effort to help thee but since he ." said Michael Angelo. later complained that the figures were shamefully nude. As a work of art.. What was the surprise of Biagio. all of whom exemplify the saying Michael Ai^elo nowhere admits.. . paintings are easily mended. curiously regarding the .MICHAEL ANGELO. Under these the land and sea are giv- ing up their dead. any but the physically powerful/ that Below the Judge are four angels blowing trumpets towards the four quarters of the universe.

da Volterra.50 MICHAEL ANGELO. " I have no friends I need none. and whose sweet nature was to be his rest and satisfaction For such a mind as Michael Angelo's forever. the scaffold and injured his leg artist fell from seriously. Vittoria was the daughter of Fabrizio Colonna. loved Vittoria Colonna. He had written home in early life. she had married at nineteen. and wish to have none. and cared for him until he recov- These eight years had been the happiest of Michael Angelo's life. and the widow of Marchese di Pescara. but his friend. and died before his young wife could reach him. her husband soon after engaging in the wars of the time. often melancholy. and affectionate. ered. Fortunate was he that the blessed gift came." Now he had found. a friend whose tastes and aspiraAt sixty. the surgeon Kontini. and sometimes overbearing now he was gentle. He . cheerful. He way refused to allow anything to be done for him. even though late in . a woman whose mind was henceforward to be his inspiration. life. . He was wounded at Pavia. the two highest nobles and generals of her time. there are few kindred spirits. who thereupon bore the nickname of "the breeches-maker. Before this time he had been cold in manner. forced his into the house. he met and tions were like his own. Tenderly reared and highly educated." the While painting this picture. what every human being needs.

and classic literature. sympathetic. Cardinals.MICHAEL ANGELO. convent . Unselfish. says T. When her poems were published. to who forbade the abbess and nuns of San Silvestro. with a gentle and winsome into confidence. called upon her. on pain of excommunicapermit her to take the veil. " The rare virtues and consummate talents of this lady were the theme of all Italy in that brilliant age of her literature. afterwards a cardinal. bishops. religious matters. wits. Her first visit to Kome was Even the Emperor Charles manner that drew every one a continued ovation. poets. hastened to Paul tion. but the bishop of Carpentros. V. made them the subject of their correspondence with each other and with the fair mourner. Vittoria must not be lost to the world." Hallam says. '^ copies were as eagerly sought for as the novel of the season at a nineteenth-century circulating library. and an intimate friend of III. tists. She was well read in history. childless. diploma- passed them from one to another. in his life of this charming woman. She desired to enter a Vittoria. 51 was buried at Milan. well-nigh heart-broken. turned to literature as her solace. Many gifted men gave her a sincere affection. Adolphus Trollope." Vittoria Colonna in history of is one of the best illustrations intellectual what a noble and woman can do for the upbuilding of society. and she held that affection while life lasted.. Vittoria. but the body was afterwards removed to Naples with great magnificence. she .

Yet Vittoria must have had influence with the .52 MICHAEL ANGELO. and Cardinal Pompeo Colonna his book on 'The Praises of Women " and Contarini paid her the far more remarkable compliment of dedicating to her his work " On Free Will. to persuade her to visit his episcopal Verona. for the purpose of enrich- ." .. received her. that ambassador wrote to his friend Bembo. Giovio dedicated to her his life of Pescara. When she visited Ferrara. . "with every possible distinction on the score of her poetical celebrity." "Paul HI. for coming there with the intention of robbing Ferrara of its most precious treasure. the most disof letters of Venice tinguished poets and men that and Lombardy was her meet her at Ferrara. Duke Hercules IL. and a helper for the lowly. and deemed invited. Francesco della Torre. at Venice. was. "by no means well disposed towards the Colonna family. sent thither his secretary. . says Trollope. and stoned by the people. ing Verona. that he had like to have been banished by the Duke. . who had married Renee of France. Tasso made her the subject of several of his poems. his city honored by her presence." as Muratori says. He to we are told. . and authoritative as that of the Bernardo . The learned and elegant Bembo writes of her that he considered her poetical judg- ment as sound greatest masters of the art of song. And so much visit prized when Cardinal Giberto city. proved herself a companion for the most highly educated. the daughter of Louis XII.

and yet obtain everything which is placed before them. whether it be that it has never been enjoyed. and she forty-six. and for whom the years which she passed at that time in Bome she made a period of happiness. "needs not extreme youth to captivate the mind of a man who discovers in her the highest intelligence. She belonged to that class of women who. . the Bishop of Naples. . . . . apparently with no will of their own. "A woman. 53 haughty and severe old Farnese. lost." says Grimm. . no greater happiness than having found it no greater sorrow than to resign this happiness." It is probable that she first met Michael Angelo in the year 1536. they find one worthy of measuring the depths of their mind. . has described one of the Sundays which he spent in the . . the most beautiful part of their existence is that. have taken occasion to acknowledge that they owed their promotion to the purple in great measure to her. Whenever we contemplate the life of great men. . He was then sixty-one. For both Bembo and Fregoso. a portrait-painter. ." Francesco d'Ollanda. There is no deeper desire than that of meeting such a mind. never seek to extort anything by force. . which he had never before known. . or that it has been .MICHAEL ANGELO. when meeting with a power equal to their own. . who had never before been approached whom she now for the first time inspired with the happiness of yielding to a woman. How tenderly she exercised her authority over Michael Angelo.

" ^I cannot but admire the manner in which you withdraw yourself from the world. I must here complain of the public. She said to him. touching even She wished to give remotely upon painting. she is adorned with every grace which can redound . . take from it time and thought to drive away other people's ennui ? An artist who. . absorbed in his work. began to lead the conversation with the greatest art upon all possible things. however. They say that they are strange people. How should an artist. A thousand silly reproaches are brought against artists of importance. Michael Angelo assurance. ^^the lat« company ter of he calls beautiful." Michael Angelo arrived at her home on that Sunday." " Gracious lady. Vittoria. No one. . pure in conduct.54 MICHAEL ANGELO. on the contrary. without. ." replied Michael Angelo. and how you have disposed the labor of your whole life as one single. whom to a woman's praise. "these are undeserved praises but. . can be so natural and human as great artists. that they are not to be approached. from useless conversation. "who could never speak without elevating those with whom she conversed and even the place where she was. and from all the offers of princes who desire paintings from your hand. . how you avoid it all. as the conversation has taken this turn. and acquainted with the Latin tongue in short. great work. of Michael Angelo and Yittoria. that there is no bearing with them. instead of satisfying the highest demands of When — . .

to greatness. as It is true. a shadow of the pencil with which he paints. we need take no lantern to look for them they stand at the corner of every street throughout the world. "Vittoria began a eulogium upon painting she spoke of its ennobling influence upon a people. says d'Ollanda. noble and religious by the mind producing nothing makes the soul so religious and pure as the endeavor to create something perfect. True art is it. made For. a striving after harmony. a melody." And then. .MICHAEL ANGELO. tries to suit himself to the great 55 public. his art. . or a brilliant woman. . in the midst of long separa. who has nothing strange or peculiar in his personal exterior. ready for for those all who seek them. how it led them strives after — .tions and many sorrows. True painting is only an image of the perfection of God. — to piety. . and whoever feel it. to glory. — will never become an extraordinary mind. until the tears came into her eyes from the emotion within. and sincerity. . this affection of Vittoria and Michael Angelo shed its transcendent light over two great lives." For ten or twelve years. but she lacks tenderness and sincerity the world soon loses When political Rome changes made it necessary for her to leave St. regards the ordinary race of artists. We may admire a beautiful if its allegiance. or rather what the Avorld calls so. sympathy. and go to the Convent of Catherine at Viterbo. It was impossible not to love a woman with such tenderness. for God is perfection. who it is striving after something divine.

56 MICHAEL ANGELO. whom you have so well and perfectly at the to serve . the " Crucifixion of Peter. for writing too frequently. on the right hand of the Lord ." version of Paul. that he would give you a supernatural grace to paint this Christ then I saw it. And I tell you that it gave me joy that the angel on the right hand is so for the Archangel Michael will place beautiful you." not keep yourself However she may chide him to her. and that one could not desire more nor reach I forward to desire so much. and all the day long in sweet colloquy with your paintings . and that you must abandon the Pauline Chapel. that is. so that I from the brides of Christ. I desired that which . while he painted iii the Pauline Chapel.." that and the " ConIn 1542 she wrote him tenderly. so wonderful that it surBeing passed in every way my expectations. Michael Angelo wrote her daily. will be necessary that I leave St. that it should stand in every part in the highest perfection.. emboldened by your miracles. And meanwhile I know not you otherwise than to pray to this sweet Christ. without finding myself with the sisters at the appointed hours. she had the greatest faith in God. Michael Angelo. how judgment day. shall fall away. his words and works are most precious When he paints for her a picture. and you from his vicar. Catherine's Chapel. thinking if you and I continue to write according to it my obligation and your courtesy. " I now see marvellously fulfilled. after the " Last Judgment " was finished. " I have not answered your letter before. writes.

and frequently approaching to the sublimity of Dante. These he had bound up in the same book which he received from her her for whom. Stamped by a flow of eloquence.MICHAEL ANGELO." says " The producJohn Edward the number of the most perfect of his own or any subsequent age. Could emulate the perfect grace of thine. ** And well I see how false it were to think That any work. containing one hundred and three of her sonnets. of mine." A She inspired him to write poetry. backward shrink. all. Taylor. a purity of style. She gave to Michael Angelo a vellum book. he said. the strength and constancy of a nature that gives a single and lasting devotion. faded and frail." He wrote back his thanks with the sweet self! ! What delicate man she loved appreciation of the genius of the .. ^'rank unquestionably in tions of our great artist's pen." How it must have stimulated and blessed him But more than all else she loved Michael Angelo for the one thing women value most in men." . they discover a depth of thought rarely equalled. and daring. and art. painted. thousand works from mortals like to me Can ne'er repay what Heaven has given thee. and to 57 as entreat you to command me altogether yours in all and through. and sent him forty new ones which she composed at the convent of Yiterbo. Genius. abnegation of love. " I would have done more than for any one else whom I could name in the world. an habitual nobleness of sentiment.

after a contest between Paul III. one undivided ray. same flame. the eternal fount of Such I beheve my love: for. for neither' s self reserved. and the . tempted forth. Several of his most beautiful sonnets were to Vittoria : — " If it be true that any beauteous thing all. Nor is it marvellous. as in her So fair. In 1544 the Colonna estates were confiscated by the popC. Repose upon the eyes which it resembleth.68 MICHAEL ANGELO. Kaises the pure and just desire of man From earth to God. If the soul doth by nature. Desiring only the return of love. from inward unity. exalted piety." : " If a chaste love. Whose every joy and sorrow are the same. One spirit only governing two hearts. I view the gentle work of her Creator. As to its end.— Are signs of an indissoluble faith. Enamored through the eyes. If that — which one desires the other swift Anticipates. And through them riseth to the primal love. equal fortune between two who love. If If the Raising them both to Heaven on equal wings. Since the effect is not of my own power. If mutual love. Shall aught have power to loosen such a bond ? " John Edward Taylor. in whom I all besides forget. I have no care for any other thing Whilst thus I love. — Shine forth to each. — If one soul in two bodies made eterne. and honors in admiring For who adores the Maker needs must love his work. impelled by an unconscious power.

the fairest light in this world will. She requested to be buried like the sisters with is whom she last resided." At the beginning of 1547 she became dangerously ill.MICHAEL ANGELO. as he kissed her hand. Condivi. in which the latter were deand Vittoria retired to the Benedictine Convent of St. and poet Fracastoro said. that never made so fair a face." He wrote several sonnets to her memory. " He bore such a love to her that I remember to have heard him say that he grieved at nothing so much as that when he went to see her pass from this life he had not kissed her brow or her face. be extinguished and taken from our eyes. Anna. She died towards the last of February. and so entirely were her wishes carried out that her place of sepulture unknown. . and was conveyed to the palace of her relative Giuliano Cesarini. Says his pupil. and tears were in all eyes. "When the prime mover of my many sighs Heaven took through death from out her earthly Nature. 59 powerful Colonnas. as if insensible. Here her health failed. the only one of her kindred in Eome. After her death he frequently stood trembling and last. The feated. place. 1547. Kemaiued ashamed. Michael Angelo staid beside her to the very When she was gone he almost lost his senses. celebrated physician ! at the age of fifty-seven. from causes by no means clear. ''Would that a physician for her mind could be found Otherwise.

placed . When Paul III. who loved him. the aged artist boldly replied to the cardinal. if these fatigues which I endure do not benefit my soul. unheeding my impassioned cries! hopes fallacious! O thou spirit of grace. am your eminence or any one else. He was now seventy-one years old. you see what I gain. Except through death. Vainly did cruel Death attempt to stay The rumor of thy virtuous renown. Peter's. For the remaining eighteen years of his life. That Lethe's waters could not wash away! A thousand leaves. nor to thee would heaven convey." O O Henry W. without compensation. The monument Fortunately Vittoria lived to see this honor conferred upon him. of Julius had at last been comand placed in the Church of San Pietro in Vincola." not nor will I consent to be obliged to tell. In 1546.60 MICHAEL ANGELO. Where art thou now ? Earth holds in its embrace Thy lovely limbs. and Michael Angelo was commissioned to carry forward pleted." The pope. a refuge and a crown. summoned Michael Angelo to talk over some alleged defects. "Holy left to me. Your office is to bring money and guard it from thieves. to Father. and the designing of the building is Then he said to the pope. with Cardinal Marcello. fate. since he hath stricken thee down. died. Longfellow. Antonio di San Gallo. " I the work. Speak of thee. the director of the building of St.. I lose both time and labor. thy holy thoughts the skies. he devoted himself to this great labor. what I ought or wish to do.

and who loved him so much. saying. . Above all. . and what sort of family it is. who had been his servant for twenty-six years. and good education. but not more beautiful. At Urbino's death. in deep grief." said the sculptor. his 61 both soul and body that of the hands on his shoulders." watch for his com- One day the artist said to him. . and slept at night in his clothes beside him." other hope than that of rejoining him in Paradise. for it is a great step. "Thou poor creature. "It will be more grand. when his master was about eighty. good blood. he said. and immediately gave him two thousand crowns. though he had amassed a large property. the better to forts." die." Michael Angelo was devotedly attached to Urbino. seek the counsel of God. in the . the sculptor wrote him "not to care about a great dowry. says Vasari. But of this God has given me a foretaste. by Brunelleschi." Michael Angelo lived very simply in Kome. most of which he left to his nephew Leonardo. but that you should look to a healthy mind.MICHAEL ANGELO." When asked if the new dome would not surpass : Duomo of Florence. " that he had nursed him in sickness. a healthy body. to whom and his family he was tenderly attached. Michael Angelo wrote Vasari. I must save — thee from that. " When I " Serve some one else. "You benefit do not doubt. " ISTor have I now left any of his " infinite loss. When this nephew was married. what wilt thou do ? " was the reply.

and no thought is now born in my mind in which death is not mixed. but he replied. without looking at the elevations. Heath Wilson. that. where no one becomes old. and made designs for various other buildHe erected the Church ings and public squares. of France a work in marble." furnished plans for several He Koman gates which Pius IV.. wished to rebuild. I shall not fail to do so." says Mr. if it be possible to sculpture or paint in the other world. most blessed death that he has died his own departure did not grieve him. and skilj ." was again and again urged to return by the reigning dukes. and in painting. taste. in bronze. "then. except an infinite anything now artist left me sorrow. " which exceeds the plan of this church in beauty and variety of form. amid the ruins of the Baths of Diocletian. The to Florence. " You must see by my handwriting that I touch the twenty-fourth hour. the eye is delighted by the evidence on all sides of the imagination.. as did the leaving me nor in this treacherous world. of St. with so is many troubles. " Should death interrupt this desire. " Nothing exists in architecture. the form of the whole so original.62 MICHAEL ANGELO. . the lines of the plan so gracefully disposed. The general proportions are so harmonious. Mary of the Angels. He promised Francis I. Truly is the best part of my being gone with him." He was implored on every side to carve statues and paint pictures." said Michael Angelo. who succeeded Paul IV.

which he intended should be placed on an altar over his own tomb but it was left unfinished from a flaw in the marble. My mind expression finds in thee alone. To this youth. Vasari found the aged artist working at it late at night. I follow where thou wilt.MICHAEL ANGELO. And walking onward step by step with thee. With thee. when he had . the Florentine professor and court scholar. Cold in the sun. and warm in winter days. my friend. and is now in the cathedral in Florence. heart must every thought of mine supply. He painted but two portraits. Thus like the moonlight's silver ray I shine: only see her beams on the far sky. declared to be the most attractive young man he had ever known." My will. one of Vittoria Colonna. Thy We His last work was a group of the Virgin and the dead Christ. a helpless thing. aspiring wing. . whom he sculptor never ceased to study." architect in this 63 superb work or to drew a picture representing himself as an aged man in a cart. and one of young Tommaso dei Cavalieri. Michael Angelo wrote this beautiful sonnet : — " Through thee I catch a gleam of tender glow. When the sun's fiery rays are o'er her thrown. whom Yarchi. The once oppressing burdens lighter grow. — rests only upon thine. The great When : old he tenderly loved. my grovelling thoughts I heavenward Borne upward by thy bold. Which with my own eyes I had failed to see. with these words underneath Ancora iryijjara (still learning). shown by the venerable work. raise.

so Once. " If life be a pleasure. Michael Angeio suffered the lantern which he held in his hand to fall. though all was done Florentine him that love and honor could possibly do. the greatest benefit to him. Condivi. my body to the earth. That winter his strength failed rapidly." possessions to The pope and the Eomans were determined to . His last words to them were. arisen from his bed because he could not sleep. He did not fear death. and was constantly aiding artists and others. Daniele da Volterra. and bids me go with him some day I shall fall myself. " I am so old that Death often pulls me by the cape. for he had many devoted friends among all classes. and they were left in darkness. were looking at the statue. for he said. A tallow candle was placed in his pasteboard cap. and my worldly my nearest of kin. and the light of life will be extinguished. He remarked." To the last Michael Angeio was always learning. like this lamp. the great man passed away." Between three and four o'clock in the afternoon of the 18th of February. in the ninetieth year of his age. In 1563-64 he was elected vice-president of the Academy of Fine Arts. " I give my soul to God. 1564. neither should that displease us. which he declared had been of .64 MICUAEL ANGELO. and Cavalieri stood by his bedside. as they as to leave his hands free for work. since death also is sent by the hand of the for same master. He used often to visit the Vatican to study the Torso Belvedere. the same month in which Vittoria died.

solitary. therefore. architecture. He had allowed no obstacles to stand in his path. and Michael Angelo/' He had — . or petty. terly work. Shakespeare. children loved him. and for them he would stop and make sketches on the street. and buried in Santa Croce. been ambitious. Taine says. He had loved liberty and uprightness. 65 keep the dead Michael Angelo in Kome but his wish had been to lie in Florence. disguised as a bale of merchandise. was conveyed to the latter city. In the month of July a grand memorial service was held. poetry. He spoke sometimes too plainly. accom2)anied by thousands of citizens. The body. He was too noble to be trifling. painting. After thirty years of voluntary exile. neither lack of money nor jealousy of artists. he has left an imperishable name. character. the Tuscan artists following with their lighted torches. Beethoven. the melancholy. He had faith in himself. for the illustrious dead. He had the fearlessness of one who rightly counts manhood above all titles. and to such a degree as to seem to belong to another race namely. engineering. on Sunday night. in the Church of San Lorenzo. paintings and statuary surrounding a catafalque fifty-four feet high. but almost always justly. and devoted to his maswith the will-power and intensity which belong to genius. March 12th. . great-souled man lay in his native Florence. or self-indulgent.MICHAEL ANGELO. Great in sculpture. Dante. Cold and unapproachable though he was. . " There are four men in the world of art and of literature exalted above all others.

more like revelations of . . in her "Early Italian Painters. npHE world -L perhaps contains no example of a genius so universal. so athirst for the infinite. engineer. in his " History of the Literature of Europe. Ardent and versatile as youth patient and persevering as age a most profound and original thinker. . whose sleeping souls have not yet Thus writes Taine of Da Vinci. poet. so incapable of self-contentment. chemist. according to our common estimate of the age in which he lived. the greatest mathematician and most ingenious mechanic of his time architect. so naturally refined.LEONARDO DA " VINCI. so far in advance of his of own and His countenances express they incredible sensibility and mental power overflow with unexpressed ideas and emotions." subsequent ages. " These are. musician. . ." says of the published extracts from the great volumes of manuscript left by Leonardo." ^^ The miracle of that age of miracles." Mrs. painter " ! Hallam. Jameson calls Leonardo da Vinci. Michael Angelo's personages alongside of his are simply heroic athletes Eaphael's virgins are only placid children. so creative. " Travels in Italy. in his lived.

When he was twenty-five. and such circumstances. and other names illustrious system of Copernicus — the — the very theories of recent which made Galileo. a man of considerable property and influence. near Florence. Castelli." Thi^ man. In an age of so much dogmatism. in 1452. not as to the of the fifteenth century.LEONARDO DA the superstructure of lished basis. that some parts of physical science had already attained a height which mere books do not record. especially in it must be by an hypothesis. 67 physical truths vouchsafed to a single mind. not perhaps in the most precise language. he married the first of his four wives. but so as to strike us with something like the awe of preternatural knowledge. but as to his originality in so many discov- which probably no one man. Piero Antonio da Vinci. he first laid down the grand principle of Bacon. has ever made. VINCI. " If any doubt could be harbored. His father. than its reasoning upon any estab- The discoveries Kepler. was a notary of the republic. that experiment and observation must be the guides to just theory in the inves- tigation of nature. not very untenable. geologists. . are anticipated by Da Vinci within the compass of a few pages. right of Leonardo da Vinci to stand as the first name eries. a village in the Val d'Arno. at Castello da Vinci." was born in 1452. which is beyond all doubt. whom Vasari thinks " specially endowed by the hand of God himself. or on the most conclusive reasoning. Albiera di Giovanni Amadori.

He loved nature intensely. Leonardo was the especial pet and pride. The handsome boy. " In arithmetic he often confounded the master who taught him. made companions of the river Arno. he not only learned to play on the guitar and lute. and warmhearted. the same year. a famous Florentine artist." cheerful.68 LEONARDO DA VINCI. Caterina." and advised that the youth become . probably because he seemed to have been given all the talents origi- home nally intended for the Da Vinci family." He had that omnivorous appetite for books which Higginson calls the sure indication of genius. Passionately fond of music. by his reasonings and by the difficulty of the problems he proposed. the changing clouds. when sent to school." and with " a grace beyond expression. but invented a lyre of his own. save that five years later she married. presumably in own circle. Leonardo. He studied every flower and tree about the country home . on which he improvised both the song and the air. who came into her Among the the twelve other children of the advocate. brought home his illegitimate son. little is known. On the margins of his books he sketched such admirable drawings that his father took them to Andrea Verrochio. and the snow-capped mountains. who was " amazed. Of Leonardo's mother. whose "beauty of person." says Vasari. eager. learned everything with avidity. born whom she tenderly cared for as her own. " was such that it has never been sufficiently extolled. enthusiastic.

H. holding some vestments. according to Vasari. 69 Leonardo entered the studio of Verroeighteen. tSt. and at once became deeply absorbed in his work. He studied perspective. being at his country house. was there visited by one of the peasants on his estate. who." Verrochio became so discouraged " because a mere child could do more than himself. Piero da Vinci. arranging on these soft drapery dipped in plaster. Leonardo " Ser made his famous shield Rotella del Fico. " sl space of sunlight in the cold.LEONARDO DA a painter. in his " Studies in the History of the Renaissance. work is now the Academy of Fine Arts in Florence. chio VINCI. requested Pater says. having cut down a fig-tree on his farm." as W. and with his fellow-students made chemical researches into the improvement of colors." This in that he would never touch the brush again. had made a shield from part of it with his own hands. and Verrochio looked upon Leonardo's angel. When the work was finished. labored old picture. . and Leonardo to paint an angel in the left-hand corner. for the monks of Val- lombrosa. About this time. which he drew carefully in black and white on fine linen also heads of smiling women and children out of terra cotta: already he had that divine gift of painting the " Da Vinci smile. He began to make models in clay." which seems to have been born with him and to have died with him. Verrochio was engaged in painting a picture of when he was about . John baptizing Christ.

was brought back to him smooth and delicately rounded. into which no one but himself ever entered. He then covered it with gypsum. a number of lizards. " Accordingly. the countryman having great skill in taking birds and in fishing. breathing poison and flames. without saying anything to Leonardo as to whom it was for. therefore. dragon-flies. but. newts. bats. serpents. he desired the latter to paint something upon it. he it straightened it at the fire. this he caused to issue . promised to do.70 LEONARDO DA VINCI. variously adapted and joined together. he began to consider what he could paint upon it that might best and most effectually terrify whomsoever might approach it. finding it crooked. locusts. giving to a turner. instead of the rude and shapeless form in which he had received it. hedgehogs. and. begging that he would be pleased to cause the same to be painted This the latter very willingly for him in Florence. and being often very Having serviceable to Ser Piero in such matters. and badly made. and every sort of strange animal of similar kind on which he could lay his hands from this assemblage. Leonardo carried to one of his rooms. and surrounded by an atmosphere of fire . glow-worms. and then brought it to Ser Piero. producing the same effect with that formerly attributed to the head of Medusa. For this purpose. having prepared it to his liking. taken the shield with him to Florence. it coarse. and. therefore. he one day took it in hand. he formed a hideous and appalling monster.

with poison reeking from the cavernous throat. Leonardo opened it to him. flames darting from the eyes. " When this work. he made Ser Piero step within to look at it. having knocked at the door. therefore. and carry it away. . startled at the first glance. telling him nevertheless to wait a little without. or believing the monster he beheld to be a painting he therefore turned to rush out. and. But the latter. and vapors rising from the nostrils in such sort that the result was indeed a most fearful and monstrous creature. not expecting any such thing. so far as he was concerned. it has been executed take it. and. was completed. which neither the countryman nor Ser Piero any longer inquired for. having returned into the room. at this he labored until the odors arising from all those dead animals filled the room with a mortal fetor. and. — ' The shield will serve the purpose for which . since. . won- for this is the effect it was designed to produce. shading the the light falling on the painting was window so that somewhat dimmed.' "The work seemed something more than . saying. Leonardo went to his father and told him that he might send for the shield at his earliest convenience. but Leonardo withheld him.LEONARDO DA VINCI. 71 from a dark and rifted rock. he placed the shield on the easel. to which the zeal of Leonardo and the love which he bore to art rendered him insensible or indifferent. drew back. not supposing that to be the shield. the work was finished Ser Piero went accordingly one morning to the room for the shield.

which stood in a vase by the Virgin. it to the end Some time after. The " Adoration of the Magi " and a "Neptune in his Chariot drawn by Sea-horses" were among Da Vinci's works at this time." This for a tapestry curtain." in the Uffizi Gallery. twined about with green. For the King of Portugal he painted a cartoon " Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden." Leonardo painted also the "Head of Medusa. however godlike. but he afterwards silently bought from a merchant another shield. Ser Piero secretly by Leonardo to certain merchants for one hundred ducats." Of the flowers and fruits in this picture. The " Madonna della Caraffa. Vasari says. whereon there was painted a heart transfixed with an arrow. and was highly prized by Clement VII. which could produce similar results with equal truth.. they are such that there is no genius in the world. hissing serpents. sold the shield painted sold to him by the same merchants for three hun- dred ducats." celebrated for the with dew upon them. and he highly fanciful Leonardo. He was also studying military engineering. com* . — cartoon is lost.72 LEONARDO DA VINCL commended the derful to Ser Piero. and this he gave to the countryman. "For careful execution and fidelity to nature. has also disexquisite beauty of the flowers appeared. and it subsequently fell into the hands of the Duke of Milan. who idea of considered himself obliged to him for of his life.

. . ing the course of the Arno. He said. '• In the silence of the things which you have studied. would then let them fly into the air. . which does not permit you to study and become skilful the study of art serves for nourishment to the body as well as the soul. Do not allege as an excuse your poverty. thus restoring to them the liberty they had lost. " When he passed places where birds were sold. it is an unerring sign that the workman has but scant ability and that the task is above his comprehension.. 78 pleted a book of designs for mills and other appa- by water.LEONARDO DA ratus working VINCI. having paid the price demanded for them by the sellers. Vasari says. Yet so tender-hearted was he. When all seems easy. invented machines for by chang- dredging seaports and channels. there is no artist. and urged the making of a canal from Pisa to Florence. . and. always carried at his girdle. recall the ideas of the during the day. that. which he transferred to his sketch-book." He loved art. When the spirit does not work with the hands. . he would frequently take them from their cages. Still he did not neglect his painting. a thing accomplished two hundred years later." Enjoying all athletic exercises so strong that . He attended the execution of criminals to catch the expression of faces or contortion of limbs in agony.. He went about the streets of Florence looking for picturesque or beautiful faces. Design in your spirit the contours and outlines of the figures that you have seen night. .

Possibly they felt that he lacked a steady and dominant purpose. at an opportune time. without derogating from any one else. . and. " 2. The Medici did not encoursatisfied in Florence. he could bend a horseshoe in his hands exceedingly fond of horses. I know. note these things below " 1. He finally made up his mind : to try his fortune elsewhere. . I have a method of making very light bridges. how : — . always fascinating with his intelligent conversation and elegant And yet the ambitious Leonardo was not address. I will endeavor. I shall hope to put them into I briefly execution. and wrote the following letter to Lodovico Sforza. he still — found time to be the society of Florence . if they seem valuable to you.74 LEONA EDO DA VINCI. life and joy of the brilliant always leading. fit to be carried most easily. of which he owned several. strong and secure against fire and battle easy and commodiI have ous to lift up and to place in position. in case of the siege of a place. methods also to burn and destroy those of the enemy. to make known to your Excellency certain secrets of my own. and that the inventions and operations of the said instruments are not different from those in common use. E-egent of Milan " My Most Illustrious Lord. age him as they did Michael Angelo. . — — Having seen and duly considered the experiments of all those who repute themselves masters and constructors of warlike instruments. with which to follow the flight of enemies and others.

what can . with serious injury and dious by excavations and straight and winding subterranean ways. in marble. and to scaling-ladders and other instruments pertinent to such an expedition. and vessels that shall make resistance to the most powerful bombardment and powders and smokes. according to the variety of events. or terra cotta. shall mangonels. "4. and other engines of marvellous efficacy. I shall build various of offence. bronze. " 8. I have means. balistse. in designing public edifices and private houses. with which to throw inflammable matters. many instruments most efficient in attack or defence. I can do I can carry on works of sculpture. In time of peace I believe I can satisfy very well and equal all others in architecture. it And when shall I have means of preparing . 75 the ditches. and. When I the operations of artillery are imposconstruct sible. I have also kinds of cannon most commo- and easy to carry. and out of the common use . " 5. " and infinite means happen to be upon the sea. in short. to come to any given point without noise. 9. whose smoke causes great fright to the enemy. confusion. also in pictures. even though it be necessary to pass under moats and rivers. "10.LEONARDO LA away the water from make an infinite variety of to take VINCI. and in conducting water from one place to another.

— — Lucrezia Crivelli. Leonardo took with him a silver lyre." Such a union of gentleness and sincerity with genius Who could with! stand its influence ! At Milan Leonardo remained for nineteen years. was proud to surround himself with the most brilliant men and women of the age. on which he played so skilfully that the duke and his court were enchanted. wherein no other man could ever equal him. " Whatever he did. a gifted woman. designed by himself. One of the first pictures painted for the Eegent was a portrait of a favorite. which will be the immortal glory and eternal honor of the happy memory of my lord your father. formerly called La Belle Feron- . sweetness. Cecilia. Also. made in the shape of a horse's head. VINCI." The result of this letter was a summons to the court at Milan. and grace. " bore an impress of harmony. though dissolute.76 LEONARDO DA any other. skilled in music and poetry. and here some of his most remarkable works were done. be done equal to whoever he may be. Leonardo painted for her a picture of the Virgin. for which she probably was the model. The infant Saviour is represented as blessing a newblown Madonna rose. and of the illustrious honor of Sforza. the beautiful Cecilia Gallerani. the emblem of St. I shall undertake the execution of the bronze horse." says Vasari. goodness. The next portrait it is now in the Louvre was that of another beauty. where Lodovico. loved by the duke. truthfulness.

and his wife." a representation of the heavens and the revolving planets. and even the shadows transparent. paint and mould . men and women. while a person in imitation of the Deity recited complimentary verses. made almost countless drawings of horses in repose or on the battle-field. Leonardo invented for the entertainment of the guests at the wedding feast a mechanical device called " The Paradise. 77 I. and did not complete his clay model for ten long years. A genius like Da Vinci spends ten years on the model of an equestrian statue." In honor of both these portraits Latin poems were written by the poets of soft pure lines.LEONARDO DA VINCL niere. Gian Galeazzo Sforza. studied every movement of live horses and every muscle of dead ones. the latter picture " beyond all description beautiful and charming. and yet some artists of the present day. many of which are still preserved at Windsor Castle. Sweetser. especially the equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius in Eome." in the now preserved Ambrosian Library. Leonardo now began on the great equestrian statue of the warrior Francesco Sforza. Isabella of Aragon. the the time. When these persons were married. with a warm and brilliant coloring and face. Leonardo also painted two fine portraits of the lawful duke. which opened as the bride and bridegroom approached. He studied ancient works of art." says head full of light. "is at once proud and melancholy. who was a favorite of Francis "The Mr.

" says Yasari. Ferrara asked the use of the model that a bronze horse with a statue of himself might be made but for the . and expect to ! Two years later the Duke of archers. few weeks or months win fame When the clay model was exhibited in public at the royal wedding of the sister of Gian Galeazzo to the Emperor Maximilian. astronomy. anatomy. to which he afterwards added all the nerves. in their due order.78 horses or LEONARDO DA human beings after a VINCI. and other matters. hydrostatics. and next supplied the muscles. of which the first are affixed . mechanics. proportion. it became a target of study. optics. When the French entered Milan in 1499. "He also. During these years Leonardo founded the Milan Academy. set forth the entire structure. and poets and critics extolled it as beyond the works of Greece or Eome. "filled a book with drawings in red crayons. the enthusiasm was very great. outlined with the pen. all copies made with the utmost care from In this book he bodies dissected by his own hand. arrangement and disposition of the bones. perspective. to them on botany. and prevented the work from being cast in bronze. Probably many of the manuscript volumes which he left were notes of lectures deHe must have spoken livered to the students. He wrote a book on the anatomy of the horse. Unfortunately the ensuing wars depleted the treasury of Milan. and the model finally disappeared. the King of France refused. All Italy talked of it.

and of those parts which contain the most of them. in all the different attitudes they adopt or invent. that many artists are they may appear stiff great designers. will in giving a particular know to a certainty. and muscles positions. . which and how many of the muscles give which of them. more like a bundle of radishes than naked muscles. as in the habit of doing who. and not all the rest. or. according to the just rules of the anatomy of the nerves. in order that may make ." " Leonardo said in his notes. He will not imitate those who. that only marked and apparent. power of cohesion and the third impart the motion. motion to any part of the body. he . or any other parts. It is necessary that a painter should be a good anatomist. bones. that in his attitudes and gestures he may be able to design the naked parts of the human frame.LEONARDO DA VINCI. make use of the same muscles in the arms. . or chest." Leonardo irrigated the dry plains of Lombardy by utilizing the waters of the Ticino Eiver. and which of the cartilages they surround. so that they have more the appearance of a bag of nuts than the human superficies. back. The painter who has obtained a perfect knowledge of the nature of the tendons and muscles. rather. by swellrise and contribute to it ing. occasion their shortening. in his different may know what he particular nerve or muscle is the cause of such a particular movement. 79 to the bones. the second give the or holding firmly. make the naked limbs and without grace. and that.. visiting ..

Maximilian and Francesco but they have long since faded. Lodovico ordered them reconstructed In the refectory. and towns throughout Lombardy for and carefully studying the canals of Egypt under the Ptolemies. He studied ancient In his epitaph. Lodovico.80 LEONARDO DA cities VINCI. ancients. While the regent in no wise discontinued his profligate habits. As she had shown an especial fondness for the Dominican church and convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie. About the year 1496. . the and embellished for her. after Leonardo had been eleven years the Court of IMilan. at Vaprio. many he calls himself. and their grateful disciple. artist painted kneeling portraits of Beatrice. unscrupulous and immoral. In 1492. their science of proportion. composed in his architecture also. her husband. this purpose. Francesco Melzi. I have done what I could may posterity pardon me. "The admirer of the One thing is lacking to me. making a beautiful bath-room in the garden. by gratifying her taste for religious things. and their two little children. lifetime. wedding festivities. he yet desired to please his at wife. Leonardo began his im. especially in the time of which became a favorite home for him. adorned with colored marbles and a statue of Diana. married the gentle and saintly Leonardo conducted the grand Beatrice d'Este. and designed and decorated the bride's apartments in the Castello della Rocca. ." He designed a palace for Count Giovanni Melzi. war the residence of his — beloved pupil.

and never think of descending from his scaffolding to eat or drink till night. so completely absorbed '^ At other times." says Banhe would remain three or four days without touching it. He used to say that his hand trembled whenever he attempted to paint it. he asked counsel of a friend. Sometimes he would go to his work at daybreak. take the shortest road to the convent. from which she sometimes had to be removed by force. where he would add a few strokes to one of his heads. Leonardo came daily to his masterpiece. dello. At last. Ten of these are now in the Hermitage in St. set out in all haste from the citadel. as if criticising also seen him at and separate studies of each figure. Petersburg. The prayer before the tomb of the Duchess Bianca. who comforted him by saying. I have midday. He was long absorbed in his head of Christ. where he was modelling his colossal horse. and remaining with crossed arms contemplating was he in his work. only coming for an hour or two. " them himself. where daily the sweet and broken-hearted wife came to remain for hours in meditation and mortal work in the refectory. Leonardo. his figures. and then return immediately. when the sun in the zenith causes all the streets of Milan to be deserted." Leonardo made a cartoon of the whole picture.LEONARDO DA VINCI. Bernardo Zenale. in despair. without seeking the shade. "Oh. 81 '* Last Supper. and. the error into which thou hast fallen is one from which only the Divine Being himself can deliver ." Here.

determined to explain himself likewise . and. and hastened Leonardo at his work on the "Last Supper " that he might see it completed. be of good cheer. the case before and since in the world's history. for thou wilt never . as memory of his neglected Beatrice. realized too late the wrong he had done. as beautiful as possible. only coming forth to do penance at the sanctuaries where his lovely and neglected wife had worshipped. complained to Lodovico. knowing the prince to be intelligent and judicious. LEONARDO DA for it is not in thy VINCI. The prior of the convent could not understand why Leonardo should meditate over his work. and leave the Christ imperfect. might have been expected from such an ill-assorted union.82 thee . Santa Maria delle Grazie. He now wished to make her last resting-place. in haste to have the picture finished. who courteously entreated the artist to go on as rapidly as possible. as has been often after her marriage. and now strove to remedy it by causing a hundred masses a day to be said for her soul. Vasari says. died of sorrow in five years Lodovico. " Leonardo. in that of any- power nor one else to give greater divinity and beauty to any figures than thou hast done to these of James the Greater and the Less therefore. be able to accomplish the Christ after such apostles. meantime raising a magnificent tomb to the Beatrice." Leonardo finished the work in about three years. shutting himself up in remorse for two weeks in a chamber hung with black.

He therefore discoursed with him at some length respecting art. This made the duke laugh with all his heart he declared Leonardo to be completely in the right and the poor prior. went away to drive on the digging in his garden. utterly confounded. however.LEONARDO DA fully VINCI. feature that should properly render the counte- nance of a man who. although he had never chosen to do so with the prior. and after if he could find no better he need never be all at any great loss. after so many benefits re- ceived from his Master. and in the completion of those conceptions to which they afterwards give form and expression with the hand. which also caused him some anxiety. and the Creator of the world with regard to that second. — — . . he would make search. for there would always be the head of that troublesome and impertinent prior. since he did not think it possible to imagine a form of . had possessed a heart so depraved as to be capable of betraying his Lord. He further informed the duke that there were still wanting to him two heads. and made it perfectly manifest to his compre- men of genius are sometimes producing most when they seem to be laboring least. 83 on the subject with him. "The second head still wanting was that of Judas. one of which. ." The " Last Supper " was painted in oils instead . : peace. he could not hope to find on earth. and left Leonardo in . their hension that minds being occupied in the elucidation of their ideas. that of the Saviour.

in a stately hall.84 LEONARDO DA VINCI. Excellent copies were made by picture Da Vinci's its pupils. Mattliew. and Mazza repainted everything except the heads of Matthew. The Saviour and his apostles are seated at a long table. In 1796. and soon began to fade. one is able to perceive only the general design as the work of Leonardo. it again lay under water for two the picture that he determined to carry weeks. of fresco. then James the Greater. His work proved unsatisfactory. the troops used the refectory as a stable. cutting off the feet of Christ. Later one of the monks made a doorway through it. On . At present. I. James the Less . Thomas on his right hand. and the prior who had permitted it was banished from the convent. Thaddeus. was in Milan. Three or four years later. so that the great has found way into thousands of homes. and the project was abandoned. Thaddeus. The indignant people soon compelled him to cease. The painting was soon damaged by the refectory lying for some time under water. and Simon. Peter. mew next. with Christ in the centre. when Francis France. In 1726 an artist named Belotti restored (?) it. Philip. but none could be found able to do it. the left is Bartholo- then Andrew. leaving nothing untouched but the sky. . he was so impressed with it back to and tried to find architects who could secure it from injury by defences of wood and iron so that it could be transported. In 1515. Judas holding the money-bag. when Napoleon entered Italy. John. and Simon.

Lodovico fled. 85 The moment chosen by the painter is tliat given by Matthew " And as they did eat. Leonardo has shown the boldest and grandest naturalism. probably the "Last Supper" would never have been painted in Santa Maria delle Grazie. but was captured by the French. Leonardo went back to his old home in Florence. his friend Luca Paciolo^ who had .LEONARDO DA VINCI. C. Verily I say unto you. Lord. in her valuable life of Da Vinci. taking with him two persons. "In his dramatic rendering of the disciples. and kept a prisoner for ten years. One of you shall betray me/ into : ' full and various play." Most who visit Milan of its to see the lace-work in stone exquisite cathedral. W. Louis enforcing his claim by arms. that one of you shall betray me. and laid claim to the duchy of Milan. Heaton says of this picture. until his death. joy and inspiration of thousands Thus strangely has the bitterness of one soul led to the ! XII. And they were exceeding sorrowful. and began every one of them to say unto him. he said. came to the throne of France. is it I ? " Mrs. In 1498. go also to the tells alike famous painting which into his faces. Had it not been to atone to Beatrice. They are all of them real. living men with passions like unto us — passions called for the moment by the fearful words of the Master. the story of a great artist struggling to put immortal thoughts and the story of the remorse of a heart of a lovely human being in breaking the woman.

the chamber wherein est delight. may do so to perfection in this head. at Milan. since had changed scarcely more than a boy. wherein every peculiarity that could be depicted by the utmost subtlety of the pencil has been faithfully reproduced. Florence life. " a and his beautiful pupil Salai." From this dear disciple the sixty drawings artist painted many of his angels' heads. caused the great" When finished. Now he went away. with curling and wavy hair. in the Anna. The eyes have . "Whoever how far art can imitate nature. the famous painter the "Last Supper. the third wife of Francesco del Giocondo. which amazed the whole population. all hastening to behold this marvel of Leonardo's. The cartoon. — the was an altarMadonna. for which book the artist his son as he called him. the author of De Divina made Proportione. the latter of loved." the scholar. youth of singular grace and beauty of person. Ginevra Benci. and the infant Christ. now Royal Academy at London. St. he was in middle of forty-eight years old. a famous beauty. as if going to a solemn festival. whom it is conjectured that Leonardo shall desire to see Yasari says. old and young. VINCI. a feature of personal beauty by which Leonardo was greatly pleased." He now painted two noble Florentine ladies. it stood was crowded for two days by men and women. polished and renowned his return His first work on piece for the Annunciata Church.86 lived -with LEONARDO DA him three years . and the Mona Lisa.

and slightly livid circles. and it may be truly said . a manner that could not be more natural than beautiful and delicately roseate . " Mona Lisa was exceedingly beautiful and while Leonardo was painting her portrait. admirable in its outline. with the lashes. with the separate hairs delineated as they issue from the skin. might be easily believed to be alive the mouth. is 87 seen the lustrous brightness and moisture which in life. represented turn being followed and the nose. her. which can only be copied as these are with the greatest difficulty the eyebrows also are with the closest exactitude. however well accustomed to the marvels of art. its all the pores exhibited in it is . to sing or play on instruments. to the end that she might continue cheerful. with nostrils. has the lips uniting the rose-tints of their color with that of the face in the utmost perfection. every . work is painted in a manner well calcumake the boldest master tremble. or to jest and otherwise amuse her. and so that her face might not exhibit the melancholy expression often imparted by painters to the likenesses they take. where fuller and where more thinly set. but truly of he who looks earnestly at the pit flesh and blood of the throat cannot but believe that he sees the beating of the pulses. and the carnation of the cheek does not appear to be painted. also proper to nature. red.LEONARDO DA VINCI. he took the precaution of keeping some one constantly near that this lated to . and astonishes all who behold it. In this . and around them are those pale.

Leonardo's masterpiece. and summing up in itself. Certainly Lady Lisa might stand as the embodiment of the old fancy. . and work." it has ever been esteemed a wonderful could exhibit no other appear- life itself No wonder Grimm says. just as he is followed by Lear's fury. '• ' La Gioconda ' is. ten thousand experiences. the truest sense. sweeping together an old one and mod. that while looking at it one thinks rather divine than human. all modes of thought and life. We all know the face and hands of the figure. as in some faint light under sea. set in its marble chair. the mode of thought and In suggestiveness. and Iphigenia's touching purity. " He who has seen the Mona Lisa smile is followed forever by this smile. when he says. "It .88 LEONARDO DA VINCL on the contrary." Pater says of the in Mona Lisa. in that cirque of fantastic webs. Macbeth's ambition. only the 'Melancholia' of Diirer is comparable to it and no crude symbolism disturbs the effect of its subdued and graceful mystery. so pleasing an expression. Hamlet's melancholy. since ance. "The fancy of a perpetual is life. Perhaps of all ancient pictures time has chilled it revealing instance of his work. least. and a smile so sweet. ern thought has conceived the idea of humanity as wrought upon by. there it is portrait of Leonardo's. the symbol of the modern idea." One feels with Michelet.

Leonardo da Vinci. Paris. Louvre.MONA LISA (LA JOCONDE). .


He making ramparts and stairways for the citadel of Urbino. Lisa. an enormous sum at that day. soul filled with music. leaving the portrait. travelled through Central Italy. and Leonardo could no longer hold the position of of murmur engineer. — did he not was finally sold to Francis for four thousand gold crowns." have found myself going day after day to the Louvre to linger before two masterpieces to grow better through the womanhood of the Venus de Milo. But was soon obliged to flee into Spain. Nobody can forget the perfect One seems to feel the delicacy of the loving touch which Leonardo gave as he painted through the Mona hand. the son of Pope Alexander VI. contented smile of myself. ap- pointed him architect and general engineer.. At one his place he lingered to enjoy the regular cadence of the waves beating on the shore at another. 89 and absorbs me. unfinished. Caesar Borgia. and finer gates at Cesenatico. After Da Vinci had been two years in Florence. because of his high ideal of what a painting should It be. The husband did not purchase the picture of the artist value the beauty ? I. as he declared.. designing a house and better methods of transporting grapes at Cesena. Pietro Soderini. as the bird . and to rest in the peaceful. who had been elected gonfalo* . I go to it in spite of I is drawn to the serpent. he was soothed by the Caesar the fountains. machinery at Pesaro. those long yet short four years.LEONARDO DA fascinates VINCI.

and their exquisite beauty." When the rival cartoons of Michael Angelo and Da Vinci were publicly exhibited. in the forms and movements of the horses. a troop of horsemen fighting round a standard. When Da Vinci began to paint upon the wall. of the artist that his friends raised the amount which had been advanced to him. .90 niere for life. The muscular development. subject a group of soldiers surprised by the enemy- while bathing in the Arno Leonardo. the excitement was great between the followers of each artist. of those animals. movements. Michael Angelo. as in the " Last Supper. was the friend of both Leonardo and He wished to have these two Michael Angelo chose for his greatest artists paint each a wall in the Hall of the Palazzo Vecchio. no less fiercely than do the cavaliers who are fighting for it the standard/' Vasari thinks describe . and the desire for revenge apparent in the men. . in oils. only are rage. " scarcely possible adequately to the wonderful mastery he exhibits . and offered it to the ." the colors so sank into it that he abandoned the work. a scene from the battle of Anghiari. . with their fore-legs intertwined. . LEONARDO DA VINCI. which so wounded the pride. disdain. are rendered with the utmost fidelity. but in the horses also two . fought by the Florentines Vasari says. . the animation of their . "Not against the North Italians. Soderini accused him of having received money and not rendering an equivalent. are attacking each other with their teeth.

LEONARDO gonfaloniere. " He supported his assertions with reasons so persuasive that while he spoke the undertaking seemed feasible. 91 it. Leonardo made drawings for the Church of San Giovanni (the Bap- and the placing of steps beneath it. having been invited thither by Marechal de Chaumont. the French governor. and of these he generously gave thirteen to make up the marriage portion of the sister of his beloved Salai. rini's him a portion of his money. . He made three bronze figures over the portal of the Baptistery. and his ineffectual efforts toward the raising of the Baptistery. after an absence in Florence of six years. saying." Tired of lawsuits. when he had departed. 1)A VINCI. could see for himself that such a thing was impossible. Da Vinci's father died. who seem to have disputed his share in in copper the property. He seems to have been straitened in circumstances. for he had but thirty crowns left. At this time raising of the tistery)." In 1504. Leonardo would not take it. although every one of his hearers." They could not understand that they had a genius in their midst some centuries in advance of his age. who generously who offered refused to accept Da pay Vinci had already become offended with Sodetreasurer. "without doubt the most beautiful castings that have been seen in these latter days. and the artist became involved in lawsuits with the other twelve children. he gladly went back to Milan. " I am no penny-painter.

"The face is colorless excepting the powerful and strange red lips. emanating from the painter's brain. For seven years during this second sojourn in Milan. large docks He built and basins. Castor and Pollux." "Flora. is the half-length figure of a Taine says. and young nun. the Pitti Palace. is at it holding a flower in her left hand. as inexplicable. Poictiers. who are sitting on the margin of a clear . he was prosperous and happy." " Frivol- Leda. Of this Theophile Gautier says. (" A grotto of basaltic rocks shelters the divine group. as complex. as full of inward contrasts. contributing greatly to the fertility of the garden of Northern Italy. This is not an abstract being. "playing among the shell-chips of their broken egg" is also at the Hague." a beautiful woman in blue drapery. and the whole physiognomy is calm." now in painted several pictures. where the Hollanders call ity " or " Vanity. a sister of Mona Lisa. the bride of Jupiter. believed by many to be a portrait of Diana of the Hague.92 LEONARDO DA VINCI. with the twins. enlarged and improved the great Martesan canal. Probably the celebrated La Vierge aux Bochers The Virgin among the Rocks ") was painted at this time. planned many mills. " which brings the waters of the Adda through the Valtellina and across the Chiavenna district. "The aspect of the Virgin is mysterious and charming. with a slight expression of disquietude. but an actual woman who has lived." and " La Monaca. two hundred miles long.

. we discover a rocky landscape. according with the half-tints with incomparable grace. . color as indefinable as those mysterious countries one traverses in a dream. the mouth a little large. the one in the collection of the National Gallery is believed to be the original. but has been transferred to canvas. and trembling as though her breath. a tiny shade of mischief mingling with the purity and goodness. and does not in any way recall the Virgins of Perugino or Raphael. on the banks of which rises a village. The hair is long. . There are three pictures of this scene . What more adorable type than that of the Madonna ! it is especially Leonardo's. but smiling with a deliciously enigmatic expression that Da Vinci gives to his female faces. and accords marvellously with the figures. and crossed by a stream. palpitate . not in a line with the forehead. with a few scattered trees. while that in the Louvre is best known. Her head is spherical in form the forehead well developed the fine oval of her cheeks is gracefully rounded so as to enclose a chin most delicately curved the eyes with lowered eyelids encircled with shadow. and silky. in the transparent depths of its bed. . All this is of a spring. loose.LEONARDO DA the pebbles of VINCI. like that of a Grecian statue. 93 which we see Through the arcade of the grotto." This picture was originally on wood. ing it is made them true. and the nose. but still finely shaped with nostrils tenderly cut. and falls in crisp meshes around the shadow-softened cheeks.

Italy. was on the papal throne he cordially welcomed him." now in the Hermitage in St. a cheek. and Leonardo da Vinci. Leonardo da Vinci was a great musician. and. " In the little Jesus of the picture of St. having composed a kind of paste from wax. "The pontiff. is one of the few pictures. color. while it was still in its half-liquid state. made of this. was purchased by the Tsar of Russia in 1860. Leo X. certain figures of animals. which he then filled with air. Petersburg. entirely hollow and exceedingly slight in texture. Anne. Anne. in 1514." in the Louvre. in that Da Vinci left Milan. When the French were driven out of Lombardy. Of the Virgin seated on the knees now in the Louvre." However. Taine says. among the many attributed to Leonardo. which critics regard as authentic. Leonardo. and bade him " work for the glory of God. Perhaps he found in that gradation and change of vague yet charming magic of chiaroscuro. for twelve thousand dollars. Leo X. and a few others with him. taking his devoted pupils.. whither Michael Angelo and Raphael had already gone. alone emerge from the shadowy depth.94 LEONARDO DA VINCI. the pope gave him very little to do." " St. of St. John the Baptist. an effect resembling the crescendoes and decrescendoes of grand musical works. When he : . Francesco Melzi. Sebastian. ^' St. started for Rome. therefore. and was more especially addicted to the study of alchemy. a shoulder. a temple. " was much inclined to philosophical inquiry." says Vasari. Salai.

LEONARDO I) A VINCI. Leonardo immediately began to distil oils and . meadows. " Alas ! this is man will assuredly do noth- ing at all. He was received by that monarch with the greatest delight. the " Holy Family of St. Louis XII. which he tamed and kept in a case he would then show it to the friends who came to visit him." with the bride of Giuliano de Medici as the St. with a tremulous motion he then made eyes. and a beard for the creature. and soon after won back Lombardy to himself in battle. and fish-ponds. 95 blew into these figures he could make them fly through the air. but when the air within had escaped from them they fell to the earth. not wishing to remain in Eome. Catherine. succeeded him January 1. flayed for the purpose into these wings he put quicksilver. and given the Chateau of Cloux with its woods. herbs for the varnish. ." When the pope asked him to paint a picture. and all who saw it ran away terrified. horns. since he thinking of the end before he has made a beginning to his work. and for this creature Leonardo constructed wings made from the skins of other lizards. just outside the walls of . whereupon the pontiff exclaimed. joined himself to Francis. At once Leonardo." It is supposed that Leonardo painted for Leo X. of France having died. the brilliant young Francis I. 1515. so that when the animal walked the wings moved also. " One day the vine-dresser of the Belvedere found a very curious lizard. who had been painter to King Louis while in Milan. Petersburg.

and later even painted his "Last Judgment " and planned the great dome of St. and made his will. luxury-loving. did nothing further for the world. and in arm in his gardens with the beautiful Salai. the versatile. showed it filled He soon fell with a great number of fleurs-de-lis. He had completed his wonderful statues in the Medici chapel. He mingled in the gayeties of the court. In early life he had been so devoted to science that Vasari tells us " by this means he conceived such heretical ideas that he did not belong to any religion. but esteemed it better to be a philosopher than a Christian. his clear pupils. walked arm hair falling to his shoulders. but now. into a kind of languor that presaged the sure coming of death. He was sixty-three. opening its breast. " divine Leonardo. and. a lion filled with hidden machinery by means of which it walked up to the throne.96 LEOXARDO DA VINCI. his long white made a unique automaton for the great festivities of the conquering young king at Pavia. which . But Leonardo." Now he turned his thoughts to- ward the Catholic church. things. Michael Angelo had ever." no longer urged to duty by necessity. . Here he abode with who were content to live in any and was country so they were with Da Vinci allowed a pension of seven hundred crowns of gold and the title of Painter to the King. Peter's. perchance his genius would be more brilliant than When about this age. with ease done many great and every comfort. the king's castle at Amboise.

and had gazed sadly on the spot where the church once stood. Arsene Houssaye made a last and perhaps successful attempt in 1863. some years ago. his property. and M. who shall be paid them according to the discretion of the said Melzi. Michael. carried for carrying but later historians have considered this doubtful. and the lead Many persons have coffins melted for their metal. May 2. Francis I. He says. which torches shall be shared among the four churches above named. the gravestones sold. In the religious wars which followed. "The gardener's daughter had been often questioned. and it was she who first gave me the idea. he gives Nine days after this. ever with him. now covered by thick growing covert. says Vasari." To his beloved pupils. his lordship St. 1519. tried to find the grave of the great master. of seeking for the tomb of the Italian painter of the Last Supper.LEONARDO DA recommends VINCI. "More than one had gone to Amboise for the purpose of finding the tomb of Leonardo da Vinci." that at his obsequies "there shall be sixty torches by sixty poor persons. the church was demolished. Leonardo died in the arms of his devoted King. 97 his soul "to God. at the age of sixty-seven. He was buried under the flag-stones in the Church of St. Florentin at Amboise. and all the beautiHe wishes ful angels and saints of Paradise. the glorious Virgin Mary.' but I do not know whether the fact of her having the painter's name sometimes on her lips arose from the fact of her ^ .

. I set the men to work on three different spots. some to reconnoitre the foundations of the church. After displacing a few handfuls of earth. hearing him spoken of by her father or by visitors. close to the wall. the first spadeful of earth was turned up before the mayor and the archbishop of Amboise. " On Tuesday. the great painter of Francis . others to look for the ossuary. dead. It was necessary to dig down . and toward the top of the plantation. at the demolition of St. where grew the white-cherry . replaced by slabs belonging to the church. and bearing still some rude traces of fresco painting. which had been. . It was in the choir of the church. excepting that towards the head the roots of the tree had overturned the vase of charcoal. deeply. covered with unequal stones. whose fruit was so rich from the fact of its growing above the She it to I. " The 20th of August we lighted on a very old tomb. me the spot where might be found a white-cherry tree was growing there. Florentin. .. tree. we saw great dignity in the attitude of the majestic dead. out of respect for the dead. " We uncovered the skeleton with great respect nothing had occurred to disturb the repose of death. . No doubt the original tombstone had been broken. and. the 23d of June.98 LEONARDO DA was who pointed out VINCI. 1863. and the rest to search the tombs. the soil having risen over the site of the church to the height of two or three yards.

representing . and consider it to be the skull of a septuagenarian. . head master of the Fine Art School of Eome. M. On the feet were found some pieces of sandals. Intellect had reigned there. VINCI. His statue stands on a lofty pedestal. The brow projects over the eyes. . of the portrait Leonardo drew of himself in red chalk a few years before his death. of . This the only skeleton is we discovered in this never given to the dead. position.LEONARDO DA . and appears that of a deep thinker tired with study. . which once held a collected near the " We hair or beard. . especial quality predominated. which I had brought with me from Milan a portrait Leonardo da Vinci and the skull we had taken from its tomb corresponded exactly with the drawing.. world within its limits. "The skeleton.. . and high the occipital arch was ample and purely defined. Eobert Fleury. but no . which has four bas-reliefs. which measured five feet eight inches. four above and four below. and is broad . Many doctors have seen it. ." In 1873 Italy raised a monument to her great genius. and recognized in it the grand and simple outline of this human yet divine head. 99 The head is rested on the hand as if in sleep. . Eight teeth still remain in the jaws. still keeping the shape of the feet. . . . accords with the height of Leonardo da The skull might have served for the model Vinci. head some fragments of and a few shreds of brown woollen material. at Milan. has handled the skull with respect.

"one of the best guides and counsellors A " Treatise on the Motion and of the painter. and unfortunately became scattered. Cesare placed statues of his principal scholars. Knight of the Bavarian Order of St. Beltraffio. At the four corners are scenes from his life. Marco d' Oggione. after years of labor over the strange handwriting of Da Vinci. In 1651 Raphael Trichet Dupresne. the Tvattato della Pittura. About the end of the seventeenth century they were mostly in the Ambrosian Library at Milan but the French under Napoleon . at the British Museum. All Leonardo's precious manuscripts were bequeathed to Francesco Melzi. published gravure. which has been reprinted twenty-two times in six different languages. In 1883 Jean Paul Richter. One volume on mathematics and physics is among the Arundel Manuscripts.100 LEONARDO DA VINCI. The latter is a collection of four hun- dred of Leonardo's drawings and manuscripts. the Institute of France. leaving " only two. At Holkhamis a manuscript of the Lihro Originali di Natura. took fourteen of the principal manuscripts. . much great painter. Michael. reproducing his work of the sketches by photo- He had access to the manuscripts in the Royal Library at Windsor. which now form the " Codex Atlantico at Milan. of Paris. published a selection from Da Vinci's works on painting. da Sesto. and Andrea — Solario. from right to of the left across the page." Power of Water " was published later.

his close study of botanj^ his researches in chemistry. a lathe for turning ovals. a worked by hot air. save one sonnet : — " Who What cannot do as he desires." of Venice. "Da Vinci has been unjustly accused of having squandered his powers by beginning a variety of studies. ribbon-looms. the Uffizi.LEONARDO DA Academy VINCI. a universal joint." No wonder he was called the " all-knowing Leonardo. having hardly begun. the of Turin. silk spindles saws and throwers. Oxford. 101 the Ambrosian Library at Milan. dredging . diving-suits. anatomy. and plate-rolling machines. his re- marks on fossils. a three-legged eketching-stool which folded up. the British Leonardo's astronomical speculations. and Christ Church College. coining presses. and magnetism. The truth is that the labors of three centuries have hardly sufficed for the elucidation of some of the problems which occupied his mighty mind. an hygrometer an ingenious surgical probe. machines. Among his inventions were " a proportional compass. acoustics. have been an astonishment to every reader. the Royal Library and South Kensington Museums. heat. color. must do hes within his power. and then. Folly it is . mechanics. at that time believed to be mere freaks of nature. boats moved by paddle-wheels. music. Richter says. wheelbarrows. the Louvre." All his work as a poet is lost. wire-drawing and file-cutting. a revolving cowl roasting-jack for chimneys. light. a porphyry color-grinder. for stone. thrown them aside.

It rusty saw. Nor is it always good to have one's wish. VINCI. ^' A razor.' withdraw myself into some secluded and. and totally unable to reflect the glori- ous sun from its lamented . My tears have flown at having my desire. if Therefore. ' just quitted ? Certainly it cannot be pleasing to the gods that such dazzling beauty should be linked to such baseness of spirit. and placed itself in the saw how brightly the sun was reflected Mightily pleased thereat. I spot. in calm repose. and be to others Will always to be able to do right. In Kichter's works of Leonardo are many fables having come out of the sheath in which : was usually concealed. O reader of these lines. began to reason with itself after this fashion: Shall I now go back to the shop which I have it sunlight. life. it from its surface. But only he whose judgment never strays Beyond the threshold of the right learns this. it sheath one day and returning found itself looking just like a tarnished surface. What ! a madness it would be that should lead me beards of country bumpkins to such base mechanical uses ? shall to shave the soaped Is this a form fitted Assuredly not." dear. What seeraeth sweet full oft to bitter turns. on leaving to the its itself for some open air. Our joy and grief consist alilie in this: In knowing what to will and what to do. thou Wouldest be good. pass away my "Having therefore concealed months.102 LEONARDO DA To wish what cannot be. The wise man holds That from sudi wishing he must free himself.

sor. and for having lost them. " It is easier to contend with evil at the first than at the last. but when life leaves us. ' better had I kept up the keenness barsurup. base. that never deserts us. That cannot be lost. had thought deeply and probably conformed his life to his thoughts. hold them with trembling they often leave their possessor in contempt. in his more than thirty years of writing. showing that many pages of terse moral Da Vinci. and if wisdom for its youth arrests the evil of you understand that old age has food. the lover becomes " That is not riches which may be lost virtue is our true good.' ber. must not expect to preserve the keen edge which the rust of ignorance will soon destroy. to property . and the true reward of its posses. " Learning acquired in mocked at old age ." Richter also gives sentiments. 103 to itself.LEONARDO DA in vain this VINCI. " — — You can have no dominion is greater or less than that over yourself. What by practising with my friend the has become of my once brilliant it all it face ? This abominable rust has eaten If genius chooses to indulge in sloth. he began to write when he was about thirty. you will so conduct yourself in youth that your old age will not lack for nour- ishment. irreparable loss. . " If the thing loved base. and said lost How much of my edge. As and exter- nal riches.

" He seemed .'' In the midst of the corruption of that age. " Avoid studies of which the result dies with the worker.. This possibly satisfied the craving of the human Perhaps. acquisition of any knowledge is always of .104 " LEONABBO DA The because VINCI.. . " When I thought I was learning to live. so does life well employed give a joyful death. we hear no word breathed against the character of this He won from eager. and retain the good. at the zenith of his powers when death came but who shall estimate the value of a life by its length ? He said. life did not appear as satisfactory as he could have wished. heart for love. I was but learning to die. use to the intellect it may thus drive out useless things. after all. and praise him openly. his pupils the most complete devotion. brilliant. " Reprove your friend in secret. with all his worship of the beautiful. for he says. " As a day well spent gives a joyful sleep. A life well spent is long. many-sided man. and he seems to have given as fond an affection in return." .

varied. and I will show you the same thing either ' as well or bet- ter expressed in Shakespeare. His works have been an inexhaustible in art store- house of ideas to painters and to poets. expression. we must add such personal qualities as very seldom meet in the . . or painting after Eaphael I will show you the same thing as well or better done. . or sentiment. drawing. ancient or modern. Every- where we find his traces.RAPHAEL OF URBINO. ancient or modern. " T"N -L the history of Italian art Eaphael stands alone. Show me any sentiment ' — or feeling in any poet. reproduced. " Some critic once said. like Shakespeare in the history of our . but of quality. never improved. imitated.^ In the same man- ner one might say. and in some picture.' " To complete our idea of this rare union of greatness and versatility as an artist with all that could grace and dignify the man. . borrowed or stolen. Everywhere we recognize his forms and lines. any especial beauty of form. Show me in any painter. literature and he takes the same kind of rank —a superiority not merely of degree. and that accomplished which others have only sought or attempted.

Magia. generous. in honor of Federigo of Montefeltro. a 6. gentle same individual spirit the most attractive manners. then Duke of Urbino. the daughter of Battista Ciarla. brought alike. as he wrote an epic of two hundred and twenty-four pages. for when he closed his eyes. April 1483. To him session of a truth it is that we owe and the pos- of invention. — ning modesty. looking father. a bright. who for years kept twenty or thirty persons copying Greek and Latin manuscripts for his library. Duchy of Urbino. was a painter of considerable merit. as it were. Raphael of Urbino was born small town in the at Colbordolo. well might Painting have departed also. to that point of perfection for which few could have dared to hope nor has any man ever aspired to pass before him. This duke was a valiant soldier. a merchant at Urbino. coloring. execution... Her three other children died young. was a woman of unusual sweetness of disposition and beauty of character.106 BAPHAEL OF URBINO. she too was left.'^ Thus writes Mrs." . These years must have been happy ones to the gentle. the most win . His . loving child. and a patron of art and literature. Jameson of the man of who:ja Yasari said. "When this noble artist died. . Their home was in the midst of the snowy peaks of the Apennines. and was possessed also of poetic ability. and altogether. genial. blind. The mother of Raphael. Giovanni Santi. Unfortunately she died when Raphael was eight years old.

107 towards the blue Adriatic. the daughter of the goldsmith. Two years after this marriage he died. but lacking the gentleness of Magia. . exquisite caresses pictures of varied earth and sky . would work his left way to renown ? The will of Giovanni Bernardina the Santi home to as long as she remained a widow. leaving Eaphael doubly orphaned What prospect was there at eleven years of age. Don Bartolomeo. came to an understanding with the disputants. without riches or distinguished family. Simone di Battista Ciarla. a woman of strong character. should be placed under some eminent painter. quite forgetting the development of the boy left in their charge. appear t(T have been a very saintly minister. Giovanni Santi married for his trees second wife Bernardina. without father or mother. melody of the sea and the murmur of the and the brooks. a The latter does not priest. she us with the glow of sunlight and the fragrance of flowers she sings us to rest with the . who had worked somewhat in his father's studio. and the child to her care and that of his brother. It is not strange that he became a worshipper of the beautifuL Nature who soon grows to be an inspiring companion to those She warms the heart with her love her. that this boy. Finally Magia's brother. and arranged that the lad. Pietro di Parte.RAPHAEL OF URBINO. for he and Bernardina quarrelled constantly over the property.

" I wish to see how a soul will fare in that Land." the " Trinity " on one sheet of canvas. When he was seventeen. studying perspective and every department of art. is now in Earl Dudley's collection. About this time the " Coronation of the Virgin " was painted for Madonna Maddalina degli Oddi. and at the sale of his paintings. and who was noted especially for his coloring and profound It is said that when he examined the feeling. he exclaimed. in 1845. he refused to see a confessor. he gave up his faith in God and man. How many are willing to . an artist who had one of the largest schools in Italy. and the " Creation of Man " on the other. the young artist painted a his first works. concerning which he expresses : great joy in his letters." For nine years Eaphael worked under Perugino at Perugia. Passavant. sketches of the boy. The " Crucifixion " was bought b}^ Cardinal Fesch at Rome. says. but after he had seen that good man put to death." Perugino had been a follower of Savonarola. and winning the love of both master and pupils. was purchased It for about twelve thousand five hundred dollars. his master being in Florence banner for the church of the Trinita of Citta di The banner has Castello. Pietro Perugino was chosen. When he was on his death-bed. which has not been confessed. in his life of Eaphael. and the "Crucifixion. a lady of great influence. saying. who obtained for Raphael several commissions. " Let pupil : him be my he will soon become my master.108 RAPHAEL OF URBINO.

quisite." when This picture. in early and the distant mountains are covered with snow. was sold in 1871 to the Emperor of Eussia for sixty-six thousand dollars. walking in the still country. before he was twenty-one. ful For a friend of Perugia he painted the beautiConnestabile Madonna. Eaphael left the studio of Perugino in the beginning of 1504. . and painted for the Franciscans. The despair of the lovers is of the " Sposalizio." Passavant. and she helped the whole A woman art world thereby. and St. bare. This picture was kept in the Franciscan church at Perugia until 1792." now the chief ornament Brera gallery at Milan. Everything in it shows that Eaphael must have devoted himself to it with especial the trees are ardor." . 109 employ an artist after lie is famous how few before had the heart and the good sense to help him in these early years. but was restored to Italy by the treaty of 1815. reading in a little book. only six and three-fourths inches square. in which the child in her arms also looks Nothing could be found more exattentively. at Citta di Castello. the " Marriage of the Virgin. spring. and is now in the Vatican. " The mother of the says is Saviour. when it was sent to Paris. Joseph by five young men who were once Mary's suitors. She is walking along pensively.BAPHAEL OF UBBINO. and called the "The Virgin is attended by five women. " a figure of virginal sweetness.

where he painted for the reigning never flower RAPHAEL OF URBINO. may be considered all Eaphael's most popular work. sition In the figures of this compothe different ages of we recognize types of man. delight in the brilliancy of color apparent. shadowed forth by the reeds they hold they will and the handsomest youth is break. and having heard Florence. he city. which later yielded to a different taste. that while renounced. it "Next to the Sis- Madonna. . whether young or old. Michael attacking Satan." He made many of the friends among the noted people of the court. life. although hitting against one another almost sharply. ably. which allow every one who stands before it. took interest in the boyish artist." Eaphael now returned to Urbino. works of Da Vinci and Michael Angelo at was extremely anxious to go to that A lady. such as he had afterw^ard ripest years. but. full of ambition. the ." Grimm tine says of this picture. as with other this. Eaphael's the har- elegance obtrudes itself nowhere. which. as previously. in his young he loved a certain garishness of coloring. . . is have the effect of a bed of flowers whose varied hues combine agree- A youthful Dtirer. ing his across his knees. " St. to feel as if the artist had been the confidant of all the thoughts and feelings appropriate to his period of artists is so often the case. Like Eaphael might have confessed. . and wrote to Pietro Soderini. Beside still mony of his colors. George slaying the Dragon " and " St.

for love of me. so who was dear the son is . father. and was asked to paint pictures for them. to show him help and protection on every opportunity. introduction Ill Gonfaloniere of Florence. . the following letter of : — " Most magnificent and powerful lord. He was received into the homes of the patricians.BAP HA EL OF URBINO. all the services and kindness that he " From her may receive from your Lordship. and Prefectissa of Rome. to me. five feet eight inches tall. who commends herself to you. and as an agreeable proof of friendship to me. — whom I must " He who presents this letter to you is Kaphael. [sic] "Duchess of Sora. perfect teeth. guished manners perfection. slight in figure. As the in order to improve himself in his studies. he entered the City of Flowers. " Joanna Feltra de Ruvere. ever honor as a father. with an entreaty that it may please you. ties. was full of good qualiof distin- a modest young man and thus I bear him an affection wish that he should attain and on every account." With this cordial letter from the sister of the Duke of Urbino. endowed with great talent in He has decided to pass some time in Florence. Meantime and hair. This is why I recommend him as ear- nestly as possible to your Highness. a painter of Urbino. art. with dark brown eyes and the kindest of hearts. I shall regard as rendered to myself. and is willing to render any good offices in return. He was now a youth of twenty-one.

makes the figure and divine expression of the head still more impressive. this picture was in the possession of a poor widow. the " Madonna della Gran Duca. and carried journeys. he pushed forward at once towards the perfection he was so soon to attain. until then almost concealed.'' diameter. Especially did tlie works of Masaccio and Leonardo da Vinci. In short. " reveal to Kaphael his own wonAwaderful powers. commanding." says Passavant. it.112 RAPHAEL OF URBINO. he used every spare moment in study. who sold it to a bookseller for twelve scudi. this Madonna produces the effect of a supernatural apparition. now to be seen in the Academy of Venice stood entranced before the gates of Ghiberti. Kaphael now painted for his friend. of the Florentines." He copied the horsemen in . Da Vinci's battle of Anghiari made sketches from life of the children book of drawings. and luminous style. Finally the Grand Duke Ferdinand it it III. of Tus- cany bought all his with him through night and morning. kened that seemed all at once to flow in on him from every side. and that marvel of beauty. thirty-five inches in owned by the Terranuova family until . says Passavant. praying before Thanks to all these qualities iinited. in his . inspiration excited with the and suddenly. " The bold." now in the Until the end of the last century Pitti Palace. " in which the painting stands out from the background. Lorenzo Nasi. it is one of the masterpieces of Kaphael. the Campanile of Giotto. Another Madonna on wood.

" as Mrs. The painting was purchased in 1884 by the National Gallery for the Duke of Marlborough for the enormous sum of three hundred and fifty thou! " the only very distinguished sand dollars. painted for his intimate friend Taddeo Taddei.BAPHAEL OF UBBINO. but. besides the Temfi Madonna now of Munich. TToly The Family under the Palm Tree. His enthusiasm inspired and his modest deference to the opinions of others won him countless friends man. with Jesus on her right knee. the Ansidei Madonna was painted for the Ansidei family of Perugia as an altar-piece in the church of S. he soon returned to that city and was Urbmo and cordially every artist. and the Colonna Madonna at Berlin. from which mother and child are reading. eager and restless for Florence. Kaphael went back to Perugia. for thirty-four thousand dollars. and an open book on her left. Madonna del CardelThe Virgin is seated holdJohn is offering to the infant which the child is about to '' Another picture." called also the " lino. It represents the Virgin on a throne. St. 113 was purcliased for the Berlin Museum. 1854. he painted for the marriage of his patrician friend. Saviour a goldfinch." now in the Uffizi. Jameson says. On Nasi. and . Lorenzo him the " Madonna with the Goldfinch. welcomed. Piorenzo. who lived and died without an enemy or a detractor " Between 1506 and 1508." round. ing a book. a learned Florentine. After some other works. " of whom we read. while caress.

I do not say of the inferior grades only. and a cardinal under Paul III. contrary to the nature of our artists.. . one of the most celebrated writers of the time. loved him as a brother Bartolomeo. secretary to Leo X. "Every vile and base thought departed from the mind before his influence. Again Eaphael returned to the "court of Urbino. . and . yet all. Count Baldassare Castiglione. There was among his extraordinary gifts one of such value and importance that I can never sufficiently admire it. This was the power accorded to him by Heaven. and always think thereof with astonishment. were his ardent Something beside genius drew all these men and scores of others to Eaphael. but even those who lay claim to be great personages. was purchased by the Duke of Bridge water. of bringing all who approached his presence into harmony an effect inconceivably surprising in our calling. became as of one mind once they began to labor in the society . for sixty thousand dollars. a writer and diplowas one of the artist's most loved companions Bernardo Divizio da Bibiena. forty-two and three-fourths inches in diameter. Pietro Bembo. and is now in the possession of Lord Ellesmere. Vasari says. was very fond of Eaphael matist. noted Francesco Francia and Fra artists. in London." the first prose comedy written in Italy. the friends. always winning to himself the most educated and the noblest among the distinguished men and women. author of " La Calandra.114 BAPHAEL OF UBBINO.

Raphael.THE MADONNA WITH THE BULLFINCH. Uffizi. Florence. .


as thou hadst. one artist. who would constantly follow his steps and always loved him. but even by the very animals. but that of a prince. all of whom he assisted and instructed with an affection which was rather as that of a father to his children than merely as of an artist to artists. live . requested any design or assistance of whatever kind at his hands. Such harmony prevailed at no other time than his own. he would invariably leave his work to do him service he continually kept a large number of artists employed. . . by whose virtues and talents thou wert thyself . but surrounded and accompanied. whether known to Kaphael or not. painting! well mightest thou for thy part." " We find it related that whenever any other painter. having. art of "Wherefore. .BAPHAEL OF URBINO. continuing in such unity and concord^ and evil dispositions became subdued and disappeared at the sight of him. And this happened because all were surpassed by him in friendly courtesy as well as in art all confessed the influence of his sweet and gracious nature. as he left his house. in short. that not only was he honored by men. that all harsh feelings 115 of Kaphael. which was so replete with excellence. From these things it followed that he was never seen to go to court. all men of ability and distinction. He did not. esteem thyself most happy. and so perfect in all the charities. the life of a painter. who attended him thus to give evidence of the honor in which they held him. then. among thy sons. . by some fifty painters.

it is to be presumed that he kept his troubles in his own heart. He was appreciative. and gracious." Kaphael allowed people to Cesare to pursue their own said course. Kaphael was modest in manner. overlooking the petty matters which some persons allow to wear and imbitter their dispositions. tender. dear Cesare. and become impressed with the importance of uniting the practice of virtue to that of art. Cesare adopted Kaphael's methods from choice. It is all one to the stream whether . acquire the knowledge of how life should be employed. good friendship. one of Da it Vinci's most distin- guished pupils. by pursuing the footsteps of a man so exalted. He da Sesto. thou declare thyself. and was as ardently loved in return. sympathetic. Herrmann Grimm says. performing an amount of labor which has been the astonishment of the world ever since his death he was somewhat frail in body he was not rich in this world's goods sweet in nature and refined in spirit. never monopolizing the time or conversation of others. unspoken to others. but that in the art of painting we show no deference to each other. He worked hard. Thrice blessed indeed mayest exalted to heaven. however. He made live we in such the best of things.116 RAPHAEL OF URBINO. " Such men pass through life as a bird flies through the air. . " that How does happen. . since thou hast seen thy disciples. without attempting to dominate. Nothing hin. ders them." Finally. He loved ardently.

concerns us. thus to be driven right and left in its broad course it is sensible of no delay when its course is completely dammed. They obtruded themselves on none and they asked not the world to consider them. He was diligent. They enjoyed life they worked they went their way. . or meanders It is course. and ©ould not bear that lesser men should stand in the front. " Raphael. and animated or checked . and Shakespeare had scarcely They interfered with no apoutward destinies. it widens out into the lake. or Shake. The course of events moved Michael Angelo. it 117 flows through the plain smoothly in one long round rocks in its winding no circuitous way for it. nowhere opposed events he turned wherever he could advance most easily. He had in his mind the completion of his works. Ane. over whom he felt himself master.violent act of Raphael's. who seems so deeply involved in all that who is the author of our mental cul. . or to do as they did. and drew from their refreshing streams. . Schiller wished to produce and to gain influence Michael Angelo wished to act. Goethe. and compelled no one to follow them.BAPHAEL OF URBINO. speare's ? " Goethe. Goethe's. until at length it forces a path for its Avaves and the power with which it now dashes on is just as natural as the repose with which it had before changed its course. Can we mention a . ture. But the others all came of themselves. parent power in the struggles of their people. Swelling easily. .

nor engravings. himself. B APRA EL OF URBINO. serenity. The weeping Magdalen is holding his hand. who had it removed to the Borghese Palace in Rome. Only Raphael could undertake to x^aint this.. and the Virgin is fainting in the arms of three women. irradiated with heavenly light. And and mercy dwell him in fullest measure." can be narrated Raphael. says Passavant. A century later the monks sold it to Pope Paul V. now in the National Gallery of London. It is not possible to extricate the con- sideration of Ms life from the events going on in life the world. conscious of carrying a noble burden. while still under Perugino. represents the Virgin in the midst of rich . This he painted in 1507. "The bearers of the body move along." painted at this time.118 his ideas. and in . beauty. The body of Christ is being borne to the tomb by two men. as if his spirit still both informed his body and glorified it. considered one of the best and most beautiful of Raphael's works. " is one of the works which nothing can describe neither words nor a painted copy." " St. Grimm says. Christ. Catherine of Alexandria. for the fire in it appears living. had received from Donna Atalanta Baglioni the order for an "Entombment" for the Church of the Franciscans." " La Belle Jardiniere." in the Louvre. is perfectly beyond the reach of imitation. ISTo one before or after him could so simply and naturally picture the earthly form. while Raphael's separately like an idyl.

the walls themselves would remind me of that Simoniac. while the infant Christ looks attached.BAPHAEL OF URBINO\ landscape. the pope exclaimed. I Bembo for a teacher. " Even if the portraits were destroyed." between 1508 and 1509.. great the greatest cordiality. . when it was suggested to remove the mural portraits of that pope. his chestnut locks falling upon his shoulders. and make that He received Kaphael with his monument as well. that Eome by Jew ! Michael Angelo was already at work upon the monument for Julius. The first fresco. Now the pope desired to enlarge and beautify the Vatican. It is said that when Kaphael knelt down before him. 119 ground covered with grass and up to her with model was a the said that is It great tenderness. " he shall fill my walls Julius commissioned with historical pictures. was much painter the whom to flower-girl lovel}^ the flowers. had refused to take possession of the rooms in the Vatican which had been used by the depraved Alexander VI." him to fresco the hall of the judicial assembly. done called "La Segnatura. and the most important work of his life lay before him. While finishing this picture he was called to the famous Pope Julius II. Julius II. is called " Theology " or the nal " Dispute He is an innocent angel. He was now twenty -live. He said. and will give him Cardi- on the Holy Sacrament " (La Disputa). and went to the Eternal City with great hope and delight.

a saint half concealed by visions trial . with the knife to sacrifice Isaac. Stephen. Near Adam is St. amidst the saints of the celestial kingdom.brance of his martyrdom. of hosts.. holding a sword in remem. in the midst of the sera- phim. John. the sweet psalmist who sang the praises of God. the first . who is pointing clouds. and a countless host of angels. David. On a large half-circle of which extends senting the extreme limits of the picture. in the expectation of mercy and pardon. Paul. the apostle loved by Christ. the clouds. writing down his divine communion of saints. at the right of the spectator. are seated patriarchs. the first martyr and lastly. sing the 'Hol}^. each surrounded by a glory. prophets. tlie tliree " In the upper part appear figures of the Holy all is Trinity. the head of the terresfamily of our Lord. the Saviour is enthroned a little lower. Lord who God . the extreme point to the right of Christ. the father of the human race.. towards him. John the Baptist. . the Virgin . . and also as a symbol of the penetrating power of his doctrine. is St. bending towards is him in adoration and at St. is seated.' Below the Father. holy. then St. Peter. By his side is Abraham. At his side. " On the other side. holy. afterwards. holding the Holy Scriptures and the two keys. repreto the Commencing at we see the apostle St.120 RAPHAEL OF UIIBINO. the Holy Spirit is descending on men. and martyrs. is Adam. "At her left the right of the Saviour. cherubim. Above the Almighty Father.

expressing theological united in a half-circle around the altar. on which the Eucharist is exposed on a monstrance. His book Scriptures ' ' . . which Julius II. the type of . of love. Moses Lawrence corresponds to St. St. Augustine. Opposite is St. St. George. ' near him are two books. His book on the City of God is lying by him. contemplative tion on the life. Jerome. Stephen is and lastly we perceive in honor. believed to be St. "The Holy Spirit.' the other the Vulgate. whom he converted to Christianity. Nearest to the altar. Ambrose. the third witness of the transfiguration of the Saviour. Peter is of faith and St. is descending upon the assembly of believers. is beside him. the patron saint of Liguria no doubt. is sort of council. surrounded by four cherubim. clothed in the tiara and pontifical mantle. St. Augustine.. St. the columns of Koman Catholicism to the left. under the form of a dove. and is dictating his thoughts to a young man seated at his feet. is opposite St. on both sides. John . come the four great fathers of the church. Gregory the Great. active especially in the militant church: he is raising his eyes and hands towards heaven. of who was born in that country. a warlike figure. "This life. as St. one containing his Letters. follows with the tables of the law. who hold the four books of the Gospel open.RAPHAEL OF URBINO. as if delighted with the angelic harmonies. James. the religious type of hope. absorbed in profound medita. 121 type of the sacrifice of Christ then the apostle St. .

^ on Job. the daughter of a soda-manufacturer. tradi- tion says that he fell in love with Margherita. Eaphael is said to have seen her for the first time as she was bathing her pretty feet in a little fountain in the garden. 20. the romance of Raphael's While he was painting this. are other priests and philosophers. " I thank thee. on the other side of the Tiber. by climbing up above outside. quoting from Missirini. the windows of which are decorated with a pretty framework of earthenware. the wall not being very high. with uplifted hands. who lived near Santa Cecilia. with the superscription. also on the ground beside him. did not always passionate admirers of beauty. it was easy to see her from So the young men. where.122 RAPHAEL OF URBINO. great God. in the street of Santa Dorotea. Liber Moralium. all discussing is the great questions pertaining to the redemption of the world. — — the wall. especially artists. " The beautiful young girl was very frequently in a little garden adjoining the house. among the fifty or more figures. Struck by her perfect " . The pope was this picture that so overjoyed on the completion of he is said to have thrown himself upon the ground. exclaiming. fail to come and look at her. is pointed out as the house where she was born. that thou hast sent so great a painter '^ ! me With La Disputa life begins." Besides these. No. Passavant says. " A small house.

and discovered that her mind was as beautiful as her body. London." "Just as Paul. his reserve tion. he fell deeply in love with her. and. 123 beauty. . after having made acquaintance with her.RAPHAEL OF URBINO. I felt a mortal grief. How sweet was the chain. he became so much attached as to be unable to live without her." gives the following translation — "Love. So great is my ardor that no river or sea could extinguish my fire. he had another face. rough studies made for the Disputa. When those bonds were loosed. with sweet words and tender manners. . "So great his delicacy of feeling. and. how light the yoke of her white arms around my neck. . though my thoughts turn to thee. with the faces of Peter and John before him. in Vienna. I will say no more a great joy kills. . I will keep silence. and discrethat we can scarcely analyze his dominant : idea. Eugene Muntz. descended from the skies. for my ardor makes me happy. and elsewhere. is who says of these sonnets. with a face like snow and roses." She has been called Fornarina. showing that while he mused over heavenly subjects. more dear and beautiful than either. thou hast bound me with the light of two eyes which torment me. the librarian to the J^cole Nationale des the On now preserved Beaux-Arts. in his mind. But I do not complain.''^ because she was long supposed to be the daughter '^ of a baker {fornajo). was . three love sonnets have been found in the artist's handwriting.

against her breast. in this man- ner the work was ultimately brought to a con- He painted her portrait. which On the bracelet are covered by red drapery. Her right arm. and yet the pain of separation is intense.124 UAPHAEL OF URBINO. rests on her knees. Agostino. now in the Barberini It represents a girl Palace. falling at length into it despair of seeing after finished. " Kaphael was so much occupied with the love which he bore to the lady of his choice. in apartments near those which Kaphael was painting clusion. where she was accordingly installed." To this love he was probably life. '^ With her right hand she holds a light gauze A striped yellow as a turban. constant through the short twelve years which remained. Vasari says. the palace of the rich banker. . that he could not give sufficient attention to the work. ." says Passavant. He feels like " mariners who have lost their star. encircled with a golden bracelet." so Eapliael is unable to reveal the thoughts of his beating heart. . seated in a myrtle and laurel wood. made so many efforts by means of friends and by his own care that much difficulty he at length prevailed on the lady to take up her abode in his house. . years afterward. " only half-clothed. in 1509. stuff surrounds her head and imparts something distinguished and charming to her features. When he painted the Farnesina. it is believed." . He thanks and praises love. Agostino Chigi. therefore. unable to reveal the secrets of God.

woman in the painting. making one feel that the mind which Eaphael discovered "to be as beautiful as the body " was equally potent with the warmhearted artist. and yet not to stir from her position. and smoothly drawn over the tem- behind the ear the head is encircled with a gay handkerchief. however. like a turban. and the pride springing from the happiness He. "She is slightly bent forward. but certainly does not lack expression. ." The face did not seem to me beautiful when I saw it in Rome a few years ago. the knots of which lie on one side above the ear. . and in no small matter to represent her otherwise than as he saw ples. JRAPHAEL OF URBINO. . painted it of being loved by him. '^ Grimm says. to be a source of the most intense pleasure to copy her accurately. . We the vehemence. the fancy her to feel the jealousy. the unalterable good- humor. pressing it a little with their weight. to watch him as he paints. . joy. again. parted over the brow. 125 Eaphael has inscribed his name with the greatest care. because he has forbidden it. She sits there with her delicate shoulder a little turned to the left she seems looking stealthily at her lover. We Her like to contemplate it again and hair is brilliantly black. her before him. . It seems to him.. The portrait of the is young girl or Barberini Palace a wonderful I call it so because it bears about it in a high degree the character of mysterious unfath- omableness. however.

we can feel the beating Thus the picture is a continual source of envy and despair to modern realists. her features of the Virgin are ennobled. . . but of quite individual character." Crowe and Cavalcaselle. a masterpiece. in their life of Raphael. speak of the " warm tone of flesh burnished to a nicety and shaded with exceptional force. the chin rounded and small. with this difference. . however. has Eaphael given such delicacy and subtlety to his carnations never did he create a fuller life we can . that the The woman handsome Roman. perhaps. her beautiful black eyes her mouth is refined and full of grace.'^ Muntz the work says. which belonged to the Grand Duke of Tuscany. look of intentness. . . which is all the more effective under brows of the The forehead has a grand arch. flash. as they are absolutely open. Her form is powerful. his self in their not betray poems do. Never." Passavant thus speaks of a portrait in Florence. in the portrait is a costume sumptuous.126 all EAPHAEL OF URBTNO. the droop- ing shoulders." in this " The coal-black eyes have a fascinating picture. . The contours are all circular. If his pictures do this. " This portrait in the Pitti Palace bears a strong resemblance to the Madonna di San Sisto (Dresden Museum). " is From a technical point of view. see the blood circulate pulse. because he was capable of these feelings himgreatest depth. The flesh has a ful- ness which characterizes alike the neck. the cheeks are broad. and the arms and extremities. purest curves.

Ovid. Sappho. with Pindar. to judge by the manner in which it is painted. " it would be indeed astonishing if constant intercourse with the author of so pieces. the one founding the laws of the the State. Dante and Virgil conversing. However. must belong to the last years of Raphael's life. . of this young girl. many master- and one of the most perfect human organizations that nature ever produced. Petrarch. "If house." with Emperor Justinian others and Gregory IX. Plato." With rita in this fervent his heart." Apollo surrounded by the Nine Muses. always intelligent. On the left we see the most ancient of the philosophic schools gathered around Pythagoras. Homer singing. the other the laws of the Church '' School of Athens. had become wonderfully animated in the time between the execution of the two portraits. should have failed to influence the facile character of a young girl. the central sits figures of the interested group." with the masters of ancient philosophy and science assembled. Diogenes on the central steps of the grand .he adds. and Aristotle are surrounded by their pupils Archimedes and Zoroaster are . as 127 may well be believed.'.RAPHAEL OF UEBINO. repre- sents the same person as that of the Barberini we are compelled to admit that the counte- nance. this portrait. Socrates. and " Jurisprudence. and lasting love for MargheRaphael painted the other three : mural paintings in the Vatican hall the " Parnassus.. . This second portrait. Horace.

Passavant says. " However this may be. but also by their and countenances. in duced. It has its infancy. which he rose to such dignity and to such a grand style.128 hall RAPHAEL OF URBINO. and amongst others the Count Castiglione. their attitudes. In the part of this picture requiring great learning.' Raphael showed the full power of his genius. and indeed highly probable. coloring. does not always follow the appearance of an extraordinary genius. unite the technical experi- ence of drawing. . and touch the more bequeathed to modern schools to the severity them by the more ancient ones. It comes on gradually. where more than fifty great men are as- sembled. in a single living and distinct image. indeed. who had just come to settle at Rome. and its progress may be noted. " This fresco. not merely by ingenious grouping. It was Raphael who ' conceived the idea of grouping the personages according to the rank they occupy in history. of " It does. to Raphael alone belongs the great honor of having succeeded in representing. and rendered the tendencies of these philosophers apparent. and that he was completely master both of his style and of his execution. — — the conquests . the development of Greek philosophy. is justly considered as the most magnificent work the master ever proactions. as in literature. " In the School of Athens. A great era in arts. . it is possible. and with it the . that Raphael consulted the most erudite of his friends.

round. " link. his native town." During the three years' work in this hall. 129 simplicity belonging to that age then its youth. large altar-piece for Sigismondo Conti di Foligno. the nobility modern art. and bears reference to the danger incurred by Sigismondo at the siege of Foligno." now in the Vatican. which pre- make up a monumental achievement which in is without parallel the annals of painting. on wood. Raphael was the highest expression of the art he attained its greatest perfection. is falling from the sky. " the most splendid sanctuary of of ideas. He was a continuation of the chain of artists in his time. with the grace and sentiments natural to youth. afterwards maturity. a II. the Virgin seated' on golden clouds surrounded by half-length angels " A burning globe.. with its increased power. and was its last and brightest of the sixteenth century . the Stanza della Segnatura. with a rainagainst a blue sky. without equal even among the other works of Raphael himself. . and the rainbow may be considered symbolical of the reconciliation della Casa d'Alba. The profundity of the style. bow above it." The Madonna . According to tradition this globe is a bomb. of the donor with God. private secretary to the pope. and the youthful vitality vails in every detail of the decoration. Raphael : painted several other pictures portrait of the magnificent Pope Julius the " Madonna di now in the Pitti Palace Poligno.RAPHAEL OF URBINO." Eugene Muntz calls this papal hall.

disease. an angel. in her will. One day he demanded of Agostino's cashier (Giulio Borghesi) the remainder of the sum at which he estimated his work. and is in the Hermitage. the frescos in the Church Santa Maria della Pace. holding a fish. The Duchess of Alba gave it to her doctor. 'and you will see how moderate my the Virgin holding the Child. did not reply. some prophets and sibyls.. Cause the work to be estimated by a judge of painting. was originally in a church at Nocera de Pagani. which some persons rank equal to the Sistine Madonna.130 RAPHAEL OF URBINO. The cashier. and led by an open book. arrested on suspicion of The " Madonna del Pesce." the gem of the Italian Gallery of the Madrid Museum. " Raphael of Urbino Cinelli tells this anecdote had painted for Agostino Chigi. at Santa Maria 'della Pace. of the Emperor of Russia.' . on which he had received an advance of five hundred scudi. and Leo X. and thinking that the sum already paid was sufficient. being astonished at this demand. only nine and one-half inches in diameter. for curing her of a dangerous She died very soon. and the doctor was poison. and later was owned by the Duke of Alba. represents who rests his hand on Tobias.' replied Raphael. in the Neapolitan States. : ' demand is. Raphael also executed for the wealthy Agostino Chigi. the protege of Julius II. but was finally The painting came into the possession liberated. for seventy thousand dollars. at Madrid. implores a cure for his father's blindness.

we should ' . and.' replied Borghesi questioned him. and behave very politely to him. in addition to the five hundred scudi for five heads. . ^ ^ "Some who witnessed Chigi. Go and give that to Kaphael in payment for his heads.. this scene related it to He heard every particular. La Stanza d'Eliodoro. ier. The first mural painting was " The Miraculous Expulsion of Heliodorus from the Temple at Jerusalem. " Michael Angelo went. That head. Possibly he imagined that self-love. ' ^ that head ' others ? less.RAPHAEL OF UBBINO. ordering. 131 " Giulio Borghesi thought of Michael Angelo for and begged him to go to the church and estimate the figures of Eaphael. Eaphael frescoed the second Vatican hall. who . rivalry. in the reign of Urban IV. a hundred scudi to be paid for each of the others. a priest.' From 1512 to 1514. Michael Angelo. . he said to his cashier. . pointing to one of the Sibyls." the angels attacking him as he is taking the money destined for widows and orphans. probably be ruined.' And the is worth a hundred scudi. so that he may be satisfied for if he insists on my also paying for the drapery." where. as he was contemplating the fresco without uttering a word. and jealousy would this valuation. lead the Florentine to lower the price of the pictures. The second fresco is the " Miracle of Bolsena.' The others are not asked the cashier. and. accompanied by the cashto Santa Maria della Pace.

Julius desired to be immortalized instead of St. is " In the fresco. to be painted in the picture. beautiful fresco.. as usual. who had succeeded filled with terror. with a touch of human nature not entirely spiritual. doubted the reality of transubstantiation." While this second room in the Vatican was being painted.. " Galatea gently sailing on the waves.132 RAPHAEL OF URBINO. A frightful hurricane is raging at the time. he painted the II. and surrounded . and the Huns are Leo X. Love guides the shell. caused himself and his court. In execution this fresco may be considered as one of the most perfect by this master. out of Italy. which is drawn by dolphins. from the contrast of the calm gentleness of the pontiff with the ferocity of the barbarians. Eaphael. Passavant says." and the fourth. or Farnesina. third fresco represents the " Deliverance of Peter from Prison. was engaged also in other work. " Galatea. Leo. so. saw the blood flow from the Host while he was celebrating mass. "A few very animated groups of soldiers had to be sacrificed but on the whole the composition gained by the alteration. exceeding the celebrated ones of Titian in the Scuola di San Antonio. These are called the most richly colored frescos in the world." says Passavant. by the apPeter and St. Paul. Attila march on Kome in 452. In the Chigi palace. driving the French under Louis XII. at Padua. arrested in his parition of St." The subject is taken from the narrative of Philostratus about the Cyclops. The St.

How . with the further provision that you should be present to choose the most beautiful. Some natures always see roses instead of thorns. or. who bear the nymphs. although I modest the spirit of this letter. Count Castiglione. Little cupids in the air are shooting arrows at them. and how shows that the young artist lived in an ideal world. I avail myself of cermy mind. All these figures form a contrast with the beautiful Galatea.' I should think myself a great master if it possessed one-half the merits of for ' " As which you write. and Eaphael replied. I should see many beautiful forms. sunshine behind the clouds believe in goodness and purity rather than in sin and fully it . that of the body. a sort of glorified nature . filled with exquisite things of his own creating. whose languid eyes are raised to heaven. " Galatea is an image of beauty of soul united to It is. His friend. the centre of all noble aspirations. good judges and beautiful tain ideas women which come into being rare. 133 by tritons and marine centaurs. If this idea has any excellence in art I labor heartily to acquire it. rather. Kaphael's genius attained in this and has masterpiece a height which apdefies all comparison." This fresco won the most enthusiastic praise. indeed." know not. To paint a figure truly beautiful. a goddess clad in human form. but I read in your words the love you bear to myself. wrote him in hearty commendation. proaches very nearly to perfection. — the Galatea.RAPHAEL OF UBBINO. But.

Simone di Battista di Ciarla. four of which were for the offices. with coupled columns. for the artist writes him in 1514. is the . and five windows surmounted by trianguThe entablature which surmounted lar pediments. that I am very glad and thank God for not having taken And in this I have been either her or another. with that well-meant.134 sorrow . The angle of the right of the basement. who had been . His uncle. and had built for himself a tasteful and elegant home on the Via di Borgo Nuova. BAPHAEL OF URBINO. The upper story was of Doric order. the whole was of a severe style imitated from the This beautiful building no longer exists. in regard to her whom you destined for me. seems to have been anxious. " The ground floor of the fagade was of rustic architecture." Eaphael's friends. which now forms a part of the Accoramboni palace. not far from the Vatican. " As to taking a wife. had become wealthy. with five arched doors. now thirty-one. were urging him to bring a wife into his home. and the one in the centre for the entrance to the house. only part that remains. I will say. The famous artist. wiser than you who wished to give her to me. and such natures make the world lovelier by their uplifting words and hopes. antique. I am convinced that you see yourself that I should not have got on as I have done. Another person seemed equally anxious for his Cardinal Bibiena." marriage. but usually injudicious interference which is so common.

He had met and loved Margherita in 1508. marry unwilling to loving Margherita. for he writes to this uncle. . which some think superior to that which Michael Angelo carried out He studied carefully the after Raphael's death. because Raphael. Simone. Raphael also had the oversight of all the excavations in and around Rome. executed a plan of the church. She is buried in Raphael's chapel in the Pantheon. which w^ere often found. six years earlier. the daughter of Antonio Divizio da Bibiena. Margherita was in his house when he died. were to support the cupola had too weak a foundaHe tion. so that pieces of antique statuary. was he was saved from the seeming necessity another of keeping his promise. had long been desirous that he should marry Maria. by Maria's death some time . and possibly after his engagement to Maria.. 1514. Evidently Raphael was engaged to her." wrote Leo X. Bramante. the architect of Peter's. architectural eral beautiful structures in works of Vitruvius. having died. carefully preserved. — — previous to his own. his nephew. This year. not far from his grave. Raphael was appointed his Perceiving that the four columns which successor.RAPHAEL OF URBINO. "I cannot withdraw my word we are nearer than ever to the As the matter was deferred year by conclusion. and to her he left an adequate portion of his property. might be " To this end. and planned sevRome. 135 Kaphael's intimate friend when he lived in Urbino. the first work was to strengthen these." year as many waiters believe. St.

quenched. was acquitted through a supernatural voice proclaiming that no one had the right to judge the pope. however. was painted from 1514 to 1517. Leo X. called the Stanza del crowns." The other pictures were executed in part by the pupils of Eaphael. rank he estate. which extended from the tion of the Vatican to the Mausoleum of Adrian. noble or not." says Passa" vant.. and the fire was " Several of the figures. In 847 a fire broke out in Rome.. The first fresco is " The Oath of Leo III. "I command every one. and fined from one hundred to three hundred gold third hall of the pope. when Pope Leo IV. principal portraits are. and at once the flames assumed the form of a cross. country designated by me. This was by his own hand.." thus signifying that the spiritThe two ual power is above the temporal power. . and Francis I. The danger from the high wind was very great. implored divine aid. are considered as perfect and inimitable. is third and finest picture " The Conflagra- Borgo Vecchio at E-ome. who formed an The alliance in 1515. The second fresco is " The Coronation of Charlemagne by Leo III. titled or of low to make you. as superintendent of this acquainted with every stone or marble which shall be discovered within the extent of matter. brought before the Emperor Charlemagne for trial. of whatever condition or may be." The Incendio. who desire that every one failing to do so shall be judged by you." who.136 RAPHAEL OF UBBINO.

" The pope. under Julius II.. 137 amongst others the two beautiful and powerful women who are bringing water in vases." and " Prophets and Sibyls. the famous cartoons for the Sistine Chapel were made.RAPHAEL OF UBBINO. each arcade containing four principal pictures. over the Saracens at Ostia. and whose forms are so admirably delineated under their garments agitated by the wind. " It is impossible to execute or to conceive a II. of more exquisite work. like that in the Vatican." "The Martyrdom of St. with the face of Leo X. and placed in the Hermitage. This gallery cost a million and a half of dollars." The last fresco shows the " Victory of Leo IV." "Christ's Charge to Peter." Catherine Eussia had all these Loggie paintings copied on canvas. " The Miraculous Draught of Fishes. Leo IV." tions in the Loggie. is on the shore. In these busy years. in a gallery constructed for them. At this time Eaphael made sepia sketches for the Loggie leading to the apartments of the pope thirteen arcades.. The cartoons are. had painted in it his " History of the Creation. Sixtus Michael Angelo. 1515 to 1516. to be hung before the wainscoting on high festivals. engaged in prayer.. Stephen. IV. Forty-eight of these scenes are taken from the Old Testament. and four from the Taken together. they are called life of Christ. Vasari said of the decora"Raphael's Bible. had built the chapel." And now Eaphael was asked to make cartoons for ten pieces of tapestry." "The Healing .

They were purchased at Arras by Charles I. we look through a frame and see Scripture histories. the pencilling. Lame Man. are stopped and attracted by the coloring." " The " Elymas struck with Blindness. in Flanders. twelve feet "Raphael's greatest productions. on the recommendation of Pubens. Vasari says this work " seems rather to have been performed by miracle than by the aid of man. with figures above life-size. The enthusiasm of the Romans was unbounded." "Paul and Barnabas at Lystra. They are yearly studied by thousands of visitors." St. the finishing. Brought to Pome in 1519. seven of them are to be seen in the South Kensington Museum. they were hung in St." Compared with these. Paul Preaching at Athens. Peter's. preis nothing between us and the subject. Grimm calls the the Vatican. the instrumentalities of art but here the painter seems to have flung his canvas. much toons. " all other ." He considers the " Death of Ananias " " as the most cartoons purely dramatic of " all his compositions. Of the carby from fourteen to eighteen feet.." and "Saint Paul in The cartoons were sent to Arras. silk." These tapestries. Stephen. vail ." says Hazlitt." The Death of Ananias. his great ideas alone. pictures look like oil and varnish we . on the feast of St. mind upon the His thoughts. are now in Prison.138 of the BAPHAEL OF URBINO. and gold. there . after many changes." soiled and faded. " Conversion of Paul. and wrought in wool." " St. and are made actual spectators in miraculous events.

the rich red rose. so that they were everywhere scattered among the pictures. raise. . Everywhere arrive at else we see the means . and. pierced her. gives us. 1516. — — people. Cardinal Bibiena. they seem to have cost the subjects there . The first sketch represents the Birth of Venus then Venus and Cupid. they were nevertheless greatly admired and copied. " Not to speak revelation of the is it 139 profanely. according to tradition. falling on the white rose. journey across the sea she is wounded by Cupid's dart. In 1516 he decorated the bath-room of his friend who lived on the third floor of the Vatican. This same year. These paintings were certainly of a different nature from the others in the Vatican. . seated on dolphins. painter nothing. and satisfy the mind. one of Eaphael's most celebrated Madonnas was painted.RAPHAEL OF VBBINO. they are a sort of a of which they treat an ease and freedom of manner about them which brings preternatural characters and situations home to us with the familiarity of every-day occurrences and Avhile the figures till. the one oftener . while Passavant thinks it strange that a spiritually minded cardinal should have desired such pictures. she pulls out the thorn which has The blood. here we the end apparently without any means." Eaphael was now overwhelmed with orders for He had shown worldly wisdom a thing in having his not always possessed by genius works engraved by men under his own supervision.

is seated in a chair (sedia). who does not seem to wish to unite so in one person or place. . . but only in outward show. . for the poorest mother might sit there as she does.tic. many advantages . and defies all attempts at reproduction. the little dress of the child is orange-colored. Gold and variegated colors have been used The dress of the mother is light without stint. his baby head resting against her own. "Raphael's Madonnas have the peculiarity that . and over the mother's and John's diates float light golden rings. Pitti "The Madonna Palace. Grimm says.140 RAPHAEL OF UBBINO. . with an now in the uncommonly sweet and beautiful face.. . The golden lines radiating from the halo around the head of the child form a cross. . hair . probably. with red and willow-green stripes and gold-embroidered border her sleeves are red faced with gold at the wrists. Sedia. with both arms encircling the infant Saviour. . A grayish brown veil with reddish brown stripes is wound about her . any other picture in the della copied. partaking of a spiritual as well as a material nature.. constitutes the peculiarity of this work. and clear. "Mary has been painted by Eaphael in different degrees of earthly rank the Madonna della Sedia approaches the aristocra. and the back of the chair red velvet. blue the mantle which she has drawn about her shoulders is green. A harmonious glow which. Pictorial art has produced few such works which actually in their beauty exceed nature herself. All the tones are irra- flower-like it. . than world." The Virgin.

a Italian or Spanish or Flemish of suggestion faint nature pervades their forms. Madonnas that universal human loveli- mon and that beauty which is a possession comto the European nations compared with other Sistine Madonna soars above us womanly beauty and yet. . regarded as personal manifesta- tions of his genius. They are not Italians whom he paints. he lived only three he did not this). 141 they are not distinctively national. owing to some special affinity. . but women raised above what is national. Shakespeare's and Goethe's feminine creations inspire the same feeling. Correggio's. despite this universality. Raphael alone could respects affected give to his ness. he has the privilege of wholly understanding her. strange . At thirty-five years of age (and survive much beyond life is the largest portion of human The events often still in the future. After finishing the Sistine years. His last works betray the same youthHis studies ful exhilaration in labor as his first. "His ideal of as our to say. " All Raphael's works are youthful works. are as valuable as his paintings. and Rubens's Madonnas are all in some by their masters' nationality.BAPHAEL OF TJBBINO. Titian's. . like hopes and anticipations when a cruel fate snatched him away. Murillo's. . and to seem us. from nature made at this time have a freshness and grace which. she gives to each individual the impression that. races. Leonardo's. Madonna. surprise continue to of each day fresh full of these was Raphael adventures.

glamour. . and St. was painted in 1518 for the Benedictine Monastery of San Sisto. Elector of Saxony. and the admiration of those who only sounded sweet in his ears. before the Sistine Madonna. Sixtus kneeling myriads of cherubs' on the left. for forty thousand dollars. even while he saw through it. he made it an apotheosis. still He was him.. ." It is interesting to sit in the Dresden gallery alone. It is said that the famous Correggio. Everything continued to serve him with the gospel of defeat his soul was meant to flatter . St. to the last. What in our later years we call illusions still enchanted a romantic The easy. They seem to enter into the feelings of the artist. as if he had foreseen that this Madonna would be his last. at Piacenza. It was received at Dresden with great joy. still unacquainted. . " It was the last Virgin created by the genius of Raphael and. " I too am an artist " Passavant says. . untrammelled life at the court of the pope wore for him. with the Virgin standing in the midst of on the clouds heads.142 HAPHAEL OF URBINO. Barbara on the right. the throne of Saxony being displaced in order to give this divine product of genius a fitting home. which has the face of the beloved Margherita. standing before this picture." Sistine The Madonna. and note the hush that comes upon the people when they pass over the threshold. in process of development. exclaimed with pride. It is said that many a poor ! . from which it was purchased in 1754 by Augustus III.

bent with years. was recovered save this picture. once seen. was a rich and noble Koman lady who lived in the reign of Alexander Severus. from its drawing and expression. Some think it equal to " The Transfiguration. Both these men were beheaded because they refused to sacrifice to idols. to playing so much more wonSt. 143 and lonely woman. Cecilia." listening to the singing of six angels. It is floated in a box into the harbor of Genoa. Eaphael's " Christ Bearing the Cross " (Lo Spasimo) is considered a masterpiece. Prefect of Eome.RAPHAEL OF URBINO.hem. uninjured. She was shut up his brother Tiburtius." The ship which was carrying it Nothing to Palermo was lost with all on board. her A musical in- strument is slipping from her hand while she listens. These eyes. derful than her own. with was converted to Christianity by her prayers. this painting. entranced. at sixteen to Valerian. She was married . and you go again and again to look at 1. and Cecilia was shortly after condemned to death by Almachius. of the Virgin look at you. with Augustine. on her Cecilia Mary Magdalene. which. is Another well-known work of Raphael eyes raised to heaven in ecstasy. — looking back into her past with its mysteries looking forward perchance a veiled but significant future. "St. but they do The eyes into are thinking . who. are never forgotten. has wept before The eyes not see you. St. now in Madrid. . John . On left her right are Paul and St.

and dur- ing three days she still preached and taught.. to he left her only half killed. and yet it unlike any of those things which we call It is of the inspired is most reality. She died in the third century. having been ordered by a noble Bolognese lady. like a doctor of the church. and to him she bequeathed the palace in which she had lived. and blazing . The Christians found her bathed in her blood. On the third day she was visited by Pope Urban I. with such sweetness and elo- quence that four hundred pagans were converted. Shelley wrote concerning this work. and seems to . that it might be consecrated as a temple to the Saviour. Cecilia. to whose care she tenderly committed the poor whom she nourished.'' The behead prefect then sent a her. " for God sent a cooling shower which tempered the heat of the fire. asking that he "make any correction he pleased. fires kindled that the hot vapor might destroy her but she was kept alive." It is stated that Francia was so overcome at the sight of this picture that he died from excessive grief because he felt that he could never equal it. Raphael sent the picture to his artist friend Francesco Francia. for a chapel which she built to St. says the legend. This masterpiece of color was sent to Bologna. Elena Duglioni. " Standing before the picture of St. if he noticed any defect. you forget that is it a picture as you look at it. but man to her palace. and ideal kind. Cecilia. own bath-room.144 in her RAPHAEL OF URBINO.

yet has broken and it do not speak her truth and soft. dark. and penetrated throughout with the warm and She is listening to the music radiant light of life. particularly St. towards her. by their attitudes. : organ in her hands her countenance. eloquent eyes lifted up. John. 145 have been conceived and executed in a similar state of feeling to that which produced among the ancients those perfect specimens of poetry and sculpture which are the baffling models of succeeding generations. and applied himself so closely to his books and pictures that people said he was melancholy. ness. as heaven. her chestnut hair flung back from her forehead she holds an . calmed by the depth of her passion and rapture. There is a unity and a perfection The central in it of an incommunicable kind. for the four figures that surround her evi. Henry him to visit England and become attached to his court. as it were. languid with the depth of his emotion. figure. St. dently point. Cecilia. seems wrapt in such inspiration as produced her image in the painter's mind her deep. with a tender. has just ceased to I and. Francis I. urged Raphael was now loaded with honors. artist shut himself up in his palace.BAPHAEL OF URBINO. bends his countenance towards her. VIII. who. was eager to Often the make him court painter of France. unstrung. yet impassioned gesture. imagine. of sing. He was so deeply ." Of the coloring it I all eclipses Nature. At her feet lie various instruments of music.

neighboring countries to He loved poetry and philosophy. interested in history that he thought of writing He had planned and parcompleted a book on ancient Eome. cared for as a child by the very rich Raphael da Urbino. concerning whom Calcagnini. He would far rather die than not pursue his studies. for whom he provided as though they were his children.146 RAPHAEL OF URBINO. He left a manuscript on art and artists. he receives from man the pope an annual pension. which should reproduce to the world the city in its former grandeur. whether his learning or affability the greater. This most holy has this peculiar and very uncommon quality of despising money so much as to refuse it when offered to him. and of "He is an old man of stoical whom it would be difficult to say is probity. historical works. and dwells in a hole which might justly be named the tub of Diogenes. " . However. . who is so much esteemed by the pope he is a young man of the greatest kindis . some tially He sent artists into all the collect studies from the antique. the pope's secretary. unless forced to accept it by the most urgent necessity. Several artists lived in his home. . Among others in his house lived Fabius of Ravenna. He himself lives on herbs and lettuces. Through him Hippocrates speaks Latin. He . wrote. which Vasari found most valuable in his biographies. and has laid aside his ancient defective expressions. like the Pythagoreans. which he divides amongst his friends and relations.

the first of all painters. " With all this he is so far from being proud that he comes as a friend to every one. which he regards He respects and honors as the object of life. he has so carried Pope Leo and the to look on Eomans along with him as to induce every one him as a god sent from heaven to restore to the ancient city her ancient majesty. by removing the highest accumulations of earth. Fabius as a master and a father. whose rare talent that he invents principles he does not teach. and executes things which men of the greatest genius deemed impossible. I make an exception only in Vitruvius. ness and of an admirable mind. as well in theory as in practice moreover.BAPHAEL OF URBINO. digging down to the lowest foundations. but whom he defends or attacks with the surest proofs. and with so much grace that not even the slightest envy min- gles in his criticism. which will be scarcely credited by posterity do not allude to the basilica of the Vatican. Thus he is. he is an architect of such . "At (I present he is occupied with a wonderful work. which he is restoring in almost its ancient grandeur for. perhaps. and restoring everything according to the descriptions of ancient authors. of everything and following his counsels/' . and does not shun the words and remarks of any one he likes to hear his views discussed in order to obtain instruction and to instruct others. 147 is He distin- guished by the highest qualities. speaking to him . : where he directs the works) it is the town of Rome.

a drop of heated ing lover. instigated by her envious disobeys the injunction. She then drives in her dove-chariot to Jupiter.148 RAPHAEL OF URBINO." ture Constantine is dashing across the battle-field on a white horse. Eaphael . Meanwhile Venus has been informed of her son's attachment. however. but confiding. He visits her by night. from Apuleius. "A fable of Cupid and Psyche. with his spear levelled at Maxentius. oil from which awakens her sleepCupid upbraids her. imprisons him. She lights a lamp. warning her not to indulge in curiosity as to his appearance. Psyche wanders about. For the fourth hall in the Vatican. which both goddesses decline to do. becomes enamoured of her. and unselfish. The goddess accordingly directs her son Cupid to punish the princess by inspiring her with Cupid himself love for an unworthy individual. and quits her in anger. excites the jealousy of Venus by her The whole — beauty. with his army. certain king had three daughters. learning from everybody. sisters. filled with despair. this sincere not proud. Raphael now undertook the paintings in the the Loggie of the Farnesina. and carries her off. not envious. for Agostino Chigi. indeed. shows her to the Graces. A rare man. who. picture is remarkable for life and spirit. and requests Juno and Ceres to aid her in seeking for Psyche. Psyche. is driven back into the Tiber. and begs him to grant . the Sala di Costantino. of whom Psyche. Raphael made the cartoon for "The In the centre of the pic- Battle of Constantine. the youngest.

he replied cheerfully. and it was was declining. and thus fitted for the enjoyment of celestial happiness. for this picture. begs Jupiter to grant him Psyche. having at length escaped from his captivity. said that the talent of Raphael Medici for a " Transfiguration" for the Cathedral At the same time the cardinal Narbonne. she becomes immortal. 149 request is Her complied with. which. greater part of this work. and commands Mercury to summon the gods to deliberate on the matThe messenger of the gods then conducts ter. so that this work might equal or surpass that of Raphael.'' Raphael had time only to make cartoons for the in accomplishing. Raphael gladly accepted an order from Cardinal Giuliano The paintings were criticised. she succeeds Cupid.BAPHAEL OF URBINO. When the latter was apprised of this. ordered the " Raising of Lazarus " from Sebastiano Michael Angelo made the drawings del Piombo. her the assistance of Mercury. to At length she is desired to bring a casket from the infernal regions. Jupiter kisses him. it is said. able manner. and Mercury flies forth to search Venus torments her in every conceivfor Psyche. this. In this pleasing fable Psyche obviously represents the human soul purified by passions and misfortunes. however. Psyche to Olympus. while his pupils executed them. with the aid of friends. " Michael de' of . and even the astonishment of Venus. she is enabled to perform. Hurt by such an unwarrantable opinion. and imposes impossible tasks on her. and the gods celebrate the nuptial banquet.

is in In the upper portion Christ has risen into the air above Mount Tabor. "This is my two sections. as one who had finished the great work which he had to accomplish. moment the voice is heard saying." . let him come and behold it in this picture. to be healed. whereby the glory and the majesty of art should be : made mani- countenance of Christ having completed that." The " Transfiguration."' fol- At the foot of the mount. Vasari says. . . so varied. the most divine. being shortly afterwards overtaken by death. and John. beloved Son : hear him. he touched the pencils no more. on the mount. the most excellent. James. The disciples point to the Saviour as the only one who has the power to cast out evil spirits. the force of his powers into one fest in the effort. so new. since it is in reality he oifers as my rival and not Sebastiano. has brought his demoniac boy to the Apostles. Whoever shall desire to see in what manner Christ transformed into the Godhead should be represented. lowed by a crowd of people. and at all points so among the many works executed by his hand this. " In this work the master has of a truth produced figures and heads of such extraordi- nary beauty. But as if that sublime genius had gathered all . by the common consent of all the most worthily artists. and has appeared At this to Peter." now in the Vatican. an afflicted father. is declared to be admirable. that renowned. me that a great honor.150 Angelo pays himself RAPHAEL OF UEBINO.

An immense crowd followed the body to the Pantheon his last beautiful picture. . which he had long before made ready for his body and the rest of his property to his relatives and Margherita. on a catafalque sur- rounded by lighted tapers. : increased the glory of lived the pontiffs Julius 11. cardinal died soon after without ever living in a thousand it crowns to purchase a house whose rental should defray the expense of twelve masses monthly at the altar of his chapel in the Pantheon. who emulated the ancients. being carried in the procession. by his works of painting and tecture. April 6. though the . the unfinished " Transfiguration " behind it. He made his will. His friend Cardinal Pietro Bembo wrote his epitaph in Latin " Dedicated to Raphael Sanzio. archi- and Leo X. probablycontracted through his researches among the ruins of Rome. at the age of thirty-seven. All Rome was its idol. he seems to have realized at once that his labors were finished. bent with grief at the death of state in his beautiful He lay in home. 151 Before the "Transfiguration" was completed. Good Friday. He died on the night of 1520. its colors yet damp. Raphael was seized with a violent fever. In whom the union of Nature and Art is easily perceived. Weak from overwork. He exactly thirty-seven years. the son of Giovanni of Urbino. giving his works of art to his pupils his beautiful home to Cardinal Bibiena.RAPHAEL OF URBINO. the most eminent painter. He .

He left two hundred and eighty-seven pictures and five hundred and seventy-six drawings and studies. it is said. the precious remains were enclosed in a leaden coffin. "It seems as if I were not in Kome. dying. April and died on the anniversary of his 6. must continue forever." Count Castiglione wrote to his mother. exclaiming. " Ora pro nobis. " Living. independent of death and transitory things. could not be comforted. since my poor Raphael is here no longer. and that in a marble sarcophagus. Leo X." The pope. and yet how amazing the amount of work accomplished.152 BAPHAEL OF URBINO. and the complete skeleton was found. 1520.. in 1833. burst into The Mantuan tears. and the chief artists and cultivated people of the city bearing torches in the reverent procession. Michael Angelo said Raphael owed more to his wonderful . the Pantheon being illuminated. and in Avhat the learned will write in his praise. through his works. Dead at thirty-seven. fears herself to die. and. ''Nothing is after Raphael's talked of here but the loss of the man who at the close of his three-and-thirtieth year [thirty-seventh] has his second. birth. and. After five weeks." Three hundred and thirteen years after his death his tomb was opened.^' Ambassador wrote home the day death. and reburied at night. great Nature feared he might outvie Her works. that of his now ended his first life posthumous fame.

which is not exactly suited to its end nor in the thousands ." His maxim was. but as they should be. "He was the most ideal artist that God has ever created. blending as he did the opposing tendencies of the mystics and the naturalists into a perfect whole of nature and of the antique. but none of them approached Eaphael as an exponent of beauty whether in young or old. to make him a painter of works Christian in spirit . The beautiful was his special field. Michael Angelo more grandeur. it *^ 153 When asked once by how he accomplished so much. This was because of all artists since the Greeks. he had the most perfect feeling for true beauty. " We must not represent things as they are. and hence he is first Leonardo had more depth." Passavant says. and transferred to an atmosphere charged with classical ideas. by reverent study Bred in a devotional school of art." all his Says Charles C. because the most comprehensive.RAPHAEL OF UBBINO. while he absorbed enough of the second. or a contour. Correggio more sweetness. Perkins of Boston. he retained enough of the first. Eaphael From my earliest childhood I have made a principle never to neglect anything. among his kind. "Eaphael was in truth the greatest of artists. " Throughout works there is not an expression of face. his pupils replied. industry than to his genius. whether of muscle or drapery. which he drew or painted can we recall an ungraceful or a mannered line or pose. in earthly or divine beings. of figures in mortals or immortals.

" Raphael will live. As Grimm "Four : statements exhaust the story of his life he lived. lips that spoke no censure of anybody. but he had the self-poise of a great nature." as Giovio said. which '' won for him the favor living. of the great. enthusiastic. single was short. and Greek in elegance and purity of form and style. and sweetness in Raphael's soul. but praise where praise was possible. while for him the homage of the world. He had by nature a sunny.154 KAPHAEL OF URBINO. not only througli his works but through the adoration we all pay to a lovable The perennial fountain of goodness character. he loved. and would do well to cultihas won is now that he dead. and such self-control that not an enemy was ever made by his temper or his lack of consideration for others. He was says. : vate: a spirit that did not find fault. had what every person he kindly disposition living may have." He helped everybody. his life True. he worked. he died young. and what more is there in life than this? .

the Spanish. the Florentine and Roman painters of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and Albert Diirer. the latter. All who went before them. — Mind is ever the characteristic oi . that of Titian. these wonderful men remain to us as representatives ol the two great departments of art. in Germany. may be ranged under the banners of one or the other of these great kings and leaders. Jameson. while both have given us mind. I would invoke Eaphael and Titian. "Considered under this point of view. Ranged on the side of Titian appear the Venetian.TITIAN. The former as the most perfect example of all that has been accomplished in the expression of thought through the medium of form . and both have given us beauty. and all who follow after them." says Mrs. " TF I were required. Under the banners of Eaphael appear the majestic thinkers in art. of all that life has been accomplished in the expression of through the medium of color. Hence it is that. " to -L sum up in two great names whatever the art oi painting had contemplated and achieved of highest and best. the Lombard. and Flem. Raphael Beauty.

which insure the gratification of other men. — Beauty without Life. in Titian . When a scliool of art arose wliicli aimed at uniting the characteristics of both. sensuality . outside and in all it has of form.166 ish masters. which means . and when narrower people come to look if he chooses. nor the nature aud who ended by giving us Form Kuskin a says. . human being. " When Titian or Tintoret look at that . or whatsoever other quality. the . they see at a glance the whole of . nor saw what they felt who trusted — . . Only there is a strange undercurrent of everlasting murmur about the name of Titian." ^ God within them. what was the result ? A something second-hand and the school of the Academicians and the neutral mannerists. The find his own special pleasure in the work. or of thought loveliness . form and j^et picture will never be a popular one in the sense. the saint. sensualist will find what they have done. every one may. of passion. or softness. TITIAN. . saintliness fleshly power and spiritual and power so at grace. a crowd of painters who neither felt. men will see to the full. what they saw. those paint that. sanctity . color . . or strength. neither to the around them without Soul . its nature. the the full the anatomist. of color. for none of these narrower people will find their special taste so alone consulted as that the qualities shall be sifted or separated which would insure their gratification from others they are checked by the presence of the other qualities. thinker will find thought colorist.

and Titian. — Dolce wrote. little is to Gregorio four chil- known. the deep consent of all 157 great men that he is greater than they. its jagged rocks and nestling cottages. Orsa." He was remarkably calm and self-poised through life. and. saying that a painter should never be agitated. an eloquent speaker. the . Piave. save that she bore dren. though probably limited in means. uprightness. in his discourse. was a brave soldier. personally. Caterina. was born at fully of other painters to give . . superin- tendent of the castle.TITIAN. Arsenale. Titian. was universally esteemed for wisdom and Of the mother. with its mountain wildflowers. a member of the Council of Cadore. . And yet he was a man of strong feelings and tender affections. in the Valley of Cadore." " the deep consent of all Strong praise indeed strong great men that he is greater than they " praise for the tireless worker. affable and most courteous in manner so that whoever once conversed with him could not choose but love him thenceforth forever. that ^^he was most modest was ever ready that he never spoke reproach- that. moreover. in the heart of the Venetian Alps. in the year 1477. In this Alpine country. Francesco. His father. the lover of the beautiful. of whom Ludovico ! — . he honor where honor was due that he was. having an excellent wit and a perfect judgment in all things of a most sweet and gentle nature. Gregorio Vecelli. Lucia. who knew him . inspector of mines. with its waterfalls and its rushing river. .

were a constant delight. What an influence has such a home on a susceptible boy Gentile was a of eleven or twelve years of age ! man of tender heart as well as of refined taste. the cliffs. though Cadore. a statue of Venus : by Praxiteles. becoming the most famous idealist as well as the " great- put Venetian school. the leader of the guild of mosaic-work- He was drawn to the studio of Gentile Bellini. and had gathered into his home pictures and mosaics of great value the head of Plato. with the juice of flowers. His ers. He had travelled much. to idolize beauty of color. the Child standing on her knee. and the lad was taken to Venice. the aged artist went to Constantinople in 1479 and presented the ruler with a picture of the decapita- . the sky. and other renowned works. seventy miles from Cadore. so that he might study under the best artists. Zuccato. the green- sward. surprised and pleased." it has been denied by some authorities. however. boy Titian grew to be passionately fond of nature form and face. In after years he all these changing scenes upon canvas.158 TITIAN. skill noted for his knowledge of perspective and in composition. on the walls of his home at est landscape-painter of the The story is told. that before he was ten years of age he had painted. first teacher seems to have been Sebastian soon. a Madonna. and to revel in The clouds. while an angel kneels The father and relatives were greatly at her feet. to paint portraits of the sultan Asked and sultana. an artist seventy years old. and placed with an uncle.

Titian's earliest works were a fresco of Hercules.TITIAN. St. eminent for his portraits of women. who soon became his warm friend. Violante. Another person who greatly influencd the early of Titian was Palma Vecchio of Bergamo. and the boy sought the studio of his brother. . show the painter the truth of the criticism. Giovanni Bellioi. and broader contrasts in light and shade. with a at Dresden. John. Here he met Giorgione as a fellow-pupil. violet in her bosom. shows Violante in the centre between her two sisters another. had the head of a slave struck whereupon the artist. 159 and. sick at once to Venice. to The sultan criticised the work. an artist with more brilliant style. sketched boldly and rapidly. tion of St. The master was displeased. . This man studied the works of Leonardo da Vinci. Perhaps there was a special bond between these two men. heart. Palma's masterpiece. and became distinguished for boldness of design and richness of Titian was his assistant and devoted adcolor. with an originality peculiar to himself. but. life for it is asserted that Titian loved Palma's beauti- ful daughter. off in his presence. and still another. Violante. mirer. ters. Barbara in the church of Santa Maria Formosa in Venice. at Vienna. now . returned at The young Cadorine studied carefully the minute drawings of Gentile Bellini. whom he frequently painted Palma had three daughone picture.

now lost. It has all Titian's matchless warmth of coloring. and shore. say in their life of the great The scene is laid in a pleasure ground surrounded by landscape. To the right. It is nature. dale. . Avhich shows genuine feeling with careful finish and portraits of his His first important work was parents. we behold. bathed by the waters of the sea and two horsemen on a road watch their hounds coursing a hare. A warm glow is shed over hill. who have to studied the more than one thousand pictures which the name attached. " Sacred and Profane Love. in the distance. . " is Cavalcaselle.' Description can give no idea of the consummate beauty of this composition. Eaton says of this. when he was twentythree. . a church and a clump of cottages on a bend of land. "Out of Venice there is nothing of Titian's to compare to his Sacred and Profane Love. To the left a block of buildings and a tower half illumined by a ray of sun crown the on an island. . on the front of the Morosini Palace a Madonna." Crowe and of Titian painter. with a correctness of design no other painter of the Venetian school ever attained. and breathing life in all its truth. . swathed in the balmy atmosphere of an autumnal evening. and streaks of gray cloud alternate with bands of light in a sunset sky.160 TITIAN. in the Vienna Belvedere. painted about the year 1500. that now ." now in the Borghese Palace at Kome. . but not individual nature it is ideal beauty in all its perfection. ' .

nearer rising fan-like still. "Nearer to the foreground. The red silk falling . which. a crystal dish at her side. hillside. behind the marble trough of an Enchanting lines of hill and plain. out of the grass. supports the frame as the maiden turns. symbolizing her thoughts. . the cloth at her loins is of that golden white which sets off so well the still more golden whiteness of her skin. or taste for sparkling color. and helping to display a form of faultless shape and complexion. there in light. where the women sit on a lawn watered by the stream that issues from the fountain. with happy earnestness. . and at measured intervals. here in shadow. slightly veiled by a length of muslin. She neither knows nor cares to heed that Cupid is leaning over the hinder ledge of the fountain and plashing in the water. Not . without coquetry. is relieved upon a silken cloth hanging across the arm. leans. half- on the ledge of the trough.TITIAN. side. "Artless (Sacred) Love. Her naked figure. the chestnut hair of the naked maiden is twisted in a rose-colored veil . resting on the ledge. saplings throw their branches lightly on the sky. and rich in weeds that shoot forked leaves and spikes antique fountain. lead us to the foreground. to gaze at her companion. . is intercepted in the centre of the space by a group of rich-leaved trees. The left hand holds aloft the vase and emblematic incense of love the right. on one sitting. 161 where a knight with his lance rides to meet a knot of villagers.

into which the young painter evidently put his heart. and brings out by its breaks the more uniform pearl of the flesh. while Venice was engaged in wars with the French and the Turks. but serene her charms veiled in splendid dress.162 TITIAN." To this figure of Sacred Love. save that he must have been growing in fame. so finely draped in satin of gray reflexes the red girdle." For the next six or seven years. the rich armlets. . little is known of the young Titian. from her arm. the bunch of roses in her gloved hand. . Did he intend thus to immortalize her. he gave the beautiful and half-pensive face of Violante. while he immortalized himself ? Very likely. who had charge of the Papal squadron . Bishop of Paphos. the son of Pope Alexander VL. her face determined. and other paintings. . her very hands concealed in gloves. . and a lute lies silent under her elbow. her back resolutely turned towards Cupid. as he painted the picture of the infamous Csesar Borgia. against the Turks. The picture of Pesaro was owned by Charles of .. A plucked rose fades unheeded by the sated one's side. now lost. I. . " Sated (Profane) Love sits to the left. . and partly waving in the air. is of that crimson tone which takes such wonderful carminated changes in the modulations of its surface. . She seems so grand in her lawns and silks her bosom is fringed with such delicate cambric her waist and skirt. all harmonize so perfectly. Jacopo da Pesaro. with its jev/elled clasp.. haughty.

Two other grand frescos were painted by him. leaning at first. and twenty-six A portion of this ferred to Titian. where highly prized. England. over which he shed a light that was to guide posterity. but expanding. Titian was characterized by this. Says one writer. that he painted flesh in which the blood appeared to mantle.TITIAN. of more sunny impast." the figure of a woman plinth. eighty rooms. Titian painted a " Judith. presented to the city of Antwerp.. In 1507 the State of Venice engaged Giorgione to fresco the new Fondaco de' Tedeschi. soon after. of more harmonious hues. In her right hand she waves a sword. With incomparable skill he gave . and opened up a new path. indeed. "Whilst Giorgione showed a fervid and original spirit. than his competitors. while with her left foot she tramples on a lifeless head. on an eminence which no later craftsman was able to climb. it is 163 In 1825 William it I. all now despoiled by the northern or " Tramontana " winds. Titian exhibited in his creations a grander but more equable genius. on Giorgione's example. " He imagined forms of grander proportions. King of the Nether- lands. work was transAbove the portal in the southern seated on the edge of a stone face of the building. with such force and rapidity as to place him in advance of his rival. whilst the art of the painter was merged in the power of a creator. which had two warehouses. a large public structure for the use of foreign merchants. halls. in front of a stately edifice.

or blurred so as to produce the semblance of exuberant life. after." It is said by some* writers that Giorgione never forgave Titian for excelling him in the frescos of the Fondaco thirty-four. who lived under his roof.164 tenderness to TITIAN. Bridget alone is relieved. " St. as if inquiring shall he take it or not. when the noted artist and poet died. who bends out of the Virgin's arms to seize the oifering. The Virgin and the saint in armor to the left stand out in front of hangings of that gorgeous green which seems peculiar in its brightness to the Vene- . yet turns his face to his mother. the form of St. He moderated the fire of Giorgione. strengthened. but. one in the Belvedere at Vienna. soon Titian completed pictures. one in the Louvre. Bridget stands with a basin of flowers in her hand. . Bridget " now at Madrid. and the beautiful " Madonna and St. The heart at the loss of his beloved. Between 1508 and 1511 Titian painted several Madonnas. latter was killed in the battle of Zara in 1519. in front of the infant Saviour. one in Florence. fanciful movement. by transitions of half-tone and broken contrasted colors. however this may be. blended. whose strength lay in resolute action. and a mysterious artifice in disposing shadows contrasting darkly with hot red lights. at the all age of his unfinished Giorgione loved tenderly a girl who deserted him through the influence of Morto da Fel- an intimate friend. flesh. after his friend Giorgione had died of a broken tri. Against the sky and white cloud of the distance.

165 With ease in action and movement. being much more clever and subtle in harmonizing light with half-tint by tender and cool transitions of gray crossed with red. Duke of Ferrara. and St. by the use of the clearest and finest glazings that it is possible to imagine. who wrote in picture. fertility of resource in the handling of flesh than Palma. all into a polished surface. fresh as of yesterday. and of almost spotless purity. but still poor. and struggling with untiring industry for the great re- nown which he saw before him. Alfonso d'Este." now in the museum It was painted at the request of at Dresden. .TITIAN. •' 1655. tells this story concerning the Titian was visited on a certain occasion by a of company German travellers. yet fusing and blending . tians. '^ The Tribute Money. and much more effective in breaking up shadow with contrasting touches of livid tone. . . The juicy tints and glossy handling are those of Titian's Palmesque period. to look at the pictures who were allowed which his studio contained. Scanelli. with probably the same love for Violante in his heart. a charming expression is combined. thought by some to be his masterpiece. At this time Titian painted one of his most noted works. Bridget is the same lovely girl whose features Palma painted with equal fondness and skill in the panel called Violante." Titian was now thirty-four. at the BelveTitian shows much greater dere of Vienna.

the right stands in profile before Jesus. though long experience had taught him to prefer a broad and even track to a narrow and intricate path. and confirms with his eye the gesture of his hand. subtle. holds the . he too would have fallen into the excesses of Diirer. . " Christ turns towards the questioning Pharisee. " To if thes-e observations Titian smilingly replied. Single as the subject is. But. the thought which it embodies is very ' . its features and short curly beard are finely framed The Pharisee to in a profusion of flowing locks. and that was Diirer their impression being that Venetian compositions invariably fell below the promise which they had given at their first commencement. His face is youthful. "Vasari reflects an opinion which holds to this day. which points to the coin. he had thought extreme finish to be the end and aim of art. yet he would that still take occasion to show that the subtlest detail might be compassed without sacrifice of breadth and so produced the Christ of the Tribute Money. that the head of Christ is stupendous and miraculous. being asked what impression these works coii declared that they only knew of one master capable of finishing as they veyed.' " It was considered by all the artists of his time as the most perfect and best handled of any that Titian ever produced but for us it has qualities of a higher merit than those of mere treatment. these gentlemen On thought paintings ought to be finished." Crowe and Cavalcaselle say.166 TITIAN.

Dresden Gallery. Titian. .THE TRIBUTE MONEY. From the painting.


as if ready to wave at the spectator's breath. The drapery is admirable in shade and fold. Anthony. and the low cunning and coarse air of the Pharisee between the delicate chiselling of the features. 167 and asks the question. returning to Venice in 1512. and the sharp aquiline nose or the crafty glance of the crop-haired. and with greater delicacy of modelling. . the soft grave eye and pure-cut mouth of the Saviour. "The form of Christ was never conceived by any . ' The contrast ' is sub- lime between the majestic calm and elevation and what Inandt calls the Godlike beauty of Christ. and that of the fine broadcloth which forms the blue mantle.TITIAN." In 1511 Titian was called to Padua and Vicenza. where he executed some frescos. this is also the most polished work of Titian. within the compass of the North Italian schools. principally from the life of St. Nor has Titian ever done better and it is quite certain that no one. malignant Hebrew. . Titian himself included. coin. reproduced the human shape with more nature and truth. . and we distinguish with ease the loose texture of the bright red tunic. Amidst the profusion of locks that falls to Christ's shoulders. The most perfect easel picture of which Venice ever witnessed the production. there are ringlets of which we may count the hairs. this. of the Venetians of such ideal beauty as . and some of these are so light that they seem to float in air. Nothing can exceed the brightness and sheen or the transparent delicacy of the colors.

importuned Titian but the Venetian own state and preferred May 31. " I. of the pope. and the first vacant brokership for life. Titian of Cadore. naturally He was now him to Eome. which is so difficult that no one as yet has had the courage to attempt it. and Pope Leo X. till they felt the position to be theirs by right. if it should appear feasible. have I am therefore urgently asked to employ me. where Eaphael and Michael Angelo were the admired of all. It seemed now as though comfort were guaranteed to the hard-working artist. Titian was successful. beginning. who in past days. at San Samuele on the Grand Canal. with the canvas of the battle on the side towards the Piazza. famous. rather than his highness the pope and other Signori. please their sublimity. Cardinal desired to draw Bembo.168 TITIAN. After long discussions. having studied painting from childhood upwards. wish to serve the Doge and Signori. receiving from the . 1513. the secretary loved his sending. the following petition to the Council of Ten. and even now. of Kaphael. But unfortunately rivalries arose. to paint in if it the Hall of Council. and desirous of fame rather than profit. and the friend to serve her. where he remained for sixteen years.'^ For this work Titian asked a moderate compensation. anxious. He moved into a studio in the old palace of the Duke of Milan. The Bellinis had worked in this Hall of Council in the Ducal Palace. all of which the government granted. .

and dancing. has been frequently copied. throwing and catching. " the holy feeling of youthful innocence and affection charmingly expressed in both " : an old contemplates two skulls on the ground. the forms appro- man priate to their age are given ject is treated create in its tion. with Ellesmere. paint the Doge's portrait. " climbing boughs like boys. while winged cupids pluck the apples sacred to Venus." now in the collection of Lord ble pedestal. as to the lovers. shows the mother with the . who had married the handsome and celebrated Lucretia Borgia : — The Venus Worship. " To the children. fighting. represents the goddess standing on a mar" two nymphs at her feet. 169 Fondaco an annuity of one hundred ducats as a and the privilege of exemption from certain taxes. he had to broker.TITIAN. dropping down from them like thrushes. tumbling. loading baskets." and the whole subwith such harmony of means as to way the impression of absolute perfec. while. Titian was now painting the following works for Alfonso d'Este. " The Three Ages. Duke of Ferrara. and it is said that Domenichino wept when he heard that it had been carried to Spain. from the branches of great trees. near Bethlehem." now in the National Gallery." This picture was a favorite study for artists. on the other hand. The "Virgin's Rest." now in the Museum of Madrid. steps on A cupid sits two sleeping children : a beautiful girl near her lover.

on St. which tells us how he left his house on the canals. offices when the public were closed by order of the Senate." a colossal picture. "The Assumption the Virgin. The " Noli Me Tangere. supported by countless and brilliant The ministry of the angels about her is One raises the corner of the mantle. and was shown to the public. 1518. Titian was producing what as his is generally regarded of masterpiece. varied and eager. all March 20. look without transport on the mysterious calm of which Titian has painted with such loving care. and took nature captive on a calm day at summer's end. and others. Bernardino's Day. yet with such clever freedom. others hold the pipes. . and wandered into the country beyond the lagoons. John. whilst others again are sunk in wonderment. or point at the Virgin's majesty and ." also in the National Gallery. infant Christ on her lap. " One cannot this beautiful scene.170 TITIAN. besides various portraits of the poet Ariosto. Alfonso. The picture is like a leaf out of Titian's journal. now in the Academy of Arts at Venice. " The gorgeous blue and red mantle stand out tunic on the silvery ether. vaulted into a dome. or sing in choir. taking a bunch of flowers from St. It was painted for Santa Maria di Frari. and a of Mary's great crowd thronged the church." While painting these pictures. represents Christ with Mary Magdalene on her knees before him. some play the tabor. cherubs. and lingered in the fresh sweet landscape at eventide.

Ariadne reposes on the ground. and still seemed to bear Violante on his heart. while a company of Menads sport about her as Theseus sails away in the distance. The most beautiful Menad. for Duke Alfonso. has the exquisite face and form of Violante. and executed several frescos. the idol of the people. . an angel on one side ready with a crown of leaves an archangel swathed in drapery. cincture in his hands. as the sound of bells fades sweetly traveller. and was. insensible from wine. Meantime. with white muslin tunic and rubyred bodice and skirt." Titian was at once declared to be the foremost painter in Venice. He looks down with serene welcome in his face. the Venetian Government threatened that unless he went forward with the work in the Ducal Palace it should be finished by others Pressed on every hand for picat his expense. He now painted the "Annunciation" for the Cathedral of Treviso. King of Cretey .TITIAN. . 171 the rest fade into the sky behind. eagerly asking leave to deposit on the Virgin's brow the golden . tures. with a violet or pansy on her breast. daughter of Minos. Ariadne. he still neglected the Palace. indeed. upon the ear of the passing towards All but the head and arms of the Eternal is lost in the halo of brightness which the Virgin is ascending. on the other. The painter was now over forty. and painted the brilliant "Bacchanal." now at Madrid. .

In gratitude he offered her his hand. and more devoted to loved. and gave him a thread by means of which he found his way out of the labyrinth." Alfonso d'Este was delighted with this gay picAlthough Lucretia Borgia. and the refining influences of life. not what drinking is. the reflection of which he Into catches with a square mirror in his right. She fled with him. when he came to Crete to kill the Minotaur. and he deserted a coup- her on the Island of Naxos. fell in love witli Theseus. legend. person of gentle and lovely nature. as she twists a long skein of wavy golden hair. for the duke became kinder to everybody. the second of these the girl gently bends her head to look. he had married a girl in humble station. and who kept his fickle She must have been a heart true till his death. where Bacchus found her and married her. Laura Dianti. whom he loved tenderly. had been dead but a few months. whom he never ture.172 according to tlie TITIAN. art. dressing her hair. It is believed that the a table or slab of stone. famous picture in the Louvre called " Titian and his Mistress " repre" The girl stands behind sents Laura and Alfonso. literature. Over the white her and finely plaited linen that loosely covers . let shows its motive. eagerly watched by her lover. a round mirror. with his left hand. whilst a man in the gloom behind her holds. — On the "Bacchanal" " Who Knows drinks not over and over again.

school. Titian journeyed Venetian Alps. entranced by a chord of tonic harmony. of a cherry redness. a short green bodice is 173 carelessly thrown. We pass with surprising rapidity from the most delicate silvery gradations of sunlit flesh and drapery. which Titian alone makes natural. The light is concentrated with unusual force upon the face and bust of the girl. as sweet and as thrilling as was ever struck by any artist of the Venetian . girl's The . are cut with surprising fineness." Tired with his constant labor. a series of frescos Cadore. when on his way to to Conegliano. In 1522 the great altar-piece of the ^' Eesurrec* . on the front of the Scuola di Santa Maria Nuova. in return for which he received the gift of a house.TITIAN. and brow contrast with the ruddy hair the chiselled nose projects in delicate line from a face of rounded. at his leisure. left side of is head is already dressed she finishing the right side. to the mysterious depths of an almost unfathomable gloom. yet pure contour and the lips. whilst the form and features of the man are lost in darkness. where he rested ever after. bosom. and a the skirt of the same stuff is gathered to the waist by a sash of similar color. and a delightful archness and simplicity beam in the eyes as they turn to catch the semblance in the mirror. at the foot of the and painted. and we stand before a modelled balance of light and shade that recalls Da Vinci. The coal-black eye .

His property was to be taken from him. when Ariadne. alarmed at the prospect. whose chariot is drawn by leopards. .174 tion " TITIAN. was finislied for Brescia. and placed on the high altar of St. Eich harmony of drapery say. Concerning this picture. ^' The Humiliation of the Emperor Barbarossa by Pope Alexander TIL" Duke Alfonso was urging the overworked master for a new picture. Sebastian. He taught men the cultivation of the vine and the art of wine-making. and. in this picture. flees from the presence of Bacchus. the " Bacchus and Ariadne. near the shore of Naxos. the god of the : vintage was reared by nymphs in Thrace. Titian thought the martyrdom of St. he worked vigorously for several weeks on the "Battle of Cadore " or the other great painting. Nazaro e Celso. whose death being caused by Juno. He was the son of Jupiter by Semele. The scene is taken from the classic poem of Catullus. Crowe and Cavalcaselle '' Centuries have robbed the canvas of its freshness. . Seven years had now passed since he had received the commission to paint the Hall of the Great Council. where it long remained an object of study by artists. and restorers have done their best to remove its brightest surfaces yet no one who looks at it even now can fail to acknowledge the magic of its enchantment." now in the National Gallery of England a picture five feet nine inches by six feet three inches. the best thing he had ever done.

" There is not a single composition by Titian up to this time in which the scene and the dramatis pei'sonce are more completely in unison and. all it is in every part of this picture. or prying splendor in the contrasts of color. scale. even in the sixteenth century. where he studied that foreground and we are forced to conclude that he forsook the workshop on the Grand Canal. Nor is it without curiosity that we inquire where Titian got that landscape. Nature was never reproduced more kindly or with greater exuberance than and flesh. is What subtlety there in the concentration of light on Ariadne. and went to Ferrara. how varied yet mellow the gradations of light and shade. we are were worked out piecemeal.TITIAN. beyond measure to think that they ^ ' . tints 175 soft modelling. which alone gives a focus to the what and vegetation. Poussin. and there reproduced with botanical fidelity the iris. into the rich vegetation of the foreground. depth of shade and warm combine to produce a highly colored glow yet in the midst of this glow the form of Ariadne seems incomparably fair. composition. how infinite is the space. that the figures were put in first and the landscape last. the wild rose and columbine.'* This picture has been copied by Eubens. and other noted artists. where there certainly was no vegetation. in air What wealth and diversity of . startled . looking at these groves and cliffs and seas. which so exquisitely adorn the very edge of the ground on which the Satyrs tread.

and contrasts in texture as well as harmonizes in color with the stiffer and more cornered stuff of the rose-tinged cloth which shows such fine damask reflexes on the left arm. yet the head is bent and the eyes are turned as if some one stood by to catch the glance." now at Darmstadt. No one here holds the mirrors. the " Sleeping Venus. her arm under her head. There are several replicas in — — England and elsewhere. a graceful nude figure asleep on a red couch strewn with roses. and throat. The face is delicate. a beautiful woman with the Yiolante face. but her hair is looped up with a silken cord so as to shape the most charming puffs above the ears. The figure is not more . and refined still the face of Violante. pensive. innocent. one of the most beautiful. it seems to me. The white dress. jessamines. this time the About "Flora" of the Uffizi was painted. Titian painted one of his most exquisite creations. and stretch a hand for the flowers by an intriand momentary play of the fingers. though muslin-fine and gathered into minute folds. also. with the cate for whilst with her left Flora strives other she presents a handful of roses.176 TITIAN." At this time. and violets to an unseen lover. falling in short and plaited waves to the bosom. leaving bare the whole of the face. to keep fast the muslin that falls from her shoulder and the damask that slips from her form. " She is not yet dressed. the neck. is beyond measure graceful in fall. which an artist has ever put upon canvas.

and the white splendor of the entire form thrown with . now from the sea. or the Venus is one which I have always an especial pleasure in possessing. a psychology. in the . "The trasts infinite diversities of nature. in Lord Elles- mere's collection. Duke of Urbino. perfect. the world around him. finely rounded limbs and well-modelled handsome face. the masculine force of a sea-goddess. as rich as as it is novel. and colossi who are real men. rising new-born but full-grown wringing her long hair. the strongest conare within his range each of his works is . He has at once shown same nude beauty a courtesan. . a listless and voluptuous fisherman's daughter.TITIAN. and the undulating forms of a queen of the empyrean. a patrician's mistress. and streaming golden hair. "He was endowed with that unique gift of producing Yenuses who are real women. . about twenty-five. are open to him. with all her inequalities." in Eubens. woman of figure. a complete image of The Venus Anadyomene. perhaps. 177 Uffizi. has the features of a new model. not in his Violante. and a powerful ideal figure. The spectator finds in him. than the Yeniis of the painted later for the of . a talent for imitating objects closely enough to win us with the illusion and of so profoundly transforming Madrid but the face felt objects as to enkindle reverie. in an epitomized form. Taine says of Titian. a history. but the same which Titian used This represents a *' famous Magdalen.

178 into bold relief TITIAN. the lady ? about this time whom Titian married In 1525. The Magdalen is distinguishable from Venus only by her upturned face and tearful eyes. "He looked over the wide is the thoroughfare between the city of Venice and the Island of Murano . 1530. tired of his home on the Grand Canal. Titian. with a mournful heart. who came and cared for He had grown his household as long as she lived. who became a lifelong sorrow. after the birth of Lavinia. is quite disconso- late at the loss of his wife. by a dark and lonely background. Titian sent to Cadore for his sister Orsa. a son. The happiness of this married life was of short duration. the . was born to him. adjoining. and before 1530 two other children. Jameson says. hired a house in the northern A little later he took a piece of land suburbs." Who was this new model ? Could it possibly have been Cecilia. in front.' which he doing for our most illustrious lord. Pomponio. or at the picture of the is Nude. One of his friends wrote to the warder of Mantua. He Lady told me that in the troubled time of her to sickness he was unable work at the portrait of ' the Cornelia. for on the fifth of August. he buried Cecilia. " Our master. who was buried yester- day. longing for the open country. and." Left with three helpless children. and which became famous in after years for its beauty as a garden and for the distinguished people who gathered there. canal which Mrs. Orazio and Lavinia. which extended to the shore.

till the purple darkness came on rapidly not. so unlike any other in the world that it never would occur to me to compare it with any other." He had painted the which was a favorite . while there. and the zest of a nineteenth-century city one feels as though life were going by in a dream." does not recall such beautiful scenes in Venice And yet one longs. There. melting like visions. This was the view from the garden of Titian. sublime. with jagged snow-peaks soaring against the sky. mountain. Petrarch's home. into golden light. Gondolas and moonlight evenings delight one for a time. for the sound of the feet of horses. like a gradual veil. Christ. stirring thought. Titian was now "Entombment of fifty-four. but not for long silent ! Who . gondolas filled with ladies and cavaliers. I cannot nothing that I have ever beheld or imagined. and more to the left. like. with all its domes and campanili like another Venice. Far off extended the level line of the mainland. as .TITIAN. rising on the right. and is anxious to awake and be apart of the world's eager. half defined. — in the north. and in the distance the towering chain of the Friuli Alps. tell. were seen skimming over the crimson waves of the Lagoon. More glorious combinations be there may — of sea. and resounding with music. it is shore. suddenly let down over all. the Euganean hills. but like a gemmed and embroidered curtain. 179 two smaller islands of San Cristoforo and San Michele and beyond them Murano. in the evening.

180 TITIAN. . which Pordenone reported to have said was " not painting. but fiesh itself " the " latter especially St." which won the heartiest praise. yet broken and full of sparkle. in —a now di is the Louvre . but shown its projected shadow on the pillar. Eound the form of the infant Christ the play of white drapery is magic . . and you find incredible varieties of subtlety. . illumines the sky between the pillars. casting its brightest ray on the Madonna and the body of the infant Christ. Madonna di Casa Pesaro. and sheds a clear glow on the angels. . and St. Titian has not only thrown a : . . . Crowe and Cavalcaselle thus speak of it " High up on a spray of clouds that inwreathe the pillars of the temple. St. Peter. Anthony of Padua implore the intercession of the Virgin in favor of the members of the Pesaro family. . the Madonna of San Niccolo Frari. and helped to form his style picture four feet and four inches by seven feet. now . which make the master's art unfathomable. Francis. many-toned gradation of shade on the vapor. the utmost darks being very heavy and strong without losing their transparency the highest lights dazzling in brightness. with that wonderful insight which a painter gets who has studied cloud form flitting over Alpine crags. in the Vatican. with Van Dyck. Both are balanced into equal values with a breadth quite admirable. in effect. two angels playfully sport with the cross and. Decompose the light or the shadow. The light falls on the clouds.

Peter Martyr. and seized at a glance those charm- ing but minute passages which seldom or never meet any but a father's eye. and so wonderfully interweaving with sun and darkness and varied textures as to resolve itself with the rest into a vast and incomprehensible whole.TITIAN. 181 "To iight. a sublime unity. together with the chapel which contained it. who ha3 watched a young mother and her yearling child." "The Martyrdom of St. is ask ourselves. the picture to perfection its gorgeous tinting so subtly wrought. of and of shade." has been studied by generations of artists. indeed. much "We and the answer seems to be that nature here gushes from the innermost recesses of a man's heart who has begun to know the charms of paterpiece nity." completed in 1529. that of color superadded brings . So valued was it by Venice that the Signoria threatened with death any one who should. the various harmonizing elements of hue. Unfortunately it was destroyed by fire in 1867. whether an artist with only fleeting ties could have created such a mastervalued. which comes to the eye an ideal of grand and elevated beauty.dare to remove it. The "Madonna also del Coniglio. and unattainable to those who come after him." . . that shows the master who created it to have reached a point in art unsurpassed till now. when looking at this picture. from Benvenuto Cellini and Rubens to Sir Joshua Reynolds. where Titian "reproduced the human form in its grandest development." at the Louvre.

He created Titian a Count of the Lateran Palace. but being painted so often uglier than he really was. the title of Count Palatine. and of the Consistory with . all the advantages attached to those thereby raised to the His children were rank of Nobles of the . to receive the homage of Italy. and desired a portrait from his hand. Another portrait of him which Titian painted. The artist hastened thither and painted Charles in armor. He called him the Apelles of his time. to see the work. had come to Bologna. The sculptor Lombardi was so anxious to look upon the emperor that he carried Titian's paintbox at the sittings. at Madrid. who expected something most Titian. The great emperor was an enthusiastic lover of art. asked it. He used to say of himself that he was by nature ugly. with red beard. In 1533 a most fortunate thing happened to Charles V. Charles was so pleased with the portraits by Titian that he would never sit to any other artist. pale skin. and protruding now lower lip. praised it The emperor detected him. of the Aulic Council. blue eyes. bare-headed. and paid him one thousand scudi in gold for each portrait. had seen Titian's work. and dignities. which he slipped into his sleeve. shows him in splendid gala dress. and slyly made a relief portrait of Charles on a tablet in wax. unattractive. and had Lombardi put in marble for him.182 TITIAN. he disappointed favorably many persons.

whom Vecelli. with the right of entrance to Court." Ippolito urged Titian to come to Kome Francis I.TITIAN. Ippolito sat to Titian at Bologna " in the red cap and variegated plumes of a Hungarian chief. unaided save by his skilful hand and inven- from morning till night from overwork. often Cardinal Ippolito de' Medici. at Itri. whilst its surface was smooth and burnished as that of the Bella Gioconda. and whose untimely death by poison at the hand of his cup-bearer. The Cadorine youth had reached the temple tive brain. whose skin seemed to glow wit}i a tropical heat. yet urged on by that undying aspiration which we call genius. It appeared as if the burning sun of the Danube valley had bronzed the features of the chieftain. three years before the death of Cecilia. . had died in 1527. His father. Gregorio . His curved sabre hung from an Oriental sash wound round a red-brown coat with golden buttons. had gone to care for the Cadore . Palace. the dearly loved artist brother. now in the Pitti Michael Angelo so tenderly loved. wished him to visit France but Titian loved his Venice gardens and his mountain resort at Cadore. and he wielded with his right the mace of command. and could not be induced to leave them. 183 Empire. He was also made a Knight of the Golden Spur. caused general sorrow. and Francesco. of fame. with all the honors appertaining to families with four generations of ancestors. He painted the beautiful portrait of the young sat daily ill He at his easel.

and the low slashed with is its braided ornaments and blue sleeves alternately tinted in and white and purple. the mouth Abundant hair of a warm auburn waves divine. The rest is plaited and twisted into coils round a head of the most symmetrical shape." for which he received two thousand " La Bella di Titiano. " The face of the Bella was so winning that it lurked in Titian's memory. and kindly. dress. . the canvas. magnificent. Nothing can exceed the delicacy and subtlety with which the flesh and dress are painted. One hand. The next paintings from the great artist were the " Eape of Proserpina " portraits of the Duke and Duchess of Urbino." scudi from the Emperor now in the Pitti. seen about two-thirds to the left. where he often welcomed with enthusiastic admiration his famous brother. nose delicate and beautifully shaped. is at rest the other holds a tassel hanging from a girdle. . the '^ Annunciation. Titian. the twelve Caesars for Duke Federigo Gonzaga of Mantua. whilst the eyes are turned to the right. the tones being harmonized and thrown . the beautiful Eleonora Gonzaga. and passed as a type into numerous canvases. Isabella d'Este Gonzaga. home. the left. ' ' A gold chain falls over a throat of exquisite model. serene. the spectator is fascinated by the glance in whatever direction he looks at the The eye is grave. and the " Venus " of the Uffizi.184 TITIAN. in which the painter tried The head being to realize an ideal of loveliness. . leaving a stray curl to drop on the forehead. along the temples.

Says Palma Giovine. In the Venus of Madrid. It is interesting to learn how Titian produced such effects by his brush. into keeping of glazings 185 by a most varied use and application and scumblings. is the representation of a beauteous living being. she pats the back of a dog. atmosphere both warm and mellow. " Titian prepared his pictures with a solid stratum of pigment." Of the Ufiizi " Venus. as we look into the canvas.TITIAN. flesh that seems to heave and rise and fall with every breath. and polished skin is depicted with and yet with every shade of modflesh not ulation which a delicate flesh comports marbled or cold. and no other master of the age achieves with equal success. upon which to return frequently. Some of these preparations were made with resolute strokes of a brush heavily laden with color. that we might walk into that apartment and find room to wander in the gray twilight into which it is thrown by the summer sky that shows through the coupled windows. Perfect distribution of space. and mantling with life's blood. which served as a bed or fundament." Crowe and Cavalcaselle say. are all combined in such wise as to bring us in contact with something that is real and we feel. a full and ringing harmony of tints. the half-tints . : ." At the feet of Venus a little dog lies curled up on the couch. "What the painter achieves. at the foot of the couch. but sweetly toned. while her lover plays an organ whose fair enamelled gloss.

and he used to say that a poet who improBut of vises cannot hope to form pure verses. he was particularly fond. In this way he would give the promise of a figure in four After laying this foundation. black. turn the picture to the wall. regardless of the pain * spot of dark pigment into some corner to strengthen a tear of blood. Now and then he would model the light into half." Titian used to say. — to break the — parts superficially. struck in with pure red earth. turning it round again after a time. redressing or setting a limb.' in the shape of last retouches. cutting off excrescences here. to look at it carefully. super- an arm. applying remedies as a surgeon might apply them. . adjusting which it In this way he would reduce the might cause. and scan the parts as he would the face of his greatest enemy. condiments. whole to a certain symmetry. so to speak fact. In his when finishing. or throw in a reddish stroke it .tint with a rub of his finger.I86 TITIAN. and yellow. and leave it there perhaps for months. put it aside. till the first quintessence had been covered over with its padding of It was contrary to his habit to finish at one flesh. modelled into relief by touches of the same brush dipped into red. or with a touch of his thumb he would dab a abundant flesh there. the lights with white. painting. and return again a third or more times. " If at this time any portion of it should appear to him to have been defective. he would set to work to correct it. he would strokes. he painted much more with fingers than with his brush.

yellow tunic. the patronage of the Kepublic into his hands. and the "Presentation in the Temple.' " ^ ^ This picture is one of the largest of the master's works. ascends the steps of the temple in a halo of radiance. gave a portion of the work to the noted artist Pordenone. Two years later his broker's patent was restored. the latter "the finest and most complete creation of Venetian art since the Peter Martyr.' and the Madonna di Casa Pesaro." In 1537 the Council of Ten. "White. 187 all and black. away twenty years. and gathers her skirts to ascend to the second. took and decreed that he should refund his revenues from that source for the past his brokership. angered at Titian's delays in frescoing the ducal palace." red. Pordenone having died in 1538. these are the colors that to a painter needs. blue undercoat and sleeves. came again Titian now painted the "Angel and Tobit. In dismay.TITIAN. "Mary. but one must Titian painted rapidly. and white . know how One use of his best friends said that " he could execute a portrait as quickly as another could scratch an ornament on a chest. being twenty-five feet long. and. in Jewish garments. Titian left his orders from emperors and princes." of San Marciliano at Venice. and went to work in the great halls. The flight is in profile before us. She pauses on the first landing-place. them. in a dress of celestial blue." now at the Venice Academy. At the top of it the high-priest.

and a young acolyte and yellow holding the book of pra3^er. down at the girl with serene and kindly gravity." Titian painted several portraits of himself. and a " Danae receiving the Ottavio Farnese. a priest in cardinal's robes at his side. for III. Danae was the daughter of Acrisius. to prevent the ful. invited him to Kome. and much dignity of bearing. high fore- head. some of them leaning on the edge to ascend. still another in Florence. one now at Berlin.. At of the step. daughter of Emperor Charles V. who was married to Margaret. penetrating eyes. but Pope Paul III. where he spent several months lodged in the Belvedere Palace. a in red menial in black behind him. grandson of Paul Golden Eain. Danae was shut up in a . filment of the prophecy. While in Eome. now became an ardent admirer of Titian's work. Titian painted many portraits in the pontiff's family. others about the bottom there are people looking up. Duke Alfonso of Ferrara and Duke Federigo Gonzaga of Mantua. another at Madrid. had both died. and sat to him for a portrait." now in the museum of Naples. king of Argos. his noble patrons. after the picture of Paul was finished and set to dry on the terrace of the palace. looks TITIAN. thinking that it was the living pope. finely cut nose. It is said. that the passing crowd doffed their hats. An oracle had predicted that her son would one day kill Acrisius therefore. They show a bold.188 robe. and others.

189 into a shower of gold. — grow- ing old. But Jupiter transformed himself and descended through the She became the mother of Perroof of her tower. in the gallery of Vienna. was painted for Giovanni d' Anna. seus finally killed his grandfather. was realized elsewhere by selection. grand and natural originality. and illumined with a magic effect of light and shade and color which differs from all . as it were. and pregnant with his. gance of Kaphael. When Henry III. and Percast into the sea. and offered eight hundred ducats for it. passed through Venice in 1574. . he bought the painting for the else that line. and only his. they are not shaped in his sculptural way. He had painted for the Church of San Spirito Sacrifice of Isaac. nor the conventional grace of Correggio but they are built up. seus." " His fignot cast in the supernatural mould of those "The Murder of "The De"The Four Christian Angelo at the Sistine." twelve feet by eight." "Abraham's scent of the Abel." Fathers. he saw this picture. When Sir Henry Wotton was English envoy at Venice in 1620. or foreshortened in They have not the elehis preternatural manner." "David's Victory over Goliath. They form pictures peculiar to Titian." and " ures are of Michael Holy Spirit." The " Ecce Homo. brazen tower. of flesh and blood.TITIAN. but never slacking in energy or industry. a wealthy merchant. Titian was now sixty-eight years of age." The Four Evangelists. and she and her son were put into a chest and Jupiter rescued them. outand chiaroscuro.

and irrepressible curls in Ear-rings. on the return of the artist from Kome to his home. in Venice. in dazzling light. and Such a charming vision as this was well fitted to twine itself round a father's heart. pearls. showing a pretty wave. " From the first to the last this beautiful piece (in Dresden) is the work of the master.190 TITIAN. touched in tender scales of yellow or ashen white. fair. and strewed with pearls. . he painted the portraits of his lovely daughter Lavinia. lip. with it its bracelet of hangs gracefully as the gown. In 1546. . "Lavinia's hair is yellow. and not defined by outline his again the mixture of sharp and blurred touches. the soft glazing. lace of pearls. ." . . glitter Avith gray reflections on a skin is incomparably light as air. the folds of which heave and sink in shallow projections and depressions. a neckstray locks on the forehead. The gauze on the shoulders and contrasts with the stiff richness of a white damask silk dress and skirt. of Buckinghain. who refused thirty-five thour sand dollars offered for it by the Earl of Arundel. now in Duke the Dresden Museum. cherry sparkling eye. the delicate modelling . metto fan. whilst the right the waist. and in the Berlin gallery. and there is not an inch of it in which his hand is not to be His is the brilliant flesh. rosy carnation by wondrous kneading of copious pigment his the contours formed by texture. Casa Grande. brought up to a traced. to wave the tucks up the train of raised no higher than plaited leaf of a pal- is stiff. The left hand.

"is dressed in yellowish flowsilk. Her head is thrown it back. Orazio. Titian. the only daughter. in it like Pomponio. at Berlin. his father's assistant and confidant. and a white veil hanging from her Seen in profile. was about to be married to Cornelio Sarcinella of Serravalle. and the neck is set off with a string of pearls. receiving from her father a dowry of fourteen hundred ducats. had convened the Diet of the Empire. a noble son. . as she looks from the corners of her hair is eyes at the spectator.TITIAN. was dissolute and a spendthrift. In January of 1548. a beauty. a morion with a red plume. constantly incurring debts which his devoted father paid to mitigate the disgrace. a regal sum for a painter. the eldest child. a chiselled girdle round her waist. 191 Lavinia. was summoned to Augsburg. and confined by a jewelled diadem. Auburn carefully brushed off the temples. had become an artist. his hands gauntleted. his arms and legs in chain mail. a silver dish piled with fruit and flowers. with slashed sleeves. ered hands. on his head. He had married and brought his young wife to Casa Grande." The Titian home had joys and sorrows other homes. where Charles V. and turned so as to allow three-quarters of to be seen. but without a visor. He painted the portrait of Charles on the field of Muhlberg " in burnished armor inlaid with gold. though a priest. she raises with both shoulders. now past seventy. Lavinia. to the level of her forehead.

while at Augsburg." now in .192 TITIAN. half hid in — — striped housings. besides many other pictures. of Spain. Margaret." and " Tantalus " at her request. The chestnut steed. Charles gave him a Spanish pension of live hundred scudi. presumably more than the man himself when he When Titian afterwards became her husband. parted from his patron. The red scarf with gold stripes cognizance of the hung across his shoulders." '' Sisyphus." " Ixion. saying that " Titian was worthy of being served by Csesar. Queen King Mary of Hungary. jjrobably. for work rarely kills people worry frequently destroys both body and Philip father." Titian also painted." II." On a second visit to Augsburg Titian painted a portrait of Philip II. House of Burgundy and he brandished with his right hand a sharp and pointed spear. Ferdinand. the brother of Charles. had a head-piece of steel topped by a red feather similar to that of its master. For Philip he painted a " St. was as much a patron of art as his and was constantly soliciting paintings from Titian. Philip was her suitor. He returned to Venice "rich as a prince instead of poor as a painter. It is best. the son of Charles. brain. that most of us are worked to our utmost capacity. Charles so honored Titian that once when the artist dropped his brush the emperor picked it up and handed it to him. when won her heart. . and quite This was sent to Queen Mary of England. " Prometheus.

and bade him prepare a feast." the princess bound to a rock." where an old woman sits beside the couch and gathers Jupiter's golden shower in her apron a " Perseus and Andromeda. the . Titian was now seventy-nine years of age." now in the Madrid Museum. honored and loved by many countries.TITIAN. dukes and kings." Madrid. at his delightful gardenHenry III. and Perseus saving her and a " Venus and Adonis." now For the enfeebled Emperor Charles he at Madrid." . While his life had been one of almost unceasing labor. with his eyes resting lovingly with him. . poets and artists. Thither he carried nine of Titian's paintings for his consolation. since "all the world was dining 1558. a picture upon which the emperor used to gaze with intense feeling when he had retired to die in the Convent of Yuste. Titian flung a purse to his steward. 193 museum at Madrid a " Danae. — He died in upon a picture of the emperor painted by Titian. parties. which represents the mother lamenting now at over the sufferings of the Saviour. painted " The Grieving Virgin. When Cardinal Granvelle and Pacheco came to dine at Casa Grande. of France came to see him. he had found time to receive at Casa Grande." was sent to Queen Mary of Hungary. and the " Trinity. showing the Virgin interceding before the Pather and Son for the imperial family. and received as a gift any pictures in the studio of which he asked the price. and upon "The " Christ appearing to the Magdalen Trinity. .



Titian attached to himself a few most devoted

Aretino, a writer,

who had many


but must have had some virtues to have been loved

by Titian for thirty years


Sansovino, an architect

Speroni, a philosopher, and a few others

who met

frequently for cultured conversation and good-fel-

lowship at Casa Grande. It is said by historians that at some of these garden parties the still beautiful

Violante was to be seen among the distinguished guests. Had she been married to another, all these years ? or was the old affection renewed
in these latter days ?


In 1556 Aretino died, and Titian deeply lamented man who had been an almost inseparable companion; three years later his beloved brother,
Francesco, died at Cadore, and two years after this
his beautiful daughter Lavinia, leaving six little

The Martyrdom of St. Lawrence," now in the Jesuits' Church at Venice, and " Christ Crowned with Thorns," now in the Louvre, where, "with undeStill



past eighty painted on



niable originality, he almost attained to a grandeur
of composition and bold creativeness equal to those

added to his creations own the magic play of tints and lights and shadows which mark the true Venetian craftsman." At eighty-two he painted for Philip II. " Diana and Calisto," " Diana and Actseon," and " The Entombment of Christ." The Dianas are now in

Buonarotti, Avhilst he

that which was essentially his



the Bridgewater collection at London, for which they were purchased for twelve thousand five hun-

dred dollars.
"Titian," says Crowe, "was never more thoroughly master of the secrets of the human framework than now that he was aged. Never did he What his mind suggested less require the model. issued from his hand as Minerva issued from the His power was the outcome of brain of Jove. years of experience, which made every stroke of his brush both sure and telling. ... But the field of the earlier time, take it all in all, is sweeter and of better savor than that of the later period. Kich, exuberant, and bright the works of the master always were but there is something mysterious and unfathomable in the brightness and sweetness of his prime which far exceeds in charm the clever;

ness of his old age."

With loving care he painted Irene of Spilimberg, who died at twenty, and whose fame in classic
learning, in music, painting,

brated in sonnets and prose at her death.

a pupil of Titian, a


and poetry, was celeShe was representative of an age

which produced among learned men such women as Vittoria Colonna and Veronica Gambara. Irene is painted " almost at full length and large as life, in a portico, from which a view is seen of a landscape, with a shepherd tending his flock, and a unicorn to indicate the lady's maiden condition. Her head is turned to the left, showing auburn
hair tied with a string of pearls.

Round her


a necklace of the same.

Her waist


bound with a chain

and over her bodice of

red stuff a jacket of red damask silk is embroidered with gold, and fringed at the neck with a high

band hanging from the standing muslin collar. shoulders and passing beneath one arm is held in the right hand, whilst the left is made to grasp a
laurel crown,


and Si fata tulissent is engraved on the plinth of a pillar." The "Epiphany," now in Madrid, was sent to Philip II., in 1560; a "Magdalen," now in the

Hermitage, in 1561


" Christ


the Garden,"

"Europa and the Bull," and "Jupiter and AnTitian wrote to Philip, "I had tiope," in 1562.
old age which

determined to take a rest for those years of my it may please the majesty of God to





I shall devote all that





to doing

reverence to your Catholic

Majesty with new pictures." " Europa," says Sweetser, " is a lovely and scantily clad maiden sitting on the back of a flowergarlanded white bull, who is swimming proudly through the green sea, throwing a line of foaming surge before his breast. In the air are flying Cupids, and the nymphs on the distant shore bewail the loss of their companion." "Jupiter and Antiope," now in the Louvre,
formerly called the "Venus of Pardo,"








and restoring," says Crowe, " the masterexhibits Titian in possession of all the





tarily to

energy of his youth, and leads us back involunthe days when he composed the Bacchanals.


The same beauties of arrangement, form, and shade, and some of the earlier charms of
here united to a

color, are


scale of effective-

ness due to experience and a magic readiness of


Fifty years of practice were required to
Distribution, move-

bring Titian to this mastery.
are all perfect."

ment, outline, modelling, atmosphere and distance,

The following year, 1563, Titian sent to Philip The Last Supper," with thirteen life-sized figures, upon which he had worked for six years. When it

was carried to the Escurial, in

spite of the pro-

tests of the painter Navarrete, the


cut off a

large piece of the upper part of the canvas, to



the size of the wall of the refectory


In 1565 he painted " The Transfiguration," in the San Salvadore at Venice, the " Annunciation " for " St. James of Compostella," the same church in the Church of San Leo, and the '^ Cupid and Venus " of the Borghese Palace, the Queen of Love and two Graces teaching Cupid his voca;


"Venus is seated in front of a gorgeous redbrown drapery her head is crowned with a diadem, and her luxuriant hair falls in heavy locks on her neck. Her arms are bare, but her tunic is bound with a sash, which meets in a cross at her bosom and winds away under the arms, whilst a flap of a blue mantle crosses the knees. With both

hands she


is binding the eyes of Eros leaning on her lap, whilst she turns to listen to the whispering of another Eros resting on her shoulder. A girl with naked throat and arm carries Cupid's

quiver, whilst a second holds his bow.

Behind the

group a sky overcast with pearly clouds lowers Light plays upon over a landscape of hills.
. . .

every part," says Crowe, "creating, as it falls, a due projection of shadow, producing all the delicacies of

broken tone and a clear silvery surface
all in


of sparkle, recalling those masterpieces of Paolo

Veronese, in which the gradations are cinerine as opposed to the golden key."


In 1566, the aged artist, now verging on ninety, heretofore exempt from taxation, was obliged to He owned several give a list of his property.
houses, pieces of land, sawmills, and the like, and has been blamed because he did not state the full

value of his possessions.




at this time, writes,

has enjoyed health and happiness unequalled, and has never received from heaven anything but favor and felicity. His house has been





the princes,


of letters, and gen-

tlemen who

ever come to Venice.

Besides being

excellent in art, he

pleasant company, of fine
. .

Titian, deportment and agreeable manners. having decorated Venice, and, indeed, Italy and other parts of the world, with admirable pictures, deserves to be loved and studied by artists, as one who has done and is still doing works deserving

of praise, which will last as long as the




illustrious men." When he was ninety-one he sent to Philip IT. a " Venus," the " Martyrdom of St. Lawrence," a large " Tarquin and Lucretia," and " Philip Presenting his Son to an Angel," now in the Madrid

Museum. He also painted for himself " Christ Crowned with Thorns," a powerful work, now in Munich, which Rubens, Rembrandt, and Van Dyck carefully studied as a model. Tintoretto hung it later in his atelier, to show what a painting ought
to be.

His "Adam and Eve," now at Madrid, which Rubens greatly admired and copied, was painted
at this time.

In 1576, when Titian was ninety-nine, he began

picture, the

" Christ

of Pity,"

for the

Franciscans of the Prari, with whom he had bargained for a grave in their chapel. The Saviour
rests in death

on the lap of the Virgin.
suppose," says Donald G. Mitchell,

"We may

"that a vision of Lavinia long gone out of his household of Cecilia, still longer gone of Violante, a memory of his young days may have flitted on his mind as he traced the last womanly face he was to paint."


marble plinths at the sides of the niche

Moses and the Hellespontic Sibyl, and on a scutcheon at the Sibyl's feet we see the arms of Titian, a set square sable on a field argent, beneath the double eagle on a field or. A small
are statues of



tablet leaning against the scutcheon contains the

defaced portraits of Titian and his son Orazio, kneeling before a diminutive group of the Christ of Pity.' ... It is truly surprising," says Crowe,

" that a


so far advanced in years should have
to put together a composition so

had the power
in expression.

perfect in line, so elevated in thought, or so tragic

We see the traces of a brush manipulated by one whose hand never grew weary, and never learned to tremble. ... In the group of a group full of the the Virgin and Christ there lies a grandeur deepest and truest feeling comparable in one sense with that which strikes us in the 'Pieta' of Michael Angelo. For the sub. .

— —

lime conventionalism by which Buonarotti carries us into a preternatural atmosphere, Titian substitutes a depth -of passion almost equally sublime,

and the more

real as

it is

enhanced by


Titian did not live to complete this work, which

was done by his pupil, Palma Giovine, who placed conspicuously upon it this touching inscription " That which Titian left unfinished, Palma reverently completed, and dedicated the work to God."

Age did not





the master.

Aretino said, on looking at a portrait of a daughter of the rich Strozzio, " If I were a painter, I should
die of despair.







that Titian's

pencil has waited on Titian's old age to perform


Tullia said,

I hold Titian to be not a painter

his creations not art, but his

works to be miracles,



and I think that his pigments must be composed of which made Glaucus a god when he partook of it; since his portraits make upon me the impression of something divine, and, as heaven is the paradise of the soul, so God has
that wonderful herb

transfused into Titian's colors the paradise of our

In the summer of this year, 1576, Venice was
stricken by a plague which destroyed fifty thou-

sand people out of one hundred and ninety thousand more than a quarter of the whole population. There was a general panic, the sick were left to die unattended, and a law was passed that no victims of the scourge should be buried in the


As the plague swept on


carried off Orazio, the

son of Titian, and then the idol of Venice, Titian

He died suddenly August 27, 157G. The law of burial was quickly set aside by the supreme
authorities, and, despite the fear of contagion, the

canons of



bore his body in solemn proces-

sion to his grave in the

Church of the



Emperor of Austria erected a magnificent mausoleum over his
1852, nearly three centuries later, the


It is a vast

Titian, seated, with one

canopy covering a statue of hand resting on the Book

of Art, while the other lifts the veil of Nature.

Surrounding him are figures representing paintand architecture, while on the wall behind him are bas-reliefs of three of
ing, wood-carving, sculpture,









of St. Lawrence,"


and the " Martyr-


of St. Peter."



angels bear the simple

" Titiano Ferdinandus


Wonderful old man


self-made, a poet

a marvel of industry, working to the very last on his beloved paintings, rich, tender to his family,
true in his friendships.
color "


greatest master of


the world has known."

was a mechanic. was born. One day when the mother went to Church. he amused him- by taking a sacred picture. poor. was consecrated priest. Bartolome Esteban Murillo. and keeping it in repair for the use of it. the picturesque city of Seville. in the Church of La Magdalena. to The Bartolome." and painting his own hat on the Infant Saviour's head. self . as her brother. leaving the child at home. 1618. destroyed in 1810 by the French troops under Marshal Soult. Maria Perez. renting a modest house which belonged to a convent. the church. Gaspar Esteban. was one of the leaders of art in Seville. and changing the lamb into a dog. now they were very boy. His father. he soon ex- hibited such artistic talent that this project was abandoned. " the glory of INthe Spanish realms/' the greatest painter of Spain. but It is said that the family were once wealthy and distinguished. Juan de Costillo. prob- ably on the last day of the year 1617. with the fond hope of his mother that he would become a However. He was baptized on NewYear's Day.MURILLO. seems to have been well connected. " Jesus and the Lamb. His mother.

two children. little We that usually receive and give too commenda- tion all our lives. hopes for us. He was soon apprenticed to his uncle. Probably from this family name the boy derived his own. From this it is lovely mother. by disparagement ! Praise seldom harms anybody. eager to learn. by over-criticism. both father and mother died. How often have I seen a parent lose the confidence of a child by too often reproving. but she thereby gained a knowledge of the genius of her only son. — correct carefully all the details drawing. Teresa. The lad was very industrious. the boy used to make sketches on the margins of his books and on the walls. extremely gentle and amiable. who had married his aunt. and soon attached himself to both teacher and pupils. Probably the reverent mother was shocked. A little sister. She loved us She told us her wishes and her and the smile with which she spoke . and study patiently. Juan Agustin Lagares. leaving him to the care of a surgeon. One of my most precious memories is the fact my widowed mother made it her life-rule not to find fault with her into obedience. one easy to judge that he had had a who encouraged. vas. Before he was eleven years old. how to prepare can- mix colors. Juan del Castillo. In school.204 MURILLO. Dona Anna Murillo. was also left an orphan. who taught him of his art. who preserved a sweet nature in her son because sweet herself.

His parents sent him to study theology in the university of Valencia. of a canon of St. and he assumed the habit ." thus " His father gives the history of St. her sole stay and support in the world. should paint as one of his first pic- Mrs. It was natural that the young artist.MURILLO. Dominick : His was of the illustrious family of Guzman. and his charity. One day he met a poor woman weeping bitterly. Jameson. . home much For nine years the Spanish lad worked in his uncle's studio. Francis. had been carried into captivity by the Moors. Joanna d'Aza. tures the " Story of the Rosary. When he was twenty. was also of noble birth. Such was his early predilection for a life of penance that when he was only six or seven years old he would get out of his bed to lie on the cold earth. ever had too Long love ago I learned that no in it." for the Convent of Eegina An- gelorum. ^'The Virgin with St. mother. Augustine at a very early age. loving the Catholic faith. Dominick could not ransom her brother j his self-inflicted austerities. as shown in his inimitable " Beggar Boys " and other dwellers in the streets of Seville. ." for the Church of St. studying nature as well as art. and the "Virgin del Rosario with San Domingo. . " Many stories are related of his youthful piety. and when he inquired the cause she told him that her only brother. jingers in 205 my heart like an exquisite picture. Thomas." in her " Legends of the Monastic Orders. he painted two Madonnas.

and by this single expedient Dominick did to excite the devotion of the lower orders. even sold his books. "It was during his sojourn in Languedoc that The use of St. as a memento of the number of prayers recited. barefoot in the habit of penitents. . Dominick instituted the Eosary. a chaplet of beads.20B he had given away could. till some years later. who went about exhorting the people to conform to the Church. whom A he entertained a most complete rosary consists of fifteen large and one hundred and fifty small beads . to relieve the poor — but he offered all he he offered up himself to be exchanged as The woman. and are to this day Domiin use among the Mohammedan devotees. The institution of the Order of St. fell upon her knees She refused his offer. . Dominick sprang out of this association of preachers. astonished at such a proposal. a slave in place of her brother. The more rosary was received with the utmost enthu- siasm. but it was not united under an especial rule. . the fame of the young priest far and wide. "He united with himself several ecclesiastics. the latter the number of number of FaterAve Marias. Beads were also used by the Benedictines. and dates from the time of the Egyptian Anchorites. . all Ms money. for especial veneration. and . . but she spread before him. the former representing the nosters. by Pope Honorius. nor confirmed. . nick invented a novel arrangement of the chaplet. . in 1216. is of Eastern origin. and dedicated it to the honor and glory of the Blessed Virgin. MUBtLLO.

especially of the


women, and made more

than by


his orthodoxy, learning, arguments,

and eloquence. " St. Dominick, in the excess of his charity and devotion, was accustomed, while preaching in Languedoc, to scourge himself three times a day,
once for his





and once

for the benefit of

once for the sins of others souls in purgatory."


preached in

the principal cities of Europe,

and died at Bologna in 1221. In 1640, when Murillo was twenty-two, the Castilli home was broken up, the uncle Juan going to Cadiz to reside. Without fame and poor, the youth was thrown upon his own resources. There were many artists in the city of Seville, and Murillo, shy and retiring, could not expect much patronage. He decided to go to the Feria, a weekly market, held in front of the Church of All Saints, and there, in the midst of stalls where eatables, old clothes, and other wares were sold, he set up his open-air studio, and worked among the gypsies and
the muleteers.

Kough, showy pictures were painted to order and
sold to


who frequented

the market-place.

For two long years he lived among this humble
earning probably but a scanty subsistence. Here, doubtless, he learned to paint flower-girls

and squalid beggars.
children of nature


There was no contempt,"

says Sweetser, " in Murillo' s feelings towards these

and his sentiments seemed to

partake almost of a fraternal sympathy for them.




small portion of his popularity among the lower classes arose from the knowledge that he was their poet and court painter, who understood and did not calumniate them. Velasquez had chosen to
paint superb dukes and cardinals, and found his

supporters in a handful of supercilious grandees but Murillo illustrated the lives of the poorest classes on Spanish soil, and was the idol of the


With what splendor
forth from

of color

and mastery

of design did he thus illuminate the annals of the


palace-hall in which he

some dim chancel or had been working on a majesMadonna-picture, he would sketch in, with the

brush still loaded with the colors of celestial glory, the lineaments of the beggar crouching by the wall or the gypsy calmly reposing in the black shadow Such versatility had never before of the archway. been seen west of the Mediterranean, and comof his countrymen. do not find in his pictures the beggar of Britain and America, cold, lowering, gloomy, and formidable but the laughing child of the sunlight, full of joy and content, preferring to bask rather than to work, yet always fed somehow, and

manded the admiration



abundantly crop-haired, brown-footed, clad in incoherent rags, but bright-eyed, given to much joviality, and with an affluence of white teeth,




merry moods


not so respectable

as the staid burghers of

Nuremberg and Antwerp,

but far more picturesque and perhaps quite




But for Murillo's life of poverty he could not have had this sympathy with the poor. Doubtless every experience is given us with a purpose, that either through the brush or the pen, or by word or deed, we may the better do our part for the elevation of mankind. In 1642, Murillo had a new inspiration. A
fellow-pupil in Castillo's school, Pedro de Moya,

army and campaigning months in London under Van Dyck. Now he came back to Seville aglow with his delights in travel and the wonders of the Flemish painters. Murillo was fired with ambition. He too would see famous painters and renowned cities, and become as great as his young friend Moya. But how ? He had no money and no influential friends. He would make the effort. He might stay forever at the Feria, and never be heard of beyond Seville. He bought a piece of linen, cut it into pieces of various sizes, and, in some obscure room, painted upon them saints, flowers, fruit, and landscapes.
after joining the Spanish
in Flanders,

had spent


Then he sallied forth to find purchasers. One wonders whether the young man did not sometimes become discouraged in these years of toil if he did not sometimes look at the houses of the grandees and sigh because he was not rich or because he was homeless and unknown ? He sold most of his pictures to a ship-owner, by whom they were sent to the West Indies and other



Catholic portions of America.
foot over the Sierras,
to Madrid.

— a long and tedious journey
He had

Then he

started on

In the Spanish capital he could find the works of art which he wished to study.

He had
in the

no money nor friends when he arrived

great city, but he had courage.

learned early in life a most valuable lesson, to depend on himself. To whom should he go ? Velasquez, formerly of Seville, was at the height
of his fame, the favorite of the king, the friend of

the wealthy and the distinguished.

Murillo deter-


to seek the great artist in his

own home



least he could only be refused admittance.


Velasquez kindly received the young man, who him how he had come on foot over the moun-

There was no jealousy in the heart He was pleased with the modesty, frankness, and aspiration of the
tains to study.

of the painter, no fear of rivalry.

youth, and, strange to say, took


into his



to reside.


a contrast to painting in

the Feria, and living in a garret

Murillo at once began to study in the royal where Philip II. and his father Charles V.

had gathered their Titians, their Eubenses, and their Van Dycks. For three years, through the kindness of Velasquez, he met the leading Spanish artists and the prominent people of the court. The king admired his work, and greatly encouraged him. Murillo was fortunate, yes but Fortune did not seek him, he sought her Ambition and action



made him




Early in 1645, Murillo returned to Seville. Velasquez offered to give him letters of introduction to eminent artists in Eome, but he preferred Probably he longed to go back to his native city. for the old Cathedral, with La Giralda, the Alcazar,
the Moorish palaces, and the Guadalquivir.


Alcazar, says Hare, in his



Spain," begun in 1181, was in great part rebuilt by

Pedro the Cruel, 1353-64. "The history of this strange monarch gives the Alcazar its chief interest. Hither he fled with his mother as a child from his father, Alonzo XL, and his mistress, Leonora de Guzman. They were protected by the minister, Albuquerque, at whose house he met and loved Maria de Padilla, a Castilian beauty of noble birth, whom he secretly married. Albuquerque was furious, and, aided by the queen-mother, forced him into a political marriage with the French princess, Blanche de Bourbon. He met her at Valladolid but three days after his nuptials fled from the wife he disliked to the one he loved, who ever after held royal court at Seville, while Queen Blanche, a after being cruelly sort of Spanish Mary Stuart, persecuted and imprisoned for years, was finally put to death at Medina- Sidonia. " In this Alcazar, Pedro received the Red King of Granada, with a promise of safe-conduct, and then murdered him for the sake of his jewels, one of which he gave to the Black a large ruby Prince after N avarete, and which is the fair ruby, great like a rachet-ball,' which Elizabeth showed




to the ambassador of " It

Scotland, and
. . .


adorns the royal crown of England.

was in the Alcazar,

also, that

Pedro murdered

his illegitimate brother, the master of

who had caused him much trouble by a rebellion. Maria de Padilla knew his coming fate, but did not
dare to

him, though from the beautiful ajimez

window over the gate she watched for his arrival^ and tried to warn him by her tears. Six years after, this murder was avenged by Henry of Trastamare, the brother of the slain, who stabbed Pedro to the heart. But Maria de Padilla was already dead, and buried with queens in the royal chapel, when Pedro
publicly acknowledged her as his lawful wife, and

the marriage received the sanction of the Spanish





Within the Alcazar all is still fresh and brilIt is like a scene from liant with light and color. the Arabian Nights,' or the wonderful creation of The Hall of Ambassadors is a kaleidoscope.



perfectly glorious in


delicate lace-like ornaments

and the rich color of


exquisite azidejosJ' cathedral," says Hare, " stands on a high

platform, girdled with pillars, partly brought from
Italica and partly relics of the mosques, of which two existed on this site. The last, built by the Emir Yusuf in 1184, was pulled down in 1401, when the cathedral was begun, only the Giralda, the Court of Oranges, and some of the outer walls being preserved. The chapter, when convened for

the building of the cathedral,

determined, like

religious Titans, to build


^one of such size and

beauty that coming ages should proclaim them mad for having undertaken it.' "Far above houses and palaces, far above the



huge cathedral


soars the beautiful Giralda,

color a pale pink, incrusted all over with deliis

cate Moorish ornament, so high that its detail

quite lost as you gaze



so large that


easily ride on horseback to

you the summit, up
. .

the broad roadway in the interior.


In the interior everything is vast, down to the Paschal candle, placed in a candlestick twenty-five feet high, and weighing twenty-five hundred pounds, of wax, while the expenditure of the chapter may be estimated by the fact that eighteen thousand seven hundred and fifty litres of wine are consumed annually in the sacrament. Of the ninety-three stained windows many are old and splendid. Their
is undimmed by curtains, for there is an Andalusian proverb that the ray of the sun has no power to injure within the bounds in which the voice of prayer can be heard. In the centre of the nave, near the west door, surrounded by sculptured caravelas, the primitive ships by which the New World was discovered, is the tomb of Ferdinand Columbus, son of the great navigator (who himself rests in Havanna), inscribed,





A Castilla y a Leon
DIG COLON.* of the church

At the opposite end

the royal




who was canonized



1627, ^because he carried fagots with his own hands for the burning of heretics/ rests beneath

the altar, in a silver sarcophagus.
his Queen, Beatrix, his son


also are

Alonzo el Sabio, father of our Queen Eleanor, and Maria de Padilla, the beautiful Morganatic wife of Pedro the Cruel. " Many of the services in this church reach a degree of splendor which is only equalled by those of St. Peter's and the two organs, whose gigantic pipes have been compared to the columns of Fingal's Cave, peal forth magnificently. But one ceremony, at least, is far more fantastic than any. . . ;

thing at Rome."

Frances Elliot, in her " Diary of an Idle
in Spain," thus describes this remarkable






within the bars, I


conscious of

the presence of a band of stringed instruments,

not only violins

and counter-bass, but

flutes, flageo-

and hautboys, even a serpent,

as they call a
earliest years,

quaint instrument associated with


beginning to play in a most ancient and most homely way, for all the world like a simple village choir, bringing a twang of damp, mouldy, country churches to my mind, sunny Engforthwith
lish afternoons,

and odors of lavender and southern-


" As they play these skilled musicians a sound of youthful voices comes gathering in, fresh, shrill, and childlike, rising and falling to the rhythm. "All at once the music grows strangely passion-



the voices and


stringed instruments seem

to heave

and sigh

in tender accents, long-drawn

notes and sobs wail out melodious cries for mercy and invocations for pardon, growing louder and intenser each moment. "Then, I know not how, for the great darkness gathers round even to the gates of the altar, a band of boys, the owners of the voices, appears as in a vision in the open space between the benches on which the chapter sits, and, gliding down the altar steps, move in a measure fitting in softly with

the music.



if to

the involuntary
at first

when they begin to dance, singing as movement of their feet, I know
high-disposedly,' their bodies sway-


ing to and fro to the


of the band,


never leaves


playing a single instant, in the

most heavenly way. Then, as the music quickens and castanets click out, the boys grow animated, and move swifter to and fro, raising their arms in curves and graceful interlacing rounds. Still faster the music beats, and faster and faster they move, crossing and recrossing in mazy figures, the stringed instruments following them with zeal, the castanets, hautboys, and flutes, their interlacing forms knotting in a kind of ecstasy, yet all as grave and solemn as in a song of praise, a visible rejoicing of the soul at Christmas time and the Divine birth. As David danced before the ark for joy, so do these boys dance now with holy gladness. "I made out something of their costume,—*

' .' the Pope said. it in his cathedral. and forbade causing a terrible scandal. an appeal was made to Rome. The music. *I see no harm in it. at Advent and Easter. and white hose and shoes. and the boys who wore to Rome at the expense of them — were carried off rich citizens. same hue over one shoulder. broad Spanish hats. quaint and pathetic. replied that he could give no judgment so the whole without seeing the dance himself . a flowing mantle of the light. glittering in the white satin vests. which takes place twice a year. had loved the dance. with every now and then a solo so sweet it seems as if an angel had come down unseen to play it.216 MUBILLO. "As the Archbishop was inexorable. About two centuries ago an Archbishop of Seville objected to the dance as giddy and mundane. their fathers . a sensible man. the citizens of Seville have their dance. serpent. The Sevillians were enraged their fathers before them. Then the measure was tried before ^ Let the Pope in the Vatican. As long as the clothes last it shall continue. but no one can tell me. archi-old. the Virgin's color. The Pope of that day. like the dance. " The dance is most ancient. troop — stringed instruments. sanctified to say — Christian use. as one mayof an origin Phoenician or Arab. turned up with a panache of blue feathers. castanets. I have inquired on all hands what is the origin of this singular rite. cavalier hats and cloaks. and he approved. and and they were ready to defend it with swords and staves.

Viardot that the Duke of . Anthony of Padua visited by the infant Saviour." in which " a glorious seraph with spreading wings leads a little.MUEILLO. drawn down by the prayers On the table beside him is a vase of of the saint. among them " The Guardian Angel. to the delight of the town. and that they will continue to last fresh and new as long as the gigantic walls of the cathedral uprear themselves. which many persons averred were so natural that the birds aisles to flew down the cathedral peck at the flowers. trustful child by the hand. it painted for saint is kneeling with outstretched arms. Anthony. renewed themselves miraculously. When tillo. For this picture the cathedral clergy paid ten thousand reals. nephew of Murillo's first master. who descends through a flood of glory filled with cherubs. and directs him to look beyond earth into the heavenly light. Caslooked upon this work. widow's cruse. " 217 add that those clothes never wore out. can be the augrace and beauty of coloring ? " my The canons told M. Mrs." The Murillo loved this old cathedral. " It is all the ! over with Castillo thor of all this Is it possible that Murillo. that servile imitator of uncle. looking above to the child. and the sun of Andalusia shines on the flat I but. Jameson declares this the finest in honor of St. he exclaimed. like the Need plains ! and later he some of his wonderful pictures. white lilies." and " St. a subject chosen work ever executed by Titian and scores of other artists.



Wellington offered to pay for this picture as many
gold pieces as would cover
feet square, about

surface of fifteen

two hundred and forty thousand dollars. In 1874 the figure of St. Anthony was cut out, stolen, and sold to a Mr. Schaus, a picturedealer of New York, for two hundred and fifty


ish consul,


turned his purchase over to the Spanrestored it to the cathedral.

St. Anthony was a Portuguese by birth, and taught divinity in the universities of Bologna, TouFinally he became an louse, Paris, and Padua.

eloquent preacher

among the


It is said

when they

refused to listen he preached to
their heads above

the dwellers in the sea, " and an infinite number of

great and



water, and listened attentively to the sermon of the saint "

Very many miracles are attributed to him. He restored to life by his prayers Carilla, a young maiden who was drowned also a young child who was scalded to death renewed the foot of a young man who had cut it off because the saint rebuked him for having kicked his brother caused the body of a murdered youth to speak, and acquit an old man who had been accused of his death made a glass cup remain whole when thrown against a marble slab, while the marble was shivered. " The legend of the mule," says Mrs. Jameson, "is one of the most popular of the miracles of St. Anthony, and is generally found in the Franciscan






certain heretic called Bovidilla en-



tertained doubts of the real presence in the sacra-

ment, and, after a long argument with the saint, required a miracle in proof of this favorite dogma of

Roman Catholic Church. St. Anthony, who was about to carry the host in procession, encountered the mule of Bovidilla, which fell down on its

knees at the


of the saint, and, although

heretic master endeavored to tempt



a sieve full of oats, remained kneeling


the host

had passed."
After Murillo's return from the house of Velasquez to Seville, he worked incessantly for nearly three years upon eleven paintings for the convent of the Franciscans near Casa del Ayuntamiento. The cloisters contained three hundred marble columns. For the decoration of a minor cloister the priests offered so small an amount that no leading artist in Seville would attempt it. But

and not well known, gladly acIt was a laborious undertaking, with perhaps scarcely enough compensation to proMurillo,


cepted the work.

vide for his daily needs




made him famous.

Henceforward there was neither poverty nor obscurity for the great Spanish master.

The first picture for the Franciscans represented " St. Francis, on an iron bed, listening to an angel


The second portrayed is playing on a violin." " St. Diego blessing a pot of broth," which he is

about to give to a group of beggars at the gate of his

"The Angel



in the Louvre, represents a



fell in


a state of ecstasy whilst cooking for

the convent, and angels are doing his work.

another represents a Franciscan praying over the

dead body of a friar, as if to restore it to life. This is now owned by Mr. Richard Ford, of Devonshire,


The finest picture of the series represents " The Death of St. Clara of Assisi." She was the daughter
of a noble knight of great wealth,
in marriage.

and much sought

Desiring to devote herself to a



she repaired to St. Francis fox counsel,

who advised her to enter a convent. She fled from her home to where St. Francis dwelt, and he with his own hands cut off her luxuriant golden tresses, and threw over her his own penitential habit of gray wool. Her family. sought to force her away,
but later her sister Agnes and mother Ortolana
joined her in the convent.


the death of her father,


Clara gave


her wealth to the poor.

She went,

like the others

of her order, barefoot or sandalled, slept on the

hard earth, and lived in silence. The most notable event of her life was the dispersion of the Saracens. Emperor Frederic ravaged the shores of the Adriatic. In his army were a band of infidel Saracens, who attacked the Convent of San Damiano. The
frightened nuns rushed to the side of "Mother Clara," who had long been unable to rise from her

At once she
of ivory



from the altar the which contained the Host, on the threshold, knelt, and began to
arose, took





sing. The barbarians were overcome with fear, and tumbled headlong down their scaling-ladders. Mrs. Jameson says, " The most beautiful picture of St. Clara I have ever seen represents the death of the saint, or, rather, the vision which preceded her death, painted by Murillo. ... St. Clara lies on her couch, her heavenly face lighted up with an ecstatic expression. Weeping nuns and friars stand around she sees them not, her eyes are fixed on the glorious procession which approaches her bed


our Saviour, leading his Virgin-mother; they


by a company of virgin -martyrs,

headed by St. Catharine, all wearing their crowns and bearing their palms, as though they had come Nothing to summon her to their paradise of bliss. can be imagined more beautiful, bright, and elysian than these figures, nor more divine with faith and transport than the head of St. Clara.'' These paintings of Murillo were the one topic of conversation in Seville. Orders for pictures came from every side artists crowded to the convent to study works so unlike their own the chief families of the city made the hitherto unknown young man a welcome guest at their palaces fame and position had come when he was only thirty years old. For one hundred and seventy years these pictures were the pride of the convent, when they were taken by Marshal Soult under Napoleon, and eventuThe conally scattered through Northern Europe. vent was destroyed by fire soon afterwards.







" blessings



singly "

was realized
in the case of Murillo, for at

time he married a wealthy lady from a family of high renown, Dona Beatriz de Cobrera y Sotomayor, who dwelt at Pilas, about five leagues from Seville. It is said that he first saw her when painting an altar-piece in the Church of San Geronimo at Pilas, and portrayed her as an angel in his
picture while he -was winning her love.

Their married
for artists


nently happy one.

seems to have been an emiTheir home became a centre

and the best social circles of the city. Three children were born to them Gabriel, who went to the West Indies Francisca, who became a nun; and Gaspar, afterwards a canon of Seville




of painting changed
call frio, or his

now from

what the Spanish
cdlido, or his

cold style, to



where the outlines were


pronounced, the figures rounder, and the color-


ing more luminous and tender. " The works of new manner," says Sweetser, " are notable for


graceful and well-arrayed drapery, skilfully dislights, harmonious tints, soft contours, and

a portrait-like naturalness in the faces, lacking in idealism, but usually pure and pleasing. His fleshtints were almost uniformly heightened by dark

gray backgrounds, and were so amazingly true that one of his critics has said that they seemed to have been painted with blood and milk (con sangre y


of the

Madonnas which Murillo painted



were evidently from the same sweet, pure-faced model, and it is believed tliat they are the likeness His boys were his models for the of his wife. infants Jesus and John. His first work in the so-called warm manner was

Our Lady of the Conception," a colossal picture True Cross. The monks were at first displeased, thinking that the finishing was not sufficiently delicate; but when Murillo caused it to be hung in the dome, for the high position for which it was intended, they were greatly delighted. Murillo, however, made them pay double the original price for their fault-finding. "Saints Leander and Isidore," two archbishops of Seville, in the sixth and seventh centuries, who fought the Arian heresy, was his next picture, folfor the Brotherhood of the


lowed by the " Nativity of the Virgin," a much admired work, a group of women and angels dressing the new-born Mary. In 1656, for one of the canons of Santa Maria la

Blanca, Murillo
pictures, the

painted four large semicircular

"Immaculate Conception," where the Virgin is adored by several saints, "Faith," and two pictures, " The Dream " and " The Fulfilment," to illustrate Our Lady of the Snow, the two latter now in the Academy of San Fernando at Madrid.
According to a fourth-century legend, the Virgin appeared by night to a wealthy Roman senator


his wife,

commanding them
find covered

to build a


in her honor on a certain spot on the Esquiline Hill,

which they would

with August snow.



They went

Pope Liberius, and,

after obtaining

accompanied by a great concourse of sought the hill, found the miracpeople, priests and ulous snow in summer, and gave all their posseshis blessing,

sions to build the church.


picture of Murillo represents the senator

in a black velvet costume, asleep in his chair, while

on the floor, the Madonna and Holy Child above them; the other picture shows them telling their dream to the Pope. Yiardot
his wife reposes
calls these

paintings the ''miracles of Murillo."
last of the three

These were painted in the
of Murillo,



— the

the method usually adopted in his





"with soft and and shadows

which are only softened lights." In 1660, Murillo founded an academy of art in Seville, of which he was president for two years. The students were required to abstain from swearing and ill behavior, and to give assent to the following " Praised be the most Holy Sacrament and the pure conception of our Lady." Murillo was a most gentle and encouraging His colored slave, Sebastian Gomez, who teacher. had listened to the teaching which he gave to others, finished the head of the Virgin which his master had left on the easel. Murillo exclaimed on seeing it, "I am indeed fortunate, Sebastian;

for I have created not only pictures, but a painter



works of Gomez, whom Murillo made are still preserved and prized in Seville.
of the



During the next ten years, Murillo did much


for the cathedral clergy;

eight oval, half-

length pictures of saints, Justa, Kufina, HermenSidon, Leander, Archbishops Laureano and and King Ferdinand the "Repose in Egypt the infants Christ and John for the Antigua Chapel, and other works. Saints Justa and Rufina were daughters of a
; ;


whom they assisted. Some women who worshipped Venus came to the shop to buy vessels
sisters declared that

for idolatrous sacrifice.

they had nothing to sell for such purposes, as all things should be used in the service of God. The

Pagan women were

so incensed that they broke all

The sisters then broke the image of Venus, and flung it into a kennel. For this act the populace seized them, and took them before the Prefect. Justa expired on the rack, and Rufina was strangled. These two saints have always guarded the beautiful tower Giralda. They are said to have preserved it from destruction in 1504, in a terrific thunder-storm. When Espartero bombarded Seville in 1843, the people
the earthenware in the place.
believed that Giralda was encompassed by angels
led by these sisters,

who turned

aside the bombs.

prime famous and honored. He was named by his admiring contemporaries " a better Titian,'^ and it was asserted that even Apelles would have been proud to be called "the Grecian Murillo." He lived in a large and handsome house, still carefully
fifty-two years old, in the

Murillo was





preserved, near the Churcli of Santa Cruz, not far from the Moorish wall of the city. " The court-

yard contains a marble fountain, amidst flowering shrubs, and is surrounded on three sides by an arcade upheld by marble pillars. At the rear is a pretty garden, shaded by cypress a,nd citron trees, and terminated by a wall whereon are the remains of ancient frescos which have been attributed to the master himself. The studio is on the upper floor, and overlooks the Moorish battlements, commanding a beautiful view to the eastward, over
orange-groves and rich corn-lands, out to the gray

highlands about Alcala."
Murillo's only sister, Teresa, had married a noble
of Burgos, a knight of Santiago, judge of the royal
colonial court, a


of great cultivation,



chief secretary of state at Madrid.
also urged




by King Charles

II. to

enter the royal

service at Madrid, especially since a picture of the

Immaculate Conception, exhibited during a festival of Corpus Christi, had awakened the greatest enthusiasm among the people. But he loved Seville, and would not leave it. And the Sevillians equally loved the man so generous that he gave all he earned to the poor so diligent at his work that he had no time for evil speaking with so much tact and sweetness and vital piety that he left no shadow upon his name. In 1670, Murillo began his great works for La

Caridad, or the

Hospital of




Brotherhood of Holy Charity built a church about

back the wreaths and flowers which shroud the and lo Don Miguel gazes on his own visage. ! . and secured over half a million ducats for this purpose. the funeral proces- sion seems to pause.MURILLO. Whose body are they carrying to the Osario at this time of night ? " Don Miguel de Maiiara. His history was a strange one. in warfare or in time of advancing from the dark gateway where he had stood to let the procession pass.' is the answer ^a great noble. Don 1450. ' ' ' . and asks. he addresses himself to one of the muffled figures. 227 In 1661. there are so ures. Will you follow us and pray for his sinful a thing plague unknown except so. Don Miguel falls in with a funeral procession with torches and banners. Frances Elliot says of this dissolute man. Nor can he explain the midnight burial. and the dim forms of priests and monks chanting death dirges. and one advances who flings face. "Don Miguel can recall no death at court or among the nobles. Some grandee of high degree. the insignia of knighthood borne upon shields. a saddled horse led by a shadowy page. soul ? "As these words are spoken. many muffled fig- mutes carrying silver horns. in the now ancient quarter of the Macarena. but it had fallen into ruin. '' Returning at midnight from a revel given by some gallants. Miguel Manura Viceutelo cle Leca determined to restore and beautify the church and its adjacent buildings. . and this is plainly a corpse of quality. doubtless.

Murillo painted for the new Church of St." the . for which he received over seventyeight thousand reals. ''Moses striking the Eock. reformed his vicious life. with that a large company of priests. and endowed it. where. and Jesus Christ be served in the persons of His poor." sinner that ever lived." the "Prodigal's Keturn. on house shall stand as long as God shall be feared in it. and carry the bier into the nave. The "Annunciation. so that who passed in might trample upon his grave. John " were destined for the side altars the remaining eight." and the " Infant St. next morning. dictated by himself all : memory of the greatest Don Miguel de Manara." The nqble was buried at the church door. he seems to join the ghostly throng which wends its slow way into the Church of Santa Inez. and three for the altars." to matins. sisters of charity. and domestics could be provided for." " Abraham receiving the Three Angels. The monumental slab bears the perhaps not inap" To the propriate words. George eight pictures for the side walls. Don Miguel insensible is found. so at once He great cloistered hospital. erected a one of the most beautiful churches in Seville.228 MURILLO. physicians." the " Infant Saviour. where spectral priests appear to meet it. . by the nuns coming upon the stones. " Spellbound. Whoever enters here must leave at the door both this inscription to be cut : Don Miguel caused of the the fa9ade hospital " This avarice and pride.

^ . Corsini palace. Murillo.0^' — \7r^ MADONNA WITH CHILD.. Rome. .


touched with pity." — the rest having been and powerful. Elizabeth of Hungary tending the Sick.MURILLO. He hired himself to a shepherd he entered the wars between Charles V. when an officer. interfered to save his life. are left at La Caridad." the '^ Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes. later . Fishes. at nine years away from home with a priest. Peter released from Prison by the Angel. " San Juan " is considered the "most spirited the founder of the Charity." and — " Moses." the " Loaves and " San Juan. To the deserted shed which served for his home. After various wanderings. only to find that both his father and mother had died of grief in consequence of his flight." and " St." "St. he brought the starving and ." "Our Lord healing the Paralytic at the Pool of Bethesda. He was about to be hanged for allowing some booty to be carried off. on condition that he should quit the camp. in Castile. Of these three." This saint was Hospitallers or Brothers of Only three of these eight carried to France by Marshal Soult. he returned to his native town. Born of very poor parents. over which he had been placed as sentinel. at a little of age he ran village near Oropesa. became converted. and Francis I. He nearly lost his reason through remorse.. and became a brave but profligate soldier." were intended for the walls. who deserted him on the road to Madrid. and began to devote his life to the poor and the sick. 229 "Charity of San Juan de Dios. The rope was already around his neck.

and dream of the grandeur of the Moors. where. exhausted in body. our asylums Protestant different "Under how many little has the hospital of ! for the destitute in Spain ' . unlearned.'' says Mrs. Jameson. An angel sustains him on his way.' . Catholic and Our houses of refuge. Juan under the almost sinking is seen staggering weight of a poor dying wretch. in the winter. In a dark. ' of the little hospital of this poor. all these sprang out — . The dark form of the burden and the sober — — . " The only representation of this good saint which can rank high as a work of art is a famous picture by Murillo. and worked for them. half-crazed Juan de Dios ! I wonder if those Alhambra. low-born.' in France the Barmherzigen Bruder. the brotherhood of the ' ' Caridad. that of the Misericordia. stormj^ night. bequeathed to Christendom one of the whom them and begged noblest of all its religious institutions.230 wretched for MUBILLO. painted for the Church of the Caridad. whom he is carrying to his hospital. at Seville. names and forms Juan de Dios been reproduced throughout Christian Europe. . unconsciously as it seemed. he found in the streets. he. but still fervent and energetic in mind. and when he died. "without a thought of himself.' in Italy the Maisons de Charite.' in Germany. ever to visit the glories of the who go think of him. he kept a great fire to warm homeless travellers. "Thus passed ten years of his life. He finally obtained a large building.

through which the glorious countenance of the seraph. while around her are beggars and the ladies of her court. startled by the stupendous revelation. but every vulgar detail is redeemed by the beauty and majesty of the whole. and exalted by the vaguely comprehended glory of the future. absolute innocence." Of the the five pictures "St. " The Elizabeth." called "El the Madrid Academy.'." Colonel Hay " They hang side by side. tell like a burst of sunshine. so beautifully says alike and yet so distinct in character. There was no further progress possible in life. The wounds and sores of the beggars are painted with unshrinking fidelity. St. John Hay. Elizabeth in Tiiioso. Hungary. that fill the room with light and majesty." is a ^ : . and his rich yellow drapery. The face is the purest expression of girlish loveli- . even for him. I think in these pictures of Murillo (his Madonnas and others) the last word of Spanish art was reached." now removed by Marshal Soult. her dressed in her royal robes." says tilian Days. in his " Castriumph of genius over a most terribly repulsive subject. Other heights in other lives.MUBILLO. washing the head of a leprous boy. is considered of It represents one of Murillo's finest works.' " Of Murillo's " Marys of the Conception. One is a woman in knowledge and a goddess in purity the other. It is before this picture that the visitor always lingers longest. 231 gray frock of the bearer are dimly seen in the darkness. God willing.

the power that the worship of woman exerts on the his daughter. this type of the perfect femi- — ' " Thee ! Ave Maria standing lovehest in the open heaven " only heaven and Thee ! ! ' I The story of St. in her childhood.232 ness possible to MUBILLO. Francesca. even at midnight. winning for herself the hatred of a fashionable court and the adoration in 1207. celestial faces. She early developed the most generous and spiritual character. praying much. on the bare. she Hungary. throned in the luminous azure. born of her subjects. Various legends are told of her. who should follow him. for the adoration of those nine. All the passionate love all that has been poured out in of the ages at the feet Ashtaroth and Artemis and Aphrodite and Freya found visible form and color at last on that immortal canvas. . and the full strength of his virile devotion to beauty. beautiful. religions of the world. giving to the poor. art. to Duke Louis of Thuringia. but nothing mars the imposing solitude of the Queen of Heaven. he created. cold earth. (Supposed to be the face of The Virgin floats. waving palm branches. upborne by rosy clouds flocks of pink cherubs flutter The golden air at her feet. like this grand Andalusian. where. is thick with suggestions of dim. Elizabeth is both touching and II. shrined alone. with his fervor of religion.) . Surely no man ever understood or interpreted.. The daughter of Andreas King of was betrothed.

in Bethlehem and while they stood amazed. Jameson. This time. during a severe winter. her husband. moved with compassion. " she found a sick child cast out from among the others because he was a leper. who dwelt in the suburbs of Eisenach and in the huts of the neighboring valOne day. meat. took him in her arms. . with the features of the New-born sight. saying. and . and eggs for a certain poor family and. carrying in the skirts of her robe a supply of bread. Sophia. the vision smiled. the coverlid . . carried him up the steep ascent to the castle. she left leys. Sophia. but behold ! instead of the leper. Then his mother. Her husband was then absent. and. she laid the sufferer in her own bed." says Mrs. ran out to meet him. her mother-in-law. come hither See with whom thy wife shares her bed And she led him up to the chamber. while her attendants fled at the spectacle. telling him what had happened.MURILLO. 233 " When Elizabeth was ministering to her poor at Kisenach. Louis was filled with impatience and disgust he rushed to the bed and snatched away ' ! ! ' . in the absence of her husband. but shortly afterwards his horn was heard to sound at the gate. as she was descending the frozen and slippery path. and so loathsome in his misery that none would touch him or even go nigh him but Elizabeth. My son. there lay a radiant infant. " Elizabeth. her castle with a single attendant. daily visited the poor. loaded her with re- proaches. and vanished from their .

and she herself who thronged around the gates of the castle. more beautiful and fragrant than any that grow on this earth. with his head declined. Elizabeth distributed to the poor all the corn in the royal granaries. he was overawed by a supernatural glory. roses of the of taking from her lap one he put it in his bosom. her go on her way and fulfil her mission Paradise. ' ' ' what thou art carrying away ? and she. bread was baked. number Uniting prudence with charity. time came round again. my Elizabeth ? he said. he beheld only red and white roses. Let us see thou here. she sent them into the . confused and blushing to be so discovered. a terrible famine afflicted Germany but the country of Thuringia suffered more than any other.234 MUJRILLO. opening her tle to her bosom robe. and he dared not touch her. depth of winter "Then he was about to embrace his wife. looking in her face. mountain slowly. Every day a certain quantity of served it out to the people. bending under What dost the weight of her charitable burden. and so husbanded her resources that they and when harvestlasted through the summer . she so arranged that each person had his just share. sometimes to the of nine hundred. but. pressed her manbut he insisted. " In 1226. and. met her. and continued to ascend the . even at summer-tide. and it was now the ' . which seemed to emanate from every feature. returning from the chase. he bade but. and ponall dering these things in his heart.

but she sold her own robes and jewels. 235 provided with scythes and sickles. and pledged the jewels of the state. She. although the sights of misery and disease were often so painful and so disgusting that the ladies away their heads. she founded an hospital of twenty beds. and to she gave a shirt and a pair of new But. as was usual. the famine had been shoes. In these chari- children. " She also founded a hospital especially for poor It is related by an eye-witness that whenever she appeared among them they gathMutter clingered round her. When the landgrave (her husband) and councillors went out to meet him. for poor women only and another. ministering to the wretched inmates with a cheerful . fields.MURILLO. and. and even brought them little toys to amuse them. spoke to them tenderly. the officers . Anne. " In the city of Eisenach. countenance. . ^ ! ! ' ties. who attended upon her turned and murmured and complained of the task assigned to them. washed and dressed their ulcerated limbs. every man succeeded by a great plague and mortality. mother-like. called the Hospital of St. in which all the sick and poor who presented themselves were received and Elizabeth herself went from one to the other. and the indefatigable and inexhaustible charity of Eliza- beth was again at hand. she not only exhausted the treasury. at the foot of the Wartburg. crying Mutter ing to her robe and kissing her hands. fearing his displeasreturned.

tore away her robe. and kissed times. and he has preserved to us what is thine and mine Louis was soon after killed in the Crusades. he cut them short. complain of their the public treasures. and four years after her death she was canonized by Gregory IX. Later. MUIilLLO. " Silence " at the last. and are now in Stafford House. "No sooner had Elizabeth breathed her last breath than the people surrounded her couch. cut off her hair. and she and her children were driven out of Thuringia by his brothers. Wartburg. Henry and Conrad. ? ' How is my dear wife how are my children ? will. and threw him a thousand and said to him tenderly. ' ! ! ' ! . repeating. She was buried amid miracles and lamentations. and wore ragged clothes that she might help the destitute. She spun wool to earn more money to give away. singing hymns. " The Healing of the Parherself into his arms. some of her possessions were restored to her. even mutilated her remains for relics. so are they well ? leaves Let her give what she ! long as she me my castles of Eisenach. and Naumburg ' Elizabeth met him with her children. and Then he hurried to the gates." Murillo's " Abraham receiving the Angels " and " The Prodigal's Eeturn " were purchased of Marshal Soult by the Duke of Sutherland. her sweet voice murmuring. to in they began which Elizabeth. to manner in had lavished But Louis would not listen tlie despite. them . She died at twenty-four.286 ure. See I have given to the Lord what is his.

Francis of Assisi. This honor of the Cavern of St. nine formed the retablo of the high altar. Peter " is at the Hermitage. Seventeen of these are now in the single day. so dear to is Valencian art. of the Saviour's robe. not leaving the convent. blossoms from the briers with which he scourged himself. alytic " 237 was purchased of Marshal Soult for thirtytwo thousand dollars.MURILLO. now in the National in was a feast . The soft violet hue. and eight were on the side altars." is Museum of Madrid. Before the paintings for La Caridad were finished. Over the high altar were pictures of " Saints J usta and Rufina/' " St. " The Virgin granting to St. Peter's mantle. Francis the Jubilee of the Porciuncula. Thirty-three beautiful cherubs are showering the kneeling St. The immense altar-piece. skilfully opposed to the deep brown of St. it is said. in which he received a visit from the Virgin and Child. Francis with red and white roses. Petersburg. in St." "The Eelease of St. Tomline of London. a rich tint then and still made by Andalusian painters from beef-bones. here. and is now in the possession of Mr. Such diligence ! is Seville Museum. Murillo was asked to decorate the new For three years he worked Capuchin church. The head of the Christ is thought to be Murillo's best representa" tion of our Lord. for a most suggestive to those persons who expect to win success without unremitting labor Of the more than twenty pictures painted here by Murillo.

Anthony of Padua and the Infant Christ". on his Calvary. G. that he begged some token of remembrance from the hand of the great artist. The great pictures on the side altars of the church illustrated artist ." and the "Virgin with the Head of the Saviour on her Knee." Joseph/' Felix of Cantalicio. Veronica was a noble-hearted woman. Minor." all which the his works himself esteemed the best of embracing the Crucified Eedeemer. made a most beautiful Virgin." the "Nativity. John "St. and. Francis of Assisi. the "Vision of St. way to wiped the perspiration from his brow veil. Felix." " St. The coloring of this picture." the " Immaculate Conception. with her handkerchief or To her surprise and delight. who. in her life of Murillo. As he had no canvas." the "Veronica. "as if it would spring from its mother's arms. She suffered martyrdom under Nero. Padua. Thomas of Villanueva. a cook." the " Annunciation." "St. in the Desert. before nightfall." and a gem called "The Madonna of the Napkin." "Saints Leander and Bonaventura. and a Child so natural that it seems. of which innumerable copies and engravings have been made.238 MUUILLO. . Murillo took the napkin which the cook had brought with his food." " St. says E. of Anthony «St. seeing the Saviour pass her door." St. she found an image of the Lord's face upon it. was never surpassed even by Murillo himself." Murillo had so endeared himself to one of the lay brethren of the convent. " St.

Jameson. and who were ashamed beg . had worn twenty-one years and as he had never in his life kept anything for himself beyond what was necessary for his daily wants. He began by devoting two-thirds of the revenues of his diocese to purposes of charity. sec- ondly. and immediately ordered the sum to be carried to the hospital for the sick and poor and from this time forth we present . the poor girls whose indigence and misery exposed them to danger and temptation in the third class were the poor debtors in the fourth. the bashful poor him into who had seen to better days. for the poor . St 239 Thomas is represented as at the door of his " In the year " oathedral. and a . and the infirm lastly. he had a great kitchen open at all hours of the day and night. find his life one series of beneficent actions. without knowledge where to lay their heads. where every one who came was supplied with food. he was so poor that the canons of his cathedral thought proper to him with four thousand crowns for his outfit he thanked them gratefully. . the sick. the poor orphans and foundlings in the fifth. the lame." says Mrs. .MURILLO. a night's rest. accepted the dignity with the He arrived in Valencia in an old black cassock. 1544. He greatest reluctance. . " He divided those : who had a claim on six classes first. and a hat which he for . of Valencia. . giving alms to beggars. his respect for showed him by nominating him Archbishop Charles V. strangers and travellers who arrived in the city or passed through it.

her feet treading upon the crescent. * There small gratuity to assist him on his journey. floats upward toward the sky." now in the Louvre. Francis " represents Christ appearing to the saint in his grotto on Mount Alvernus when he received the stigmata. In 1678. in her mantle of exquisite blue. in every what our imagination could hope or conceive. It is a marvel of color and pure saintly expression. " Murillo comes up. an asylum for aged priests. at the sale of Marshal Soult's collection.240 MURILLO. We find in the attitude of the saints. Peter Weeping. and the expression of their features. "St. were few churches or convents on the sunny side of the Sierra Morena without some memorial picture of this holy man/ but the finest beyond all comparisoD are those of Murillo. showing her triumph over the other religions of the world. over her white robe. all that the most ardent piety. His earthly daylight is perfectly natural and true his heavenly day is full of radiance. for which the French government paid. at Seville." The " St. The beautiful Virgin. wounds similar to those of the Saviour in the Crucifixion. over one hundred and twenty-three thousand dollars. . all that the most passionate exalta- Viardot says : respect. Murillo painted for the Hospital de los Venerables. and the "Immaculate Conception. attended by angels." the "Virgin and Child enthroned on Clouds. in 1852. to ." the portrait of his friend Don Justino Neve y Yevenes.

the "Madonna appearing to St. from the archangel with outspread wings to the bodiless heads can feel or express of the cherubim. he painted the exquisite " St. If in scenes taken from he equals the greatest colorists." the " Children of the Shell. filled now with water. John with the Lamb. for which the government paid ten thousand " Los Ninos de la Concha. he is alone in the imaginary scenes of eternal life." also at Madrid. This saint defended the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception at a time when it had many opponents." now in the National Gallery. in the . human the Seashore. Prado Museum at Madrid and " St. produces marvels.MURILLO. Augustine. As for the visions. Augustine and the little Child on life. that Velasquez is the painter of the earth. deand adoration. the Virgin came to his cathedral." where the Child Jesus holds the dollars . It is in these scenes of super- natural poetry that the pencil of Murillo. to the lips of St. shell. About this time. It might be said of the two great Spanish masters. Ildefonso receiving the Chasuble from the Virgin. 241 light. John. in which are marvellously grouped the different spirits of the immortal hierarchy." who is trying to fill a hole in the sand with water carried from the ocean in a shell. they appear with all the pomp of a celestial train. like the wand of an enchanter. . iu extreme surprise. and Murillo of heaven." and " St. In token of her appreciation." His next work was for the Augustinian convent church. tion.

" at the Hermitage and others. where he spent hours before the altar-piece. is in the Royal Gallery Five large paintings from the life of at Madrid. to the ground. robe. When lingering late one night. and she threw over him a cassock of heavenly The ivory chair remained thereafter untissue. The " Education of the Virgin. occupied." Mary kneeling by the side of St. " He bowed Come hither. till the presumptuous Archbishop Sisiberto sat in it. one is in the Louvre." " Laban searching for his Gods in the Tent of Rachel. "El Piojoso" several. her mother. and the Virgin most faithful servant of God. in the Pinakothek at Munich the " Plower-Girl " and a " Boy ." " Jacob and Laban's Sheep. which he could possibly spare from his work he passed in devotion. which I have brought thee Besides all this work. and died a miserable death in consequence. Murillo's various " Beggar art is Boys " are known wherever . "The Descent from the Cross. with a Basket and Dog. said. . and receive this from the treasury of my Son." He knelt before her. loved . it is believed. chanted a service from the Psalter. with the angels about her. Anna. and. are ." by Pedro Campana. the faces portraits. seated herself upon his ivory pulpit. "Isaac blessing Jacob.242 MUEILLO." and one other. in London and Madrid. He often visited the Church of Santa Cruz. Jacob. of his wife and daughter. in various galleries. All the time Murillo was now growing old." "Jacob's Dream.

and its site is now occupied by the Plaza Santa Cruz." "Live as one who is being carried by two about to die. and his de Villavicencio. "Vive moriturus. the "Descent from the His grave was covered with a stone slab Cross. Catharine. Catharine. known. but he died soon 3. Gaspar." was begun in 1680. is not positively afterward." on which were carved his name. Whether this acciand fatally injured himself. at Seville. 1682. the Church of Santa Cruz was destroyed. marquises and four and followed by a great concourse of At his own request. daughter had become a nun six years previous. neath his favorite picture. dent occurred in the chapel at Cadiz. but his second son." His last picture. in the arms of his friend Canon Neve and his pupil Pedro Nuiiez His wife was dead. He had finished the centre group of the Madonna and Child and St. stood beside the bed of studio.MUBILLO. April death. or in his own." During the French occupation. He replied " I am waiting till those men have brought the body of our blessed Lord down the : ladder. and the words. he was buried bepeople. a skeleton. the knights. He was bier buried with distinguished honors. the " Marriage of St. 243 he was asked by the sacristan why he thus tarried. A tablet was . in the Capuchin Church at Cadiz. when he was sixty-two years of age. when he fell from the scaffold on which he was climbing to his work.

he left a name honored alike for great genius and great beauty of character. five More than are scattered through Europe. stating that Murillo was buried there. above all. no point where Murillo appears in more winning beauty than in his rela- . Washburn. near the Provincial Museum. one who has so won the heart of all none depicts so much of that personal beauty which gives life to the past. " His name recalls Spanish art in the noon of its glory. and a lofty mind and moral purpose. But in Murillo we see the mingling of the two.244 MURILLO. perhaps. ." " We shall not err when we say that Murillo of his day. We approach Velasquez is Zurbaran with somewhat of awe the grand historical painter. we see the sweet singer with the golden harp strung always before him. His magic pencil writes the heart all of his saints on the face none better than he can draw the pure brow of childhood and. Ghost. . in " Spanish Masters.tue of the painter has been erected by the city of Seville. time . his conceptions suggest a mystery hidden beneath the outward coloring. placed in the adjacent wall in 1858. "There is. is the sweetest and richest painter He has a glowing fancy. Says Emelyn W. In him. There is in that series of great and small . with a milder grace. . A bronze sta. the man with all the chords of his fine nature touched by the Holy artists not . an eye for beauty of nature and life. hundred of the works of Murillo Self-made. .

. "Murillo stands forth as a mind which most faithfully represents Spanish genius. . We see the picture of a man great for little hates. 245 tions with other painters. . a heart where the struggles of youth have only brought forth the richest fruits. . the rarest gentleness. His is a character shaped by the mild spirit of Christ's religion. . He shows the most generous soul. more. art. .MURILLO. religion who lived a Spaniard of the Spaniards in that brilliant world who wore the same long cloak and grave dignity as is now met with in the narrow. and who pondered as we now ponder the problems of art and life who taught a nation and an age-" too . . dirty lanes of Seville nay. who had a living human heart.

He shows no respect for historic proprieties he groups together allegoric with real figures. and cardinals with a naked Mercury.. those which had been excluded as gross he reproduces as true. his " Philosophy of Art in the " Eiibens is to Titian what Netherlands " Titian was to Eaphael. There is no dread of exciting physical sensibility . " There is no deference to the moral order he fills the ideal heaven of mythology and of the Gospel with coarse or mischievous characters. seem removed ias. the whole of human nature is it in his grasp..KUBENS. Nothing is wanting but the pure and the noble . and in him. Ancient boundaries. as in nature. is save the loftiest heights. a Magdalen resembling a nurse. Hence that this . . all the animal instincts of human nature appear. purposely to expose an infinite career. in Never did artistic sympathy clasp nature in such an open and universal embrace. and a Ceres whis: . already often extended. he pushes the horrible to extremes. pering some pleasant gossip in her neighbor's ear. they encounter the others. and Eaphael was to Phid: TAINE says.

empty of blood and substance livid. Koman sities emperors. . " Hence it is that nobody has depicted its contrasts in stronger relief. and voracious . in the representation of life the body. contemporary citizens. a clot of blood on the mouth. . the eye glassy. Italian cardinals. and the feet and hands clayish. lymphatic. and mottled fluid. swollen. is the Flemish body. more rapidly tending to accretion and waste than those whose dry fibre and radical temperance preserve permanent tissues. along with the innumerable diverstamped on humanity by the play of natural iorces. more through suffering. he comprehended more profoundly than any one the essential characteristic of organic . blooming. and which more than fifteen hundred pictures " did not suffice to exhaust. For the same reason. creativeness is it 247 seen. a genuine clinical mass. . the soft rosy cheeks and placid candor of a girl whose blood was never . compre- the vastest we have hending as does all types. flabby corpse. blue. and smiling athlete. the handsome. sanguine. . nor as visibly shown the decay and bloom of life at one time the dull. he surpasses in this the Venetians as they surpass the Florentines he feels still better than the^^ that flesh is a changeable substance in a constant state of renewal and such. the mellow suppleness of a yielding torso in the form of a well-fed youth.BUB ENS. and deformed because death seized them first. the freshness of living carna- tions. more than any other. peasants and cowherds. at another.

thought. the delicacy. the folds." was born at Siegen. June 29. we might repeat the words to which they give expression. the exquisite melting rosiness of infanseemingly the petal of a flower moistened with dew and impregnated with morning light. they are deficient in some one element . Peter Paul Rubens. about to do. . their repose itself is suspended on the verge of action. The most fleeting and most subtle shades of sentiment belong to Rubens in this respect he is a treasure for novelist and psychologist." This great painter. quickened or eyes bedimmed by thought. . . The present with them is impregnated with the past and big wdth the future not only the whole face. feeling. "His* personages speak. " There is only one Rubens in Flanders. . as there is only one Shakespeare in England. whom Joshua Reynolds called "the best workman with his tools that ever managed a pencil. we feel what they have just accomplished. on the day comSir memorating the martyrdom of these saints at . flocks of dimpled cherubs and merry cupids. and what they are tile skin. and complete being we hear the inward utterance of their emotion. of his genius. but the entire attitude con. 1577. spires to manifest the flowing stream of their . Great as the others are. he took note of the passing refinements of moral expression as well as of the soft volume of sanguine flesh no one has gone beyond him in knowledge of the living organism and of the animal man.248 BUBENS.

the Silent. and five hundred houses burned. having taken his degree of Doctor of Laws at Rome when he was thirty-one. Jans Rubens sacrificed his good name and . Forgetting his high position and his family. was sent to suppress in 1576. hence the names given to the child.RUBENS.. placing himself on the side of Prince William of Orange. the father was a distinguished councilman and alderman of Antwerp. Jans Eubens had been accused of Calvinistic tendencies. which the Duke of Alva. Religious dissensions. Peter. and had employed Jans Rubens as one of her counsellors in obtaining her property. 249 Kome. had come to Cologne. Seven thousand of the people of Antwerp were slain. and other matters. Charles Y. which Philip II. leaving the Netherlands to his son Philip II. as she lived. had confiscated. Antwerp and Cologne have claimed his birth. the presence of Spanish soldiers. Emperor of Germany and King of Spain. who had married Annie of Saxony. logne before the arrival at Antwerp of the Eoman Catholic Duke of Alva. woman and the of good family. a of character. When he was about that age he married Marie Siegen as his birthplace. She had quarrelled with her husband. but subsequent historical investigation has shown Jans Kubens. unusual force idol of her son Peter as long Antwerp was now the scene of a desolating war. had abdicated. of Pypelincx. and thought it prudent to retire to Coled to revolts. with twenty thousand soldiers.

then. ought I to show so much hatred as not to be able to pardon a fault against me ? Be. may have compassion on us otherwise. confessing his guilt and imploring her pardon. The noble-hearted woman wrote him tenderly only great souls know how to forgive. me. they will kill me as well as you. to whom shall I apply ? I will implore Heaven with tears and groans. She determined at once to save his life. He wrote to his wife. to yours that you cannot suffer a pain without my . character by his immorality. am so distressed. and hope that God will grant my prayer by touching the hearts of these gentlemen. " Alas affects ! it is not what your letter announces that it. . assured that I have entirely forgiven you. so that they may spare us. I hardly know what I write. me it is with difficulty I This sad news so overwhelms can bear it. If there is no more pity in this world. again. was arrested and thrown into prison by Count John of Nassau.250 BUB ENS. I could scarcely read I I thought my heart would break. my soul is so linked . — — "How I could I push severity to the point of when you are in such affliction that would give my life to relieve you from it ? Even had this misfortune not been preceded by a long affection. By German law E-ubens was under the penalty of death. and Annie was divorced by her husband. for then we should soon be happy paining you . . if possible. and would to Heaven that your deliverance depended on this. the brother of Prince William.

when all me. was away in the country. and under the strict surveillance of Count John. his them 1587. I will go to them. availed nothing. family.RUBENS. The next year Marie Rubens returned to their old home at Antwerp. consolidating the Dutch Eepublic. and procured the release of Jans E-ubens. that he would never go outside the little town of Siegen. broken in health by his prison life. Marie obtained permission where he died in boy Peter was ten years of age. and must suffer death. Count John. At length she declared that the whole truth should be told. suffering as 251 much as you. All her entreaties and his brother. even if they were of stone other means fail. which had been confiscated during the wars. when persistence recovered the estates of her husband. under bonds of six thousand thalers. but she visited in person his mother. Here he lived for some years. It was publicly stated that Jans Rubens had been imprisoned for political treason Marie to Prince William. and by her good sense and to reside in Cologne. for he . was forbidden access to any of William's family. I believe that if these good lords saw my tears they would have pity on and. for Finally. although you write me not to do so. and for two years was not allowed to enter the dungeon where her husband was confined. thus placing her family in very comfortable circum- . and Annie of Saxony be forever This threat moved the proud Orange disgraced." Marie could not reach William the Silent.

but he took no pleasure in mere fashionable artist. of course. Spanish. and English. handsome boy was made a page in the household of his godmother. it His mother had was distasteful At the age of thirteen. from close whom the lad learned that which made him thereafter a reader of her secrets. far from home or close to it. French by a tutor. What attracted him most in nature was the unchangeable. and begged his mother that he might become an This choice did not attract the mother.lian. where stances. destined him for the law. In childhood he had been taught Latin by his father. as the frank and was often the custom. but to him. whose ambitions and hopes centred largely in her enthusiastic Peter. Peter entered a Jesuits' college. and the grand. speaking his native Flemish. Artists less gifted and study of nature : . he showed great aptitude for languages. and Later.252 RUBENS. in his " Land of Eubens " " Man and nature as the Creator made them were quite sufficient for Kubens's inspiration. he learned Ita. the Countess Lalaing. besides. He knew how to find these everywhere. German. but she had the wisdom to lead rather than to result. no matter where he found them. the imperishable. Conrad Busken Huet says. dictate. Parents who break the wills of their children usually have spoiled children as the She placed her boy with Tobias Verhaeght. a landscape painter. surroundings.

even though the gout almost incapacitated him from holding his brushes. 253 born by the seashore have before now felt the want Did their cradle of sniffing the mountain breeze. but one morning dew. Such is Eubens's motto. he found every condition necessary to the practice of his art. whence uprises the lark supplies muEach swan to which he flings ' ' bread-crumbs on his arrival at Steen (his country home) teaches him to keep the most sublime song of his art for the end. and paint landscapes. but one gloaming. Eubens's pictures prove that such contrasts had no value for him. returned in his last days to his first love. Eubens. He knows but one moon. stand among the meadows. . Within the narrow limits of his native soil.^ BUB ENS. . they longed for running streams and rivers." " who began with scenes of country life. he shines everywhere. in his " Life of Eubens. Each . so that when he could no longer cover his huge canvases with heroic figures. Every raindrop on which there falls a ray of light reminds him of a diamond. . he would retire to his chateau at Steen. but one starry vault." " It is curious to note that W." After about ten years spent with Verhaeght. " stubble-field sic to his ears. "When the sun shines. His imagination had no need of anything more stirring than that presented to him by the recollection of human vicissitudes amidst glebe and The twinkling of the eye sufficed to transglade." says Charles Kett. form them into battlefields in his productions.

" who from behind gazed in admiration and wonder at The young painter was restless. and so intently that he did not hear the returning footsteps of the master. but for four years Rubens found him a useful teacher. When E-ubens was nineteen. made him acquainted with the Eegents Albert and Isabella. He is said to have been intemperate and quick-tempered." says George H. Calvert." They were distinguished patrons of art. She was the daughter of Philip II. young Eubens.. the pupil took a fresh canvas to try what he could do by himself towards representing a weeping Madonna. boy Such a life. to whom he had ceded the " Spanish Netherlands. Venius became deeply attached to his pupil. when the master was absent. thinking that he would devote himself to historical subjects. his performance. he entered dio of Otto Venius. and court painter to Archduke Albert of Austria and the Infanta Isabella of Spain. ambitious be filled the stu- man. a teacher skilled in drawing. He worked for hours. and inspired him to go to Italy to study . of courtly manners. and in the use of brilliant color. Luke. fruitful for good or evil. a kind and learned condition for an ardent. a free-master of the Guild of St. not an unnatural or girl. "It is related. with study of light and shade. and did everything to restore the war-worn country to peace and prosperity. must with the best activities.254 BUBENS. became a pupil of Adam van Noort. "that one day.

her book." a " Dead Christ in the Arms of the Father. "of the Jans. now going forth into the world to have those talents acknowledged which her maternal heart was assured were in his keeping. a man of culture. and now sees victory crowning her endeavors. held in her still handsome hand. speaks of a home of comfort. art. denoting her widowed state. Rubens had already painted some admirable works the " Adoration of the Three Kings. She must have smiled with satisfaction on the rising fame of her youngest fallen greatness of the surviving son. 265 the country in which he had studied for seven years." says Mr. she carries in her face the traits of a shrewd woman of the world. Calmly and beautifully does the pale face still look forth from the canvas as of old. somewhat similar to the one Academy at Antwerp as the her son. a forefinger still preserved in the gift of marking the page she has not finished reading." and a portrait of Marie Pypelincx. faithless "the true-hearted wife. like a matron of good family." a : " Holy Trinity. and a courteous gentleman might . tells of a certain amount of learned leisure and her whole surroundings recall a home whence an artist. "Her very chair. and muslin cuffs. . who has battled bravely with the times. mourning coif. the up- holder of the family after the death of the father. the educator of his children. in velvet dress. Carefully attired. and the restorer of the name of E-ubens. the mother of the artist.BUB ENS. Kett.

He was called later by scholars. Rubens. While here he became the friend an officer at of a Mantuan. where he studied the wonderful colorists. who was surprised at the learning of the attractive and distinguished-appearing young artist. His first visit was to Venice. started for Italy. having said good-by to his fond mother. and also by letters of introduction from Archduke Albert. and was answered in the same language. Duke of Mantua. . the court of Vincenzo de Gonzaga. a brilliant and extravagant ruler. . and Tintoretto. Rubens had been a student. at twenty-three years of age." On May 8. into masterpieces of art. and these Rubens was glad to study. This was not the result merely of fortuitous circumstances. Paul Veronese. the patron of artists and authors. so earnest was he in obtaining the secret of these marvellous derive those early impressions tions tints. Gonzaga addressed him in Latin. He is said to have copied twenty portraits by Titian. fluently and correctly. rich. Hearing him repeat a passage from Virgil. when he carne in contact with a larger world. Titian. somewhat of a poet. A most fortunate thing resulted from this acquaintance Rubens was appointed painter to the court and a member of the ducal household. 1600.256 RUBENS. Through this friend. "the antiquary and Apelles old. and first inspirawhich would develop. This duke was thirty -seven years handsome. Rubens met Gonzaga. The duke had made a fine collection of paintings and antiques.

He never gave himself the pastime of going to parties where there was drinking and card-playing. and was ready to embrace his opportunity when it came. at Eome.. being free from harshness or censoriousness." Helena embracing the Cross. in place of a sheep walking by the side . Eubens was sent to Kome to make He took copies of some of the masterpieces. of our time. says m his of his uncle. letters of introduction to Cardinal Alessandro Montalto. when he painted. Helena. life Philip Kubens. of Julius Csesar. "Christ crowned with fixion. and a great patron of art. Besides this work for Gonzaga." and a "Cruci- On his return to Mantua." Thorns. at the request of Archduke : Albert." books. Seneca and Plutarch were often read to him. Kubens painted for the chapel of St." by Andrea ^Nlantegna in one of the series. his nephew. three pictures " St. thirteen years old. that in after years. in the Church of the Holy Cross of Jerusalem. withal." 257 a most industrious He was " also worker. formerly its cardinal. and. the nephew of Sixtus V. work. very rich. a person of much tact and con- prepared himself for a great sideration. Besides painting several originals for the of He had Duke Mantua. having always had a dislik'5 So fond was -he of reading the best for such. He had studied the technique of painting since he was He was especially charming m manner. he copied the "Triumph .BUB ENS.

he painted a lion. a silver vase of large dimensions inwrought with colors. but his ardent imagination. pattern he had before is on the point of in strik- ing the lion a blow with his trunk. The latter.. Rubens by the to Duke of Mantua on Philip a pleasant Spain. looking furiously round.. and his powerful favorite. so that they are here more noble and slender than usual with him. him The severe Mantegna has modis erated Rubens in his taste for very full forms. on his part. twelve arquebuses. and a vase of rock crystal filled with perfumes. a cross . instead of a harmless Mantegna is walking by the side Rubens has introduced a lion and lioness. For the king there was a " gorgeous coach and seven beautiful horses. For the Countess of Lerma.258 RUBENS." For the Duke of Lerma. ever directed to the dramatic. sheep. pictures. could not be content with this. Waagen says " His love of the fanin his " Life of Eubens " : tastic and pompous led him to choose that with the elephant carrying the candelabra. but. the Duke of Lerma. six of whalebone and six variegated. and two vases of gold. as in his earliest yet more powerful. which in of the foremost elephant. for it was among was sent mission his effects at his death. Dr. is not idle. is The coloring. the indolent son of II. " a number of pictures. of an elephant. set more subdued than in the later. and Rubens himself seems to have a high value upon this study." In 1603. with costly presents to Philip III. which growl angrily at the elephant.

his parents. resident at the Court of Madrid from Mantua. from the colors having peeled off. the edges of gold tissue. two vases of rock crystal. with continuous rain for days.RUBEN8. Rubens painted an altar-piece for the Church of the Holy Trinity at Mantua. Duke of Lerma. tary. ter contained portraits of Duke Vincenzo. in which the mother of the duke was buried three pictures. For the secrePedro Franqueza. Rubens and his gifts reached When the paintings were unpacked. they were nearly ruined. and a complete set of damask hangings. ." which latso greatly . and a "Heraclitus." the " Mystery of the Transfiguration." and a central picture. several ladies of the court. and his children. Once more in Italy. He also painted an equestrian likeness of the duke sessed by Gonzaga. 259 and two candelabra of rich crystal. a life-size." both now in the gallery of Madrid. Rubens under- took the work of restoration." twenty-five Valladolid. At the request of Iberti. the " Mystery of the Trinity. better painted two originals for the " Democritus. On his return to Italy he was loaded with gifts from the King of Spain and grandees. so much were his works esteemed and was the young Fleming admired. as himself. After a long journey. the " Baptism of our Saviour. his Duchess Leonora. and. and probably tures on this first visit." still. for the gallery of beauties pos- many other pic- more than one hundred and twenty of Rubens's paintings are known to have existed in Spain.

the struggle with Antaeus. with his brother Philip. After an absence of eight years in Italy. and the combat with a lion. for the Church of Santa Maria in Valicella. the better to carry it." besides three separate ones. this church was used as a storehouse for food for the horses. a book on Eoman antiquities. Kubens also painted. He also Leonardo da Vinci. with six copper-plate illustrations.260 RUBENS. representing the " Madonna and Child. which he published later in a volume with one hundred and thirty-nine illustrations. an altar-piece. When For the Grand Duke Ferdinand I." In Spain he executed a series called " The Labors of Hercules. Eome. called "The Battle of the Standard. representing the slaying of the dragon. among them a " Hercules between Venus and Minerva. was prevented by the Academy of Mantua. The pope was so pleased with Kubens that he desired to keep him in Eome permanently. in 1608. Eubens was recalled to Antwerp by the illness of his ." with side pictures In co-operation of the pope and several saints. he published. when about to send it to France. of Florence. At Genoa he made drawings of her remarkable palaces and churches. Some of the pieces have disappeared. and. A French commissary cut this picture in pieces. the French took Mantua in 1797." and copied the celebrated cartoon of made a valuable portrait of himself for the Grand Ducal collection of self-painted heads of artists. Eubens painted several pictures.

sooner or later. " This picture. ordered an altar-piece for the Chapel of the order of St. Waagen. him to court. sat for their and made him their official painter. Ildefonso." says Dr. Archduke Albert being its head. He had given her no ordiloss. One of his first works for them was a " Holy Family. one of the most admira- . Michael's. and Isabella. Ildefonso of Brussels. She is surrounded by four female saints. mother. with their This work. James. four months in the Abbey of St. represents the Virgin Mary en- throned. 261 He started homeward October 28. Most of us learn to bear our sorrows in our own hearts. he came out into the world. 1608. and his was no ordinary He in met this loss in the silence of his own thoughts the abbey. nary affection. he shut himself up for journey. He talked of returning to Italy. "which is at present in the Imperial gallery at Vienna. without laying our burdens finding. and when he had gained the self-control necessary for his work. On his way he learned that she had died nine days before he began his long On reaching Antwerp." which was so much admired that the Society of St. but Archduke Albert and Isabella. world has enough of its own. proud of his genius and his attainments. with a heavy heart. On the interior of the wings are the portraits of Albert patron saints.RUBENS. invited portraits. where she had been buried. that the upon others. and putting the cloak of the order on the shoulders of St.

planted with flowers and choice trees. in soon built a house." The association were so pleased that they offered the artist a purse of gold. when he was thirtyurally two." says Mr. he would not receive. and a separate building or rotunda. displays in a remarka- ble degree the qualities praised in the one painted for the Archduke. which. Michael. mem- affection Lonely from the death of his mother. Clara. Adjoining this he laid out a large garden. having been made a member.262 ble ever painted EUBENS. " The celebrated picture of Rubens and his first wife. He florins. 1609. in the Abbey Church of St. costing sixty thousand the Italian style of architecture. Peter nat- met the niece of his brother Philip's wife. " now in the Pinakothek at Munich. Kett. whose sister. a new came into his heart to sustain and conPhilip. Jan Brandt. saying that his only desire was to be useful to his brother bers. vases. by Eubens. where he arranged the pictures. and gems which he had collected in Italy. lighted from the top. loved her. must liave been painted within the first . much older. marbles. with a spacious studio. was a young attractive face woman of and sweet disposition. brother. and married her October 13. Isabella Brandt. like the Pantheon at Eome. had married a former secretary of Antwerp. Their daughter. had taken as his wife Maria de Moy. now secretary of Antwerp. his sole him.

There is no affected demonstration of feeling. E-ubens met with a severe loss in the the death of his greatly beloved brother. In summer he rose at four o'clock. Rubens's heart was made glad by the birth of a son. In 1614." In 1611. Philip. are well balanced by the placid contentment and happy dignity of his wife. All seven children of Jans Rubens and Maria Pypelincx were now dead save Peter Paul. combined with beauty and force of character. as the pair sit under their own vine and fig-tree. no bashful restraint. to whom Archduke Albert became godfather. in the most animated anji agreeable manner. The rich and famous painter was now happy. busy constantly with his work. both of whom survived their father. in Vienna. His calm serenity and thoughtful expression.RUBENS. A couple well-to-do and able to enjoy themselves are happy to share their pleasure with others. and gave him his own name. Four years later his only other child by Isabella Brandt was born. A beautiful painting of these two children is noAv in the Liechtenstein Gallery. prepared to receive their visitors. "This was the generally received his visitors. heard mass. An hour before dinner he always . 263 few years of their married life. and went to work time early. and is a striking example of the painter's manner at this period. with when he whom he entered willingly into conversation on a variety of topics. which poured in upon him. Waagen. Says Dr. surrounded by his loved ones.

friends. that is. can only be accounted for by this union of extraordinary diligence with his unusually fertile with whom powers of production. if not prevented by business." In building his home. " This was his favorite exercise he was extremely fond of horses. and afterwards passed the evening in instructive and cheerThis active and regular mode of ful conversation. which consisted either in allowing his thoughts to dwell as they listed on subjects connected with science or politics. and his stables generally contained some of remarkable beauty. and rode for Andalusian mounted a spirited an hour or two. . he indulged but sparingly in the pleasures of the table. a picture in three parts. From anxiety not to impair the brilliant play of his fancy. or in contemplating his treasures of art. Eubens encroached a little on land owned by the Company of Arquebusiers of Antwerp. but finally a compromise was effected whereby Eubens agreed to paint a triptych. it was his custom to receive a few evening. horse. and the astonishing number of works that he completed. A lawsuit was threatened. he usually. . principally men of learning or artists. and drank After working again till the but little wine. On his return home. the genuineness of which is beyond all doubt.264 BUB ENS. enabled Eubens to satisfy all have alone life could the demands that were made upon him as an artist. devoted to recreation. he shared his frugal meal. which latter interested him deeply.

Says Huet " Playing upon the name of a patron saint. dral. not sentimentality. Christopher in person. admired alike by Protestant and Catholic. Da Vinci's 'Last Supper' and Rubens's 'Descent from the Cross' are the two most popular altarpieces of Christianity. ' ..BUBENS. he has represented a threefold 'bearing of Christ borne from the Cross in the centre Christ Christ Christ borne by old Simon on the right borne 'neath his mother's heart on the left wing. Christopher. No one has succeeded in painting subsequent to Rubens a Descent from the Cross without paying toll to the master. he painted the renowned "Descent from the Cross. Christopher must be disinterred from encyclopaedias . . with St. The allusion to St. There is no need to insist as to how Eubens acquitted himself of his task in the centre piece. He What does not portray your sorrow. to be 265 hung in the cathedral. It is the triumph of human sympathy expressed in accordance with the theory of The painter had no other aim line and color. Simon on one wing of the triptych. but theirs." now in the south end of the transept of the cathe- with St. In fulfilment of this contract. . he tenders us is sentiment. ' ' than to limn a perfect group of loving people.. . : . of their patron St. . not intellect. and " The Visitation " on the other. emotion. occupied in taking down the body of Christ. For the history of Flemish art this 'Descent' possesses as ' ' much value as does Goethe's Faust for the history of German literature. ' ' .

" The lovely mother-virgin of the left-hand side leaf deserves particular attention. mind and When Jordaens wishes to matter. of the disciple with the winding-sheet betwixt his teeth. I know of no more fascinating female figure from Kubens's brush none which in its Flemish guise is so The ^Descent from the original. the very mention of whose name suffices to remind us of an imperishable type. Cross itself one might still believe to be the work of one of the great Italians. In the course of ages pictorial art has produced many beautiful works. has become immortal. St. it was sold in 1824 to the Prince of . Peter " was originally placed in the Cathedral of St. . He created her out of the most hidden depths of human nature. John in his red cloak. where blood and soul. is a hymn in honor of maternity. To Eubens life itself is the best of all Mary's clinging for support to the railing of the staircase. of the fair-haired Mary Magdalen. allegories. as she ascends it. carrying y the recollection of his burden. melt into one. none more beautiful than that scene." About this time Rubens painted some of his " Our Saviour giving the Keys to greatest works.. paint fertility. ' schools. Gudule . No such mistake is possible with the side leaf. he resorts to the allegory of the . Eubens's pregnant Mary is an honorable Gretchen. What excites our wonder in Goethe is his succeeding in raising a Leipzig girl of the lower classes to the rank of a tragic heroine.^fo^ BUB EN 8. so wholly his..

greenish Add the profile of the blue. not a of this work of improvisation. the . this African among the Magi is a figure entirely new. assuredly. 267 Orange. and a similar picture for the Church of St. dear to him from the burial of his mother and his own marriage. style. Tintoretto. for one hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars. is now in the north transept of the " Adoration cathedral. strain. An " Elevation of the Cross. lips. of picture. before which. executed for the at Church of St. He painted an Magi " for the choir of the the Abbey Church of St.RUBENS. of brown and white. with its dull harmony of black. Veronese would have clapped their hands. clear half -tint and lights without excess envelop all the figures. Antwerp. Titian. Of an " Adoration of the Magi " in the Museum " It is truly at Antwerp. Eugene Fromentin says a tour deforce^ especially if one recalls the rapidity Not a gap. all the colors are visible and multiply values the most rare. a vast. the most subtle and yet the most distinct." an immense Walburg. the least sought and yet the most fit. Michael. big eyes strongly lighted up. "On colossal the left stand in dignified solemnity two cavaliers of a singular Anglo-Flemish most extraordinary piece of color in the picture. supporting one the other. and his stout body girt in green pelisse with sleeves of peacock blue. John at Malines. his thick reddish skin. : By the side of types that are very ugly swarm superior types. his With his square face.

The Child is delicious to be cited as one of the most beautiful — — . He used to say " Every of his skill as to technique. — : one according to his gift my talent is such that never yet has an undertaking. when his sight was clear and instantaneous.268 nuBENS." " St. Anne instructing the Virgin. the most natural of atmospheres. divinely. among the purely picturesque compositions of Kubens. daunted courage. Nubian camel-drivers. the supernumeraries. without more importance and not otherwise executed than would be a hasty signature. " may be said to produce the same effect as a symphony. however extraor." "St. the triumph of rapture and science in a word. No other painter has ever known how to produce such a full and satisfactory tone of light. men in helmets. dinary in size or diversity of subjects. the last word of his knowledge as to color. such a deep chiarooscuro united with such general brilliancy." Eubens had courage. negroes. a few strokes of the brush in bitumen. the whole in the most ample. Dr. Waagen says. of self-confidence. Spider-webs float in the framework. his hand rapid and careful. Theresa pleading for the Souls in Purgatory. and quite low a sketch achieved by down the head of the ox. gether joyously. in which the united sounds of all the instruments blend tomightily." my The "Assumption of the Virgin" in the Antwerp Cathedral. the most transparent. and when he was not too exacting." and the ** Dead Saviour laid on a .

and people will be jealous of you. in order that the comparison be made. They are to be found in public collections and private galleries in those countries gentlemen are at liberty to place their works beside them. and you confound them." the " Translation of Elijah. do better. in 1718. Rmbens " My attempts have been replied to the challenge : subjected to the scrutiny of connoisseurs in Italy and Spain. and thirty-nine ceilings with Bible scenes." These works with the church were all destroyed by fire." were painted in eighteen days." The great artist used to say." " The Resurrection of our Saviour/' and '^The Adoration of the Shepherds. Rubens receiving as compensation fifty dollars per day. Rubens painted two works for the high altar. 269 Five of the above pictures and three others. werp.RUBENS. including the "Assumption" and " Coronation of the Virgin. "Do well." He employed several pupils to help him constantly. " Christ on the Cross. his usual price. and allow umpires to decide which was the better work." and the " Archangel ]\Ilchael triumphing over the Serpent. He would make sketches and superintend . For a magnificent church built by the Jesuits. With all this prosperity it was not strange that envy and jealousy should now and then confront Rubens. caused by lightning. pictures for two other altars. One of his rivals invited him to paint a picture on some chosen subject.

but colored varnishes. ordered him to stop. while he wrote to Eubens " 'Twas a picture by your own hand I ordered. last . picture. not an attempt by an apprentice." Rubens made the drawing and sent it to one of his pupils. then. you can keep it for yourself. in a rage. to The canon of the cathelay on the ground color. Come. my intention being not to accept it. who were jealous of him. and tell him to take with him his sketch. I let my pu: . and give it my stamp. was satisfied. said he did not use paints. I shall go to Malines in a few days your dissatisRubens came. when finally the canon." Egmont went on with : the work.270 the work. Mr. adding BUB ENS. Kett says: "Rubens's method of painting Some of his fellow-countrymen. dral said to Van Egmont. and the canon faction will cease. as is his custom. and handle the brush yourself or re: call your Juste van Egmont. finish the the reply. tlie finishing touches. of the latter point we are the better He quite white . and that his pictures would not judges." . according to my principles then I retouch it. Having been asked to paint for the Cathedral of Malines a " Last Supper. ." was not come himself ? " " He will. pils ibegin the picture. Juste van Egmont." Eubens wrote back " I proceed always in this way after having made the drawing. " Why did your master " Don't be uneasy. if not drawn with a brush . his outlines were used light grounds. almost. finish even. was his own.

the painter " You have come twenty years too late I found out the secret long ago " and then. in Paris. When an alchemist visited him. illustrative of her life. painted thicker. full of vigor. to dry out the oil. These now in the Louvre. pointing to his palette and brushes. wished to adorn her palace of the Lux- embourg. when he He was sumwas the court painter of Mantua. urging that he furnish a laboratory and apparatus for the process of trans- mutation of metals. the lights being sometimes. he put in the stronger touches himself. the sister of the Duchess Leonora of Mantua. however. and rich in color. in this way. A new honor was now Marie de' Medici. . and very transparent glazes were laid over all the shadows. and share the profits. several coats of color. and then. She must have known of his work." conferred upon Eubens. the ambassador of the Archduke Albert and Isabella. He exposed his pictures to the sun for short spaces of time. with great magnificence. Henry. and took the order for twenty-two immense are pictures. he added. do light ones now thick. between the paintings. 271 in color (often red for the flesh). not always. Baron Vicq. spoke to Queen Marie of Eubens. In the first picture the three Fates spin the for- . I touch with these turns to gold. brilliant in im- agery. moned to Paris. the All his works. " Everything replied : .RUBENS. They received finally.'' Eubens had become both rich and famous. but many done not seem to have been have solid painting from the first. also.

and Marie as Juno eighth. Denis . coronation of the queen J husband seventh. the third. at Lyons. and Mercury . when he makes the queen regent. . holds the new-born fourth. with Henry IV. Henry IV. while Florentia. in 1610. eleventh. who was stabbed by not against the queen's wishes. in the picture is enthroned in mourning robes between Mi- nerva and Wisdom twelfth. she married in 1600. with Fortuna behind the queen ninth. . in the preceding year above are Jupiter and Juno beside the king appears Gallia fifth shows the nuptials the Grand Duke Ferdinand of Tuscany acts as proxy for his niece's . after he had been divorced from Margaret of Valois. . Lucina. in 1601. the queen lands at Marseilles. in 1575. wedding festival. Love shows the princess the portrait of Henry IV. Apollo. treaty between France and Spain fifteenth. . sixth.. whom . . . the .272 BUBENS. Henry IV. conducted by Mi- nerva. Apollo. and Minerva drive away the hostile powers. the goddess of births. being present with her torch. the birth of Louis XIIL. as Jupiter. . regency of the queen under the protection of Olympus Mars.. tunes of Marie de' Medici the second represents her birth at Florence. while . apotheosis of Ravaillac. her education. perity during the regency. pros. the goddess of the city. the queen in the field during the civil war in France fourteenth. tenth. Juno and Jupiter cause the chariot of France to be drawn by gentle doves thirteenth. starting on his campaign against Germany. it is said. at St. infant . the queen bearing the . who. nevertheless.

the queen commits the rudder of the Ship of State. . : . Hatred. Eubens painted other pictures while at work on the Medici allegory " Susannah and the Elders. Grand Duke Francis and Johanna. Eubens could not paint the sad future of Marie de' Medici. where the wily Cardinal Eichelieu joined her as a pretended friend eighteenth. taking lessons of him in drawing. Gallia and . seventeenth." . deserted by her family. in 1619. the king giving his mother a chaplet of peace twenty-second. . but the project was abandoned in consequence of the quarrel between Marie and Cardinal Eichelieu. while below are Envy. flight of the queen. with the dragon of rebellion below them twenty-first. and AbunTime on the left. . and often conversing with him while he made the sketches. Marie and Louis XIII. The queen had intended to adorn another gallery at the Luxembourg with the life of Henry IV.RUBENS. portrait of Marie followed by portraits of her parents. on Olympus. the queen is conducted into the temple of peace twentieth. to Louis XIII. scales of justice 273 with Minerva. . the painting being done by himself and his pupils in his studio at Antwerp. Mercury presents himself to the queen as a messenger of peace nineteenth. ... his career to Blois. rowed by the Virtues. and Stupidity sixteenth. She died in a poor apartment at Cologne. . in about two years and a half. Fortunately. The queen was delighted with Eubens's pictures. Grand Duchess of Tuscany. who certainly must have deserted these virtues early in dantia on the right. Fortuna.

A large. humanity in laughing incarnations of heavenly . shouting. as with animals. and in a higher form." a beautiful "Virgin and Child" for Baron de Vicq. talking. It may have been in front of one of his canvases glowing with the luminous rosiness of half a dozen of these exclaimed. intermingled in varieties of groups." Eubens delighted related. in the full swing of boisterous enjoyment after a better meal than peasants are used to. love-making. he caused be brought to his house a very fine and powerful lion that he might study him in his various attitudes. But what he had still greater delight in painting than animals was children. nature unsophisticated. Here. a peas= 'ant festival in Flanders. An abound- and individuals a character and expression which only warm genius animating rich intellectual resources ing scene of rustic revelry. gambolling. paint ? ' ^Does Eubens happy soul-buds that Guide mix blood with his of children. In his " Kermess " now in the Louvre. "Lot's Daughters. who had recommended him to Marie de' Medici. he had what a healthy. juicy mind like his revelled in. in the groups could give." in painting animals. and several other works.274 EUBENS. ness. serious dog tries to get his share by prying into a pail half filled with empty platters. their unveiled life its and innocence. too. their natural- The mobility promise. " that "It to is says Calvert. dancing. singing. " in front of a village inn about fourscore persons of both sexes are depicted.

N. G. .LE CHAPEAU DE POIL. Rubens. London.


" The picture as a picture is miraculous. . while the different parts are rounded and relieved with the finest knowledge and use of reflected lights.' No one who has not beheld this masterpiece of painting can form any conception of the transparency and brilliancy with which the local coloring in the features and complexion. all but life itself. After the death of his widow.RUBENS. his artistic preferences. . during . Rubens." He was lery. the in portraits. at Rubens girl of fell in the Lunden original (a young Antwerp) whilst she was sitting to him. Kett says the picture of his mother." in the National Gallery. though under the shadow of a broad-brimmed Spanish beaver hat." Mrs. would never part with this picture. beaming with cheerfulness. whose heir. Mr. ." Dr. and has such a perfect charm. The expression of those youthful features. his life. in the Dulwich Gal" Spanish Hat. * that one is inclined to believe the tradition that love with the family. all 275 appealed to his liveliest sympathies. . are brought out and made to tell. it passed into the possession of the Lunden family. Jameson says. also. hope. . is so full of life. "No picture justifies more than this the appellation which Rubens has obtained of The Painter of Light. Waagen says of " Le Chapeau de PoiV^ ("The Spanish Hat"). . as to skilled. and the portrait called " General Velasquez " " are three that could scarcely be excelled by any master of any time.

almost faultless in conception and in tume. in 1822. with dead bodies and impleling sin ^ . but this man cos- painted that sublime history (a series of six pictures). Niewenhuys seventy-five thousand francs. where. sold for At his death. garish in ated. wide heath. ' ' Battle of the ' Amatramp- zons that divine lyric. to Stier d'Artselaer. be granted. and brought to England. M. and those tenderest moral poems. This man. it in 1817. the ' Virgin Mary and the dragon. dazzling and . if ever there was one. M. seen many of his pictures. only painted instead of sung. his exagger. in the Munich Gallery. the . sold francs. we ought to have . who has been called unpoetical. which might be styled a Pindaric Ode in honor of the Virgin. the ' Decius ' in the Liechtenstein Gallery. it was by auction and purchased by M. They are in all senses his florid color. his historical improprieties let all these his vulgar and prosaic versions of the loftiest and most delicate creations of poetry .' where a woman sits desolate on the black. open. its indiscriminate excess . after being offered in vain to George IV. conceived that magnificent epic. and the little sketch of War. ..276 BUBENS. His defects may be acknowledged once for gross. Van Havre. the ^St. Theresa' pleading for the souls in Purgatory. all. palpable . it was bought by Sir Kobert Peel for three thousand five hundred guineas. " To venture to judge Eubens. . for sixty thousand another descendant of the family. redundant forms his coarse allegories . and who was a born poet.

fancy are always accompanied by a certain impress and assurance of power and grandeur." when it stops short of A for Marie de' Medici. " . . the . ever the reverse of the flimsy. where she had been married. sadly. died Rubens mansion. yet he so without approaching the verge of what we form. twelve and eight years of She was buried with much display in the age. never.RUBENS. a great sorrow few months after the paintings were finished came to the Isabella Brandt. Though thus dramatic is in the strongest sense. while. leaving two sons. 277 ments of war heaped in shadowy masses around her. His sins are those of excess of daring and power. Le Kubens. the artificial. his wife. With that all his flaunting luxuriance of color. as one "not having any of the vices of her sex. just seen against the lurid streak of light left by the setting sun. which often reaches the sublime. even the ideal. Michael. Abbey Church of St. in regard to her whom he had lost. but was in every way good and honorable . and occasional exaggeration in we cannot apply is word to him. or the His gay magnificence and sumptuous superficial. battle rages in the far distance. wrote to a friend. call theatrical. and her husband dedicated a He beautiful " Virgin and Child " to her memory. Albert and Nicholas. She was without bad temper or feminine frivolity. in the middle of the year 1626. but he is Brun theatrical . — in the same tomb with his mother and his brother Philip.

to be very for relief . Such and be- cause the true remedy for all evils is forgetfulness. difficult. and own country. Holland on a diplomatic mission.278 BUB ENS. at the request of the Infanta Isabella he visited later. Isabella had made him " gentleman of her household. to keep peace with the powers at war. ." partly to assist his Partly to distract his mind from his grief. to which he was devotedly attached. we have granted and do grant to the said Peter Paul Rubens and his children and posterity. and rare experience in the same. and which render him worthy of our royal favor. and since her death universally bewailed by all. one must without doubt hope but I find the separation of grief for the departed from the memory of a person whom I ought to revere and honor whilst 1 live. to the great renown which he has merited and acquired by excellence in the art of painting. and other fine qualities and parts which he possesses. The King of Spain had " Regard being had already ennobled Rubens. and. life — in loved on account of her virtues. he is said to have painted forty pictures in nine months." In consequence of this. as also by the knowledge which he has of histories and languages. the said title and degree of nobility. a little Spain and England. male and female. Rubens and Velasquez became intimate friends." In this his second visit to Spain. a loss seems to me worthy of sympathy. which made Belgium their battle-ground. the daughter of time.

for fifteen thousand dollars. and by him presented to the National Gallery. the Chancellor. " Ho ! " said the courtier. M.BUB ENS. illustrating the deeds of James I. Rubens also made nine sketches for pictures ordered by the king to decorate the ceiling of the throne-room of Whitehall. " Diana and her Nymphs surprised by Satyrs. As a diplomatist. was finally bought by the Marquis of Stafford. a handsome service of plate. " the artist sometimes amuses himself with diplomacy. and admitted to the honorary degree of Master of Arts. " Rubens . one courtier. Villoamil says. a discovered by later A little who had appointed Eubens painting. and after the ceremony presented him with the sword. on a mission to England." answered Rubens." and " Peace and Plenty." which latter. . this he ever afterwards wore round his At Cambridge University he was received by Lord Holland. thousand dollars. busy at his morning. secretary to his privy Here he was council. fifty-one. of Spain.. " does his Catholic Majesty's representative Most amuse himself with painting ? " " No. after remaining in Italy for a century. King Charles knighted the famous painter." Rubens painted for King Charles I. although the former was twenty-eight. and fifteen These cost a rich chain to which was attached a miniature of the king neck. a diamond ring. 279 and the latter he was sent by Philip IV.

280 had great tact. forbearing. above service of Spain. four years after the death of Isabella Brandt. what the Count Duke (Olivarezs) had charged him to communicate. is a magnificent porHelena Fourment. the Chateau de Steen at Elewyt. Dr. the painter was fifty-three." his death for forty thousand dollars. and throwing aside all personality." How few in this world learn the beauty and the power of being " patient to the last degree " How few learn early in life to avoid gossip. a wealthy girl of sixteen. In the Belvidere. how exclusively careful he was neither to exceed nor fall short of the line laid down to him from Spain. while He seems to have thought her beautiful. Vienna. He soon bought a lovely country home. and. was prudent. Eubens married her sister's daughter. She bore to Eubens five children in the ten remaining years of his life. and to make peace ! ! In 1630. representing himself and his wife in a flower garden with their little child. which was sold at " It was. when by such assumption he could advance his objects and gain the ends he had in view in the patient to the last degree. Helena Fourment. softening. portraits of the fair Helena : one. trait of . as she appears in nearly all At Blenheim are two his subsequent paintings. active. and even taking on himself faults and errors which he had not committed. Waagen regards as one of the most perfect famil}^ pictures in the world. to speak well of others. all. when it seemed harsh. EUBENS.

not very securely . — that its being but a day's journey from there wife and children could breathe the beneficent country air in unstinted draughts. and the bacchanalia of The Village Fair . but bestrode.BUB ENS. thrones the mistress of the house. for she. between children and nursemaids. were painted nowhere " else but at Steen. says Huet. respected One may take it that its mediaeval architecture. is considera- . and well-equipped cattle drags through the loose sand or heavy clay the still heavier coach. We can fancy him sitting one of those splendid horses he so magnificently A team of four or six less costly. it needs no effort of the imagination to stage to follow its the Rubens family from stage to the on flitting summer quarters. though nothing need have prevented him from demolishing the castle and erecting an Italian villa on its site. 281 all Eubens. and the artist himself could indulge his leisure and find new subjects. at home everywhere. the mediaeval turrets and the mediaeval moat made up. " a feudal castle. ' An imagination like his principal felt The charm of Steen ' lay in Antwerp. where.cult of recognition. Though the two centuries and a half that have elapsed since then have altered the means of loco- make them great motion and communication so thoroughly as to difB. well-fed. like the rest. according to him. the idyl ' It is all ' but cer- tain that of ' The Eainbow ' . . surrounded on sides with water. an agreeable whole with the sylvan surroundings. well-groomed.

beneath which the charming face meets the spectaA solid train tors. but. It is as much esteemed as those of his master. Later. after five years of study there. Dyck the handiest he must repair the mischief.282 bly jolted. BUB ENS. : Snyders. She wears the large hat with feathers. with provisions for the long journey brings up the rear of the procession. the pupils. Teniers. with the help of his pupils. to his studio. does not leave the carriage door by her side. and others. Proud of his young wife. greatly Hoeck distressed over cried out " Van the matter." The restoration was so deftly made that Rubens did not observe the accident. crowding around a freshly painted picture. is They were when Van . he found little sale for his pictures. Jordaens. anxious as to her every want. Van Dyck was twenty -two years younger than Rubens. and entered his studio when he was sevenIn four years his works began to be almost teen. Many of his scholars became famous Van Dyck." During the last years of his life Eubens suffered much from gout. thus effacing the arm and chin : of a Virgin. pushed against it. when Van Dyck came back from Italy. comforted him. said that one day. he accomplished a great amount of work. whose hair and beard are plentifully besprinkled with gray. during the absence of Eubens from his studio. Rubens went and bought all his . the great artist. and was depressed. as in the picture in the Louvre.

of Spain had appointed as governor of the Netherlands his own brother. His last piece of work was the " Crucifixion of entry St. he owned in his gallery over three hundred pictures. In 1635. surrounded by six executioners. Rubens was ill at his house. though they were not ready for the press till the year after Rubens's death. and many by Titian. Paul Van Dyck. Peter. the Cardinal Infanta Ferdinand. He asked for a year and a half to complete the picture. as Queen Marie de' Medici. Peter's Church at Cologne. "over and over again that he knew all the secrets of the . but death came before it was finished. Sir Peter Paul Rubens was deputed to design the triumphal arches and ornamental temples for his solemn into Antwerp. and ninety by his own hand. paintings whicli were finished. When Rubens died." for St.BUBENS. Veronese. with a learned Latin description by his friend Gevaerts. 283 He did the same thing with a rival who had maligned him because he was not as successful as the great painter. when Philip IV. but the new governor showed his appreciation of his talent and learning by calling upon him in his own home. and other famous persons had done. Tintoretto. On the day when Ferdinand entered Antwerp." says Gustave Planche. It represents the apostle nailed to the cross with his head downwards. These beautiful designs were afterwards engraved and published. the Infanta Isabella. "He has proved.

in ancient history. King of Spain and the called the Apelles of his age Indies. own request.. George Jerome of his father. a great concourse of citizens. as was the custom. He won for himself the good will of monarchs and of princely men. his two wives. Gevaerts." The learned nephew of Eubens.284 BUBENS. 1642. a " Holy Family. son of John Eubens. versed life. St." May Antwerp was in mourning for her world-renowned painter. He was buried at night. it human so clearly as in the Crucifixion of Peter. was hung to the grave. and Martha and Mary of Isabella and Helena. and sixty orphan children with torches. a master of all the liberal arts and of the elegancies of he deserved to be and of all ages. crown the Holy Child with a wreath of flowers. a senator of — this city. his : now inscribed on monument "Here lies Peter Paul Eubens. 1640. all the artistic and literary societies. St. Philip IV. " A group of tiny angels. and March 4. floating in the air. but never has he proved 30. appointed him secretary of his Privy . wrote a portrait of himself." one of his best works. was removed to a special chapel built by his wife At his in the Church of St. the following epitaph. James in Antwerp. is In the picture. an angel of his youngest son. vault of the above his resting-place. in Latin. made three days before his death. knight. Gifted with marvellous talents. form. and Lord of Steen. following his body It was temporarily placed in the Fourment family.

Two hundred years after Eubens's death. or whichever of his daughters might marry an artist.RUBENS. when he happily laid the foundation of the peace that was soon concluded between those two sovereigns. aged sixty-three years. and sent 286 of him on an embassy to the King England in 1629. Eubens left his large collection of sketches to whichever of his sons might become an artist. in 1870. but not one fulfilled the conditions. on the* 30th of May. Baron van Bergeyck. Council. ." The wife of Eubens afterwards married John Baptist Broechoven. and in 1877 a memorial festival was held in his honor in the same city. an am- bassador in England in the reign of Charles II. He died in the year of salvation 1640. a monument was erected to his memory in one of the public squares of Antwerp.

. Eaphael an angel. little. landscapes. saints monks. Born marine views. name miller ? unheralded. painted rising figures. made a vow never more to offend in too much enthusiasm. he became a universal painter. Eembrandt is a supernatural bethat son of a How otherwise shall we in a windmill. EDMONDO DE AMICIS. patriarchs. gination. deformity and decrepitude. a retavern. without any derivation from schools. People and have : as the Eembrandt Era Angelico is a Michael Angelo a giant. heroes. wealth and misery. the made. death view of heaven and earth. exercised a particular prestige. when one is in the presence of Eembrandt van Ehijn. "It was said that the contrast of light and shadow corresponded in him to diverse movements . without examples. the hospital. that wonderful wordpainter. . one can but raise a Spaniards say. and rendered all things visible by a light from the arcana of his own imain paradise. in short.REMBRANDT. animals. Titian a prince ing. the ghetto. says in his " Holland and its "However one may be profane in art. without master. saint. embraced all the aspects of life. the key of one's style.

himself a harmony of indistinct sounds. sculptural reliefs. others veiled like phantoms. sighs. figures. and what may almost be called a dramatic Vivid action. of thought. which spoke to his soul before he animated them with his personages. rays of light break into the darkness like cries of joy the darkness flies in terror. heard like music. sparkles. 287 before beginning a work. the superb. ambiguous shadows. and profound imprint of a free and fear- less genius. with something strange and fantastic without distinctness of outline. There is in his pictures a life. others revealed by one stroke of light upon the face but dressed in habits of luxury or misery. relics of a dream. sion. tremulous reflections that seem like lamentations profound obscurity full of dim threatenings spurts of light. Schiller. when in the act of conceiving a picture. but loaded with powerful colors." . and everywhere a warmth of expres. words of a supernatural language. doubtful transparencies. . leaving here and there fragments of shadow full of melancholy. and remaining in the memor}^ like the vague . which were like a prelude to inspiration Rembrandt. heard within in like manner. and not understood. ca- pricious. and bold touches of the brush. questionings. . had a vision of rays and shadows.REMBRANDT. all . quite apart from the human figures. " of atmosphere he plants his which some are clothed in the dazzling in this And light of a theatrical apotheosis. a fury of violent inspiration.

while in little Leyden home. probably in 1620. save that he studied nature with loving fidelity. a miller. Pieter Lastman of Amsterdam.288 REMBRANDT. loved to paint. who was an artist. we know of the youth. He was early taught Latin. over and over again. This strange. July 15. and placed him with a relative. He made such remarkable progress that. For three years the boy bent himself closely to the work he loved. the latter was destined for the law. and Rembrandt entered his studio. Holland. he was sent to the well-known painter. He remained there but six months. Gerrit Harmen van Ehijn. but before he was twelve he showed such decided taste for painting and designing that his parents removed the lad from school. in after years. married to the daughter of the baker Willems van Snydtbrouck. Machteld. the year in which our forefathers left Holland. Jacob van Swanenburg. Adriaen. Cornells. in easy circumstances. as a preparation for the Leyden Academy. great painter. 1607. but in Leyden. whom the boy. at the end of this time. Of their six children. strong-charactered woman. not in a windmill. From his the age of seventeen to twenty. was born. then thirty-five. who became a who became a baker. wandered over the low. miller. Willem. Rembrandt. Gerrit. and then returned to his home in Leyden. as Amicis says. His father. was then forty years old. a vigorous. and Rembrandt. He had returned from study in Italy in 1617. picturesque country with .

from the fact that it first displayed his knowledge of the great secret. painted other old men's heads at the same date." After several years passed at Leyden. Rembrandt removed his studio to Amsterdam. Rembrandt produced more than thirty etchings. and One of his first commissions from the wealthy. showing a philosopher in a grotto and the " Bust of an Old Man. " is Mollett of France. its 289 canal and windmills. In this same year. he The made etchings of himself and of his mother. in his Life of Rembrandt. says Prof. a rich and flourishing city of one hundred thousand people at that time. John W. a . "St. where numerous pupils soon came to him. During the next two years. He hired apartments over a shop on the Bloem- quay in the western part of the city. the most interesting of all the Rembrandts in the Cassel Gallery. His first oil paintings were done in 1630 one." which. first work attributed to Rembrandt was painted in 1627. gracht. of concenHe trating light upon the heads of his portraits. whither his fame had preceded him." showing care in detail and richness in color. appears to have been his ideal. and observed people and skies and landscapes. and tion all are remarkable for indefatigable elabora- and care. principal works was " The Presentation in the Temple. which he subsequently so wonderfully developed. . when he was twenty years old.REMBRANDT. Paul in Prison. who . now lost." now in the museum at the Hague.

The shrinking. among them two por* ' . warm in golden lights. and. palpitating with life. and lighted with a warm and harmonious glow." now at Windsor the " Prophetess Anna. Sweetser. together with numerous sketches and engravings. and in certain parts showing a rare minuteness of finish This subject was always a favorite with in detail." now at Aix-la-Chapelle. ." in the Brunswick Museum and about forty etchings. picture. the massed under a bright Holy Family. the lost pictures of " Lot and his Daughters. is thoroughly natural and tender." says "The Mr. with groups of citizens and prelates. " The Susannah was executed during the same year. This. '^presents a great temple interior. Jerome. also. and conveniently replaced the Diana and Actaeon of the classical painters with a subject not less alluring. . the full of the strong shades and contrasting brightness of new school of art. Kembrandt. showing the venerable Simeon in the Temple at Jerusalem. was a favorite theme with Rembrandt." and the " Baptism of the Eunuch " " The Young Man. . replete with poetic power and fresh personality. with the richly robed It is Simeon adoring the child Jesus. and several other paintings thereof are preserved." in the Oldenbourg Gallery the " Portrait of a Man. in the centre. and is now at the Hague. though lacking in statuesque beauty and symmetry. light. and perhaps more permissible.290 REMBRANDT." Rembrandt also painted "St. naked figure of the fair bather.

as spectator if about to address an audience not visible to the and it is here worthy of remark that Kembrandt's compositions are never imprisoned in their frames.REMBRANDT. as Tulp appears to be looking beyond the picture. guild of surgeons of Amsterdam. They are attending to the lecture with very various expressions. as "They are all bare-headed. for which the Dutch government. With his half-raised left hand. Nicolaus Tulp. he makes mist. dressed in black. in a vaulted saloon. These . a friend a gesture of explanation. ' "This picture represents the celebrated anatoand patron of Rembrandt. mother. perhaps. engaged in explaining the anatomy of the arm of a corpse. while with his right he is dissecting a sinew of the lies arm of his subject. There are. gave thirtytwo thousand florins. The corpse listeners are not students. traits of his 291 the " Bath Danae and Jupi. several of himself " of Diana/' ter. other persons present in the hall." now at the Hague." and the Meeting of In 1632. but convey an idea of a wide space . . but members of the shown by a paper held by one of them. who wears the old-fashioned upright ruff. To the right of Tulp is a group of five figures and two other men are sitting at the table in front. two centuries later. on a table before him. and still with turned-over collars except one. Eembrandt painted his famous " School of Anatomy. and a broad-brimmed soft hat. He wears a black cloak with a lace collar.

revealing in different degrees the avidity for knowledge. and the almost smiling lip of one who feels the complacency of knowledge. the strength of intelligence. as well as the living heads. although it is strongly lighted in contrast to the surrounding black garments. curios- wonder. the serene eye. the joy of learning. of the disciples. The first feeling is that of horror and repulsion from the corpse. the legs and feet stiff. the feet of which he can almost touch. and looking as if. With this rigid body a powerful contrast is produced by the vivacious attitudes. which inspires reverence and silence. ity. There is in the complexion of the group an air of mystery. and scientific solemnity. the eyes open with the pupils turned upwards.'' " It is difficult to express the Amicis says effect produced by this picture. should you touch it with your hand. the flesh livid. full of thought. The forehead is in shadow. attentive eyes. leaving no doubt that it was painted from nature. the mouth half open as if in astonishment. ble art of the composition consists in its The admirapower of riveting the attention to the living in the presence of death. and most faithfully presents the peculiar hue of a dead hodj. It is somewhat singular that the beyond them. spectator seems hardly to notice the corpse lying before him at full length. the youthful : faces.292 EEMBRANDT. it would feel cold. the chest sunken. The master has the tranquil face. gravity. the suspense of the mind. . the bright.

" of Titian. " Rembrandt was only twenty-six years old when he painted this picture. 1632. " 293 The contrast between the light as marvellous as that between life and shadow and death. so restful wonder that it once hung in the Louvre. . but unijudgment places the ^Lesson in Anatomy' among the greatest triumphs of human genius. in standing before this picture. belongs to his first manner. therefore. Jerome " by Domenichino ? During this year. and the "Communion of St. that sovereign own genius. Rembrandt executed ! several portraits of . shortening of the corpse is wrong." in the Berlin Gallery the Nile " " Christ and Xicodemus " the " Oriental . that magic of contrasts.BEMBRANDT. beside the " Transfiguration " of Raphael. which. that marvellous chiaroscuro. to have had the same " repulsion " of which Amicis How differently one feels before that speaks. men. is It one can is all done with extraordinary finish count the folds of the ruffs. Paul Potter's "Bull. and that in versal some points the finish runs into dryness. the lines of the face." I remember. of Proser- " Moses saved from pine. the " St. so tender. the "Rape . Peter Martyr. which form the most origisecurity in his : nal trait of his genius. . It is said that the forethe hairs of the beards. in which there are not yet apparent that fire and audacity. which shine in the works of his maturer years but there is already that luminous potency. other marvel of the Hague." What so at one with nature.

for ten thousand dollars. now at Cassel. . "The Good Samaritan. was bought by J. Europa ." now in Sir Eichard Wallace's collection. and now in Munich. Dresden. in 1865. another in the Pourtales Collection. and no less than sixteen others." " Jesus being carried to the Tomb/' and the ^' Eesurrection of Lazarus." In the following year he painted " Susannah Surprised by the Elders. besides many etchings.294 REMBRANDT. now in the Louvre builder and his Pipe. " Seller of Eat's Poison. His etchings this year were. Professor Mollett says: "The . with a high light thrown on the nearer mountain-like waves and on the men at the sails "The Elevation of the Cross. in 1810 portraits of Madame Grotius. "The Philosophers in Meditation. de Eothschild." a powerful conception. and portraits of six women." " Cottage with White Palings " his first landscape." bought by Prince Frederick Henry of Holland. Of the picture of Saskia in the Dresden Museum. for five thousand dollars and a portrait of Saskia. painted this year. Peter." in the gallery of the the " Betrothed Jewess " the " . a youth at . that of a young boy." now at Buckingham Palace. King Kape of Holland of Standing. . sold for seven thousand dollars in 1865. showing dark storm-shadows surrounding the seatossed bark." which is now in Eussia "The Boat of St." and "The Descent from the Cross. " A Man on Horseback. sold for sixteen thousand five hundred francs. One of these portraits." two delicate " The Master Shippictures.

great deep eyes. against a dark drawn brown background. and wearing pearls on her neck. of lovely and attractive in face and in manner. head in this portrait bonnet is 295 slightly inclined. while the forehead is covered by the shadow thrown by the hat/' Of the large portrait in the Cassel Gallery. rosy lips. The face." The portrait of her in the late Fesch Gallery. character. and a chain of gold on her green silk mantilla. almost without shadows. all painters. says Sweetser. chestnut curls are covered : a delicate profile of a bright. is entirely in the light. knew best how of Saskia van Ulenburgh was the orphan daughter Rombertus Ulenburgh. of to paint. . the long by a cherry-colored The ornamented with white feathers. painted the same year. and covered with a profusion of pearls and precious stones. light falling on the figure from above illuminates the rim of the bonnet and the lower part of the face. envoy from Friesland to the court of William of Orange. and rich auburn adorned with white and green plumes." Who was Saskia? The lovely and beautiful hair. he says " In this picture Saskia is very richly dressed.BEMBRANDT. " displays the maiden's snowy complexion. She was wealthy. woman whose life was to Eembrandt like the transcendent light he threw into his pictures whose death left him forever in the shadow of shadows. which he. a Frisian lawyer of high standing. fresh color.

the be- loved Saskia. She was young and of distinguished family the young artist. Thomas." is Saskia." a larger "Descent from the Cross. . had his genius alone to offer her. Hendrik Ulenburgh. They therefore naturally met each other. was the publisher of Rembrandt's engravings." "This. Petersburg. with a mass . always the model. the painter Nijbrand de Geest. "Eepentance of Peter. "Eev. "The Incredulity of St." says Professor ^Mollett. The devoted love of Eembrandt won the happyhearted." in the long ence of a seemingly perfect love. " is a night effect. and her cousin. Her was a man of influence." in "Bathsheba receiving David's Message. Mr. The next eight years were given to arduous work. year In his marriage he painted " Queen Artemisia." now at St. lost "Vertumnus and Pomona. who fell in love with her. 1634. At the same time were made five sketches and sixteen engravings. in 1860. blessed by the well-nigh omnipotent influ. and went to live in his pleasant home in Amsterdam." "Judas and the Blood Money ." now in Madrid. refined Saskia. the most notable being " The Annunciation to the Shepherds. brother-in-law. for about nine thousand dollars several portraits of himself and several of Saskia. when she was twenty-one and Eembrandt twenty-seven.296 REMBRANDT. Ellison and Wife of the English Church at Amsterdam." now at the Hermitage. They were married June 5. In the large "Jewish Wife." sold in London.

The whole composition is wonderful for the energy it displays. . with the right hand raised. The is first. his knee. seated home. after her father. but always accurate and infallible. with upon Three scenes from the history of Tobias follow. eight portraits. life-size. This year he painted "Samson menacing a city seen. seven other paintings. . and tires reflected in water. and appears as if it had been thrown on the copper with swift. . the first shadow in the famous artist's home." now in the Berlin at Museum .EEMBEANDT. and. Rembrandt and full of happiness. named Rombertus. is 297 and a distance in which and bridges in a nest of foliage. nine designs." now . etchings. is announcing the news to the shepherds. In the foreground the shepherds and their flocks are alarmed by the sudden appearance of the celestial glory. of trees on the right hand. but the child soon died. Dresden . nervous. " Christ driving out the Money-changers " ''The Martyr- dom of St. Berlin Museum the second contains Tobias and his wife seated in a chamber the third in the . the blind father awaiting his son's return. Stephen " in all. his Father-in-law. illustrates Tobias restoring sight to his father." In 1635 a son was born to E-embrandt and Saskia. and twenty-three at One of the most attractive of the picis tures about this time Saskia. inspired touches. the " Rape of Ganymede. with its factories . in the luminous circles of which thousands of cherubim are flying an angel is advancing.

the light and shade and richness of execution. Eepose in Egypt. are manacled ^ sion of touching pathos in the figure of the Saviour nor would it be possible to express with greater intensity the terrible raging of the crowd." says Mollett. "Abraham ." " The companion Ascension." The following year. or the anxious desire to please on the part of Pilate. The finest etching of this period was "Ecce Homo." "The and Resurrection. "The Lord of the Vineyard. in the expresguards.' " says AVilmot Buxton. surrounded by His eyes are raised to heaven. Paul. .298 REMBRANDT." a marvellous composition. besides three portraits and ten etchings." in the Vienna Belvidere. representing the master in a chamber flooded with light." now at Aix-la-Chapelle . " one of the painter's grandest works." now in the Hermitage." " The Ecce Homo." In 1636 he painted pictures to the " Crucifixion " painted for Prince " The Frederick Henry four years previously . Ascension." in the Munich Pinakothek " Samson blinded by the Philistines. " The . and on his head is the crown of thorns. '' The Entombment. consisting of an immense number of figures admirably disposed. was painted. Our Lord is seen in front standing. his hands and clasped together. the igno- bly servile and cruel supplications of the priests. and we forgive the commonness of form and type. has never been surpassed for dramatic expression. " It is. " to say nothing of the splendor. with Delilah in Flight and " St. listening to the complaints of the laborers.

" or "The Wedding of bamson. he painted the great picture "The Feast of Ahasuerus. . her blue eyes looking pleased and happy into his . for the love . Still Machteld. Eembrandt's father had sis- died six years before. with his rich imagination. 1638. In less than childless. for did he not have the one inspiration that gave almost superhuman power to made work a pleasure. 1638. named Cornelia after the artist's mother. a second child gladdened the this time a daughter. 299 sending away Hagar and Ishmael " and several Now she is portraits of himself and Saskia." now at Dresden. in hand in a beautiful land- Kembrandt household.REMBRANDT. because they had insinuated that Saskia " has squandered her heritage ornaments and ostentation. every picture of her with more than royal necklaces. which. and of his brothers and Gerrit. also. leaving them again ters. seated at a table face to face with her husband. Saskia ? — the love of overcome obstacles." How little the Fries- land people knew of the poetry of the painter's he bore Saskia. and Rembrandt sued some of her in relatives for slander. and his blue-eyed During this year some lawsuits occurred in the family over her property. where at the middle of heart. decked. In July. because she was his idol This year. and covered her robes with priceless gems. four weeks she passed out of Saskia's arms. now they walk hand scape. and Cornells were dead the painter worked on bravely.

Catherine and her wheel . . of course with Saskia's face " Christ as a Gardener. . " also finished "The Entombment" and "The Resurrection. a baby's voice was again heard in the handsome Rembrandt home. and bought by George IV. in a furred cloak. He The next year." "The Presentation. of martyrdom (the hair." and etched others. his : The next year among many superb portraits are three of his mother one in Vienna. The odor of the colors is unhealthy. presented to Josephine at Malmaison. with a year before her death. shawl on her head her hands joined . painted another with a red another seated. ." "Youth surprised by Death. robed in white silk." long owned by the Prince of Hesse-Cassel. a little . He said. Esther or Delilah. the pearls." "The Death of the Virgin. for he said. and still age. for Buckingham Palace.300 REMBRANDT. resting her folded hands on a staff . the face are all Saskia's). He . . the table sits the joyous queen. these that I have taken care to express the utmost of naturalness and action and this is the principal reason why I have been occupied so long on them. and richly jewelled." begun These two pieces are now finished with because it is in much of study and of zeal. 1640. . — both the latter in the Hermitthree years before. and other works. where it still remains " Joseph telling his Dream " " The Little Jewish Bride/' representing St. " A picture is not made to be smelt of." He urged that they be hung in a strong light.

for the second time. "Susannah at the Bath." Schonborn Gallery in Museum . with the sweetest expression. purchased in 1868 for the Narishkine " Woman Collection. which was sold in . his arms crossed on a window-sill." in the Grosvenor Gal1867. in 1642. in the National Gallery. . 301 daughter named. the preacher Anslo and his wife seated at a book- laden table . is is richly dressed. among them three lion-hunts." of Buckingham Palace the mysterious "Witch of Endor. showing Manoah and his wife prostrate before the altar." and is now in the -Metropolitan the portrait of an of Art in New York aged woman. for eleven thousand dollars with the Fan. . from which an angel crowned with flowers is lery . the next two years he painted " trait of his artist In Le Doreur. representing Joseph at work." now in the Louvre. in a black cap and fur robe. several exquisite portraits of ladies." at the Dresden Museum. the other. ascending. for five ." "The Offering. and carefully finished . thousand dollars " The Carpenter's Household. : and two of the beloved Saskia one is full of life and health. . but in a few short months the household was again stricken by death. like that of but the face delicate and dreamy. . called " it is also 1865 for over thirty thousand dollars The Gilder. six- teen fine etchings. a magnificent portrait of himself at thirty. with the tender mother nursing her child " The Salutation. Cornelia.REMBRANDT. Rembrandt's activity was now marvellous. of Manoah." a porfriend Domer.

or a portrait more happy in The work is very carefully color and expression. after Saskia's to have entered into the picture. in Amsterdam. fresh color. may have received a message from the ^' unseen world. radiant with happiness and health. longer shows the serene beauty of youth and strength. the touch broad and melting. This portrait has an inde' ' finable charm. On the 19th of Titus. whom her loss was irrep- arable. 1641. to choly interest attached. not a year and her husband." In September. 1642. Xo greater contrast can be conceived to this picture bathed in light. death. The latter died the same year. named for her sister Titia van Ulenburgh. and bright smile. the next June. Saskia was buried from the Oude Kerk old. bearing a strong resemblance to the Saskia on her husband's knee. a son was born to Saskia. seen through the prism of love and art. the tone profound. but its etherealized and delicate features have a thoughtful and dreamy expression. It was probably painted from memory. . Professor Mollett says of these. leaving her to son. in her rich dress. It is difficult to imagine a more charming and amiable face. The first rep- resents Saskia in all the freshness of her beauty. than the Saskia of Antwerp. The very is soul of the painter seems It bears the which a melansame date The face no as the year of Saskia's death. finished without being minute.302 one who REMBRANDT.

talking.BEMBRANDT. Now for five years he made no portrait of himself. Amicis says of it. a great light. to express the eifect which it produces. and an amazing one. sometimes with jewelled robes and courtly attire. boys running. All the French critics. even fantastic. like a man who lives and does his work because he must. and stood at the very zenith of his fame. make use of the phrase. Before her death he had painted various pictures of himself. calling out. filled looking on one side to sweet meadows with and sunlight. and then one simple and stern. "The Night Watch. "The Night Watch." or the "Sortie of the Banning Cock Company. " It is more than a picture it is a spectacle. With Saskia died the best of Rembrandt. and on the other to a desolate landscape over which a clouded sun is setting. all joyous. From this time." now in the Amsterdam Museum. . a great darkness — at the first glance what strikes you. youths beating drums. "There are officers. gestic- . while he did much remarkable work. and for a moment you know not where to fix your eyes in order to comprehend that grand and splendid confusion. arquebusiers loading and firing. sometimes as a warrior. he seems like a flowers man on a mountain top. ! ^ C^est ecrasant / ' ( * It is overpowering this is ) ' A great crowd of human figures. people bowing. 303 This year he had completed his greatest work."^ represents Captain Frans Banning Cock's company of arquebusiers emerging from their guild-house on the Singel. halberdiers.

great boots. which are illuminated. By what light ? Here is the enigma. and white plume. — all round hats. plumes. the two marching side by side. twilight. doublets embroidered with gold. fiery lights. . arms of every form and all this tumultuous and glittering throng start out from the dark background of the picture and advance towards the . with gold ornaments. Is it the . defects. faces that seem of a conflagration.. . moon- light. conflicting judgments. dressed in a doublet of buffalo-hide. all are there. first personages are Frans Banning of Furmerland and Ilpendam. shadows. with high boots and a girl who comes behind. it . The only figures that are in full light are "The two this lieutenant. pointed dressed in different costumeSj with hats. gorget. the company. dazzling ness. and deep darkharmonized and contrasted with marvellous boldness and insuperable art. In spite of censure. linen collars. seem to shine by a light of their fire own . like the lighted by the scintillations. stockings of all colors. excepting the heads. girl with blond tresses. and his lieutenant. colored reflections. iron gorgets.. captain of Lord Cock. light of the sun ? or of the moon and ? or of the torches ? "There are gleams of gold silver. scarf. Lord of Vlaardingen. morions. personages which. casques. and a yellow satin dress all the other figures are in deep shadow. spectator.S04 ulating BEMBEANBT. with blond hair ornamented with pearls. Willem van Euijtenberg.

305 has been there for two centuries triumphant and glorious and the more you look at it. with black-cushioned Spanish chairs for those who : twenty-four paintings and by Brouwer and Lievens." Charles Blanc says of the picture " To tell the truth. glance. four stories high. and to amuse their — four each leisure several busts furnished with seven Spanish chairs upholstered walnut table covered with an ebony-framed mirror. was a large room wait. of brick and cut stone. on one of the quays of the river Amstel. by the aid of an existing legal inventory (dated 1656). even seen only at a remains forever in the memory. and no one can is alive and glowing . the rest mostly by Rembrandt. and a marThe walls were covered with ble wine-cooler. It is neither the light of the it sun nor of . nor does come from torches it is rather the light from the genius of Rembrandt. " The ante-chamber. thirty-nine pictures. a great Tournay cloth. Sweetser " The house still stands. . with all its mystery and splendor. the more it .BEMBRANBT. many of which were in masThere were religious sive and elegant frames. must have been most attractive and happy until the death of Saskia. in green velvet. we can even refurnish it as it was in the days of Eembrandt. or saloon. the moon. Entering the vestibule. and." The home of the artist at that time. this is only a dream of night. like a stupendous vision. Says Mr. it : decide what the light is that falls on the groups of figures. we find the flagstone paving covered with fir-wood. and.

* pictures by Aartgen. a bed with blue. Seghers. art. and other . materials for weeks of study the walls were covthe ered with rich and costly bric-a-brac -— statuettes in marble. architectural sketches. Van Dyck. and Raphael.hangings. Aart- gen.' "On the next floor the master had his studio and museum. Pinas. Vene- casts from nature . Roman emper: busts of Homer.306 REMBRANDT.' and 'EcceHomo'of Rembrandt. Chi- nese and Japanese porcelains and drawings tian glass . porcelain. Lievens. The great art-chamber contained .* Resurrection. and Socrates . curious weapons and . . works of Dutch masters. Caracci. Lucas van Leyden. " The next room was a perfect little museum of scenes. . for they were overlaid with twenty-three ghers. The walls even here showed the profound artistic taste of the occupant. Seand other northern painters The Concordi. a cedar-wood wardrobe. containing a profusion of the master's pictures. a Madonna by Raphael and Giorgione's great ' . Bassano. Brouwer. sixteen pictures by Rembrandt and costly paintings by Palma Vecchio. and plaster ors . an oaken table with an embroidered cloth. and was equipped with a great mirror. landscapes. and copies from Annibale The oaken press and other furnishings indicated that the marvellous etchings of our artist were engraved and printed here. Parsellis. with rare works of Van Leyden. picture of ' The Samaritan. Aristotle. six chairs with blue coverings. and a chest of the same wood. " The next saloon was the gem of the establishment.

stuffed birds. . studies. poetic. returned to Holland. figure is not beautiful to a sculptor^s eye. plants. but in animation. paying eighty-six dollars for a single engraving of Lucas van Leyden's. green. that the . but he must have been deeply wounded. 1643 and '44. and engravings. and yellow ochre This into a warm. 307 armor. and mysterious gamut. the tide of fortune seemed to Several artists who had studied in Italy turn. brown. " stands out in a dazzling effect of light from a background of warm. Another feature was a noble collection of designs. and popularized the Italian style." says Pro- and books. so that the works of Rembrandt seemed to With pride fade somewhat from the public gaze. The in the Italian style color. To gain this beautiful collection of works of art. confused shadows. and including specimens of the best works of the chief Italian. and sorrow he went on painting. rare fans. nor . The harmony of the tints and of the general tone is very beautiful tints of bronze and gold combine with shades of violet. In. picture should be hung in a strong light. and fourteen hundred florins for fourteen proofs from the same painter. Rembrandt spared no money. and Dutch artists and engravers. fessor Mollett. ' . he painted " Bathsheba at the Bath. and shells globes. After Saskia died." " The nude figure of Bathsheba. with a shield attributed to Quentin Matsys minerals.EEMBBANBT. filling sixty leather portfolios. in the flesh and in the modelling it is superb. German.

The latter was the portrait of Jan Six. . which was sold in 1872 for nearly eight thousand dollars." now owned by Queen Victoria " Abraham receiving the Three Angels " two paintings of the " Adoration of the Shepherds. now in the Boymans Museum at Rotterdam. . of remarkable vigor and truth on the left are two thrones. Museum . . and is now in the English National Gallery a portrait ." celebrating the peace of Westof Sylvius." now in the Dresden . an enthusiastic student and poet. Tulp. " The AVoman taken in Adultery. a young patrician." and " The tional Gallery Pilgrims of Emmaus." which brought thirty thousand dollars at public sale. on . married to Margaret the daughter of the famous surgeon Dr. . fighting the right-hand foreground is entirely occupied by a group of horsemen. may penetrate into the shadows/ said Rem- brandt. Other pictures in the next few years were "The Tribute Money " the " Burgomaster Pancras giving a Collar of Pearls to his Wife. . Jan Cornelis ." one now in Munich and one in the Na" The Good Samaritan. the walls of which are visible in the right-hand background. "It represents the enclosure of a fortress.308 eye REMBRANDT. and the " Burgomaster Six " for six thousand dollars." now in the Louvre and "The Peace of the Land. phalia. . where cannons are blazing and a group of soldiers ." The other works of this time were the "Diana and Endymion" of the Liechtenstein Gallery at " Philemon and Baucis " the " Old Vienna Woman Weighing Gold.

and the most unsophisticated a likeness of Rembrandt's son Titus. Fifty-seven etchings were made between 1649 and 1655. the of the other fastened to an elevation." "The Prophetess Anna. is occupied by a couchant lion growling. : " — . preachall ing the gospel of the kingdom. the priests and the curious and unbelieving. were his next works.REMBRANDT. the most celebrated being the " Hundred-Guilder Print. 309 one of which leans a figure of Justice. bearing on a shield the arms of Amsterdam. his one paw on a bundle of arrows. " Jesus healing the Sick. the symbol The lion is bound by United Provinces." in the National Gallery. and healing manner of sickness and all manner of disease among the people. now twelve years old. preaching to the people around him." or ." " Christ appearing to Mary. clasping her hands as if in supplication.' The serene and calm figure of Jesus stands out from the shadow of the background. surrounded by the words. bathed in light.' " Samuel taught by his Mother. "The subject of this etching is taken from the <And Jesus went about all Galilee. By a superb antithesis. ' Soli Deo Gloria." purchased for the National Gallery for thirty-five thousand dollars " The Bather. of which Landseer says " It is the most artful thing ever done in painting. The centre." words. two chains. which is in the light. the one attached to the thrones. the Pharisees and Sadducees. are standing on Christ's right hand." "Jesus blessing Little Children. .

of sufferings not only his own. man." " I should be thankful for the ^Hundred-Guilder Print. On his face there is the record of much pain. but of saddening experiences which have quelled and forever grave. and hands clasped together in gesture of mild awe and gently felt surprise. and the artist would never sell any of these pictures below this price. is finished w4th the dry point. to me the central one. not only of the body. : the lights and shadows. The composition is full of feeling. The commenced with aqua-fortis. the possessed. as of one from whose slackened vitality the power of ^reat surprise or of veri/ keen interest has forever gone.' were it only because of the half-dozen lines in which Eembrandt has with drooped etched one figure. and a arms.310 REMBRANDT." left him The name arose from the fact that a Roman merchant gave Rembrandt for one engraving seven Marc Antonio engravings. are of wonderful softness. disposed in large masses." Frederick Wedmore says in his " Masters of Genre-Painting. which were valued at a hundred guilders. the details revealing a world of expression and character etching. . a tall little bent. Only eight impressions of the first plate are in existence two . drawn and executed with a rare of the picture are genius. and unfortunates of all kinds. the silvery neutral tints of Christ's robe and the soft shadows being produced in this manner. while from the shadows that envelop the left side coming the sick. old and spare.

with the condition that her husband should have the use of the money until If the boy his death or his second marriage. she left her property she florins had brought Eembrandt forty thousand her infant son Titus. to recover it. and the following year all the rich collection of art works and household goods were sold by auction to meet the demands The next year his engravings and of creditors. one the in Vienna. When Saskia died. in 1656. and the year following the house was disposed of. save in case of a second marriage. It was fortunate that Saskia did not live to see such a direful change. During all the struggle and disgrace Eembrandt kept on working. the once happy These must have been bitter days for artist. designs were sold in the same way. he Titus's sake. with the away from the privilege of remaining there during the pleasure of Saskia's relatives. Already Saskia's friends saw the money passing artist. and they brought suits for Finally. died. one in the collection of Duke of Buccleuch. one in Paris. In 1656 and '57 he painted for .REMBRANDT. are in the British 311 is Museum. Eembrandt being allowed to remove two stoves only and some screens. — — to when half should go to her sister. sold in 1867 for about six thousand dollars. Matters did not improve. one in Amsterdam. Eugene Dutuit of Eouen. one in Mr. Eembrandt was to receive the whole estate. transferred his house and land to Titus. Holford's. and one owned by M.

and of extreme delicacy. Preaching." and " Jacob blessing Ephraim and Manasseh." a canvas with over one hundred small " The Adoration of the Magi. The fair child has a yellow vest and his head. is very fine in tone. The bed is covered with a sheet and a counterpane of pale red and fawn . broad touches. in the highest notes." Professor Mollett says that the "Jacob" "belongs as much to all times and all nations as the masterpieces of Greek sculpture. John the Baptist of nine celebrated doctors . Behind the bed stands their mother. on the left. color. with The light falling from behind clasped hands. " . only reach subdued red or . . " Lesson on Anatomy of Joan Deyman. towards the boys. a large picture. which Joseph is guiding. His head is covered by a yellowish cap." containing the portraits " St. and robe of gray and fawn-colored brown. and his wife a high cap." now in Buckingham Palace and greatly admired. which. "Joseph accused by Potiphar's Wife. of Rembrandt's art. the Surgeons' Guild. long Joseph wears a turban. We see the colors here employed are gray and fawn-colored brown. veil. represents the aged patriarch extending his hands. bright with reflected lights. Jacob. which is simply rendered with all the power figures .312 REMBRANDT. Asenath. bordered with clear-colored fur the sleeve of the right arm the hand painted with is of a beautiful gray large. leaves his face in the shade. This touching scene. who are kneeling before him.

surpassing boldness and ease. a retired but respecttwo blocks away from the Saskia. or Blbemgracht. yellow. he hired a able part of the city. It is probable that he was married at this time. if the harmony and completeness of the whole did not indicate the maturity and profundity of the work." "Jacob wrestling with the Angels. Rembrandt's chief works now were " Moses descending from Sinai. fine 313 in a half- The whole bears a mysterious air. as elsewhere." a striking picture of "Ziska and his Adherents swearing to avenge the Death of Huss." After Rembrandt's home was sold. and breaking the Tables of the Law. that. detail. Professor Springer writes concerning the latter picture." now in the Amsterdam Museum. he gathered admiring pupils about him. filled with tones and tones that are indefinable." and "The Syndics of the Guild of Clothmakers. the "' School of Anatomy. where a rosy and smiling lady is seated with a child on her lap. giving a " flower to one of the girls. where he began later. man with brown hair stands on the left." now in the Brunswick Museum.EEMBBANDT. while two little The girls of perhaps five and seven stand by her. house on the Eosengracht. The touch is of such when viewed in the picture might be called a sketch. and luminous light. and kept diligently at his work. for in 1663 he painted a picture known as Rembrandt and his Family.'' and "The Night Watch : " " Art has never again created a greater . life with his beloved Here.

a is him wrapped neck. from which his ample white hair escapes. now twenty-seven years old. in theatrical costume. Titus. Double Collection Rouen. Thus frequently did sorrow shadow the path of the great master of dead father. he studied painting. but the brightness of the eye is not diminished. Eembrandt painted several portraits " In that of the Pitti Palace. The next March. Unconsciously our thoughts return to Shakspeare's we recognize in these two mighty art champions of the north kindred natures and a corresponding bent of fancy. one of the Frisian families. And this is Eembrandt's farewell His face is wrinkled^ across and across by time and care. for her Magdalena died in the same year in which her child was born. of himself. and he medal is hung about his wearing a close-fitting cap. with bending attitude and slightly inclined head. shadows. was married to his cousin Magdalena van Loo." In 1668. we see in fur. . he again stands before us.314 REMBRANDT. . his widow bore a familiar creations. but the man who . wealth of stirring imagery or poetry of color so entrancing as these three pictures reveal to us. but became a merchant. but it is no gloomy misanthrope crushed by portrait in the at ! "In the splendid evil fortune whom we see. with his maulstick in his hand. This year. laughing heartily. and died in September of the same year. His face is furrowed with age. . and — daughter who received the name of Titia.

and made its portrait on the same canvas on which he was engaged. and that with the three trees. The grieving artist caused the body to be brought to the studio." " The Good Samaritan. The : . shown by That he was a man of great depth of feeling is his love of his mother." the " Hundred-Florin Plate." the landscape with the mill. so simply that West Church. He painted over six hundred and twenty pictures. the registered ! expense of his burial is fifteen florins His power of work was marvellous. executed three hundred and sixty-five etchings. Sweetser tells this incident " One day he was making a portrait group of a notable family." A the brandt." " Ecce Homo. and thus paints the secret of his life in his final portrait of himself.EEMBRANDT. when he was informed that his favorite monkey had died." " Lazarus rising from the Dead." " Annunciation. his worship of Saskia. and his tenderness to his brothers and He sisters after they had lost their fortunes. of and nature of fond passionately was also animals. at year after Titus died. " Rembrandt's Portrait with the Sword." "The Great Descent from the Cross. opposed to all 815 fortunes the talisman of Labor. besides two hundred and thirty-seven variations of these. death came to EemHe was buried simply in sixty-two. scorning destiny. with hundreds of drawings and sketches scattered over Among the best known etchings are Europe. in the midst of his work.

to the eye. colored atmosphere which . lived. but Rembrandt preferred to keep the whole work himself. but again that which is peculiar and profound in the individual. . the infinite and indefinable com- . he comprehended this truth and adhered to it in all its con: sequence. color — that. and that is in this wise the principal feature of a picture the into sea. and of which he alone possessed the key. ever-present. tremulous. Superior to all painters in the native delicacy and keenness of his optical perceptions. living in solitude and borne along by the growth of an extraordinary faculty. was naturally incensed at an interpolation. and let his patrons seek a more accommodating artist. that the simplest is infinitely tion is the product of complex.316 BEMBEANDT. that every visual sensaits elements coupled with its surroundings. that each object on the field of sight is but a single spot modified by others. the essence of a visible object consists of the spot (tache). " Free of all trammels and guided by the keen sensibility of his organs. a magician and a visionary in a world fashioned by his own hand. like our Balzac. constantly collecting his materials. siicli family. figures are plunged like fishes in the . aforesaid. and demanded that it should be effaced." Taine pays Rembrandt this glowing tribute in his "Art in the Netherlands " "Rembrandt. he has succeeded in por- traying in man not merely the general structure and the abstract type which answers for classic art.

our divination of the remote and the obscure in human it is nature. stand between them and when. seeks for predecessors and masters. our . " In this respect over-excited sensibility.hembrandt. m him and in Shakespeare that Balzac and Delacroix are able to find them." . and Flemish. and which Shakespeare alone saw with an equally pro- he is the most original of modern artists. the whole of that changeable imprint which concentrates instanta- neously on a face the entire history of a soul. our extravagant curiosity in the pursuit of subtleties. Venetian. . our unsparing search of the true. Florentine. and forges one end of the chain of which the Greeks forged the other the rest of the masters. digious lucidity. nowadays. 317 plications of the moral being.

" which his grandmother. for . was born. Devonshire. while his mother and grandmother were both daughters of clergymen. who cared drawing than for Ovid. His father. July 16. were both ministers. aspiring boy. master of the grammar school at Plympton. kindly man. more was a thoughtful. Sir Joshua Reynolds. and his grandfather. the seventh child of Samuel and Theoila phila. supporting his eleven children on the meagre income of seven hundred and fifty dollars a year. and spent his early years in copying the illustrations from " Plutarch's Lives " and Jacob Cats's ^' Book of Emblems. the lovely daughter of a lovely young mother. Joshua. when she was twenty-three. and died broken-hearted. the -^ great English painter. John. who. TlSr Plympton. had brought with her from Holland. TheophBaker.SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS. Samuel. was disinherited by him. on his father's His side. 1723. marrying against the consent of her father. He had married Theophila Potter. and at the early death of her devoted husband wept herself blind. Samuel Reynolds was a gentle.

a derful. they drew on the whitewashed walls of a long passage. 319 sisters were also fond of drawing. having studied carefully the Jesuit's "Treatise on Perspective. " Now. wrote " This is drawn by Joshua in school." he said. He said. A book did for Joshua what a book has often . ^ Perspective ' says in his preface. this exemplifies what the author of the ^that. and he was therefore nicknamed "the clown. " If you take too much care of yourself. who wished his boy to be a learned doctor. and remarkably happy life. and composed some rules of conduct for himself. and thus early without excessive self-consciousness he did his great work and reaped his great reward. self-poised." man may do wonders. and as pencils and paper could not "he afforded in the minister's family. the lad drew a wall with a window in it. nature will cease to take care of you." year the boy made a fine sketch of the grammarschool with its cloister. Under it.' for this is won- Joshua was fond of literary composition. "The great principle of being happy in this world is not to mind or be affected with small things. with burnt sticks. laid by observing the rules down in this book. But when in his eighth out of pure idleness. The boy's sketches were the poorest.SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS. the not highly delighted father. which influenced him through life." a maxim which he carried out in his peaceful." On the back of a Latin exercise." the aston: ished father said.

and which belong to us as Englishmen and 'tis in these this resemblance consists. great.320 SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS. an elevation of thought. I am no . A time may come when future writers may be able to add the name of an English painter. a love of liberty. and upon seeing some links of that if fatal chain. Magnanimity. the ancient Greeks and Romans as we. I cannot forbear wishing that some younger painter than myself. considering the necessary connection of causes and effects. and a contempt of everything that is painting revives. in this single instance of attempting and hoping only to equal the greatest masters of whatsoever age or nation. Virtue. conscious of the dignity of their country and of their profession. and belief that there was a future for England in " No nation under heaven so nearly resembles art. Benevolence. What were they which we are not or may " And now . I will venture to pronounce (as exceedingly probable) that ever the ancient. a simplicity and honesty amongst us which we inherit from our ancestors. . a greatness of taste. till really unworthy of them. but not English painters. . but." wherein was expressed the hope led to grand results. prophet. became an inspiration.. nor the son of a prophet. and therefore He read Richardson's " Theory of Painting. done before. and beautiful taste in it will be in England . would practise the magnanimity I have recommended. There is a haughty courage. resolve to do honor to both by Piety. and one who has had greater and more early advantages..

a boy Good Samuel Eeynolds began to wonder whether who could paint at twelve would make a sucThis cessful apothecary. not being able to decide the question alone. and through his influence and that of his friend. Mr. of Anthony. He enlarged this sketch in a boat-house. using part of the sail for his canvas. . a sweetheart of Peter Pindar (Dr. Craunch. Cutcliffe of Bideford. Esq. " he would rather be an apothecary than an ordinary painter but if he could be bound to an eminent master. Edmond Malone. and. 321 not be ? What helps had any of them which we have not ? " The boy Joshua was electrified by these words. The lad himself said. It was a portrait of Eev. Craunch advised the study of art. resided at Plympton. when he was twelve years old. gentleman. the principal portrait painter . of small fortune. a lawyer. near Plymouth.SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS." Ha told a friend.. a tutor in the family of Lord Edgcumbe. that this book so delighted and inflamed his mind "that Raphael appeared to him superior to the most illustrious names of ancient or modern time. Joshua made a sketch on his thumb-nail of the minister. he should choose the latter. Wolcot)." Young Eeynolds painted his first oil painting. while Smart was preaching. now in the possession of Deble Boger. In church. Thomas Smart. Perhaps he could become ^' equal to the greatest masters. and was the father of pretty Betsy Craunch. the lad was sent to Thomas Hudson." Mr. he consulted Mr.

" Though bound to Hudson for four years. : . very humpbacked and deformed. at the end of two years Joshua was dismissed. according to the fashion of that time. He had a large and very fine eye. living in Great Inn. writing home to his father. London. while purchasing some pictures for Hudson at an auction room. had on a little sword. to the crowd. He wore a black coat. and bow him. LiLColn's in England. half of which was loaned by a married sister till he should be able to repay her. he was overjoyed to see a great poet. Alexander Pope.322 SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS. and the muscles which run across the cheek were so strongly marked that they seemed like small cords. who opened a passage for Among others. He was the pupil of Richardson. and thus Eeynolds was brought again under a kindred influence to that which had inspired him ing. Queen Street." in the " Theory of Paintdollars for Hudson was to receive six hundred care of his pupil. The boy made drawings from ancient statuary and from Guercino. and a long. Pope shook hands with the ardent young He described the poet as "about four feet six inches high. and was delighted with his work. ostensibly for neglect to carry a picture at the time ordered. artist. handsome nose his mouth had those peculiar marks which are always found in the mouths of crooked persons. married his daughter. and. enter the place." One morning. "While I am doing this I am the happiest creature alive.

a kind to his men. and would not be persuaded. the boat was rigid disciplinarian. very pious. which was the first of his pictures which brought the artist into notice. yet very . but. find in Prior's "was a very uncommon charac- very obstinate. very hard labor. "This Captain Hamilton. ter . few minutes after he left the ship. it is believed. very whimsical. He worked earnestly. father of the Marquis of Abercorn. upset and turned keel upwards. The latter married Hamilton after her husband's death. But he was impatient In a to see his wife. saying. at fifteen dollars apiece. and night. and they will find it to be no play. He also painted Hamilton in a picture with Lord and Lady Eliot. "Those who are determined to excel must go to their work whether willing or unwilling." we Life of Malone. where he soon painted about thirty portraits of the magnates of the neighborhood. He returned to Devonshire. The wind and sea were extremely high and his officers remonstrated against the imprudence of venturing in a boat where the danger seemed imminent. noon. He lost his life as he was proceeding from his ship to land at Plymouth. . miorning.SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS.'' Young Reynolds made a portrait in 1746 of Captain Hamilton. on the contrary. 323 6ut in reality. and settled at Plymouth. because the master was jealous that he had painted so admirably the portrait of an elderly serving-woman in the house.

The captain. on his great-coat. and powerful. At length. without powder. A dark cloak is flung over the shoulders. Samuel Reynolds died. and he attempted to throw off the his skill. 1746." begun by Charles Robert Leslie. in order to make room for others. swimmer. and then clung Unluckily. trusted to and would not accept a place on the keel. while singing a psalm. but. and the reverse of a hard and husky or dry manner. which Joshua never forgot. Says Tom Taylor.324 " SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS. The white collar and ruffled front of the shirt are thrown open. the royal academician. painted his own portrait. and finished by Taylor.^' This year. One of this painter's maxims. finding his strength fail. The hair flows. now twenty-three. and the young painter took his two unmarried sisters to Plymouth to provide for them in his new home. young Reynolds. " It is masterly in handling. whose father had been a successful pupil of Van Dyck. he had kept to the edge of the boat. was that " a picture ought to have a richness in its texture. Reynolds learned much at this time from William Gandy. as if the colors had been composed of cream or cheese. those on the keel exhorted him to take a place beside them. and soon afterwards sank. being a good coat. seeming exhausted." Three years later. in his " Life and Times of Sir Joshua Reynolds. in chiaro-oscuro. almost Rembrandtesque. told the men he must yield to his fate. in long ringlets over the shoulders.'' This year. an unlooked-for pleasure came .

finally. if at ral all. and in the British . Algiers. and was so pleased with manner and frank kindly nature that he offered him passage on his vessel. Reynolds was disappointed in the works of Raphael. The famous Admi- Keppel. in the Lenox Gallery in New York. " Now. copied many of the works of Raphael. several and At first. Two of these books are now carefully preserved Museum. and they sailed for Lisbon. Florence. He had for study. 1749. but. do not grow rich Reynolds." he said. Michael Angelo. and artists. Rubens. as a rule. Johnson.SIR fco JOSHUA BEYNOLBS. Rome. in the midst of the greatest works of art that the world has produced. Leghorn. appointed to a command in the Mediterranean. said he. at the house of Lord Edgcumbe. May 11. Palmer and Mrs. the Island of Minorca. then a commodore only twenty-four years old. Plymouth for repairs to his Here. he met the young painter. " I did not for a moment conceive or suppose that the name of Raphael. put into ship. Titian. From here they went to Cadiz. advancing He studied and the money for his expenses. but his father early in their career.'' He remained at Rome two years. his courteous Gibraltar. Tetuan. and filled several journals with his art notes. '' am at the height of my wishes. The offer was gladly accepted. all the officers of I the garrison. 325 always longed to visit Rome was too poor to provide the means. Mrs. his married sisters. and others. then to Genoa. Rembrandt. two in the Sloane Museum. where Reynolds painted nearly and.

In a short time a new taste and new perceptions began to dawn upon me. as it is cated from my mind. I my not relishing them ought to have done was one of the most humiliating things that ever happened to me. and to admire them more than I really did. were to be totally done away with and eradiIt was necessary. Notwithstanding my disappointment. "I felt my ignorance. where the art was it could not. I found myself in the midst of works exe- cuted upon principles with which I was unacquainted. "Having since that period frequently revolved the subject in art is my mind. . . be lower. at the lowest ebb. contrary. that I should become as a little child. . I I viewed them again and again. even affected to feel their merits. and I was convinced that I had originally formed a false opinion of the perfection of art. and stood abashed. reputation to the ignorance and the prejudice of as I mankind on the was conscious . I taste. I proceeded to copy some of those — — excellent works. owed their those admirable paintings in particular. am now clearly of opin- ion that a relish for the higher excellences of the an acquired which no man ever pos- sessed without long cultivation and great labor and .326 SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS. and that this great painter was entitled to the high rank which he holds in the estimation of the world. All the indigested notions of painting which I had brought with me from England. expressed on a very solemn occasion. indeed.

while I was in the Vatican. at once. they only inquire the subject of the picture and the name of the painter. and was obliged to use an ear-trumpet all his life. and this without any attention to the subject. Reynolds journeyed to Bologna. Instead of examining the beauties of the works of fame. He said. Reynolds caught so severe a cold as to produce deafness. They scarcely ever looked at the paintings the whole time. "When I observed an extraordinary effect of light and shade in any picture.. A just and and the acquisition of a nice discriminative musical ear are equally the work of time. Parma. 327 . " Some Englishmen. from other poetical taste He could not help observe the superficiality of the average tourist. is the history of a statue and where write that down. for a time. from which he never recovered. A few trials of this kind . or to the drawing of the figures. without ever satisfying the judgment. and spent above six hours in writing down whatever the antiquary dictated to them.. leaving the white paper untouched to represent the light. and darkened every part of it in the same gradation of light and shade as the picture. and why they were esteemed. and Venice." In making the studies from Eaphael in the Vatican. He says. studying the methods of the Venetian painters. and Later. JOSHUA REYNOLDS. came there. Modena." it found.SIR attention. in this respect differ Nor does painting arts. I took a leaf out of my pocketbook. It is the florid style which strikes and captivates the eye.

he heard at the opera a ballad that had been popular in London. worth of woman d'Arblay. throughout life. being his housekeeper. Their genI found the paper blotted nearly alike. made. after spending three months in DevHe took a suite of handsome apartments onshire. the great mistake of nourishing a singularity which was her bane. Rembrandt's light costs too ficed to this is extremely brilliant. It was that of living in an habitual perplexity of . but it much. Martin's Lane. and Rembrandt much less. through her She was. it brought tears to his eyes. as if it had been her greatest blessing. After a few experiments. in St." Reynolds longed to be at home again. " and understanding. says Madame peculiar temperament. six years younger than himself. another quarter to be kept as dark as possible and the remaining half kept in mezzotint Rubens appears to have admitted or half-shadow. his sister Prances. the rest of the picture is sacri- one object. Reynolds settled in London on his return from the Continent. a but of a singular character who. . rather more light than a quarter. . management of their lights. . lights . unfortunately for herself.328 SIR JOSHUA BEYNOLDS. She failed to make her brother happy. to allow not above a this quarter of the picture for the light. . scarcely an eighth: by this conduct. will be sufficient to give their conduct in the eral practice appeared to be. So great was his love for England that when. including in portion both the principal and secondary. at Venice.

THE DUKE AND DUCHESS OF HAMILTON. Painting by Sir Joshua Reynolds. .


" Dr. and me cry. ." Frances copied copies. which to herself was restlessly tormenting. and places taken early at the theatres of Coventry. and to begin again just where they began . which make other people laugh. . Samuel Johnson said she was "very near to purity itself. .SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS. such nicety of observation. 329 mind and irresolution of conduct. as Locke or Pascal might be proud of. the Duchess of Hamilton. "Whatever she suggested or planned one day was reversed the next though resorted to on the third. to stir up new combinations and difficulties. Grafton." and of her "Essay on Taste. " her brother's pictures." Reynolds now painted the portraits of Sir James Colebrooke. the Countess and the Dukes of Devonshire and ladies were two beautiful Irish Horace Walpole tells us " how even the sisters." " There are in these few pages or remarks such a depth of penetration. and to all around her was teasingly wearisome. Eeynolds said. at first. The two . but wavering. in order to bring them into harmony and practice. noble mob in the drawing-room clambered upon chairs and tables to look at them how their doors were mobbed by crowds eager to see them get into their chairs. till she found herself in the midst of such chaotic obstructions as could chime in with no given purpose. but must needs be left to ring their own peal. as if merely to be again rejected on the fourth and so on almost endlessly for she rang not the changes on her opinions and designs.

. when they were expected how seven hundred ple sat peo- and about a Yorkshire inn. on horseback. neither would he all night. . notwithstanding. ' ' . Eeynolds painted again five years later. "to render his pictures perfect to the utmost of his ability. his pupil and biographer." writes Northcote.' "With the same wish of advancing himself in the art. he answered Hhat he believed the remark was very just but that. up . . the Duke standing near her. I have heard him say that whenever a new sitter came to him for a portrait. in . "The evident desire which Eeynolds had. if you are not bold enough to run the risk of losing. he certainly gained ground by it on the whole." The latter. and a third time in a red dress and hat. died seven years after her marriage. and in each succeeding instance to surpass the former. occasioned his frequently making them inferior to what they had been in the course of the process and when it was observed to him that probably he had never sent out to the world any one of his paintings in as perfect a state as it had been. The Duchess of Hamilton. to see the Duchess of Hamilton get into her postchaise in the morning while a Worcester shoemaker made money by showing the shoe he was making for the Countess of Coventry.330 SIR JOSHUA EErxOLDS. and improved himself by the experiment adding. the elder and lovelier. from consumption. you can never hope to gain. he always began it with a full determination to make it the best picture he had ever painted.

and back of him a subject ' tempestuous sea. which. and so difficult did he find it to please himself.SIR allow it JOSHUA REYNOLDS. who entered the navy at ten and at eighteen had been round the world. and of finish in his execucombined with a facility and a spirit unlike anything upon the canvases of any other painter. he would observe. even by Velasquez. " From an early period Reynolds adopted what he strongly recommended in his Discourses. 331 to be an excuse for his failure to say Hhe . "Keppel was the first of many heroes painted by Reynolds. all . standing on a sandy beach. if ever equalled. ." writes Leslie. did much to establish the repu- tation of Reynolds." The portrait of his friend Admiral Keppel. though he was all his life studying the . the practice of drawing with the hair pencil instead of and this constant use of the brush gave him a command of the instrument. So anxious was he to do all possible justice to his gallant friend. for there the port-crayon . "who was never excelled. and began the picture . . I am far from meaning that in the works of other great masters there are not many excellences which Reynolds did not possess but what I would note is that. certainly never exceeded. that after several sittings he effaced again. was fully sufficient for the purpose. He painted eight other pic- tures of this brave man. in the expression of heroism. if well treated. was a bad one for a picture there was always nature. are marvels of delicacy tion. he had done.

could teach me. prevents the artist from being tired of his art. color. let it at the same time be remembered that my unsteadiness in this respect proceeded from an inordinate desire to possess every kind of excellence that I saw in the works of others. Rembrandt. I had not an opportunity of being early of If I initiated in the principles coloring. often. .. excellences which are in- compatible with each other however. As every failed. no man. or." He said.. and it was fortunate that he could not. effect of its turn. showed every and. I tried every . and is well known. have never been settled with respect to coloring. . indeed. escape from his own manner into theirs. indeed. " There is not a man on earth who has the least notion of color^ ing we all of us have it equally to seek for and . as at present it is totally lost to the art. it I tried new ." Reynolds once said to Northcote.332 SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS.. I laid it out faster than I got it. instead of beginning to save money.. color. without considering that there are in coloring. . any similar pursuit. " I considered myself as playing a great game and. works of other he could not. for I even borrowed money for this purpose. . I alternately left out every color. as in style. . find out. artists. The possession of pictures by Titian. etc. in purchasing the best examples of art that could be produced.. this pursuit. leaving out every color in color that I could do with- out it. I considered as the best kind of wealth. Vandyck.

sitting up one whole night to complete them. dukes and duchesses. who was very anxious to visit his father ." Already Reynolds had become the friend of the Dr. and who. daughter of the beauties. says Leslie. great-minded He also painted a young lad. with one hand on her hip. was again and again befriended by the artist's purse. and in perfect preservation. In 1756. For Johnson's "Idler" Reynolds wrote three papers. members of Parliament. first Lord Eliot. During Reynolds's second year in London. sitting at a table. " one of his most beautiful female portraits. when about to be arrested for trivial debts. This picture is used in BoswelPs Life. Reynolds painted for himself a half-length of Johnson." Reynolds was probably never surpassed in the drawing of the face. he had one hundred and twenty sitters. 333 in order to obtain one of Titian's best works he ''would be content to ruin himself. the son of Dr. The lady is painted as a half-length. and reigning That of Mrs. with that inimitable grace of which Reynolds was master beyond all the painters who ever painted women. who came and went at all hours to the artist's home. in a green dress. with a pen in his hand. Samuel Johnson. because of insufficient knowledge of anatomy. but was not always correct in the human form. and by so doing was made ill for a time. and the head turned. Bonfoy. Mudge.SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS. great-hearted. is.

Each companion very properly commissioned Reynolds to paint for him the portrait of so considerate and generous a friend. one being in the Lenox New York. Sir millionnaire. In one year there were one hundred and fifty sitters. to died. Reynolds also painted the famous Garrick this and thirteen years later Garrick and his wife. . He seldom. and the fair and frail Kitty Fisher.334 SIB JOSHUA REYNOLDS. a young thousand each of thirteen companions. afterwards George III." died five years after her marriage. for he said they were usually not valued unless paid for. however. to your father. . There are collection three of these. but was prevented "Never mind." said Reynolds. About dollars this time. / will send you through illness. " a victim Sir Joshua painted it is said. on his sixteenth birthday. the artist was overwhelmed with work. which was of course a gift. who of cosmetics. speaking French with great fluency. year. and he sent a speaking likeness. brother of George III. very agreeable and vivacious. made presents of his pictures. In 1758 and 1759. Lady Mary Coke. while its mate is about to descend to it from a sofa on which she in is reclining. represents her holding a dove in her lap. leaving twenty-five William Lowther. teresting The most inseven beautiful portraits of her. afterwards believed to have been secretlj^ married to the Duke of York. among them the Prince of Wales. .

though always the delight and charm of Garrick's house. of all men that ever lived. for love of whom in Garrick. presents the most perfect type of the actor. and to kindle the features with that fire of life which would deepen into the passion of Lear. vivid in observation. and sensitive of men ness. quick in sympathy. action . . He had to paint the man who. full of kindligenial. while she won friends among the titled and the . and spurred to ever higher effort by the reflection of the effect produced on others. or offending her watchful protectress. yet always quarrelling scheming for applause even in the society of his most intimate friends a clever writer. twenty-five years before. Lady Bur- and who had witched the world as a dancer. without compromising her. a wit and the friend of wits. sore. " 385 Eeynolds had to light the eyes with that meteoric sensibility. slip had dressed a letter into lington.SIR Leslie writes : JOSHUA BEYNOLDS. a nursery group of children. Garrick. delighted to give delight. at once the most courteous. . no matter whether his audience were the crowd of an applauding theatre. "Mrs. was now no longer the lovely. . or tremble in the fatuousness of Abel Drugger. and give back the very form and pressure of every passion. a table full of noblemen and wits. fashion. or a solitary black boy in an area. of inordinate vanity. with a body and mind so plastic that they could take every mould. woman's clothes that he might her chair. light-limbed. sparkle in the vivacity of Mercutio. laughing Eva Maria Violette.

those who by her grace. kindly face. writes through the boughs. as he told me. which seemed to have been nourished rather with gin than with . " But a second casual visit presented me with a very different object. good-humorj ness of disposition. imagined. upon her lap. which must have been painted in the first years of Sir Joshua's acquaintance with her. flowed behind her neck very : . have seen will not easily forget it. painted this year. while Cupid looks in Mason. quite naked. I was frequently near his easel and although before I came to town his picture was in some forwardness. the dress is painted with singular force and freedom. she appears of matronly character. Slight as it is. not above a year old. Reynolds painted his first Venus. and the attitude entirely decided. and in his sitting chair a very squalid beggar-woman was placed. yet I happened to visit him when he was finishing the head from a beautiful girl of sixteen. reclining in a wooded landscape. and whose flaxen hair. gracefully. was his man Ealph's daughter. the poet. who. In the picture of her sitting with her husband. in fine natural curls. with a handsome." In 1759. he was then painting the body. sensitive. with a child. "When he was painting his first Venus. and modest sweet In Lord Normanton's gallery is a most fascinating sketch of her.336 great SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS. I could not help testifying at seeing As may be my surprise him paint the carnation of the goddess of beauty from that of a little child.

and the sister of Admiral Keppel. where he remained as long as he lived. for a short time. "about twenty feet long and sixteen in breadth. and saying that . afterwards Duchess of Gloucester. whatever I milk. so that several sergeants of the guards marched before and behind them to keep off the admiring crowd. with his usual ncnvete. Also that of the beautiful Elizabeth Gunning. which he thought he should hardly arrive at had he not such an object. having a suburban home at Richmond Villa. and the expression inimitably maidenly and gentle. ' ^ might think.'' This year. His own paintiiig-room was octagonal. the child's flesh assisted him in giving a certain morbidezza to his own coloring. when it was extreme (as it certainly was). with a rose in the bosom. The dress is white. prime minister. Horace Walpole's beautiful niece Maria.. The window which gave the light to the room was .SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS. before his eyes. afterward Duchess of Argyle. The earl was the most trusted friend of George II. ' 337 I wondered he had not but he taken some more healthy-looking model answered. Reynolds removed to a fine home in Leicester Square." Among the many famous portraits of this year and the next was that of the Countess Waldegrave. Walpole mentions the countess being mobbed in the park one Sunday when in company with Lady Coventry-. afterwards Marchioness of Tavi" This is one of the painter's loveliest and stock. and. best preserved female portraits. that.

and let it be seen in the public streets to make a show." He had now raised his fifty. time himself to make a display of this splendor. he insisted on it that his sister Frances should go oat with it as much as possible. and one hundred guineas for the three classes of portraits. and not of a much larger than one-half the size common window in a private house. whilst window was nine feet four The chair for his sitters floor. his and his income from dollars a year. . says Northcote. and never sat prices to down when he worked. not those held on the thumb. which she was much averse of the populace. the from inches was raised eighteen inches from the floor. square.338 SIR JOSHUA BETNOLDS. measuring the lower part of this about nineteen inches. His palettes were those which are held by a handle. The stocks of his pencils were long. " a chariot on the panels of which were curiously painted the four seasons of the year in allegorical The wheels were ornamented with carved figures. and full-length. of the He painted in that part room nearest to the window. which I heard from this very sister's own mouth. half-length. ness of disposition. twenty-five. and turned on casters. having no spare foliage . and gilding the liveries also of his servants were laced with silver. as being a person of great shyit always attracted the gaze and made her quite ashamed to be This anecdote. — head. to. But. work was thirty thousand He purchased. serves to show that Sir Joshua Eeynolds knew the use of quackery in the seen in it.

when it would be inquired whose it was told. Laurence Sterne. painted it so. among others.SIR world. ." The next year. Sterne lay dying at the ^Silk bag shop . wearer. "Sterne's wig. with all imaginable up to the top of the room. . for he must have known that a mitre would not sit long bishop-fashion on the head before him. his head topsy-turvy with his success and fame. . and it is surprising what a Shandean air this venial impropriety of the wig gives to its owner. '^at this moment the lion of the town. ' consequent on the appearance of the first instalis ment of his ' Tristram Shandy.' While he was sitting to Reynolds. and. was purchased on the death of Lord Holland. and that. Eeynolds painted. this same wig had contrived to get itself a little on one side and the painter. engaged fourteen deep to dinner. in Old Bond Street. "In 1768. would give a strong indication of his great sucby that means. with that readiness in taking advantage of accident. that it 339 He knew grand chariot this was. he tells us that he snatched off his wig." writes Leslie. JOSHUA BEYNOLDS.' cess. "was subject to odd its chances from the humor that was uppermost in When by mistake he had thrown a fire fair sheet of manuscript into the instead of the foul one. to which we owe so many of the delight' violence.' without a friend to close his . and threw it perpendicularly.' " The picture now by in the gallery of the it whom Marquis of Lansdowne. ful novelties in his works. tend to increase it. the Eev.

. joyous. "in half-length. and died in a minute. — such as they were — were . and has a pet Blenheim spaniel in her lap — . of — Roxburgh and Grafton.' just published. . still The town was ringing with the success of . David Garrick and David Hume to inquire how Dr.340 eyes. — Lady Elizabeth Keppel. Becket. SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS. was bid to go upstairs by the woman of the shop. He found Sterne just — a-dying. the year of the marriage and coronation most beautiful of the ten bridesmaids. . . sitting on a garden-seat. " His laurels green. the corpse dug up. 'Now it is come. sent from a dinner table where was gathered a gay and brilliant party the Dukes No when a footman. His grave was marked down by the body-snatchers. his publisher. with a frank. one but a hired nurse was in the room. A stuSterne's funeral . dent present at the dissection recognized under the scalpel the face of the brilliant wit and London lion of a few seasons before. Lady Caroline Kussell. Reynolds painted three of the In 1761. innocent expression. near Tyburn gallows-stand. was as friendless as his death-bed." of George III. and sold to the professor of anatomy at Cambridge. the Earls of March and Ossory. the ' Sentimental Journey. In ten minutes. in the parish burial-ground of Marylebone. She is lovely. in a blue ermine-embroidered robe over a close white-satin vest. was the only one who followed the body to its undistinguished grave. put up his hand as if to stop a blow.' he said. Sterne did.

" Lord Tavistock. the — length allegorical. its coloring has lost much of having faded from Lady Sarah's robes. had four years ago won the heart of the king. faint purple. I presume. She married. Sarah Lenox. glow of that singular loveliness which. man promise. married General Napier. whom George III. over which the triad of the Graces look down upon her as she makes a libation in Lady Sarah was still in the full their honor. a broken heart. Sir William and Sir Charles. Sir Joshua's friend. the throne. and died in a few months at Lisbon. and all but placed an English queen upon . . whom she married next year " and Lady . of Five years after of rare this. 341 a love-gift. and left what was once warm rosecolor a cold. it was whispered. was killed by falling from his horse. the picture takes a high the fullplace among the works of its class Though the lakes richness. from the Duke of Marlborough. Keynolds painted another exquisite picture of her "kneeling at a footstool before a flaming tripod. was divorced. a young who had married Lady Keppel. and would have married had not his council prevented. He disliked idle visitors. All these years were extremely busy ones for the distinguished artist. years later. . Sir Charles Bunbury.SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS. saying " These persons do not consider that my : . had loved. and became the mother of two illusFour trious sons. His beautiful wife never recovered from this bereavement. six years later.

" He belonged to several literary and social clubs. for I know not how I can so effectually promote my own pleasure as by pleasing you. her genius and " Mrs. I should lose almost the only man whom I call a friend. Johnson wrote him : " If the compan}^ can exhilarate the languor of a slow recovery. she found greater scope and better instruction in that city and. . to me. five guineas an hour. When her father left Morbegno. a frequent was Angelica Kauffman. at visitor to the studio this time. if I should lose you. Como. one half to first sitting. in 1752.342 SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS. she devoted herself to studies in . I will not delay a day to come to you." and whom it is believed he loved and wished to marry. when he was forty-three. the pretty Swiss artist. in her " Women Artists." amusement my Reynolds had now raised his prices to thirty guineas for a head. time is worth. this child of genius was much ticed on account of her wonderful pastel pictures. to reside in for her ingenious talent." says : At no- the age of nine. She was. When he was of ill. for and admired by everybody loveliness. and Goldsmith. in addition to her practice with the brush and pencil. and was a lifelong and devoted friend to such men as Edmund Burke. seventy for a half-length. twenty-five years old. Johnson. whom he usually enters in his notebooks as "Miss Angel. and one hundred and be paid at the fifty for a full-length. Ellet. in whom. in Lombardy. In 1766. very attractive.

and other famous peoand was taken to London by the accomplished Lady Wentworth. where Kome in she painted the portrait of Winkel- mann. universally acknowledged to occupy a brilliant position in the best circles of fashionable society. and she . a few years afterward." In the native city of her father. Sir Joshua Eeynolds. Angelica painted in fresco the figures of the Twelve Apostles after copper engravings from Piazetta. and re- ceived the rare honor. being. wife of the British resident. herself undecided for some time to She was which vocation she should consecrate her powers. an unusual work for a woman. Here. . in the latter was so rapid. Her talents and winning manners up patrons and friends among the Persons attached to the court engaged her professional services. and the most renowned painter in England. productive of much aris- pecuniary gain. She was numbered among ment the painters of the Royal Society. . . and the talent evinced so decided. meanwhile. was of the circle of her friends. a career of brilliant success. Her 343 proficiency general literature and in music. " she found open to her ple. urged that her life should be devoted to music. After some years in Milan and Florence. for a woman. says Mrs. raised her tocracy.SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS. besides the possession of a voice unusually fine. that her friends. Schwarzenberg. Angelica went to 1763. of an appoint- to a professorship in the Academy of Arts in London." Reynolds painted her portrait twice. then sixty years old. Ellet.

was necessary. he averred. who had shunned love on the banks of Como and under the glowing skies of Italy. as one He paid his respects homage to her then he passed into the character of an unassuming and sympathizing friend. Parker of Saltram." says Mrs.344 SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS. he appealed to her romantic generosity. Count Frederic de character Horn played a conspicuous part at that time in London society. to be enamoured of next visitor she would disclose the great secret. or through the jealousy of another artist. either because she had refused a prominent lord. Mr. and was skilful enough to deceive those with — — whom he associated." Once she professed . who sought to revenged. "Poor Angelica. painted his for his friend. that she might remain free to devote herself to her art. from which she only could save him by A sudden and secret marriage. adventurer." to the Kathaniel Dance When t)e at the height of her fame. " who " A low-born assumed the name of a gentleman of rank and that of his master. who was then about twenty-six. " that she was dying for Sir Joshua Eeynolds. by representing himself as threatened with a terrible misforthe deepest who rendered genius . Ellet. She was declared by some persons to be "a great coquette. accepting him as her husband. a fearful deception was practised upon her. and in the bloom of her existence. and since her coming to London had rejected many offers of the most advantageous alliance. Finally. He approached our artist. . tune.

desiring to possess himself of the property she had acquired . and her talents had proseveral England. 345 was caught in the fine-spun snare. " The fellow had been induced to seek the poor girl's hand from motives of cupidity alone. " At length. and he kept himself very close at home. The queen informed Angelica. cured her the favorable notice of the Queen of One day. and sent an invitation to the Count de Horn to present himself at court. Then came the mortifying discovery that the pretended count was a low impostor. The queen congratulated her. and Angelica communicated to her royal friend the fact of her marriage. "Angelica had received commissions to paint members of the royal family and eminent personages of the court. however. led him to inquiries. without the formality of writings and without witnesses. which were aided by friends of influence. and assured her of her sympathy. and yielded to chivalrous pity for one she believed worthy of her heart's affection. the real count returned. dared not appear so openly.SIB JOSHUA REYNOLDS. The impostor. her Majesty entered into con- versation with her. some say. to whom her marriage had been made known. for he well knew tion that it could not be long before the decep- would be discovered. the suspicions of Angelica's father. and was surprised at being frequently congratulated on his marriage. The marriage was celebrated by a Catholic priest. while she was painting at Buckingham Palace. About this time.

He now wished to compel her to a Believing herself irrev- by her hasty flight from London. truth was made known to her — that he who called the himself her husband was already married to another woman. and the invalid expressed his fear of dying and leaving her unprotected. . immediately These unhappy circumthe interest and respect manifested for the lady who. she was treated with more attention than ever. He lived and the marriage seems . . JOSHUA REYNOLDS. and be^ stowed her hand upon the painter Antonio Zucchi. stances in no way diminished . but her firmness and strength of natill ture enabled her to evade compliance with his requisition that she should leave England. and received several unexcepBut all were declined tionable offers of marriage. in plucking the rose of life." He was then fifty-three. and he was compelled to fly alone. ocably bound to him. to which he had no right. This discovery made it dangerous for the impostor to remain in London. of course. had been so severely wounded by its thorns on the contrary. after submit- ting unwillingly to the necessity of restoring some three hundred pounds obtained from his victim. when the physician who attended her suffering father advised return to Italy.346 SIR labors. Angelica resolved to submit to her fate. this. declared null and void. fourteen years after and she forty. she chose to live only for her profession. "The false marriage was. . still living. Angelica yielded to her parent's entreaties. "After fifteen years' residence in England.

SIR to JOSHUA REYNOLDS. and wished to marry. and. Such is the sad history of the woman whom it is be- lieved Reynolds loved." "Leonardo da Vinci dying in the arms of Francis I. Herder. for what she effects is The light and pleasing in really marvellous. . and not what she leaves undone. and the "Vestal Virgin." "Sappho Inspired by Love. Much of the time was spent in Rome. as at the funeral of Raphael. in design and execution. the painter. and then returned .." "Venus and Adonis. and." "The Death of Heloise. form and color. Goethe said of her: "The good Angelica has a most remarkable. and Sir William Chambers. and others. There is much to learn from her. distinguish the numerous works of our artist. years after her husband. one must see and value what she does.. . chiefly by the exertions of West. her latest pictures were borne after her bier." painted for Joseph IT." "The Eeturn of Arminius. Andrea della Eratte.'^ Her "Allegra" and "Penserosa. Reynolds was unanimously chosen its first president. or in taste with the delicate which she handles the pencil. Avhere Angelica became the friend of Goethe. for a woman. No living . He left a sitter to go to St. really unheard-of talent. In 1768 the Royal Academy was founded. She was buried in St. 34T have been a happy one. and her bust was preserved in the Pantheon." She died seven are among her best known works. and was immediately knighted by the king. painter excels her in dignity. particularly as to work. James's and receive the honor.

either to add to your reputation or to establish my own. as professor of Ancient Literature professor of Ancient History. fore. to Setting interest. first discourse. The only dedication I ever made was to my brother. am You can and I gain nothing from my the admiration. you read your to his sitter. Johnson. as few have a juster taste in poetry than you. and Goldsmith wrote his brother. in an address of this kjnd." "That was to with a smile. there- which I never paid much attention." said Sir Joshua. : shirt. may lose much by severity of your judgment. aside. because I loved him better than . says Allan Cunningham." Goldsmith was very fond of Reynolds. dis- Reynolds suggested the addition of a few tinguished honorary members to the Academy Dr." in these words : " I can have no expectations.348 SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS. discourse in a tone so low that I scarce heard a word you said. and dedicated to him his " Deserted Village. A nobleman said to him. are something like ruffles to a man who wants a Goldsmith. " Sir Joshua. others. I must be indulged at present in following my affections. in his Life of Reynolds " I took it rather as a compliment to the institution than any Honors to one in my situation benefit to myself. he did not speak loud enough to be heard. as I ignorant of the art in which you are said to excel. When the president delivered his probably on account of his deafness. my advantage.

He is 349 to since dead. Keynolds's discourses were eagerly listened to at the Academy. among the pictures which attracted the most notice were Sir Joshua's Miss Morris as Hope nursing Love. not unjustly.' " Each year. one of his best. overpowered by timidity that she the Duchess of Manchester and her son. "A great part of every man's life. The landscape is beautiful in color. In- . inscribe this JOSHUA REYNOLDS. as Diana disarming Cupid. whom he had painted at sixteen as Psyche. and at nineteen as St. the light of which is distributed through the j)icture by the sheep feeding or resting about tlieir pretty shepherdess. Genevieve reading in the midst of her flock. Crewe. Permit me poem to you. Crewe should class as one of his loveliest pictures most touching and pathetic in the expression given by the attitude rather than the face for the eyes are cast down on the book. the daughter of Fulke Greville. going upon the stage . and. Walpole notes the harmony and simplicity of the picture. and the features are nearly hidden by the hand which supports the head. ' lecting materials for the exercise of genius. Tom Taylor says " The Mrs. and powerfully relieves the figure. clothed in a simple white dress. and calls it. — the lady was the daughter of a governor of one of the West-India Islands.SIR most other men. — : — . and pretty Mrs. so was fainted and died soon afterwards." he said. " must be spent in colas Juliet." At the first exhibition of the Academy.

. dependence on your own genius if you have great if you have talents. Test your . own work with the model. . . I mention this because our exhibitions. drawing and coloring. on every opportunity.350 vention is SIR little JOSHUA BETNOLBS. can come of nothing. labor nothing is to be obtained without it. industry will improve them but moderate abilities. Let your port-crayon be never out of your hands. but new combination. while they produce such admirable effects by nourishing emula. — '^ . " Those great masters who have Try to travelled with success the same road. . . . — . . industry will supply their Nothing is denied to well-directed deficiency. Even enter into a kind of competition with these great masters. . Without the love of fame you can never do anything excellent but by an excessive and undistinguishing thirst after it you will come to have vulgar views you will degrade your style. . Painting comprises both model. and your taste will be entirely corrupted.. imagine how a Michael Angelo or a Raphael would have conducted themselves. . . and work yourself into a belief that your picture is to be seen and observed by them. Have no and have left few sketches on paper. .. paint a subject like theirs a companion to any work you think a . The Venetians knew this. Nothing Hence the necessity for acquaintance with the works of your predecessors. the guides ? But of these. who are to be models The answer is. . . Draw till you draw as mechanically as you write: But. paint your studies instead of drawing them.

The effect of every obmeets the painter's eye may give a lesson. with other studies connected with the which must employ the artist in his closet. The Capella Sistina is the produc- tion of the greatest genius that in the arts. . as it is there only that you can see the works of Michael Angelo and . 351 tion and CLilling out genius. . found sufficient to fill up life. the antique. If you neglect visiting the Vatican and particularly the Capella Sistina. and open to instruction. or to indeed in any other rises till must bring all his mind bear upon that one object. views. you will neglect receiving that peculiar advantage which Rome can give above all other cities in the In other places you will find casts from world. often. provided his mind is calm. whilst at Rome. have also a miscliievous tendency by seducing the painter to an ambition of pleasing indiscriminately the mixed multitude of people who resort to them. will be .. and capital pictures of the great masters. .. from the ject that moment he he goes to bed. I would recommend to him. rather to live on bread and water than lose those advantages which he can never hope to enjoy a second time. who was in Rome. ." To Barry. but it is there only that you can form an idea of the dignity of the art. the artist. he wrote : " Whoever is resolved to excel in painting. if it were Whoever has great much longer than it is. . Vatican. unembarrassed with other objects. This general attention. art.SIB JOSHUA BEYNOLDS. and which he will find only in the art. was ever employed .

worn with sitting. as they have none of those qualities which are captivating at first sight. Sir Joshua painted a picture called " The Babes in the Woods.' This year. and took up a fresh canvas. of his widowed sister. Mary. result " had conceived. that one of these little sitters fell asleep. "as it probably often did. SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS. which may probably be the case. he moved his canvas to make the change greater." which is now in the collection of Viscount Palmerston. and would send them to his studio to be painted. ture of the ' The Babes in the Wood. If you should not relish them at first. a change took place in its position . painted Theophila. Sir Joshua brought the thirteen-yearold daughter. — sir. and in so beautiful an attitude that Sir Joshua instantly put away the picture he was at work on. to live with him in London. say plaintively. till you think every other painter insipid in comparison. and. and three years later her elder sister. called Offy. Reynolds loved to find picturesque beggar children on the street." says Leslie. Mrs. never cease looking till you feel something like inspiration come over you. '' — I'm tired " ! It happened once. After sketching the little model as it lay. Theophila. to suit the purpose he sketched the child again. Northcote says he would often hear the voice of a little waif. and to be admired only for petty excellences.352 Baphael. as " He A Girl Read- . was the pic- who after- ward became the Marchioness of Thomond. " Sir. Palmer." In 1770.

S." which represents Offy Palmer. Joshua : " ! tidious critic finds it impossible to discover faults . Johnson him money loaned sisters had two gotten how these but Mrs. F. and looking anxiously around Sir Joshua always with her great black eyes. maintained that this was one of the " half-dozen original things " which he said no man ever exceeded in his life's work. Oxford. in his Life of Sir What a love Reynolds had for children. creeping timidly along. another went to India. in these child portraits the whole soul of the is painter has gone into them. and he as much at . Johnson declined when he was poor his offer." at JOSHUA REYNOLDS. and With the peer's son or even of their thoughts The most fasthe beggar's child it was the same.'" Sir Joshua offered to take to his home the sons he had not forof his other sister. might have put A Young Lady. being greatly opposed to her brother's habit of One son went into the church and died young.SIR ing. Later the picture was purchased by the Marquis of Hertford for ten thousand five hundred dollars. 353 which the young miss was offended. two of Mrs. Johnson's daughters lived with Sir Joshua. childless though he was himself! What a marvellous knowledge of their ways. Pulling. saving. Mrs. says. Later. fearing the temptations of London. of Exeter College. and Reynolds took great interest in his welfare. he painted and exhibited " The Strawberry Girl. In 1773. and " I think they ^ — — painting on Sundays.

an honor which he greatly prized and received the degree of D. more innocent. . C. . sighed with the sorrowful. from Oxford University. tall. " who passed no day with- . am per.!. . entered into its changeful soul with the tenderest.. painted children best . depicted its appearances in the truest and happiest spirit of comedy. that of Frances Gordon. played with the playful." is now in the possession of Mr. his native town. Mrs. Stephens well observes. fectly content to accept these faces as those of the most lovely beings God ever created. for one. who refused an offer of ten thousand dollars for Sir it. These are human faces. heartiest sympathy. . but can you imagine any purer. 'Reynolds. . more gentle faces ?. knew most of all artists. . home with the gypsy child as with little Lord MorAs Mr.354 SIR JOSHUA EEYNOLDS. and on the day of his death Sir Joshua did not touch a pencil. " whose lovely face and lithe. . delicate figure had rapidly won for her the leading place at Covent Garden. Hartley. really the poHrait of the beautiful young actress. Joshua was now elected mayor of Plympton." A picture of a nymph with a young Bacchus. L. it is true.. The perfect loveliness of this picture is beyond dispute. It consists of simply five different representations of the same face. and mastered all the craft of infancy His 'Child Angels' was not painted till 1786. " a circumstance the most extraordinary for him/' says iSTorthcote. Oliver Goldsmith had died. Bentley. of childhood. peth.

gentle. headdresses. and sensible. Walpole tells beauty.' The young duchess was now sitting to him in the full flush of her triumph as arbitress of fashion." says Leslie. Marie Antoinette herself had scarcely a gayer. *Her youth. . all her rivals. and engaging. too. that his debts were ten thousand dollars. the most brilliant of the gay throng who danced and played the nights away at the Ladies' Club. 355 He acted as executor for his dead and found. . masqueraded at the Pantheon. distinguished painter. the author of "Evelina. It was this beautiful young duchess who set the fashion of the feather sense. . Miss Burney. " was Sir Joshua's pet in child- hood. soft. the latter. us. She effaced without being a glowing good-nature. in the full-length Spencer House. JOSHUA REYNOLDS. " Another beautiful sitter of this year was Eliza. and modest familiarity make her a phenomenon. more devoted. now at . Duchess of Devonshire. now the irresistible young queen of ton. now a mark Sir for all the witlings of the time. Eeynolds was as ever the centre of a charming circle. Georgiana. was greatly pleased with the . to his amazement. " Foremost among the beauties of this brilliant time." Hannah More. and promenaded at Kanelagh. and more obsequious court.SIR out a line." liked his countenance and manners the former she pronounced "expressive. figure. unassuming. lively modesty." friend. Joshua has painted her in her new-fashioned plumes.

From all this homage Miss Linley had withdrawn to share love in a cottage with Sheridan at East Burnham. laid his thousands at her feet. had won universal for the tender sadness it. . to project over her the . admiration for Eliza Ann Linley. had been laid at her feet as well as purses. the youthful wife of Richard Brinsley Sheridan.856 SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS. all the more fascinating porary describes . where she sang at Covent Garden in the Lent of 1773. The young couple were now emerging from the first difficulties of their married life. and after her husband had fought two duels in her cause with . which seemed. don. When she appeared at the Oxford oratorios. 1772. she stood with her basket at the pump-room door. . to those when in her teens she was the belle of the Bath assemblies. Lovers and wooers flocked about her Richard . . From the days little when. as a contemshadow of early death her sweet voice. "Nor had she money coronets. the king himself was said to have been fascinated as much by her eyes and voice as by the music of his favorite Handel. none could resist her beseeching grace. and the pathetic expression of her singing the timid and touching grace of her air and deportment. after a runaway match in March. Her exqui- site and delicate loveliness. the Wiltshire miser. . resisted only the temptation of it was whispered. a girl of nine. Walter Long. timidly offering the tickets for her father's benefit concerts. grave dons and young genIn Lontlemen commoners were alike subdued.

'" Sir Joshua painted Mrs. . Sir Joshua. before the was finished. . She died a few years later. Cecilia. picture nothing but his wits to depend on but. easy-tempered. Sheridan was 'as was quite enchanting. and was even chary of permitting her to delight their friends Avith her sweet voice in private. Sheridan as St. and such a sweetness of look and voice. It was burnt at Belvoir Castle. She had a way of gathering little children about her. vivacious. and agreeable young man of three and twenty. She was the lovely model for the Virgin in Eeynolds's 'Kativity. and Horatia Waldgrave. would never allow her to sing in public after their marriage. with a Captain Matthews. of 'TheEivals.' says one. . partly the result of drink. Laura. ." In 1780. an unexampled price for an English picture at that time. in describing her so engaged. grand-nieces of Horace Walpole.SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS. he was famous a-s the author . proud of her as he was. and not long enough to see him over- " ^ .' for which the young Duke of Rutland paid him six thousand dollars." says Leslie Their tures has he done more justice to beauty. 357 When she began to sit to Kichard Brinsley Sheridan was only known as a witty. Sir Joshua painted the ladies Maria. with such a playfulness of manner. "He never had more beautiful " and in none of his picsitters. Mrs. and singing their childish songs.' gentleness personified. and sang without pressing but her husband. living long enough to witness her husband's great success. whelmed with debts.

still hangs at Colwich Hall. on the right. the Earl of Euston Laura. "The fine full-length of her as Hebe. bends over her tambouring .358 SIR JOSHUA BETNOLDS." The eagle was a pet of Sir Joshua. Siddons was the leading Taking . and two prominent lords to whom the other sisters were engaged had broken their promises. winds silk on a card from a skein held by Lady Horatia while Lady Maria. she sat to Eeynolds. four years later. Lord Hugh Seymour. kept in a yard outside the studio. frame. with young young ladies. high-bred At this time all three of these were in sorrow. Lord Chewton and Horatia." ladies . whose son John married Mary Chaworth. The young Duke of Ancaster. her cousin. all three. three-quarters. is at Petworth. with the eagle. wonderful force. and profile and it is impossible to conceive an easier. In 1783. the year of her marriage. when Mrs. painted in 1777. bright faces are made to tell with. in the centre. and note the wear and tear of five years in the reign of a queen of fashion. in full-face. prettier way of grouping three graceful. Another full-length. Musters. a spaniel at her feet. The . Lady Laura. It is interesting to compare the two. Sir Joshua painted two years later the beautiful but unhappy Mrs. Lady Maria married. had just died suddenly. by the white dresses and powdered tetes worn by They are sitting round a work-table. . action admits of a natural arrange- ment of the heads. actress of the time. to whom Horatia was betrothed. Byron's first love.

" Ascend your undisputed throne : bestow on me some idea of the Tragic Muse." instantly seated myself in the attitude in which Muse now He inscribed his name on the border of her drapery.. as he wished to leave the money to a poor family. which he had borrowed of him. Johnson. Eeynolds also painted Miss Kemble. by the first Marquis of Westminster. Reynolds was present at the funeral." This picture was purchased. he . 1784. about him. " It : . "Truth. : ." she said. "1 could not lose the honor this opportunity afforded me of going down to posterity on the hem of your garment.SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS. in the south transept of Westminster Abbey. when his friend was laid beside Garrick. \\he. and always on Sundays and to forgive him a debt of thirty pounds. in 1822. he made three requests of Sir Joshua never to use his pencil on Sundays to read the Bible whenever possible." Sir Thomas Lawrence called this the finest portrait in the world of a woman." This year. he led her up to his platform with the words. On his death-bed. 359 her hand. for nearly nine thousand dollars. " a very sweet and gentle woman. was painted for the universe and posterity. her sister." steps. Eeynolds said of his friend " His pride had no meanness in it there was nothing little or mean Jameson says. a friendship of thirty years was severed by the death of Dr. the Tragic "I walked up the appears. and Mrs. saying. "On and which.]ier in great or little matters.

so in his life he would never suffer the least immorality or indecency of conversation. which he threw up in the air. your character or your interest was affected. if it had been so. Dr. or anything contrary to virtue or piety. Eeynolds was as busy as ever. "'The Christian religion was with him such a certain and established truth that he considered it as a kind of profanation to hold any argument about its truth. I added something to his relation. He is painting from morning till night. I remember. was not so scrupulous but he said he only indulged himself in white lies.' says he. nobody was hurt. which no elevation of rank exempted them from. in great things : From ' ' .860 held sacred. which I supposed might likewise have happened It would have been a better story. the violation of truth. in lesser things your pleasure is equally destroyed.' Our friend. on whomever they fell. Goldsmith.' "As in his writings not a line can be found which a saint would wish to blot. and. to proceed without a severe check. he said." At sixty-three years of age. on his relating some incident. you would take the trouble of moulting your feathers. ' : just going to begin a picture for the Empress of . and the truth is that every picHe is ture he does seems better than the former. Miss Palmer wrote to her cousin in Calcutta " My uncle seems more bewitched than ever with his palette and pencils. light as feathers. but it was not. SIB JOSHUA REYNOLDS. Johnson. 'I wish.' says Dr.

himself with his canary bird. 361 who has one. Reynolds patted him on the head." painted in 1788. Lawrence.SIR Russia. he said to the crowded audience: "I re. closing. and seven thousand five hundred dollars. In 1789. was the portrait of a beautiful girl." He chose "The Infant Hercules strangling the : " Reynolds. some worse. through overwork. and was not depressed. that these Discourses . after looking earnestly in his face. was one day walking with Dr. Reynolds gave his fifIn teenth and last Discourse to the Academy. flect. and never returned. On December 10." Rogers — and. with her cipher in diamonds. sent to desire he will paint her an historical choice. JOSHUA REYNOLDS. he lost the sight of his left eye. to say of the picture : some better. which was so tame that it would sit upon his hand but one morning it flew out of the window. the centre with a sheaf of corn on her head. In his "Gleaners. who was says always thinking of his art. but he still preserved the sweet serenity He amused of his nature. Miss Potts. Serpents." The Empress sent him as pay for this a gold box.' " : ' I He took such great pains with this work that he used " There are ten under it. who afterwards became the mother of Sir Edwin Landseer. 1790. near Beaconsfield. said must give more color to my Infant Hercules. when they a son of met a fine rosy little peasant boy Burke's bailiff. not without vanity. figure. The subject is left to his own and at present he is undetermined what to choose.

whether it is won or lost. is over. declines daily." and added. and in Adam's ear So charming left his voice.362 SIR JOSHUA BE YN OLDS. Reynolds said it was " the best picture he ever painted. At times he has pain but for the most part is tolerably easy. For some time past he has kept his bed. still stood fixed to hear. addressed him in the words of Milton. He had sent his picture to Florence. taking his hand. bear testimony of divine my admiration of that truly desire man. Sir Joshua. Nothing can equal the tranquillity with which he views his end. almost totally blind. in the letter to Sheridan ^'However. Edmund Burke stepped forward. — " The angel ended. He congratulates 1792 : . he allowed Sheridan to buy the picture of his wife. ." As Eeynolds descended from the chair. : ." This year." at half-price. " St. and I should that the last words I should pronounce in this Academy and from this place might be the name of Michael Angelo. " Our poor friend. 1791. the race Beda. Burke wrote to his son Richard in January. Sir Joshua sat for his picture for the last time to the Swedish artist. at the request of the Royal Academy of Sweden." The next year. there is now an end of the pursuit. that he awhile Thought him still speaking. and. . Cecilia. in May. on being elected an honorary member of that famous In October of this year he became Academy.

making his own way in life from poverty. it JOSHUA REYNOLDS. about five hundred thousand dollars.SIR himself on life. 1792. for life. to his sister Gwatkin. the Duke of Dorset. of Leeds. Duke of Portland. March He was 3. the pages blurred with his tears : ^' Sir Joshua Eeynolds was. ten thousand dollars. a . Paul's. in 1781. who had mar- wealthy Cornish gentleman. The number of his pictures is estimated at three thousand. Mr. Earl of will Upper Ossory. Miss Palmer. . Earl of Car- Duke lisle. I don't believe there are any persons he values more sincerely than you and your mother. Earl of Inchiquin. ninety- one carriages following the body to the grave. was ried. Lord Viscount Palmerston. There were ten pall-bearers. . Marquis Townshend. St. indeed wonderful. on Saturday." Eeynolds died tranquilly between eight and nine buried in He on Thursday evening. . February 23. Burke wrote of him. Such an amount of money earned by an artist. on very many . and cancelled a bond for the same amount of money borrowed a thousand dollars to each of five thousand dollars to a servant his executors him more than thirty years with who had lived all the remainder of his property. of twelve thousand five hundred dollars to Burke. Marquis of Abercorn. and Lord By he left to his niece Offy. Eliot. 863 as a liappy conclusion of a happy- spoke of you in a style that was affecting. fifty thousand dollars Prances the use. to his niece.

in facility. and a dignity derived from the higher branches. accounts. modesty. He possessed the theory as perfectly as the practice of his art. always preserve when they delineated individual nature. and candor never forsook him. a fancy. memorable men of his Englishman who added the in grace. In taste. His portraits remind the spectator of the invention of history and the amenity of landscape. in happy invention. even on surprise or provocation. he was equal to the great masters of the renowned ages. caressed by sovereign powers. his and all the habitudes of life. a variety. and celebrated by distinguished poets. one of the most time.364 SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS. powerful from and not meanly cultivated by letters. in which English artists are the most engaged. nor was the least degree of arrogance or assumption visible to the most scrutinizing eye in any part of his conduct or discourse. admired by the expert in art and by the learned in science. In portrait he went beyond them for he communicated to that description of the art. " In full affluence of foreign and domestic fame. He was the first praise of the elegant arts to the other glories of his country. " His talents of every kind. To be such a painter. his native humility. social virtues in all the relations . and in the richness and harmony of coloring. which even those Avho professed them in a superior manner did not . rendered him the centre of a very nature. he was a profound and penetrating philosopher. courted by the great.

too much innocence to provoke any enmity. ^ Yes.' he answered briskly. he answered.SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS. and unmixed sorrow. and finer. He had too much merit not to excite some jealousy. — Italian music . general. 365 great and unparalleled variety of agreeable societies. most popular " ' artist in They are very fine.' . outside his was the fact that he never spoke ill of the work Northcote says he once asked Sir Joshua what he thought of two pictures by Madame Le Brun. "^ As fine as Van Dyke?' " He answered tartly.' ' ' Do you mean living or dead ? " ' Either living or dead. More and more we which is learn to sympa- thize with that his high-est characteristic. As fine as those of any painter. which will be dissipated by his death. is Venetian. set to English words for the with its luxurious. to : " The pictures of Keynolds. . secret of Reynolds's popularity. living soul he infused into forms.' France in portraiture. "^ How fine?' I " " ^ said." One genius. The loss of no man of his time can be felt with more sincere. English. melting harmony. of sensibility. the old masters of Italy and which alone has enabled him to compete with the amount of mind." Mrs. Jameson says are. he threw into every production of his . what delicious melodies are to the color. and the faces and the associations are . giving to them a deathless vitality. pencil. . ear. who at that time was the of other painters. the genial. the eye.

Eembrandt. . was displeased at " I said no more. "Estimating Reynolds at his best.366 SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS. he stands high among the great portrait painters of the world. . . in mastery of materials. or Velasquez. Velasquez or Eembrandt. and has achieved as distinct a place for himself in their ranks as Titian or Tintoret." Leslie says of him : " He felt deeply and almost impatiently the gulf between the technical merits of his pictures and those of the great Venetians or Kembrandt. . he worhave no doubt his inferiority to these men in power. and in certainty of method was just as apparent to Sir Joshua as it is to any unbiassed judge who now compares his pictures with those of Titian." at different epochs I whom shipped with equal reverence. perceiving he my questioning him.

with my boys and one day when I had accompanied them. in London. was the author of some books on the art of engraving and He once gave a course of lectures archaeology. He was very young . whose portrait was painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds. and. was the fifth The father. LANDSEER. maiden name was Miss Potts. and this very stile. Edwin stopped by this stile to admire some sheep and cows which were quietly : SIR EDWIN . John Landseer. The mother. was a gifted and beautiful woman. 7. born in 1802. The boy Edwin began to draw very early in life. I then lived in Eoley Street. on or about March. made him sketch a cow. grazing. child in a family of seven children. Miss Meteyard quotes these words from John Landseer " These two fields were Edwin's first Many a time have I lifted him over studio. whose before the Royal Institution.SIR EDWIN LANDSEER. a most skilful engraver. finding a scrap of paper and a pencil in I my pocket. At his request I lifted him over. nearly all the way between Marylebone and HampIt was a favorite walk stead was open fields.

the latter one of the most eminent of engravers. "the differing characters of the beasts are given with marvellous craft. At seven. and grew older this was one of his favorite spots He would start off alone. and obtained permission make a sketch of him. or with for sketching. — difficult things to manage — is admirable in St. we left the spot." says Frederick G. and remain till I I would then critifetched him in the afternoon. as it was more pleasant and sunny. and. " in which." At thirteen he drew a magnificent dog. as he and make him correct defects before Sometimes he would sketch in one field. but generally in the one beyond the old oak we see there. stood two feet seven inches in height. in charge of a to man servant. creatures are These capable of carrying one hundred- . John (Thomas ?) or Charles. SIR EDWIN LANDSEER. the lad learned the process of etching from his father and elder brother Thomas. The animal was six feet four inches long." While still very young. more than six or — not seven years "After this we came on several occasions. its rendering of foreshortened curves. that would honor a much older artist than the producer. always The drawing of the tiger's whiskers cise his work. Stephens.368 indeed then old. he drew and etched the heads of a lion and a tiger. Bernard Edwin saw him in the streets of London. sometimes in the other. He followed the dog to the residence of his owner. at the middle of his back.

steadfast in their look. Bernard. Brutus. Edwin's favorite dog. " Where is my little dog boy ? " This was in allusion to the picture of . " It is really one of the finest Stephens says drawings of a dog that have ever been produced. in 1815." A live dog. ac- cording to the standard commonly assumed for large dogs. admitted into the room with this picture. with light. the keeper of the Academy. full length of his chain. The following year he became a student at the Royal Academy. was much pleased with him. would say. was sold in 1861 for seventy guineas. and. The head. eighteen miles. He was a bright. "Fighting Dogs Getting Wind" was . curly hair. is : small in proportion to that of a Newfoundland dog. and fleshy in substance. When Edwin was thirteen. and are very . placed near to the head. 369 the weight of provisions from a neighboring town to monks at the Monastery of St. In 1818. are far from being large. and a dog with a puppy. the eyes. became greatly excited. near a red earthenware dish.SIR EDWIN LANBSEER. and diligent in his work. manly boy. the brow is broad and round. looking around the room upon the students. he exhibited some pictures at the Koyal Academy a mule. though expansive and domical in its shape. gentle and graceful in manner. The though very small. Fuseli. We do not think that even the artist at any time surpassed its noble workmanship. lying at picture. without fierceness the ears are pendulous.

give a wonder-producing vitality to the canvas. with a letter from Landseer. the prostrate dog.370 SIR EDWIN LANDSEER. " Landseer's may be called the great style it of animal painting. we should know that it was produced by no common hand." part of a stable by a dog. "This picture . in a review of the sensation. for whom it was painted. where it had been It was sent to hidden by a dishonest servant. the flaming eyes. Pierrepont. inveterate rage that superior strength inflames bright but cannot subdue. and palpably true." studio. as far as cerns their portraiture. works of the Society of Painters in Oil and WaterColors. "The Cat Disturbed" was exhibited. into whose place she had ventured. with the broad and relief of the objects." Landseer also exhibited this year the "White It disappeared from the Horse in a Stable. and the natural. and twenty-four years later. so good is it. it was discovered in a hayloft. saying that he had not retouched the picture. exhibited at Spring Gardens." In 1819. But the gasping and cavernous and redly stained mouths. "thinking it better when my early style was unmingled with that of my old age. afterwards engraved with the title of "The InIt represents a cat chased to the upper truder. as far as relates to the exe< it cution and color. Honorable H. and the his antagonist standing exultingly over him . Waagen said. Dr. con- Did we see only the dog's collar. in 1842. and caused a great The Examiner said.

." sold for five hundred dolIts lars." About this time a lion in the Exeter Change Menagerie died. present value is over fifteen thousand dollars. To-ho. and the young artist succeeded in getting the body and dissecting it. Landseer received dollars." and " A Lion Enjoying his Eepast. to most crafty and resolute disThe place is too neat aai ironing-room. 371 exhibits a power of coloring and a solidity of execution recalling such masters as Snyders and Fyt." followed by a third. from the directors of the British Institution seven hundred and fifty dollars as a prize for "The Eighteen other pictures came Larder Invaded." tures. The most famous of Sir Edwin's early works was "The Cat's-Paw. mals. of years before. scene." says Stephens." from Landseer's studio this year. and six feet by seven feet " A Lion Disturbed at his six inches respectively Repast. which sold in 1872 for over ten thousand The following year." a hunting. acting upon Haydon's advice. " A Prowling Lion. "The scene. six feet was the painting of two large picby eight. and now owned by the Earl of Essex. the only to " dissect ani- mode of acquiring a knowledge of their construction. the chief pictures exhibited were "The The result : Eat-Catchers.SIB EDWIN LANDSEEB. "is a laundry or in some great house." where four dogs are catching rats in an old barn and " Pointers." In 1821. probably which a monkey of position has access.

fear. in convulsions of passion and but still. a muscular. she twisted. sound chestnuts. appetizing odor of the fruit was probably due the entrance of the monkey. squalling. entangled as she was in the wrappings of her ease. " He looked about for a more effective means. She and strenuand vigorous frame of the creature quivered with the stress of her energy. who came dragging his chain and making his bell rattle. who with her kittens was ensconced in a clothes-basket. He smelt the fruit and coveted them . struggling. and burnt his fingers. kicking. Puss resisted at first with offended dignity and wrath at being thus treated before the faces of her offspring. for her tiger-like claws were enveloped in the covering which erst served her so comfortably. healthy beast. without a notion of the object of her captor. light. her work. the muscular. pounced upon puss. lean digits. where she blandly enjoyed the coverings and the heat. and. resisted as a cat only can. half a dozen ripe. surely. so to say. " Yet he had by far the best of the struggle. and. The ironing-woman has in full combustion. tried to steal them off the cooking-place with his own long. To the aromatic. together with a flatiron. buckled herself. left is and the hand of some one who appreciated the good things of life has deposited on its level top. doubled her body. and squealing as . the stove well maintained to be part of a poor man's house. heedless of the motherhood of a fine cat.372 SIR EDWIN LANBSEER. with lithe ous limbs .

and hurled her mistress's favorite flower-pot in hidironing-blanket/ It was to no purpose. In his thirty-second year.' Soon after the exhibition of this picture. " Stern. for the quadruped. He dragged her towards the stove.SIR EDWIN LAND SEER. The novelist greatly ad- mired Landseer's work. Sir Walter Scott came to London and took the young squalls. " His dogs are the most magnificent things I ever saw. eous confusion on the ' — and. saying. resolute. leaping and bounding and grinning all over the canvas. with the fourth stretched out her soft. little cats as they were ? He made their mother a true cat's-paw. she flounced about the room. squeals. 373 strength departed from her. as reckless of struggles as of yells. Landseer visited Scotland nearly every year. forepaw the very mouse-slayer itself to the burning stove and its spoils. charmed by its scenery and enjoying the hospitality of the nobles. sensitive. Pug grasped her in three of his powerful hands. upset the coal-scuttle on the floor." After this. it seemed necessary . was no match for her four-handed foe. What cared he for the bared backs or the spiteful mewlings of her miserable offspring. with muffled claws. velvety and — — ' painter to Abbotsford. and dreadful notions of a fate in its fiery bowels must have arisen in her heart as nearer and still more near the master of the situation brought his victim. with no more mercy than the cat had when some unhappy mouse felt her claws claws now to be deftly yet painfully employed.

374 SIR EDWIN LAND SEER. Here he lived for nearly fifty years. he brought his dogs and other pets here the father. Here. which derives its name from having been owned by the priors of the Hospital of the Knights of St. when a " If that is the only obstacle. which you can repay in instal- when it suits you. " There were few charming to visit than Landseer's. A small and garden. to whom the son was ever devotpeople . and that as soon as it is ready for signatures. John Landseer. with a barn suitable for a studio. edly attached. A premium of a hundred pounds being demanded for the house. his housekeeper. home removed from traffic of that the painter should have a the soot and noisy house were purchased at No. 1 St. John's Wood. Go and tell them . Mrs. a suburban region. his sister. being Here he received more famous than any other English painter save Joshua Eeynolds. especially talents the guished — none men more of wit and there distin- often than ." The painter returned the money loaned. Land- London. without interest. seer was about : friend said to break off negotiations. remove it. I will to the lawyers. the habitues of his workshop (as he called it) belonged to the elite of London A writer in Cornhill says : studios formerly more society. to make out the lease. I will lend you will pay the sum required and you the money. died. ments of twenty pounds each. Besides the genial artist and his beautiful pictures. Mackenzie. as he grew wealthy. John of Jerusalem.

now at Woburn Abbey. His first important picture exhibited after this. 375 D'Orsay. A young chief and his old companion. ing. the property of the Duke of Bedford. 'keep de dogs 'I me' (the painted ones). when Landseer was twenty-four years Chevy Chase " was painted. They go slowly and heedfully down the hill. " one of the best of his compositions. " : — " To drive the deer with hound and home Erie Percy took his way. traces of the w^ear — with and tear of a hard life on his step by the head of cheeks and in his gaunt eyes. Two dogs pace with them one of these turns to a deer's skull which lies in the — ." says Stephens. call ' Landseer/ he would off out at his entrance.SIR EDWIN LANDSEER. Across the backs of a white and a black pony two magnificent antlered deer are bound. with his good-humored face. He was made a full member at thirty. one of the horses. a mountaineer. herbage. It is an illustration of the old ballad old.' " In 1826." . his ready wit and delicate flattery. in 1827. he was made an associate of the Royal Academy. the subject giving scope to all his powers in dealing with dogs." was *' " The Chiefs Return from Deer-stalk- It is." This year. deer. an honor seldom given to so young a man. and some of and dat fellow in de corner is growling furiously. and horses. dem will bite me — want to come in. The chiefest harts in Chesvy Chase To kill and bear away.

on the 18th of July following. as 'twere for sympathy. . it to Lord North- brook. On the 15th of December. his friend and companion. Another picture of engraved by John : Pye. and a pendent eyeglass. astonishes his friends. breeches. At the Battle of Waterloo. and. wounded on the field of battle. the dog here represented. representing the dog at a moment when he . William died. 1834. and having also a leg shattered apparently by a musket-ball. especially. The latter. this public monument. who has returned from his travels and meets his friends. when a grateful country rewarded William's services by a pension and a wooden leg. is dressed in a cocked hat and laced coat. Thomas Baring gave fifteen hundred guineas for this painting. was thus described in the Catalogue " William Smith.'^ and was engraved by Gibbon as "The Travelled Monkey. he stumped about accompanied by the dog. and bequeathed this time. being possessed of combativeness." The monkey. a cannon-ball carried off one of his legs thus commenced and termiAs he lay nated William's military career. His name never having been recorded in an extraordinary Gazette. " The dog became William's prisoner. buckled shoes. " The Monkey who had seen the World " appeared at the same time as " The Chief's Return. and animated by a love of glory. came and sat beside him. with a wide cravat.376 SIR EDWIN LANDSEER. enlisted in the 101st Eegiment of Foot. blind with one eye.

but Landseer's merits were so obvious '' ." exhibited in 1831. bloodhounds. his fame will need assistance from writers upon art." In this year. the best The best commentators on Land- defenders of his genius.SIR EDWIN LANDSEEE. Vernon. Both these spaniels. Six weeks after the picture was " High Life " and " Low painted. and espeThere was cially of dogs. never very much to say. in a rude stone doorway. : to every one that he stood in no need of critical explanations. High Life " represents a gentle and slender stag-hound in a handsome home " Low Life. were bequeathed by Kobert Vernon to the nation. little deer-hounds. seer. noteworthy on account of their size." with the celebrated Maida. "Spaniels of King Charles's Breed" was exhibited." a brawny bulldog. now in the National Gallery. 1827. are the dogs themselves . and reclining against the mattress on which his master died. is erected to his memory by Edwin Landseer and John Pye. for there was no variety of opinion and nothing to discuss. being eighteen inches by thirteen and a half. Sir Walter Scott's favorite dog. the dog died. Life. and so long as there exist terriers. has already been said. as a gift from Mr. and are now in the National Gallery." In 1832. Hamerton says " Everything that can be said about Landseer's knowledge of animals. 377 was ill. Critics may write volumes of controversy about Turner and Delacroix. there was also exhibited the well-known " Scene at Abbotsford. in the foreground. pets .

. and that is to draw two things at once. after many manual dexterity had been cited: *Well. gentlemen of distinction were present. as Stephens well says. "A when lady. and was about to return to her most becomof . was ingeniously led in this direction by some of who knew that Sir Edwin could do wonders dexterous draughtsmanship. tired of the subject. The picture was painted in two days. a lion a large group gathered about the sofa where he was lounging. The white Blenheim spaniel fell from a table and was killed of Mr. evening at the house of a gentleman in the upper ranks of London society crowds of ladies and cution. illustrating Landseer's wonderful rapidity of exe- Yet this power. who was. there's one thing nobody has ever done. "followed more than twenty years' hard study. ings or instances exclaimed. The subject turned on dexterity and facility in feats of skill with the hand. No doubt. came to a violent end.' She had signalized herself by quashing a subject of conversation. lolling back on a settee. as ladies are apt to and rather become conversation does not appeal to their feeltheir interests.878 sin ^DWm landseer. and was picked up dead at the bottom. the talk . but they did not expect what followed. including Landseer. as usual. and were not unwilling to see him draw. Vernon. the true " King Charles " fell through the railings of a staircase." Stephens records an amazing instance of Land" A large party was assembled one seer's power.

It is now owned by the Duke of Devonshire. and is valued at more than fifteen thousand dollars. the occasion compelled. and with the other hand the perfect profile of a horse's head.SIR ing attitude. a pencil in each hand. In 1835. Landseer was paid two thousand dollars. with the one hand the profile of a stag's head. and without hesitation. "A Sleeping Bloodhound" (Countess) was exhibited. EDWIN LANBSEEU." In 1834. that " . said : 879 when Landseer pencils. I can do lend me two and I will The pencils were got. not finished. together and individually. quite as good as the master was accustomed to produce with his right hand alone the drawing by the left hand was . "A Highland Shepherd Dog rescuing Sheep from a Snowdrift. but. one dark night (at Wandsworth). not inferior to that by the right. "The hound was. Both drawings were full of energy and spirit. It was bequeathed by Mr. in leaping from the balcony where she watched. and all its antlers complete. as table. she missed a closed door for his . For the last. Queen Victoria and Prince Albert made etchings from this and from several others of Landseer's works. Jacob Bell to the National Gallery." and " A Scene of the Old Time at Bolton Abbey " were exhibited. on the dreAV simultaneously. ^ Oh. although. anxiously watching her master's return from London. they were.' was laid and Sir Edwin. a piece of paper show you. " Suspense. and. She heard the wheels of his gig and his voice." a bloodhound watching at wounded master.

fell all but dead at her master's Mr. are lanlanguage clear and expressive in the guage. his only mourner the dog who rests his head upon the coffin. . which ." representing the interior of a plain Highland home. the convulsive clinging of the paws.380 SIE EDWIN LAND SEER. the clear painting of the wood of the coffin and the folds of the blanket. highest degree. the bright. has dragged the its its blanket off the trestle the total powerlessness of folds . the rigidity of repose. laid close and motionless upon the fixed and tearful fall of the eye in utter hopelessness . called Sir Edwin Landseer from his bed. A well-worn Bible is on a stool in front. which marks that there has been no motion nor change in the trance of agony since the last blow was struck up- on the coffin-lid the spectacles marking the place where the Bible was last closed. bough beside it. and feet. with a pair of spectacles." In 1837 came " The Highland Shepherd's Chief Mourner. Euskin calls this picture " one of the most perfect poems or pictures (I use the words as synonymous) which modern times have seen. the head. Bell (the owner of the dog) j^laced the hound in his gig and returned to London. covered by his maud for a pall. sharp touching of the green her footing. and had a sketch made then and there of the dying animal. Here the exquisite execution of the crisp and glossy hair of the dog. indicating how . But the close pressure of the — dog's breast against the wood . the coffin of the shepherd in the centre.

landseer. as the dog's habitual motions caused them to grow. and his quickness of attention is hinted at by the gentle lifting of his The painting of the hide. — by which it ranks as a work of high merit. of sleep. the foreshortening of his paws as they hang over the edge of the quay. He looks seaward with a watchful eye. spaniel of the Duchess of Kent. 381 de- life. " with the painter's masterpieces. famous and honored. and the shadow of his enormous head is cast sideways on his flank as white as snow. the favorite royalty. there like down the masses of the hair. the pet of whom named Paul Pry. induce us to rank it. . not as the neat imitator of the texture of a skin or the fold of a drapery. ^. is of the Humane Society. . .SIR :edivin lonely has been the parture.A Distinguished Member 1838. is — these are is him who all his thoughts thoughts by which the picture separated at once from hundreds of equal merit as far as the mere painting goes." Landseer was now thirty-six years old. is considered Landseer's best portrait-picture. here rigid and ears." " The Portrait of the Marquis of Stafford and the Lady Evelyn Gower." in 1838." exhibited in the picture of a large Newfoundland dog " He lies in the broad sunlight. how unwatched the now laid solitary in . a welcome guest at the palaces of In 1835 he had painted Dash. but as a Man of Mind. and stamps its author. there soft here shining with reflected light." says Stephens. and the flne sense of chiaro-oscuro displayed in the whole.

and take off the crown and robes. Time. Sharp. which she gave to Prince Albert the next year. . the Princess Eoyal. . to go and. and has one very favorite little spaniel." Islay. " The Queen and Children " the Princess Eoyal with her pony and dog . she heard him barking with joy in the hall. "Windsor Castle in the Present . who is always on the lookout for her return when she has been from home. the Queen and pet terrier in a cradle. ." which was engraved for the Queen's book." In 1839 Landseer painted a picture of the Queen. : " The Queen had studied her part very diligently. wash little Leslie speaks in his autobiography [Victoria]. SIB EDWIN LANB8EEB. with the dog Dandie Dinmont Alice with the greyhound Eos. belonging to Prince Albert. and later " Her Majesty the Queen in the Highlands. "Leaves from a Diary in the Highlands " Princess Beatrice on . I don't know why. and she went through it extremely well. the Queen and the Duke of Wellington reviewing a body of troops in 1842. . I am told. and exclaimed. but the first sight of her in her robes brought tears into my eyes. There's Dash and was in a hurry to lay aside the sceptre and ball she carried in her hands. her favorite Princess Alice . and when the state coach drove up to the steps of the palace. She is very fond of dogs.382 . She had of course been separated from him on that day longer than usual. < ! ' Dash. and it had this effect upon many people she looked almost like a child. the Queen's ." "Prince Albert at Balmoral.

She has to-day been twice to my room to show additions recently added to her already rich collection of photographs. I have done a little : . the Queen at Osborne. and other noted men. "Edwin Landseer." When Landseer was in good health. He was the intimate friend of Dickens. The doctor in hand. he was the most genial of companions. the best of mimics. but I can't get out. Landseer was always a favorite with the royal family. Why. when he suffered from overtaxed nerves. June. ful feebleness. table.SIR EDWIN LANDSEER. He writes to his sister from " The Queen kindly comBalmoral. Browning. . Leslie tells the following incident at a dinner party at the house of Sir Francis Chantrey. and the Queen on a white horse. may possibly account for my condition. the sculptor. fearful cramp at night. The easterly winds. No sleep. accompanied by a feeling of faintness and distresshas taken me . better to-day. and at Chantrey's own Dining at . . I know not. without appetite. In the last painful years of his life. residing in the castle and gives me leave to dine to-day with the Queen and the rest of the royal Flogging would be mild compared to family. gave a capital specimen of Chantrey's manner. 383 horseback. friends. they were his devoted. Thackeray. and now again the unceasing cold rain. but since I have been in the Highlands I have for the first time felt wretchedly weak. 1867 mands me to get well here. my sufferings. Drawing tires me however.

and said " With your love of humor. in return. while he saw him standing his house with a large party. said " Sir Edwin has a fine hand. and went himself to the fire. now make yourself useful. and ring the Chantrey did as he was desired the butler bell. I send them free admissions to : St. Landseer was seated in Chantrey's chair. you think yourself ornamental. of the company.' appeared. order some claret." Some one urged Sydney Smith for his portrait. and was perfectly bewildered at hearing his master's voice. " The managers are very polite they send me free admissions which I can't use. in the 'Come table. before the fire. and sit in my place and study perspective. young man. after the cloth — — .' said our As soon as host." : Bewick. and. he turned round. refined perceptions. the artist. and. lamps. imitating his voice and manner. to sit to Landseer He is said to have replied in the words of the Sj^rian messenger to the prophet Elisha " Is thy servant a dog. said to him: 'Come. a correct eye. furniture. Paul's. etc. was removed from the beautifully polished table. from the head of the table. that he should do : this great thing ? " At another time Landseer was talking to Sydney Smith about the drama." The witty clergyman replied. and can . attention was called by him to the reflections. Landseer's Chantrey's furniture was all beautiful.384 SIR EDWIN LANDSEER. it must be an act of great self-denial to abstain from going to the theatres.

smoke ! how he : paints the glazed or watery eye '^ ! A writer in the London Daily News says ^^ Sir Edwin's method of composition was remarkably like Scott's. with a fine hand for manipulation. delicate. were those between sleeping and waking. in invention especially. Scott . at the country house of Mr. nothing could exceed the rapidity of his execution. or rather before opening the eyes from sleep. and rose of the latter.SIR EDWIN LANDSEEB. situation — his perception of surface. distance. "Landseer is sensitive. falsities of drawing." In 1840. much prolonged. but very late. when with and has consider- able humor. or See to what perfection he carries imperfections. discovering hidden defects. foliage. coming down to breakfast at noon he had been composing perhaps for hours. His conception once complete. He is a fine billiard-player. wool. manner of and light looks at it from between his and all with the strictly critical view of legs. fog. rock. 385 do almost anything but dance on the slack wire. all peculiarities for all all difficulties turns his picture into . Landseer had his first . while the brain was wide awake. sings his intimate friends. hair. declared that the most fertile moments for re- sources. plays at chess. except in the point of the early rising Landseer went late to bed. silk. grass. This. William violent illness asso- Wells. has brushes of . up to all the finesse of — the art . mist. was Landseer's time for composing his pictures.

Old Betty. saying. abroad for a time. an old forest keeper of Glencoe." which has been engraved many times. it made them very careful of speaking Gaelic in his hearing after. the mare. "Shoeing. to which attacks he He went was subject all the rest of his life.386 SIR EDWIN LANDSEER. "his works were " starving for him. travelling in France. praise. " Sir Edwin must have had some Gaelic in him. Jacob Bell and " The Otter Speared. who for more than twenty-four years accompanied Landseer with the sketch-book and gun. " ! Here ! take ! take this " while he pulled out his book and began to sketch. and won great From Sir Edwin's sporting-scenes many persons gained the impression that he was a keen sportsman. which was not the case. while he uplifts a poor otter on his spear." vigorous stag bellowing his defiance to hunters or other animals of his kind. tells how the highland gillies were annoyed when a magnificent stag came bounding toward them." Coming events sometimes cast called their " shadows before a them. says Cameron." . but. belonging to his friend Mr. land. Ewen Cameron." a huntsman surrounded by yelping dogs. Switzerand Austria." The Challenge. ciated with severe depression. and Sir Edwin thrust his hastily gun into their hands. but he was constantly longing for his studio. They murmured greatly in Gaelic. for he was that angry for the rest of the day. where. he said. were all exhibited in 1844.

"The Stag at Bay. The mother has fallen on her side . are useless. the scene high on the mountain. A but does not hide. to obtain milk where an unfailing source had been. 387 Peace " and " War. her. . There the victim the poor fawn . the latter a ruined cottage with a dying horse and dead rider near the The companion — pictures " door ings — were sold to Mr. long after the mother's form was cold. which covers. there is nothing but snow. one of Landseer's strongest pictures. firing into a herd of deer. for miles. hit the doe. that once went so swiftly. whose most distant ridges The snow lies smooth and rise above the mist. of the engravhundred from these pictures paid Landseer fifteen thousand dollars for them. and the last breath of her nostrils has melted the . few footprints show that a doe has come hither. so far as the eye can penetrate the vapor. doubtless." one of the artist's Stephens most pathetic pictures. the long limbs." the former a beautiful scene on painted in 1846 a cliff overlooking Dover harbor. mortally wounded. Some had careless shooter.SIR EDWIN LAND SEER. thus describes it. " A Kandom Shot. was painted. she came to die had followed." belonging to the Marquis of Breadalbane. attracted. and. whose fawn was with . In 1848. "It is a snow piece. by her knowledge of a pool of unfrozen water Avhich would assuage her thirst. Vernon The publishers for seventy-five year. appeared the same dollars. fell there the innocent one strove. the shapes of the hilltops.

Avitli it snow. stained trickled her blood. he never painted anything false or ignoble. but he could read pretty closely into those also. . has ever won them before. or a philosopher. but deer His love raised him to a level of higher being. but the deer mastered him. limity of nature. vulgar or unmanly he won as an artist purely the affection and admiration of a whole people as scarcely any man." in his Studies " : "He painted dogs and deer as no man ever painted them before he inspired one with a humor and both with a poetry beyond all parallel in art he added to this a feeling for the grandeur and sub. or a soldier.388 SIB EDWIN LANDSEEB. . be said to have mastered other animals. . He raised dogs almost to the scale of humanity." A writer tions of in Cornhill says : " Landseer's percep- character were remarkably acute. . less self-regarding. which gave to his pictures a charm and a sentiment which all can feel. so that. Not only did he of know what was passing in the hearts of dogs. not a poet. until froze again. or a statesman. The love of truth was an with him his common phrase about those he estimated highly was that nhey had the true . but more elevating. the water " Landseer downwards Monkhouse says. for the deer it was ended at last in stimulating his imagination to produce pictures deeper in thought and more awful in sentiment than any attempted by an animal painter " Landseer may may not have been so deep. and it before. . men and women instinct .

A large party of his friends were with him at his house in St. " It was a pity that Landseer. with most expansive demonstrations of delight. never wrote on the subject of their treatment. 389 — ring/ This was most applicable to himself there was no alloy in his metal he was true to himself and to others. only allowed their freedom now and then. An illustrious lady asked him how it By peeping was that he gained his knowledge. goes mad. three or four dogs rushed mastiff. He used to say a man would fare better tied up than a dog. John's Wood his servant opened the ' . because the former can take his coat off. door . in. This was proved in many passages of his life. He had a strong feeling against the way some dogs are tied up. or dies. ma'am. when nearly submerged by those disappointments and troubles which are more especially felt by sensitive organizations such or misfortune as that which it was his fortune . fierce-looking The ladies recoiled. who might have done so much for the good of the animal kind. He declared a tied-up dog. Some . the creature bounded up to Landseer.SIR EDWIN LANBSEEB. treated him like an old friend. — to possess. I into their hearts. without daily exercise. remember once being Avonderfully struck with the mesmeric attraction he possessed with them. in three years. one a very but there was no fear. but a dog lives in his forever. . "His wonderful power over dogs is well known.' was his answer.

' he said. Once when visiting him he came in from his meadow What looking somewhat dishevelled and tired. how fond it one remarking the dog seemed of him. his hands. This year. he age of forty-eight. Only have you been doing ? teaching some horses tricks for Astley's.390 SIR ^ EDWIN LAND SEER." lars " The Midsummer Night's Dream " of year. he said. painted the well-known "Monarch of the Glen. Highland In 1857. Landseer was made a knight. says Stephens. with the Duke of Wellington and his daughter-in-law. ' I never saw before in my life/ "Would that horse-trainers could have from him how horses could be broken in or learned trained more easily by kindness than by cruelty. Brunei. He said that breaking in horses meant more often breaking their hearts." we have. the Marchioness Douro. showing us a piece of sugar ' ' ' in his hand. jects who ordered a series of Shakespearian subfrom different artists. It is said that eighteen thousand dol- were paid for the copyright of this painting. the duced. . Dialogue of Waterloo " was proIn 1850. and here is my whip. at four hundred guineas each. the same Isambard K." bing them of all their spirit. was afterwards sold to Earl Brownlow for fourteen thousand dollars." The Maid . in " Scene in Brae-mar — " Deer. on the . " the grandest stag which came from This was sold in 1868 for four thousand guineas. at the The next year. '' battlefield. painted for the great engineer. 1851. and rob. we asked him.

In. is about to milk a cow. . M. "Flood in the Highlands. but turns to listen to her lover. F.' Nathan. which the latter soon afterwards sold for two thousand guineas. and adding that the seller would not keep the money. or — . Bell suppressing both his own name and that of the purchaser." was painted. he shall have a good one. for Jacob Bell. the canvas.SIR EDWIN LANDSEER. 'Well. on the Tuesday before it was putting a few touches on sent to the Academy. the latter exclaimed. factor was. 391 and by and the Magpie.' " In 1860. when a magpie steals a silver spoon from one of the wooden shoes at her side." says Stephens. He looked as if about to become old. " during the painting of this picture. Placing the latter amount in Landseer's bank.' his benehim who tell Bell to pressing afterwards. He was now fifty-eight. but wanted another picture painted for it. narrated the circumstance." painted appeared in 1858. The master was so charmed with this generous act that he And said. in the words of The picI am the man. " I remember him. the Israelite ture which resulted was The Maid and the Mag: ' ' pie. Sweetser to the nation. Mr. although his age by no means justified the notion it was not that hg had lost activity or energy." called by Stephens "probably the strongest of all his pictures. tells this incident him presented The pretty girl "Sir Edwin once painted a picture for Jacob Bell for one hundred guineas.connection with this picture.

It represents two dogs looking over the shoulders of the artist. had shrunk. full of kindness. somewhat livid features. and he had a nervous way remarkable in so distinguished a man. without seeming to be overworked. not fat nor robust. and cast a large shadow on his plump. The gray Tweed suit. figure rapid movements. and its sober trim. but not seeking occaand imbued throughout with a perfect frankness. with quiet sions for wit." In 1864.' marked the man . . so did his stout. strative. sharp. and utter- ances that glistened with prompt remarks. stout and well filled. while he makes a drawing. distinguished the man. he did not look robust. and presented by Sir Edwin to the Prince of Wales. Monkpicture. The wide green shade which he wore above his eyes projected straight from his forehead. and. a little emphatically that his form — — ' ' quiet. . one who was usually by no means unconscious of himself. " The Connoisseurs " was painted. humor. God disposes.392 SIR EDWIN LANDSEER. In 1865. The purchaser of Sweetser says. an Arctic incident suggested by the findconcise. ing of the relics this of Sir John Franklin. for he moved as firmly indeed he was rather demonand swiftly as ever. stepping on and off the platform in his and his form was studio with needless display. "Man proposes." was painted. "Nevertheless. and yet. paid Landseer twenty-five hundred pounds for it. one saw that his eyes had suffered. in the shadow. to those he liked.

no matter what. was sold in 1874 for £3360." painted sand dollars. government had commissioned him to execute this work eight years before. I sleep well seven hours. I know my head will not stand it much longer. If I am bothered about anything and everything. any one wishes to see at a glance nearly all we have written. variously gifted.SIR : EDWIN LANBSEER. is shown by a letter to a friend: "I have got trouble enough. I return to my own home in spite of a . manly. simple. L. . a lover of animals and children and humanity and — . or nearly seventeen thou- This year.." In 1867 his bronze Lions were placed at the base of the Xelson monument in Trafalgar The Square. .." Again he writes " My health (or rather condition) is a mystery beyond human intelligence. in 1866. ten or twelve pictures about which I am tortured. and a large as a sculptor. with a canine connoisseur on if either side. and unaffected. and do not rally till after luncheon. let him look at his own portrait." "Lady Godiva's Prayer. in a vigorous national monument to complete. but sickness and other matters had prevented. and awake tired and J. 393 " The man behind his work was seen house says sensitive. genial. tender-hearted... That this commission was a care to him. through it. came down yesterday and did her best to cheer : me. jaded. thus associating two great names. Sir Edwin first appeared model of a " Stag at Bay. in 1859. painted by himself.

faithful to his task. the Viceroy of India. his property amounting to about one million two hundred and fifty thousand dollars. used to where he would have liked to end he did not give up his work " He in his studio. he looked up and said 'I shall never see : : the green leaves again . but he did see them. kind invitation from Mr. Gladstone to meet Princess Louise at breakfast. Mackenzie. He lived through lie another spring. When he was almost at his worst^ so some one . Thomas Baring When of the Sir Charles Eastlake died. painting a little at a time. He was very weak in body latterly. Sir Edwin's life was now drawing to its close. but sometimes he used to go into the garden and w^alk round the paths. but he declined. To the very but he used to go on. and bequeathed to Lord Northbrook. . w^as purchased by for three thousand guineas. and Mrs." painted in 1870. Miss Mackey says. his sister. leaning on his sister's arm. in Comhill. " The Sick Monkey." " The Swannery invaded by Sea-Eagles " was one of Landseer's most notable later works.394 SIR EDWIN LAND SEER. the presidency Koyal Academy was urged upon Landseer. One beautiful spring morning. concerning his last '' Was ever any one more tenderly long illness nursed and cared for ? Those who had loved him in his bright wealth of life now watched the long days one by one telling away its treasure. which he left mostly to his brotiiers and sisters. said. die. He had become wealthy through his painting. ' Mrs.

. . " He wished to die in his studio. his dear studio.* She wrote to her old friend and expressed her admiration for it. and in whom she herself had every confidence. bade of his nurses. in St. for which he used to long when he was away. and to trust to those who were doing their best for him. 395 told me." Landseer died on the morning of October 1. when haunted by some painful apprehensions. The Queen is the owner of The Font. and where he lay so long expecting the end but it was His brother in his own room that he slept away. with distinguished honors. and that her wise and judicious kindness came to the help She sent him back a message. 1873. was with him. When they came back. him not be afraid. they found that he had painted the picture of a lion. " The Font is an allegory of all creeds and all ' ' created things coming together into the light of truth. . in the hoj^e that he might take up his work and forget his suffering.SIR EDWIN LANBSEER. and was buried October 11. and asked to become the posHer help and sympathy brightened the sessor. ^ little ' -lamb lying beside a This and The Font were the last pictures ever painted by that faithful hand. Paul's CathedraL . and left him alone in the studio. ' sadness of those last days for him. It is well known that he appealed to her once. His old friend came into the room. He knew him and pressed his hand. they gave him his easel and his canvas. .

"The seems color. hardly to known deposit. He may even goes so far that the another art. he might have been as wonderful an object painter . are evidence enough that. had he chosen to paint objects rather than effects. there is excellence of another kind in those parts which of those parts of Turner's water-colors exhibit dexterities of execution. birds and their plumage. in his of. be laid on the paper by any means to us. ever lived.. . in some craft of execution. is like a fresh discovery his own. or in the knowledge of some particular thing in nature but no one has ever deserved such generally high rank as Turner in His superiority the art of water. Jthe greatest master of water color who had have been excelled since then in some special departments of the art. in his best time. but suggests the idea of a vaporous and besides the indescribable excellence which do not look as if they were painted at all. in most delicate work. etc.TURNER.color painting. ISTor is the strange perfection of his painting in water color limited to landscape . art.his hands. bits of interiors at Pet- worth. his studies of still life. " nnUENEE was unquestionably.

" became insane. he earned money by coloring prints. She had an ungovernable temper. At twelve years of age. in which his The father. hung his drawings in his shop windows. over a barber shop. perceiving the lad's talent. as 397 William Hunt was. uneducated man. Meanwhile. to the Boyal Academy. to a Mr. making backgrounds and skies for . him while he His father had intended him to be a barber. The mother. Turner was born April 23. The boy William very early began to show his skill in drawing. Coleman at Margate. where he loved and studied the sea. Mary Turner. and is said to Later. Palice. and sold them for a few pence or shillings each. belonged rior in position to the family of to a family of Marshalls or Mallords near Nottingham. en- couraged him. who taught his boy to be honest and saving. William Turner. his birds. London. in Maiden Lane. so that his schoolmates often did his work in mathematics for made sketches." Thus writes Philip Gilbert Hamerton. latter was an economical. at thirteen. a floral drawing-master" in Soho. though in a different and more elevated manner. flowers. but. "good-natured. she have led the barber "a sad life. and was sent to an asylum. and at fourteen. 1775. In his first school at New Brentford.TURNER. William was sent to "Mr. when he was ten years old. lived and worked. and trees on the walls of the room attracted attention. supe- William Turner.

This house proved a valuable place for study to the barber's son. the partial displace- ment of traditional notions of composition. Walker. Munro. and on foot. Peterborough. and elsewhere. when he was fifteen. with sketches by Claude. Titian. Harrison for his Pocket Magazine. and his first oil painting . J. and others. Cosmo Monkhouse. " Well And what could be better practice " In 1792. Vandevelde. the youth travelled through Wales. plans. to make drawings for his Copperplate Magazine. Ely. and Gainsboroughs. an engraver. who considered himself fortunate crown and a supper for each evenlife. on a pony lent him by a friend. Windsor. through Nottingham. " may be said to have been the perfection of his technical skill." memory with infinite effects of His first water color at the Eoyal Academy Exhibition was a picture of Lambeth Palace. When pitied of the hard by some one in later work of his boyhood. with his baggage in his handkerchief tied to the end of a stick. "The result of these tours. Cambridge. who lived in one of the palaces on the This physician owned many Rembrandts Strand. To make these sketches. and soon after from Mr. and copying pictures for Dr. Lincoln. and the storing of his nature. when he was seventeen. the Isle of Wight. to receive half a ing's work.898 architects' TURNED. he ? because said." says W. he received a commission from Mr.

"Oh. but had the courage to make his moonlight warm. " The picture. the ordinary manufacturers of moonlights large quantities for the light of — and the All moonlights have been manufactured in deplorably market — represent our satellite as a blue and cold light whereas in nature." a study in Milbank. Cadell expressed surprise. "shows not the least trace of genius. was his first exhibited work in oil." he says. Hot Wells. At twenty-two. though he had not as yet the skill to express the ineffably mellow softness of the real warm moonlights in nature. " I made a drawing or painting of Norham . he journeyed into the counties of Yorkshire and Kent. and " Norham Castle on the Tweed. it is often pleasantly rich and warm." 1798. as he was passing Norham Castle. and began to teach drawing in London and elsewhere at ten shillings a lesson. an Edinburgh publisher." said Turner. . he took off his hat to the castle. with Cadell. and soon produced " Morn" Cattle in ing on the Coniston Fells.TUBNEB. Turner hired a house in Hand Court. But he soon grew impatient of his fashionable pupils. yet it has always been rather a favorite with me for its truth to nature in one thing. the eigh- ^'Rising Squall. teen." in 1798 Water." Twenty years afterward." At twenty-one. according Redgrave." when he was Hamerton thinks "Moonlight. at 399 to the exhibition. Turner did not follow the usual receipt. Buttermere Lake. especially in the southern summer. and the teaching was abandoned.

frolic. a sorrow came which seemed comWhile at the pletely to change Turner's nature. this I TURNER. who afterward adorned his home with fifty thousand dollars' worth of Turner's pictures. He was often a guest at Farnley Hall. made many warm friends. . as kindly-hearted a man. and from that day to have had as much to do as my hands could execute. and shooting we enjoyed together. particularly with the juvenile members of the family. Margate school. and as capable of enjoyment and fun of all kinds." Mrs. owned by Mr. and which.400 several years ago. and an engagement followed a few years During a long absence in his art work. as any I ever knew. natural and genial in manner. have proved to me that he was. in his hours of distraction from his professional labors. says " : Of all the light-hearted. the rising young artist. Hawkesworth Fawkes. he had fallen in love with the the love had been reciprosister of a schoolmate cated. . Fawkes's son speaks of "the fun. merry creatures I ever knew. It took. though small and somewhat plain in person. later. Wheeler." In Yorkshire. . whatever may be said by others of his temper and disposition." Somewhere between the ages of nineteen and twenty-three. Mr. a friend in these early years. Turner was the most so and the laughter and fun that abounded when he was an inmate of our cottage was inconceivable.

with my pictures. when he was twenty-four. Turner arrived at Margate. he was made an associate of the Royal Academy. Hamerton says " His election is the more remarkable. he paid no calls. for the rules of good manners very ' ' . He any of its disgave no dinners. and a full academician in 1802. social He was in absolutely inca- pable of guises. who finally prevailed A week before the become engaged to another. he would social sense. and besought her to marry him but his betrothed considered herself in honor bound to the new lover. should Why thank a man for performing I thank them ? His views on the subject were a simple duty ? clearly wrong. 'they would not have elected me. often rising for work at four o'clock in the morning.TURNER. and Turner remained a disappointed and solitary man through . their letters were intercepted 401 by the young lady's upon her to stepmother. then. wedding." In 1799. Why. life. except his fair hard : work in his profession. courtiership he did nothing to make the academicians believe that he would be a credit to their order in any Even after his election.' he said to Stothard. The marriage proved a most unhappy one. saying sadly that there were "no holidays for him. not go to thank his electors. that he had done nothing whatever to bring it about. His art now became his one absorbing thought he worked early and late. in obedience to the If they had not been satisfied established usage.

" the celebrated " Calais Pier " in a " The Source of the Arveiron." "Edinburgh from Calton Hill." " Narcissus gale and Echo. . He was associate or for a full half-century. taking his plain old father home to live with him. frequently require us to thank people for performing simple duties." his famous "Shipwreck. "His elevation to the immense value to him in this so well that he full his career. membership was of and he knew the Academy member of it fifty remained deeply attached to life. landscape. elected on his merits ! . E. the whole series of one hundred plates to friend." also in the National Gallery. issued in dark blue covers. . he removed to 64 Harley Street. each containing five plates. . and during years was only three times absent from its all his exhibitions. be divided into historical. among other pictures.402 TUBNER. at the suggestion of his Mr. He took his first tour on the Continent." now in the National Gallery and the magnificent " Goddess of Discord . making studies of Mont Blanc." This year. the Liber Studiorum. Wells. Turner began. " The Vintage at Macon. In 1807. choosing the Apple of Contention in the Garden of Hesperides. 1802. W. pastoral. and the academicians were not under any obligation to elect the young painter so but how completely Turner's conduct in soon bhis matter proves that he can only have been . this year. 1806 contained. the Swiss lakes and mountain The exhibitions of 1803 to passes. .

" and others." "St. The principal pictures were "^sacus and Hesperia." " Sol way Moss.TUBNEB. marine. F." "Jason." "Kizpah." " Mer de Glace." "Christ and the Woman of Samaria. the came to an end in 1816." "Procris and Cephalus. No rhetoric can say for it as much as . such an exhibition of genius in the same to ^ ! ' ' direction.' ." the "Alps from Grenoble. the great print-dealer. "was to show Turner's own power. and there never was. the engraver. The work was intended as a rival to Claude Lorraine's Liber Veritatis. "that Charles Turner. caused him hunt up the remaining proofs in his possession. of effect as kindling paper." "Raglan Castle." the " Yorkshire Coast.." the "Lake of Thun. used the proofs and trials later. Many years Colnaghi." says M. project After seventy plates had been published. 403 mountainous. "So hopeless and worthless did the enterprise seem. because of dis- agreement with engravers." " Dunstanborough Castle. cried the old engraver. and architectural." says Monkhouse.. Sweetser." " Inverary. Gothard Pass. and perhaps never will be again." the "Fifth and Tenth Plagues of Egypt. In later days three thousand pounds had been paid for a single copy of the LiberJ' " The most obvious intention of the work. and lack of patronage." the " Eiver Wye. and gave him fifteen hundred pounds for them. I have been Good God burning bank-notes all my life. at one time.

and the structure and growth of things. we have the Bible and Ovid If . . with a few deft lines and a rendering atmospherical . out. and quality of surface. twenty of If he did not ex- haust art or nature. .404 it TUR'NER. the latter of great and almost solitary power. . a flat like a rainbow. Others have drawn rocks. Jason. or printed on a cloud. and to have gone further than any one else in the interpretation of nature. . have drawn the appearance of clouds. may have drawn foliage with more habitual fidelity. . Cephalus and Procris iEsacus and Hesperia Glaucus and Scylla NarcisIf we want to know the artists he sus and Echo. could and without bow of light arrested show by vapor in standing mid-air. . but he could reveal things through mist. but Turner knew how they formed. . says for itself in those ninety plates. we seek the books from which his imagination the first took fire. but he. " . he may be fairly said to have exhausted all that was then known of landscape art. almost color. not upon a mountain. . but he could give their structure. wash . . but none ever drew trunks and branches with Others such knowledge of their inner life. Others could it make something alone. He not only knew how a Others tree looked. daring the huge glittering serpent Syrinx. . but he showed how it grew. consistency. of small. which were never published. others could hide things in a mist. Amongst his more obvious claims to the first place among landscape artists are his pov\^er of effects. fleeing from Pan.

point to a defective part. say nothing." Turner this year moved to the Upper Mall. and sufficient of the latter to show the wide range of his travel. illustrating not only directions of line. with a care and completion which would put the work of any ordinary teacher to utter shame. Kuskin says " The zealous care with which Turner endeavored to do his duty is proved by a large existing series of drawings. Turner was . he would neither waste time nor spare he would look over a student's drawing at the it Academy. we shall find easily nearly all the former. exquisitely tinted. which position he held for thirty years.TURNER. In a word. owing to his confused manner and obscurity in the use of language. all by his own hand. delighted. Turner was appointed professor of perspective in the Eoyal Academy. He still retained . but effects of light. where his garden extended to the Thames. and did it. but if the student could not follow. except his color and his fatalism. make a scratch on the paper at the side." In 1808. or the places to which he had been. though he rarely gave lectures to students. If the student saw what was wanted. In this he had a summer-house. of the most difficult perspective subjects . Turner left him. 405 most admired and imitated. In teaching generally. one who has carefully studied the Liber has indeed little to learn of the range and power of Turner's art and mind. where some of his best work was done. Hammersmith. and often completely colored.

was at home. more wished she had stated otherwise. by Mrs. The youngest after having ascertained that he . he was induced to remark that he had seven. " Bligh Shore " was used as a covering for a window. and lived in life of much the a recluse." and saved the cat from the whipping.Anne Street. After he had moved. and was about to be punished for the offence. such an event being almost un. negative her companion. and were shown into a large sitting-room without a fire. This was in the depth of winter and lying about in various places were several cats without tails. A cat desiring to enter the window scratched the picture severely. . and would let no harm come to them." Turner was fond of his pet cats. in 1812. when Turner said. : ing incident " Two ladies called upon Turner while he lived in — Mr. asking the ladies if they felt cold. replied in the curious. Danby. One of the ladies bestowing some notice upon the cats. Thornbury tells the follow- Harley Street. to 47 Queen. one of his favorite pictures. which they partook of for the novelty. the housekeeper.406 TURNER. and that they came from the Isle of Man. On sending in their names. they were politely requested to walk in. it the Harley-Street house. "Never mind. precedented in his house. In a short time our talented friend made his appearance. After a little conversation he offered them wine and biscuits. as she hoped they might have been shown into his sanctum or studio.

with all its faults." and " Dido building Car. the boys named him adjacent trees. was the finest of the kind he ever painted." in 1811. and afterwards Sandycomb Lodge. the perfect expression of his enjoyment of the exqui- scenery in the neighborhood of Plymouth. "The first (^Crossing the Brook'). which he bought and rebuilt in 1813 or 1814. but It is said that for a . robbed. the most simple in its motive." "Crossing the Brook" was painted gentleman who ordered it with the promise of paying twenty-five hundred dollars for it. "is the purest and most beautiful of all his oil pictures of the loveli- ness of English scenery. The eccentric artist must have been at this time quite rich. the well-known " Wreck of the Minotaur. " Blackbirdy. as well as famous. He had painted "The Sun rising in Mist. calling it Solas Lodge on account of his desire to be alone." says Monkhouse." was always working in the garden and catching cold." in 1812 and " Crossing the Brook." in 1810 " Apollo killing the Python. thage." in 1815.TUBNEB. "Hannibal and his Army crossing the Alps in a Snowstorm. 407 At his house in Twickenham. . the most tranquil in its sentiment." in 1807. because his aged father." because he protected the blackbirds in the not allowing their nests to be Turner sold this place after having owned it about twelve years. (' Dido building Carthage '). whom he always called " Dad. site The latter and his greatest effect in the way of color before his visit to Italy.

" that. was again He wrote to one of his best H. but would not sell it. in other words. tures. the same (Sandy comb Lodge) might change occupiers. "It's a noble offer. In 1815. " The Decline of the Carthaginian Empire" was exhibited. the sculptor see me have once remarked to his "Will you promise rolled up in the Carthage at my : ' ' burial ? " was the reply " and I promise you also soon as you are buried. and other pictures The to artist is said to friend Chantrey. vicar of Heston. . as In 1819. Miss Trimmer: "If she would but waive her bashfulness. another suitor." said the painter. at this time. I will see that you are taken up and unrolled. whom she married. the artist.408 TUBNEB. "but I have willed them. Sir Robert Peel. privately. make an offer instead of expecting one. Rev. and others. or. Scott Trimmer. was disappointed in it when finished." . giving these to the nation. In 1817. intending to present them to the National Gallery. a companion piece to the Building of Carthage. friends. Lord Hardinge. Turner was afterwards offered eight thousand dollars for it. and Turner never again attempted to win a wife. Years later. Turner made his first visit to Italy. concerning his sister. " Yes. and refused to take it." But Miss Trimmer had. now forty years old." He had already made his will. offered twentyfive thousand dollars to Turner for the two picdisappointed in love.

that it seemed like a window opened upon the land of the ideal. says Monkhouse. where the harmonies of things are more perfect than they have ever been in the common world. "he astonished the world with the first of those magnificent dreams of landscajje loveliness with which his name will color. The Bay of BaisSj always be specially associated with Apollo and the Sibyl. for the mirroring of nature as color to both sky it appears to ninety-nine out of every hundred.TURNER. for tricity nor puzzles work that neither startles you by its eccenyou as to its meaning. among other pictures. and such a glow of light and color." says Evening. Turner exhibited his " Cologne the Arrival of a " There were. and form (especially of trees). 1826." The picture was hung between two of Sir Thomas — — Lawrence's portraits. thereby . Turner at once spoil- covered his picture with lampblack. which satisfies without cloying. there is none to compare with these drawings of his of England after his first visit the truth of to Italy. after 409 which his works became remarkable for their In 1823. for carefulness and accuracy of drawing." Packet-boat Hamerton. with sixteen engravings after Turner's Monkhouse says " For perfect balance designs. the golden color of the "Cologne" dulling their effect." During this year.' " The " Elvers of England " was published in 1826. for fidelity of and earth. : ' : of power. " such unity and serenity in the work. and leaves no doubt as to its illusion.

but Turner himself bid them in. if he so desired. sir. he would accept but teen illustrations for " of Scotland. Turner made designs for twenty illustrations in Eogers's poem of " Italy. " a more exthe critics. or any plan to art. it is asserted." The work was discontinued twelve years later. which was returned to him that he might sell it. for two thousand guineas. five guineas each. cheapen or popularize He once told Sir ." says Hamerton. for the public view. because it was not a pecuniary success. John Naylor." letter-press : ' ' — He disliked steel engravings." for . for three thousand pounds." for which." Turner generally received from twenty to one hundred guineas for each drawing used. he said : " quisitely beautiful instance of self-sacrifice ? The "Cologne" was sold. you were going to buy my England and Wales to sell cheap. When reproached by Poor Lawrence was so unhappy. to Mr. In 1827 the first part of his largest series of prints was published: "England and Wales." " Was there ever. saying to Bohn " So. execution of the work pleased him thir- The Provincial Antiquities which Sir Walter Scott wrote the and tweuty-six pictures for Finden's "Illustrations of the Bible. I suppose make umbrella prints of them. as the so well . Bohn offered twenty-eight hundred pounds for the copper plates and stock. It will all wash off after the Exhibition. at the auction.410 ing it TURNER. eh ? But I have taken care of that. in 1854.

' and wanted to sell me one for a " When I got off the ' sixpence." replied : 411 that he " didn't choose to be a Being asked what he meant." The seeks painter's hard-working life. what fame brings received its to a man who eagerly the aged father. in 1830. Paul's. W. MANY YEARS AN INHABITANT OF THIS WHO DIED SEPTEMBER 21ST. with little com- fort save it. R. AUGUST. Peel. Thomas Lawrence basket engraver. the artist thirty years. He was buried in St. " The loss was like that of an only child. he coach t'other day at Hastings. Covent Garden." The plain barber had lived with his son for had seen him gain wealth and renown. PARISH. a woman came up with a basketful of your Mrs. greatest shock in the death of Turner said. He could do little save to encourage with his affection and be proud and grateful for the painter's success. HAS PLACED THIS TABLET. TO HIS MEMORY AND OF HIS WIFE. M. THEIR SON J. and writing this inscription for his monument : — IN THE VAULT BENEATH AND NEAR THIS PLAGE ARE DEPOSITED THE REMAINS OF WILLIAM TURNER. TURNER. " He never appeared the same man after his father's death. And this was enough. MARY ANN. 1830." His friends the Trimmers said. .TURNER.. 1832. A.

himself the scape. the cities. . entered into the spirit of France here he found more fellowship of scene with his partly because an amount of thought which will miss of Italy or Switzerland partly because there is in the will fathom France of ground much that is forms and French foliage especially congenial with his own peculiar choice He still remains the only." sufficient. the forms simply sketched. It is believed." says Hamerton. one of the finest "The being. but in of form." in which he seemed to combine the mountains. and with . in most instances. " The Kivers of France." characteristics which they have in common. Turner exhibited his memorable "Chiide Harold's Pilgrimage. . From 1833 to 1835 he produced his exquisite series. Italy. that he blocked out the picture almost entirely in pure white. own England . . . Turner has most entirely .. just to some very pale mark the position of the objects. with only tinting. really founded upon the true Venetian color. painter of French land- In 1833 Turner exhibited the first of his eleven remarkable Venetian pictures. exactly on the principles of the artist's own free sketching in water colors. "The Sun of Venice going to Sea. probability. and the skies he had loved in that beautiful country.412 TURNER. .. . but worked up to the utmost brilliance which the palette would allow. the trees. " are splendor of color and carelessness of form the color being." Euskin says partly because " Of all foreign countries. In 1832.



" In 1838. 1838. snatching. some gleam of water. probably to end with whitebait and champagne at Greenwich. so that the brilliance of the white shone through the and gave it that very luminous quality which is simply a return to the early Flemish practice of painting thinly on a lightground." These pictures called forth much adverse critibut they soon had a Herculean defender in the "Oxford Undergraduate" of 1836. Turner exhibited "The fighting Temeraire tugged to her last berth to be broken up. with the difference. however. . It was at these times that Turner talked and joked his best. in which he so delighted. This sive oil-painting." Thornbury tells how the subject was suggested to Turner.TURNER. and that this 413 white preparation was thick and loaded from the beginning. painted thinly in color. now and then. a moment to print on his quick brain some tone of sky. or both. water-color to the varied and rich surface of mas- possesses. some sprinkling light of oar." In 1839. and that the'-modelling of the impasto with the brush was done in this thick The result was to unite the brilliance of white. some glancing sunshine cross-barring a sail. it On this he afterwards oil or water-color. that Turner made a fresh ground of his own between the canvas and his bright colors. the Kuskin of " Modern Painters. Suddenly there moved down upon the artist's boat the grand cism. Turner was with Stanfield and a party of brother artists on one of those holiday excursions.

" fine subject.' which was painted ten years earlier. : Hamerton says " The picture is. and was being towed to her last moorings at Deptford by a little fiery. In that space he had made more than four hundred drawings for the engraver. "'There's a field. This picture has more than once been associated by critics with the magnificent Ulysses deriding Polyphemus. as often happens in the works of bad marine painters.^ "This decade had been a time of immense industry for Turner. besides. old vessel that had been taken prisoner at the Nile and that led the van at Trafalgar. both in sentiment and execution. is made at the same time both decided in hue and luminous. is and the shipping. Turner. always a great technical difficulty. positive truth. and the red. . though not treated with severe made to harmonize well with the rest. as every painter knows. Mr.414 TURNER. puny steamtug. one of the finest of the later works. The sun sets in red. Both are splendid in sky and ' water. entirely developed and entirely unabated. She loomed pale and ghostly. and both are florid in color.' said Stan- and the suggestion was gladly acted upon. Euskin's opinion is that the period of Turner's central power. and closes with the Temeraire. and had executed. and not stuck upon the canvas. Golden sunsets are easy in comparison. by the artist's craft. begins ' with the Ulysses. had exhibited more than fifty pictures in the Royal Academy. The sky and water are both magnificent.

'Soapsuds and whitewash!' again. asking why he minded what they said. At last I went to him. The " Slave Ship. though sought by queathed it several persons." was exhibited in 1840." One reason of his aversion to society was his desire to save time for this great amount of work.TURNER. Turner was passing the evening on the day this criticism after dinner." in 1842. and ' . to 1845. It is gorgeous in color. Euskin. sitting in his armheard him muttering low to himself at intervals. It became the property of Mr.' Then he burst Soapsuds and whitewash out what would they have ? I wonder what they think the sea's like 1 " I wish they'd been in it chair. and it is now in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. Euskin says : '' at my father's house. typhoon coming on. who sold it. The Temeraire. and probably many private commissions which cannot easily be ascertained. From 1840 Turner painted a few pic- tures of great power. and called " soapsuds and whitewash." The picture represents a steamer off a harbor in a storm. and is regarded by many as the grandest sea which Turner ever painted. and again. The " Snowstorm. and again. was harshly criticised. and beto the nation. slavers throwing overboard the dead and dying. making signals. I ' ' : ! ! came out. 4iO some thousands of sketches. the artist refused to sell at any price. It represents a sunset on the Atlantic after a storm.

1841. in 1841. Turner had been in the storm. tears streaming from his eyes. Stanfield entered Turner's studio and said." artist. he paid several visits to the photographic artist Mayall." now in in the National Gallery." to which the artist made answer. when the Ariel left Harwich. calling himself a master in chancery. the a word. off Gibraltar. I ever last I have lost the best friend In 1843. had in my life. and knew that he had painted truthfully. as he making many did not wish to be recognized. died a few years previously. he took his nent. From 1847 to 1849. Clara! these are iron tears. " In the death- chamber of the former." says George Jones. ''You're painting the sails very black. to observe the storm. some distance from Whilst the picture was on the easel. " If I could find anything blacker than black. the Scottish artist. was exhibited also 1842. he " got the sailors to lash to the mast. in 1844. there four hours. Turner went to the house. He was deeply . "he wrung my hands.416 TURNER. and saying to the daughter. and then rushed from the house without uttering When William Frederick Wells. shore. sobbing like a child. and of Callcott. One night." " him and remained it. I'd use it. It was painted to commemorate the funeral of Sir David Wilkie. not expecting to survive Peace — Burial at Sea. "0 Clara." journey to the ContiLake Lucerne. which had taken place in June." The deaths of Chantrey. deeply affected Turner. about sketches which was very dear to him.

In 1850. unasked. David Eoberts. and was said to have been his mistress. the loan and paid it. no there is something here which is all wrong." "Mercury sent to admonish ^neas.' As he stood by the table in my painting-room." says Eoberts. I could not help * j looking attentively at him. he exhibited no pictures. Turner called at the studio. interested in the progress of photography. which had always given him so much pleasure. Turner found that his personality had become known. "I tried to cheer him up." He was now seventy-five years old. and could never be induced to visit the place again. Turner. He gladly accepted After nearly two years. and unlike the glazed and lack-lustre eye ^ ' of age. the aged artist was absent from his home in Queen-Anne Street. This was my last look. and ceased to attend the Academy meetings. brought him fifteen hundred dollars. peering in his face. for the small eye (blue) was brilliant as that of a child. " but he laid his hand upon his heart and replied. telling him to repay it sometime if he could. Hannah Danby. Two weeks later. 417 When Mayall was in pecuniary trouble in consequence of a lawsuit about patent rights. .TURNER. In 1851. and begged to be allowed to see him." For several months." and "The Visit to the Tomb. he sent his last pictures to the Academy "yEneas relating his Story to Dido. No. wrote him. the artist. who had been his housekeeper for fift)' years. Finally." "The Departure of the Trojan Fleet.

Then it came out and flooded his drawings and his canvases with a glory unseen before in art." . owned by Sophia Caroline Booth. and mists. December 18. His gold must turn to yellow. Sunlight was his presence in he had studied its complicated reflections before he commenced to work in color. . refine upon this having eclipsed all others. the greatest pictorial interpreter of the elemental forces of nature that ever lived. and shadows. . in a small plain cottage on the banks of the Thames. wheeled to the window to look out upon the Thames. He died the day after his friends An hour before his death.'' says Monkhouse. the first of all men to endeavor to paint the full power of the sun. in veiled splendor. and bathe in the sunshine which he so dearly loved. From monochrome he had adopted the low scale of the old masters. as it were. before his genius could be satisfied with its efforts to express pure sunlight. but into it he carried his light the brown clouds. who thought him an admiral in reduced circumstances. discovery he had found its shadow. But he must go on. and yellow almost into white. the greatest imagi- nation that ever sought expression in landscape.418 TURNER. " the great solitary found a letter in the pocket of an old led her to believe he genius. and found him. " So died. he was found him. very ill. She and a relative sought him. which was in Chelsea. he must now eclipse himself. . had the sun behind them. 1851. coat. . . Turner. He was called "Admiral Booth" by her neighbors.

and the remainder of a large fortune for the maintenance of "poor and decayed male artists being born in England and of English parents only. these incidents . money for a medal to be given for the best landscape exhibited at the Academy every two or three years. and. the " Seaport " and " Mill." Such instances are teaching our great men to carry out their benevolent wishes in their lifetime. a few small bequests for relatives. 419 Turner was buried in St. he left all his pictures and drawings to the nation. and the property given to the "nearest of kin. after The will was contested by four years of litigation. to be preserved in a '^ Turner Gal" lery. the Koyal Academy. faults. and lawful issue . By his will. the service being read by Dean Milman. five thousand dollars for a monument to himself in St. — he had great himself.TURNER. he is stated that he Though parsimonious with Buskin tells was generous to others. the testator's intention to provide for aged artists was disregarded." relatives." During his life he is said to have refused two offers of five hundred thousand dollars for the pictures in his Queen-Anne Street He left one hundred thousand dollars to house. Turner had great drank to excess in tues." specifying that '' The Sun Kising in Mist and " Dido building Carthage " should be hung between the two pictures painted by Claude. the latter gift to be known as " Turner's Gift. Paul's. Paul's Cathedral. — Though vir- it later years. between the tombs of Sir Joshua Keynolds and James Barry.

but took down one of his own pictures." Once. sent it to the Academy. he was deeply affected. whom Turner had long known. had great merit but no place for it Turner pleaded hard for it. and send your children to school and to church. after a long period. . to neither. and. Turner sat down and the thing was impossible. and lent money to the widow until a large sum had accumulated. At the death of a poor drawing-master. Mr. Keep it. Wells. There was a painter of the name of Bird.420 " TURNER. and had bought them. looked at Bird's picture a long time that a place . met by the assertion of impracticability. No. She was both honest and grateful. work- ing at three-shilling drawings in his murky bed- room. Bird's picture could be found. when he was a mere industrious barber's son. and hung Bird's in its place.. He was He still said no more. ' ' . From that . and gave her a five-pound note. ran after her.' He said this in bitterness he had himself been sent . was happy enough to be able to return to her benefactor the whole sum she had received from him. Says Thornbury: "An early patron of Turner. and first when Bird sent a picture to the Academy for exhibition. he relented. after sending an importunate beggar from his house. then insisted must be found for it. Turner was on the hanging committee. had seen some of them in a window in the Haymarket.' he said.. . She waited on him with it but Turner kept his hands in his pocket.

his affairs rallied. and returned the whole sum with — . in time. and that during the period of his life when the highest qualities of his mind were in many respects diminished.TURNER. and when he was suffering most from the evil speaking of the world." Buskin says " He had a heart as intensely kind and as nobly true as God ever gave to one of his creatures. I believe. I or blameful look. 421 time he had gone on buying and being kind to the rising artist. or man's work. . and he was enabled to pay the whole sum back. and now the son of Turner's benefactor Again the birds of the air became involved. direc- down some valued Instantly Turner's generous impulses were roused his usual parsimony (all directed to one great object) was cast behind him. Years after. righted himself. thanks. . and sent him the full amount many. I never heard him say one depreciating word of living man : . never saw him look an unkind I never saw him let pass. concealing his name. and Turner could not forget it. again he sent the necessary thousands anonymously. he heard that his old benefactor had become involved. He at once wrote to the steward. Years again rolled on. with- . many thousands as much as twenty thousand pounds. and that his steward tions to cut had received trees. " The gentleman never knew who was his benefactor but. Having known Turner for ten years. again the son stopped the leak. brought the news to the guardian angel of the family. .

" will bear magnifying and much of the finer work in them can hardly be traced. especially in the . deep and strange. I repeat. literally because most people had not patience or delicacy of sight enough to trace his the keenest sight." says Euskin. until ' painting of ' ' : ' endless details. a blameful .'^ Probably Mr. Ruskin means lack of religious faith. as Mr. some as open. though none are as large as the letters of this type and yet this is the man who was thought to belong to the dashing school." He write loved poetry. and sometimes attempted to it. Hamerton says " With an immense and unwearied industry. . it is magnified. Thornbury says Turner feared that he would be annihilated. and some shown as shut.' the veins are drawn on the wing of a butterfly not three lines in diameter and I have one of his smaller drawings of Scarborough in my own possession. In his Ivy Bridge. " Every quarter of an inch of Turner's drawings.422 TURNER. Turner accumulated thousands and thousands of memoranda to increase his knowledge of what interested him. in which the muscle shells on the beach are rounded. Of no man but Turner whom I have ever known could I say this and of this kindness and truth came. came of his faithlessness. . out some sorrowful remonstrance or endeavor at word spoken by another. He was seldom true : to nature in his work. all his highest power and all his failure and error. except by mitigation. Turner was a most pains-taking worker.

in the very presence of the reality itself. topographic nor cal. mountains. but he had also untiring industry and unlimited perseverance. rivers. in the midst of many dis- appointments and much censure. his whole existence was a succession of dreams. Not- withstanding servation all the knowledge and all the ob- Turner's which they prove. there. world granite and awaken him but he would sit down before them and sketch another dream. could not Even the hardest itself. Amidst all this wealth of gathered treasure. without distinguished ancestry. and cities of 423 the Continent. but entirely psychologi- It is the soul of Turner that fascinates the student. He had talent. knowledge of landscape vaster than any mortal ever possessed before him. Turner came to great renown. the interest of twenty thousand sketches is neither scientific. and the coasts of his native island.TURNER. and not the material earth. realities of the external glacier. . his imagination reigned With a and revelled with a poet's freedom." With little education from the schools. .


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APR 2 3 1947 .

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