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Tami Castillo - Learning Skills Adviser, Winifred Hirst, Subject Librarian, Matheson library
1. Literature Review – what/some characteristics/features 2. Purpose/ content/ position 3. Sources 4. Critically analyse/ response 5. Note-taking
6. Organise notes / a plan
7. Maintaining your academic voice
.definition „literature‟ = the collection or „body‟ of sources in a specific research area „review‟ = critical analysis and evaluation „literature review‟ = critical analysis and evaluation of the sources in a specific research area.
Related genres Annotated bibliography Single text analysed Reference + annotation (notes or short paragraph) Critical review Single text analysed Reference + review (paragraph or more) Literature review Multiple texts analysed Reference list + intext referencing Synthesised reviews paragraph or more (article) chapter (book or thesis) publication (journal or book) Honours/Masters/PhD thesis Student assignment publication (subject bibliography) Research notes Student assignment purpose= evaluate source re research topic or assignment question publication (journal) Student assignment purpose= evaluate success of text in field purpose= evaluate research on specific topic .
. Ease of organising/manipulating themes or categories 2. Assist with synthesizing research and development of ideas 3.Reasons to use A.B. Develop and maintain academic voice. / note-taking 1.
compare & contrast the different theories/ideas/views Identify gaps in reasearch Focus this work on your position Convince the reader of your position . Source most relevant and timely scholarly works for your purpose Synthesize work to critically discuss.Features: What is a literature review? A task which requires you to: Critically analyze a range of information in a particular research field.
What is your position or purpose for a literature review? .
What is your position or purpose for a literature review? Establish a theoretical framework for the topic Define important terms/concepts relevant to the topic Identify studies/models/authors pertinent to this topic Establish the background to your own research: – What are the key theories / paradigms? – What research has already been done? – What are the gaps in this research that your own research will address? .
saves time!) .The implication is that you begin reading with the following in mind: a purpose + a set of research questions (promotes relevance and focus.
Selecting Texts • What topic/ problem are you investigating? • What question(s) will you explore? Identify the aims of your literature research. reports. policies or primary historical data? • Does each text relate to your research topic & requirements? • Who/What are the essential or key researchers on my topic? Am I finding them? Are the sources valuable or often referred to in other texts? . • What kind of material are you investigating & why? Journal articles.
Critically analyse your readings What does this mean? .
Critical analysis for a literature review How does this “fit” into your understanding of the field? How does it compare to other research? Considerations for sources that you will use: – authority – peer reviewed – type of study – objectivity – methodology .
.Knowledge is generated through debate and argument Academic writing contains multiple competing voices (source: Simeon Sebastian Kormon/IAP-Group C/ADS 2010/ Liberia) You need to pay attention to what writers do.
irrelevant. as well as what the author is saying. or has other flaws? • conceding that someone else‟s point has some merits but it needs to be changed in important ways? • a combination of these strategies? • other strategies? what will you do? . incoherent. defending or confirming something? proposing something new? reformulating an existing idea to make a better explanation? dismissing someone else‟s position because it is inadequate.responding to what writers do Pay attention to what the author is doing. For example. is the author: • • • • agreeing with.
What will you do? Activity: – Speak to the person next to you about where your ideas fit in with the research thus far. • Will you agree. rebut? Reformulate? • Is there a more appropriate theoretical framework or approach you will take? • Is anything relevant left out of the source which you will include? .
g. A better design may be … Conclusions extrapolate beyond the scope of the data presented. Strengths of study / arguments presented: e. Excellent literature review … Discussed limitations of study … Appropriate statistical analysis of results given that data was … Weaknesses of study / arguments presented: publication (subject bibliography) Research notes Student assignment purpose= evaluate source re research topic or assignment question e. Failed to consider … Study design not appropriate to achieve aims of the study. main outcomes. Research theme similar to Gardner (2008) but Gardner‟s research shows contradictory outcomes.Note-taking … Annotate as you go Single text analysed Reference + annotation (notes or short paragraph) example 1 Bibliographical details: written as for APA reference list Summary of main points: Research theme. much better study design than Bosch (…vs…) e..g.. Connections to other readings/ideas: e..g.g.g. main theories upon which research was based. e. discussion points etc. Research theme similar to Bosch (2009) but looked at different outcomes (. methods used.). mainly because his subject sampling was biased … .
(7) thus the authors indicate that further. B. more extensive. & Boudreau. (6) The main limitation of the article is that the survey sample was restricted to mid-level management. (4) Their research focuses on assessing a range of pay structures such as pay for performance and organisational reward schemes. (5) The article is useful to my research topic. (3) The authors use data gained through organisational surveys of blue-chip companies in Vancouver. Journal Of Applied Psychology. review the influences of pay and job opportunities in respect to job performance. J. Introduction Research Scope Usefulness Limitations Conclusions Reflection . as it suggests that there are numerous reasons for employee turnover and variances in employee motivation and performance. Gerhart. (2) In this article Trevor et al. research needs to be undertaken to develop a more in-depth understanding of employee turnover and job performance. W. 82(1). turnover rates and employee motivation. however it will be useful supplementary information for my research on pay structures. (8) This article will not form the basis of my research. O.Note-taking … EXAMPLE 2 example 2 Citation (1) Trevor. (1997). Canada to try to identify the main causes of employee turnover and whether it is linked to salary growth. Voluntary turnover and job performance: Curvilinearity and the moderating influences of salary growth and promotions. C.. 44-61..
Organize your notes into a plan Where am I driving this story? – What is my refined research question? – Which research gaps do I wish to highlight? – Which research best leads into the rationale for my own? – What is the significance of my own research? – How will I demonstrate this in my writing? .
Are there widely recognized gaps or problems? Your research question.Are there identifiable categories of research focus? .What gaps in research have I found? . insights and understanding .What is the purpose of my literature review? . recent findings.What are most recent findings? .Organize your notes into a plan Structure of present research .What aspects of the question have/not been investigated? .Can I identify an argument in my literature review? .How do I clearly present my theme? . do I find most appropriate for my project and why? Structure of your literature review .What approaches.What is the best way of presenting my findings— how do I reorganise my readings and observations to accomplish that? .
How to structure the literature review. .
1994). In this regard. monitoring and evaluation are important factors in performance (Flavell. Hence. Schoenfeld (1985) reported a positive relationship between metacognition and problem solving in algebra and geometry. 1987. Similarly little attention has been paid to critical thinking in algebraic problem solving. Paul (1990) and Potter et al (1991) among others believe logical thinking and reasoning to be of critical importance in problem solving generally. . However Hatcher (1988). there is some inconsistency regarding metacognition and performance. Indeed Norris and Ennis (1989) and Paul (1990) have developed frameworks for analysing critical thinking in problem solving. However. Rabinowitz (1986) argued that everyday thinking does not involve logical thinking and as such formal logistics should not be taught at all. In fact.Maintaining your own voice Research in general problem solving suggests that planning. Wells and Mathews (1994) suggested high metacognitive activity may hinder performance. Lester (1989) argued that researchers need to assess the role of metacognition in more specific areas such as novel algebraic word-problem solving. Nelson & Narens.
Transitions for coherence .
Indeed Norris and Ennis (1989) and Paul (1990) have developed frameworks for analysing critical thinking in problem solving. 1987. Wells and Mathews (1994) suggested high metacognitive activity may hinder performance. However. . Paul (1990) and Potter et al (1991) among others believe logical thinking and reasoning to be of critical importance in problem solving generally. Schoenfeld (1985) reported a positive relationship between metacognition and problem solving in algebra and geometry. Rabinowitz (1986) argued that everyday thinking does not involve logical thinking and as such formal logistics should not be taught at all. Hence. 1994). Lester (1989) argued that researchers need to assess the role of metacognition in more specific areas such as novel algebraic word-problem solving. there is some inconsistency regarding metacognition and performance. In this regard. Nelson & Narens.Maintaining your own voice Research in general problem solving suggests that planning. monitoring and evaluation are important factors in performance (Flavell. Similarly little attention has been paid to critical thinking in algebraic problem solving. However Hatcher (1988). In fact.
au/lls/llonline/writing/gen eral/lit-reviews/index.xml .monash.edu.http://www.
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