Direct Amperometric Measurement versus ORP for Residual Control A Comparative Study

The following paper was presented in part at the 1996 Water Environment Federation Specialty Conference, Disinfecting Wastewater for Discharge and Reuse, Portland, Oregon, by Dianne M. Phelan, Severn Trent Services.

Introduction:
Chlorine is widely used for partial disinfection of municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents. To achieve satisfactory disinfection, as indicated by suitable reduction in fecal coliform concentrations, an effluent with a residual chlorine concentration of up to 0.5 milligrams per liter (mg/l) has historically been practiced. However, concerns with regard to the toxic effects of this residual level in the environment have led to the standard practice of dechlorination in wastewater treatment plants. This process, though provably important and necessary, seriously impacts the cost of wastewater treatment. Thus, precise and accurate measurement and control of chlorination in all phases of the treatment process is required in today’s water treatment operations to maintain the delicate balance of cost effective water disinfection and environmental protection. Many indicators are used for water treatment process control including: disinfection efficacy, residual chlorine, pH, dissolved oxygen, ammonia-nitrogen, COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand), Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and Oxidation-Reduction Potential (ORP). The first two, disinfection efficacy and residual chlorine are clearly of primary importance. Disinfection efficacy is determined as the ratio of logs of reduction of initial to final bacterial count or as a percent of destruction of initial bacteria count. Understanding and controlling the conditions under which disinfection efficacy is maximized, economically yet with the least impact on the environmentis the ultimate goal in plant management. Though all measured parameters mentioned above play a part in this process, the determination and control of residual chlorine, the primary method of disinfection, is key. The subject of this paper focuses first on how well direct chlorine residual measurements correlate with disinfection. However, it has been suggested that a different measurement such as ORP could be more accurate in disinfection control, because this technique inherently accounts for other solution conditions which could seriously affect the disinfection process (Wareham, et al). Laboratory studies, in controlled reactors have indicated that ORP can be an effective control parameter in the operation of oxidation ponds (Carberry). Additionally, real time chlorine residual control strategies through the use of ORP have been proposed (Keller). Therefore, in this experimental work data gathered using both of these measurement methods are presented, and analyzed in light of other plant process parameters. Analytical methods commonly employed in the wastewater industry are generally wet chemical, colorimetric, potentiometric or amperometric. The last two measurement methods are generally adaptable for on-line use, whereas the first two are best suited to the lab environment. Colorimetric techniques are typically based on the use of DPD ( N,N-diethyl-p-phenylene-diamine). This method can be employed in a sampled or on-line test mode; however, it is subject to interferences such as chloramines (when measuring free chlorine), chlorine dioxide and oxidized manganese, to name a few. Since minimal equipment is required, it finds wide acceptance in a field environment for screening or reference, where semi-qualitative information is sufficient. A potentiometric method commonly employed in on-line measurements is ORP (oxidation reduction potential). This measurement has gained consideration in the water and wastewater industry since oxidation-reduction reactions mediate the behavior of many chemical constituents in drinking, process and waste waters. The theory of operation is based on the fact that a potential will form at an inert electrode in a solution containing electrochemically active (i.e. oxidizing or reducing) ions. This potential will vary with the ratio of oxidized to reduced species according to the Nernst equation (see eq. 3.1). Although this measurement is theoretically very straightforward, many factors limit the interpretation of ORP values in real systems. These factors include the presence of multiple and/or inert redox couples, irreversible reactions, small exchange currents, and electrode poisoning. For the purpose of process control, this parameter finds particular usefulness in an environment where the system is well characterized or process variables are limited. In wastewater applications, it has been used to both infer chlorine residual levels as well as indicate “oxidizing potential” of the solution. The latter has been said to be a better indicator of disinfection efficacy than residual chlorine, but further research is necessary to substantiate this claim.

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4) (2. Though this is a laboratory method only. Chemistry and Effects of Chlorination The chlorination of water serves primarily to destroy or deactivate disease producing microorganisms. the current flow can directly indicate the chlorine content of the solution. in some variation. it is termed “free” available chlorine. and a micro ammeter. Vol.3) 299. #2 &3). Additionally. and the products vary with conditions such as the pH. Thus. 100 % of the chlorine is in the form of OCl . it is the recommended referee method for verification of all other techniques.The amperometric measurement of residual chlorine can be accomplished in a few different ways.5) (2. disinfection control at any specific site requires not only a theoretical understanding of chlorine chemistry but also extensive characterization of many other interacting variables. (Drinking Water and Health. has been successfully used in on-line measurement and control systems for over thirty five years. as stated earlier. pH values normally encountered in wastewater treatment tend to be relatively constant site to site. Formation of chloramines can be depicted as a stepwise process: NH3(aq) + HOCl ↔ NH2Cl + H 2O (Monochloramine) NH2Cl + HOCl ↔ NHCl2 + H 2O (Dichloramine) NHCl 2 + HOCl ↔ NCl3 + H2O (Trichloramine) (2. bacteria are more susceptible than viruses. it is all in the form of HOCl. Both contribute to the disinfection process though. respectively. This theory states that when two electrodes are immersed in an ion containing solution. Amperometric titration is a standard chemical titration using an amperometric endpoint detection apparatus consisting of a cell unit. resulting in a reduced microammeter reading. chlorine undergoes hydrolysis to form “free” chlorine consisting of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and hydrochloric acid (HCl): Cl2 + H2Ο↔ HOCl + HCl (2. depending upon the skill of the operator and requirements of the plant. Another type of amperometric measurement exists which.9006 -2- . The cell unit typically consists of a readily polarizable dual platinum electrode. That is. Initially. The reaction mechanism is complex. though factors that influence inactivation of microorganisms have been extensively studied. hypochlorous acid can further dissociate to hypochlorite ion and hydrogen ion. forming a class of compounds called “chloramines”. HOCl is known to be more effective. As the titrant (commonly phenylarsine oxide or PAO ) is added. not completely understood. In either form.1) Depending upon the pH and temperature. The details of the mechanism of microbial destruction or inactivation are not fully understood.. If ammonia nitrogen is present in the water being chlorinated. resulting in a current flow between the electrodes. HOCl ↔ OCl. In the treatment process. and contact time.+ H+ (2. a reduction reaction (the gaining of electrons) and an oxidation reaction (loss of electrons) occurs at the cathode and anode. Hypochlorous acid is known to be 80 to 100 times more effective as a germicide than hypochlorite ion. accurate and yet rugged instruments in use today. at values greater than 9. it reacts with the halogen to reduce its concentration and affect an increasing polarization of the cell.2) As the pH decreases. Generally.5.3000. further reactions can occur. such that. Analyzers of this design are recognized as the most precise. in the presence of chlorine.0 none of the acid is dissociated. and near neutral. The majority of analyzers in use today are based on the galvanic cell theory. When cell polarization is low. chlorine is applied to water in its molecular (Cl2) or hypochlorite ion (OCl . The extent and rate of disinfection are influenced by the type and physiological state of the microorganism. hypochlorous acid dissociation decreases such that below pH 5. the microbial population can be susceptible to other chlorinated compounds such as chloramines. The opposite is true as the pH increases.) form. At this pH there exists a mixture of hypochlorite ion and hypochlorous acid. the microammeter reading will be comparatively high. When the appropriate electrode configuration and materials are used. which are more susceptible than protozoan cysts.0 Formerly 210. The endpoint is recognized when the continued addition of titrant no longer lowers the microammeter reading. ratio of chlorine added to ammonia present. The chemical form of the disinfecting species as well as temperature are also relevant to disinfection efficacy.

ORP can be a very useful measurement in a system where all the component activities are kept constant with the exception of one known variable. Eo represents the potential for the standard half-cell reaction. colorimetric and amperometric) have been briefly presented above. Ideally.2. 0. Chlorine can also be incorporated into a molecule by addition reactions. significant amounts of dichloramine are found. Both electrodes are joined externally through a voltmeter of a type which draws very little current due to a near infinite internal resistance. there is no way to further identify which redox species has varied.0 Formerly 210.303 RT log [red] (3. such as those with organic nitrogen compounds and phenols. monochloramines predominate. thus producing the chlorinated compound. the fact that more than one redox couple can exist adds ambiguity since changes in the signal can be the result of a variation in any one or more of the redox species. that of H + (hydrogen ion). The indicator electrode serves as a either an electron donor or acceptor with respect to electroactive oxidized or reduced chemical species in solution. The details of the methodology will be confined to the electrochemical methods used in the actual experimentation. the potential of the electrode will be a combination of the effect of each redox couple including. Chlorine also readily reacts with organic compounds in the water. And. Typical ORP sensors (and the type used in this experimentation) consist of an indicating electrode of inert material such as platinum. this measurement is typically used in two ways. Additionally. Measurement of Chlorine: The various methods of measuring chlorine (potentiometric. However. However.1) nF [ox] where [red] and [ox] indicate activities of the reduced and oxidized species. Potentiometric Measurements: Electrometric measurements are made by potentiometric determination of electron activity (intensity) with an inert indicator electrode and a suitable reference electrode. with the exception of pH which is typically measured independently. might be formed.The relative formation of mono. Cl is substituted for a hydrogen atom. or even if a new one has been added. Because there is no consumption of reactants in the measurement process. The above equation shows that the potential of the (half) cell is a logarithmic function of ratio of the reduced to oxidized species in solution. At neutral pH values and above. and an appropriate reference electrode such as silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl). if the solution contains a mixture of oxidants and reductants. The significance of these reactions in the treatment process is that they contribute to the chlorine demand. The reference electrode potential remains constant over the range of conditions in which the cell is used. di and trichloramine is strongly influenced by pH.3000. stirring and flow requirements are minimized. In some reactions. The indicator electrode responds to the activity of the ion or species being measured.059 V. When the unit number of electrons exchanged in the reaction is one. this term can be reduced to a constant. respectively. chlorinated by-products. -3- 299. that is potentiometric (ORP) and on-line amperometric. a 59 mV change in the potential of the electrode will be seen . the electrode system will react to changes in the solution’s redox composition by a change in potential that follows the Nernst equation: E = Eo. Because of the complexity of the system in question. However. and this represents all forms of chlorine which contribute to the disinfection process. In wastewater applications. there are several considerations which must be accounted for in interpreting these values. for every decade change in the concentration of the subject species. First. Below pH 7. Thus. fouling of the sensor can inhibit the accuracy of the reading as well as the response time. a potential health concern.9006 . and RT/nF is a term containing thermodynamic constants. for instance. Chloramines are referred to as “combined chlorine residual”. but not the disinfection process. or it may react with a compound to oxidize it without chlorinating it. The sum of “free residual” and “combined” chlorine is defined as “total available chlorine”. the measurement is made at “zero” current. and the temperature is 25°C. It may be used to infer residual chlorine levels or simply to indicate the “oxidizing potential” of the system as it relates to disinfection efficacy.

Furthermore. Thus. Current designs incorporate features to avoid electrode fouling. In electrolytic cells. This action prevents fouling by removing oxide products from the anode surface. and externally connected to each other. shows that at this pH all of the chlorine is in the form of hypochlorous acid (HOCl).(Reduction at the cathode) Cu0 ↔ Cu++ + 2e(Oxidation at the anode) (3. However.3000. many redox reactions are found in the metabolic processes of microorganisms. The electrode materials are a copper anode. accurate signal by constantly stirring to replenish the sample at the cathode. the rate of diffusion of the reactant is a function of the bulk concentration of the reacting species. Figure 1 shows the design of the analyzer used. A potential is generated sufficient to drive the reaction at the polarizing electrode with no external voltage source added. The term polarography is derived from the fact that the electrode at which the reaction of interest occurs is in a polarized condition. chlorine analyzers are a key component in the disinfection process. In turn. An accurate signal is maintained and the cell kept clean by the use of a rotating striker which stirs polymer spheres between the electrodes. and data presented which compares these two measurement methods. Amperometric (Polarographic) Measurement: As the name implies amperometric techniques involve the measurement of current. it can be said that the concentration of reactant at the electrode surface is very low. nitrates. This allows tight control of the chlorination process. Another parameter affecting the measured current is flow rate. Unlike ORP sensors. Because an amperometric measurement consumes the sample.↔ Cl. sulfates or carbon dioxide. Copper ions in solution can further react to form an oxide product.+ OH. The reactions occurring at the electrodes are shown below: HOCl + 2e. Because of the reaction occurring at the electrode. and a gold (indicating) cathode. depending upon the solution composition. the measurement of current in a cell with a polarized electrode can therefore be used to indicate the concentration of the reactant. In both cases. and response time is minimized when the pH of the solution is 4. When such a condition exists. An energy yielding substrate can be a variety of substances such as oxygen. Thus. It also aids in the maintenance of a stable. ORP values can play an integral part. copper chloride or some other salt. across the concentration gradient established by polarization. two electrodes of the appropriate dissimilar metals are immersed in an ion containing solution.0 to 4. Microorganisms use reduction reactions to consume electrons generated by the oxidation of an energy yielding substrate.3) Since copper is consumed in the reaction. accuracy. they measure chlorine directly. extensive characterization of process trends as well as other peripheral measurements such as pH are required for efficient operation in this regard. a potential sufficient to allow the reduction of the measured species (in this case chlorine) is applied by an external voltage source. Therefore. In the following sections. The data presented in this paper was obtained using an amperometric chlorine analyzer of the galvanic type.9006 -4- . These side reactions can all affect the ORP reading yet have little to do with the disinfection process.5. and responsiveness. The current is most stable. the experimental sites are described. and maximize sensitivity. other redox type process variables do not interfere with this measurement. Such polarographic or amperometric measurements can be made with either galvanic or electrolytic cells. it is imperative that the sample be replenished at the electrode surface as rapidly as it is consumed. formaldehyde. An electrode becomes polarized when the products of the (redox) reaction that is occurring accumulate to such an extent that they limit the rate of the reaction.2) (3. In galvanic cells. it can be seen that for direct process monitoring and control. the amount of current that an electrode will pass is directly related to the mass flux of reactant to the electrode surface. 299. The signal level (current flow) in the amperometric cell is pH dependent. Thus. the current flow which is indicative of the concentration of the reacting species responds linearly to changes in its concentration. the sample is buffered at this pH during the measurement. The chemistry of the system as previously described. Whether electrolytic or galvanic. it is termed a sacrificial anode.0 Formerly 210.

Test site #2 Test site #2 was a waste treatment plant located in a well-populated suburb of a major city. and one was a water treatment booster station. -5299. such as pH. and this data was available for use in the analysis of the experimental results. The capacity of this treatment site was ~10 MGD. A pH sensor was also installed. and one located at the back end of the contact tank. The ORP sensor and chlorine analyzer were placed in the system measuring the final effluent just prior to the dechlorination process. nitrates (NO3) and suspended solids (SS) were also monitored by the plant. The equipment was housed in a moderately heated shed and was maintained by plant personnel. ammonia (NH3). Test Site #1: This site was a local treatment plant with a capacity of 4. The ORP sensor was placed in the sample line just before the chlorine analyzer at the back end of the chlorine contact tank. Test Site #3: This site was a potable water booster facility located in the UK (United Kingdom). Reference measurements were made using the spectrophotometric DPD method. Amperometric titration with phenylarsine oxide (PAO) was used on a less frequent basis. The main water treatment facility was located about 60 miles from the booster station.Figure 1 .5 to 0. no other auxiliary measurements were made at the exact location of the experimental equipment. Readings were acquired and automatically plotted every five minutes. followed by rapid gravity filtration through sand. one located at the front. Other parameters such as dissolved oxygen (DO).5 MGD (Million Gallons per Day).6 ppm in free chlorine.Amperometric Chlorine Analzyer Design Test Sites Instrumentation was installed at three test sites. However. Two chlorine analyzers were placed in the same contact tank.0 Formerly 210. Two were waste treatment plants. The raw water treatment process entailed initial purification by flocculation with ferric sulfate. The equipment was housed in a temperature controlled instrument room. followed by dechlorination with sulfur dioxide (SO2). to give a final effluent of 0. information on other plant conditions. was available for use in our analysis. For final disinfection. on a weekly or as needed basis As with site #1. etc. Continuous monitoring of the chlorine analyzer and ORP sensor was accomplished through the use of chart recorders. About 20% of the waste was industrial. with 40-50% of the waste being from industrial sources. Continuous monitoring of both chlorine analyzers as well as the ORP sensor was accomplished through a computerized control system encompassing the entire plant.9006 .3000. and a finally treatment to remove organics via a granular activated carbon filter (GAC). and was maintained on a weekly basis. the water undergoes superchlorination to 2 ppm.

with readings taken every 15 minutes.1) predicts a 2 mV change in signal for every 10°C change seen by the sensor. major concentration fluctuations tended to be slow and relative trends for each analyzer do correspond. Figure 2 compares the response to residual chlorine levels for the two measurement methods. however the ORP sensor was not. the water pressure is increased and chlorine levels elevated back to 0. However. where moderate temperatures ranging from 40° to 75°F (22° to 39°C) are typical. but at times not specified exactly in the data. The chlorine analyzers were temperature compensated. 4 ppm free chlorine residual. Results and Discussion Test Site #1: Figures 2. as triplification is a common practice in control operations in the UK. those plotted for the plant equipment were recorded daily. would be negligible compared to other influences.9006 -6- . All signals were computer monitored. At times. Other parameters such as conductivity and temperature were also monitored.0 Formerly 210.Chlorine Residual vs. around 900 hours). the differences being due primarily to the variation of the timing of the readings.g. Fluctuations due to temperature however. an ORP and pH sensor were placed in line with the chlorine analyzer sample line. but there is a small diversion shortly after the booster station to a small town.5 ppm. ORP (Site #1) Upon arrival at the booster station. The equipment was maintained on a weekly basis by plant personnel. As with sites 1 and 2. Of greater interest is the ORP response versus the experimental analyzer readings. just in front of the analyzer. A difference between this design and those discussed above is that three chlorine analyzers were used. 3 and 4 summarize data taken over a 50 day time period in autumn.3000. where major differences were seen (e. The reference method for the chlorine analyzer was the DPD colorimetric technique. Here another dechlorination procedure is implemented to yield a 0. This was also the location of the experimental setup. Whereas the readings plotted for the experimental equipment (ORP sensor and chlorine analyzer) were taken at the same time. These signals should track closely if the potential exists for accurate and precise 299. since the Nernst equation (3. Figure 2: Chlorine Residual vs ORP (Site #1) The data for the two chlorine analyzers correspond within the limits of experimental error. it can be attributed to flow differences in the sample line due to equipment maintenance or blockages.Figure 2 . The majority of the water is sent on to a large city another 50-60 miles away.

Disinfection Efficacy vs. which is less than one decade of change in concentration.0) over the entire test period.g.3000.2 to 1 ppm Cl2. Both chlorine analyzers fluctuated over a range of 0.5 (7. An opposite reaction of the ORP sensor could be explained by the presence of other active redox species in the wastewater. which is a common occurrence. ORP (Site #1) control of the chlorination process via ORP.0 Formerly 210. In Figures 3 and 4. as determined by the fecal coliform count/100 ml.Figure 3 . at 420 hours). opposing signals were seen with each instrument. -7- 299. This could not be attributed to pH either. Another aspect of the data which should be noted is the response level of the monitors. However.5 to 8. Corresponding ORP variations should have been over a range 59 mV or less. This is seen in the beginning of the test. the signal data for each experimental method is presented versus disinfection efficacy. since it varied only by 0. at times even during the initial half of the test period (e. yet over 300 mV variations were seen. Chlorine Residual (Site #1) Figure 4 .9006 .Disinfection Efficacy vs.

The data presented in Figure 7 covers three separate weeks during the test period. However. in both figures. The test results show little correlation of the ORP readings with chlorine residual. The interest lies in the periods when decreased disinfection levels are seen (i. when the pH varied very little. Because of the temperate climate of the location.The data reflect information provided by the plant for a month prior to the initiation of the test. The lower values are a consequence of the disinfection process which inherently results in a chlorine demand.3000. ORP signals. Since this data was acquired by a computer automated process. as should disinfection efficacy. the relationship expected is that when chlorine and ORP levels are level. As versus the other two locations. are not consistently indicative of the chlorine residual. nor disinfection efficacy results. In both cases. In these instances. The offset correlates with the time required for the chlorine. Test Site #2: Figures 5 and 6 show two weeks of data taken during the one month test period. it appears as if other (unknown) factors have also contributed. with signal sampling every five minutes.e. the 25 mV range of response is more within the expected value than that of the sensor at site #1. the plant had experienced flooding after heavy rainfall. to mix and migrate to the back.5 to 1. However. high coliform counts). however not with ORP. efficient disinfection should occur. This is particularly evident during the time period at 1700 hours. the “timing” ambiguity which existed at site #1 is eliminated here. with temperature variations being similar to those at site #1. Qualitatively.9006 -8- . It began in autumn. In addition to chlorine residual and ORP. It is interesting to note the lower values as well as slight offset in the variations seen in chlorine residual from one end of the contact tank to the other.5 ppm was seen during the test period. added at the front of the tank. In each set of data. it can be said that the pH variations seen in weeks one and three may have been indicated by the ORP signal variations as well. The test period was again in autumn. temperature variations during this time were similar to the other sites.1 ppm. and tend to be very slow in responding to solution variations. This is further supported by the fact that during week two. corresponding pH information is also included. ORP and experimental chlorine residual values are not shown. and the chlorine concentration varied by ±0. Chlorine levels should be elevated to accomplish as much disinfection as possible during this shortened contact period. not typically after it since contact times have then returned to normal. 299. Test Site #3: The test period at site #3 was six months. This trend is illustrated with the chlorine residual measurements. since a chlorine residual of 0. Thus.0 Formerly 210. it can be seen that the two chlorine analyzers correlate completely. however. Throughput at this time is typically high and contact times are short. where the ORP signal correlated neither with chlorine residual values. These high levels may occur prior to or at the same time as the high coliform count. and ended in spring of the following year. the ORP signal varied up to 45 mV. the test equipment was housed in a temperature controlled trailer.

9006 .Figure 5 .3000.Chlorine Residual vs. Week 2 (Site #2) Figure 6 . ORP.0 Formerly 210. ORP. Week 3 (Site #3) -9299.Chlorine Residual vs.

Chlorine Residual (ppm).3000. ORP (mV).10 - .9006 .0 Formerly 210. and pH (Site #3) 299.Figure 7 .

. Ann Arbor. the ORP reading was found to be less reliable than direct amperometric measurement of chlorine residual for wastewater disinfection and potable water treatment and process control.J. New York. Vol.J. Options for the Rational Design and Operation of Oxidation Ponds. 1993.. Cumming. V.T. 1985. NY. S. and Jenkins. S. 18th Ed. eds. 1974. MI 1983. R. Vol. #4. #5. Bull. Lewis Publishers. Ann Arbor Science. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. 9-16 . and Mavinic. J. References Wareham. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. And Jacobs..B. a correlation was seen. #2. Cotruvo.A. In some cases... Wiley Interscience. V. due to other effects. Wat. DC.A. Measurement of Mass Transfer Coefficients with an Electrochemical Method Using Dilute Electrolyte Solutions.L.L.C. J. Katz. White.. Experimental Electrochemistry for Chemists.9006 . R.. Davis. J. 273-282. 1983. Washington.3000.. Vol. WAT ER CHLORINATION. etc. Chelsea. M. Inc. “Changing Control Strategy Solves Chlorine Residual Problems”. Biswas. Sawyer.. And Kuroda. W. Washington. 1994.. Suidan. Environmental Impact and Health Effects. Environmental Impacts and Health Effects. and the presence of other redox species. and Jacobs. P. B. 1991. and Roberts. pp. DC.. New York. Drinking Water and Health. Water Research.. 23-24. Wiley & Sons. N. J... Jolley. such as pH changes. Sakakibara. Keller. Flora. G.. Roberts. R. NY. Vol.T.11 - 299. Hall. Handbook of Chlorination. Sci. D. Y. “Real Time Control of Wastewater Treatment Systems Using ORP”.0 Formerly 210. Carberry. Washington. However..A. Wat...L. J. Inc. 1982. #3. 24 (5). 28 (1). 1986 Jolley. Tech. June.. New York. D. Chemistry. Snoeyink. D.A. 1980.P.Conclusions Chlorine residual concentrations and ORP measurements were studied at three different sites to assess the correlation between these measurement techniques for chlorine residual control and disinfection efficacy. WATER CHLORINATION. Brungs. Tech. M. pp... DC.G. Water Engineering & Management. American Public Health Association. 21-32. .. V.Y. K. MI.H. National Academy Press.L... 28 (11). 1992. 1980. M. National Academy Press. W. R. pp. J.. Water Chemistry. Mattice.R. Drinking Water and Health.. Sci.. pp..

3000.Design improvements may be made without notice.com E-mail: marketing@severntrentservices.12 - . PA 18915 Tel: 215-997-4000 • Fax: 215-997-4062 Web: www..0 Formerly 210. Represented by: Severn Trent Services 3000 Advance Lane Colmar.9006 Copyright 2008 Severn Trent Services ..severntrentservices.com SEP/08 299.

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