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**An Electric Circuit must have;
**

1) an Energy Source, also known as electromotive force, may consist of any device capable of generating or storing electrical energy. 2) Conductor Devices transport the electrical energy from the source to the supply. The conductor is the path the circuit will follow. 3) Flow of Current. When a circuit is open the path is broken; i.e., there is no current flow. A path must be complete before current can flow. A continuous path to and from the energy source is needed in order for the current to flow. A Short Circuit in which a direct connection is made with no resistance in the path will produce the maximum amount of current available. Short Circuits should be avoided. Resistance The Total Resistance in a circuit determines how much current will flow. Resistance will not slow down the flow of current; it will only vary the amount of current. The more resistance the less current.

Electrical Units

Electromotive Force... = Volts...... = "E" Current.................... = Amperes.. = "I" Resistance................ = Ohms..... = "R" The formula used to measure the flow of current in a circuit is OHM'S LAW. Ohm's law is expressed by the formula E ÷ I = R, where E is the electromotive force in volts, I is the current in amperes, and R is the resistance in ohms. Ohm's law applies to all electric circuits for both Direct Current (DC) and Alternating Current (AC), but additional principles must be invoked for the analysis of complex circuits and for AC circuits also involving inductance and capacitance.

E ÷ R = I or 12 ÷ 6 = 2 I = 2 so 2 amps of current flows when the path is complete. Again. . To determine the power consumed in watts. so R=6. The light provides the circuit with 6 ohms of resistance.Ohm's Law Formula I x R = E Amps x Resistance = Volts 10 Amps X 10 Ohm's = 100 Volts R x I = E Resistance x Amps = Volts 10 Ohm's X 10 Amps = 100 Volts E ÷ I = R Volts ÷ Amps = Resistance 100 Volts ÷ 10 Amps = 10 Ohm's E ÷ R = I Volts ÷ Resistance = Amps 100 Volts ÷ 10 Ohm's = 10 Amps Power = Watts = "P" E x I = P Volts x Amps = Watts 100 Volts x 10 Amps = 1000 Watts I x E = P Amps x Volts = Watts 10 Amps x 100 Volts = 1000 Watts P ÷ I = E Watts ÷ Amps = Volts 1000 Watts ÷ 10 Amps = 100 Volts P ÷ E = I Watts ÷ Volts = Amps 1000 Watts ÷ 100 Volts = 10 Amps In the animated schematic below a switch is used to open and close the path of the circuit. Using the values given we can calculate the completed circuit's amperage. using the known values we can calculate the power consumed in watts. use the formula I x E = P. A 12 volt battery is the electromotive force that drives the circuit. I x E = P or 2 x 12 = 24 P = 24 so 24 Watts of power is consumed when the path is complete. so E=12.

Wires. The voltage at the battery is the same as the voltage at the light when the switch is closed. There is little or no voltage drop in the wires or conductors. Notice that all 3 amp meters show the same amount. the path is completed and current will flow. When the switch is open there is no voltage at the light and thus no current flow. This is because current is constant all the way around the loop. When the switch is open the path is broken and no current will flow. 3 volt meters and 3 amp meters have been added to help show the relationship which exists between volts and amps. however.The animated schematic to the right illustrates how the circuit works. When the switch is closed. When the switch is closed the voltage is zero and when the switch is open the voltage is the same as the battery's voltage. The circuit is broken and the circuit's path from the battery ends at the Switch. Notice the volt meter at the switch. . the longer a wire the greater the voltage drop. do provide some resistance.

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