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**DEPARTMENT OF TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
**

GOVERNMENT TECHNOLOGICAL COLLEGE

DEPARTMENT OF MINING ENGINEERING

BE (MINING) Sample Answer

Date: 20-10-2006

Time: 8:30 am - 11:30 am Final Examination

Min. 05037, "Geotechnical Engineering"

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

Attempt Any Five Questions:

Q1.. Derive the mathematical formulations of the stresses in three dimensional stress condition

for the followings.

(i) Stress invariants

(ii) Deviatoric stress invariants

Answer:

(i) Stress invariants

The comments of stress depend on the chosen direction of the coordinate axes.

The principle stresses on the hand are invariants. Their values are affected by the choice

of reference axes. In general, three independents stress invariants may be defined. For

isotropic materials, the stress can usually be described in terms of invariants.

Figure 1: Three Dimensional Stress System

When stress components are specified at a point (σ

ij

), the stress components on any

plane passing through this may be determined. Using static principles alone,

σ

ij

= the stresses in a plane whose unit normal is 'n' or components of 'n'.

For equilibrium, resolve the forces in the 3-directions of coordinates giving three

equations:

σ

nx

= l

1

σ

x

+ l

2

τ

xy

+ l

3

τ

xz

σ

ny

= l

1

τ

yx

+ l

2

σ

y

+ l

3

τ

yz

σ

nz

= l

1

τ

zx

+ l

2

τ

zy

+ l

3

σ

z+

or matrix notation,

,

_

¸

¸

,

_

¸

¸

·

,

_

¸

¸

3

2

1

z zy zx

yz y yx

xz xy x

nz

ny

nx

l

l

l

σ τ τ

τ σ τ

τ τ σ

σ

σ

σ

----------- (a)

Equation (a) may be simplified as follow:

j ij nj

l σ σ ·

----------- (b)

Where, lj are direction cosine of 'n' from equation (a). It is obvious that it is possible to

find a plane that consists only of normal stresses (maximum or minimum) giving zero shear

stresses. Such a plane is called principal plane and its corresponding stresses are known as

principal stresses.

Assuming that there is such a unique principal plane, it is true that

j nj

l σ σ ·

-----------

(c)

Where 'σ' is assumed to be the principal stress. Expending the notation given in equation

(c) in matrix form and substitute σ

nj

from equation (a).

0 0

3

2

1

3

2

1

·

,

_

¸

¸

−

,

_

¸

¸

,

_

¸

¸

⇒ · ·

l

l

l

l

l

l

l

z zy zx

yz y yx

xz xy x

j nj

σ

σ τ τ

τ σ τ

τ τ σ

σ σ

or we can be further simplified,

( )

( )

( )

0

3

2

1

·

,

_

¸

¸

,

_

¸

¸

−

−

l

l

l

z zy zx

yz y yx

xz xy x

σ σ τ τ

τ σ σ τ

τ τ σ σ

This matrix has non-trivial solution if its determinant is zero. Hence, if its determinant is

assigned to zero, the following characteristic is obtained.

σ

3

– (σ

x

+ σ

y

+ σ

z

) σ

2

+ (σ

x

σ

y

+ σ

y

σ

z

+ σ

x

σ

z

– τ

xy

2

- τ

xz

2

- τ

yz

2

) σ

– (σ

x

σ

y

σ

z

+ 2 τ

xy

τ

xz

τ

yz

+

σ

z

τ

xy

2

- σ

y

τ

xz

2

- σ

x

τ

yz

2

) = 0

Similarly,

J

1

= σ

x

+ σ

y

+ σ

z

= σ

x

'

+ σ

y

'

+ σ

z

'

J

2

= σ

x

σ

y

+ σ

y

σ

z

+ σ

x

σ

z

- τ

xy

2

- τ

xz

2

- τ

yz

2

J

2

'

= σ

x

'

σ

y

'

+ σ

y

'

σ

z

'

+ σ

x

'

σ

z

'

- τ

'

xy

2

– τ

'

xz

2

– τ

'

yz

2

----------- (d)

J

3

= σ

x

σ

y

σ

z

+ 2τ

xy

τ

xz

τ

yz

+ σ

z

τ

xy

2

- σ

y

τ

xz

2

- σ

x

τ

yz

2

J

3

'

= σ

x

'

σ

y

'

σ

z

'

+ 2 τ

'

xy

τ

'

xz

τ

'

yz

+ σ

z

'

τ

'

xy

2

- σ

y

'

τ

'

xz

2

- σ

x

'

τ

'

yz

2

J

1

, J

2

and J

3

are called invariants of the stress 'σ', which mean that their values

remain unchanged in any axis of reference and/or under any space transformation. These

invariants are further simplified if they are written in term of principal stresses, shown below.

J

1

= σ

1

+ σ

2

+ σ

3

J

2

= σ

1

σ

2

+ σ

2

σ

3

+ σ

3

σ

1

J

2

= σ

1

σ

2

σ

3

(ii) Deviatoric stress invariants

Figure 2 Deviatoric Stress Components

Let σ

1

, σ

2

and σ

3

are axes of principal stresses thought a point 'O' of the material.

- ON is the resultant stress at 'O' in some arbitrary direction.

- Now ON may be represent by the sum of OP and PN.

The component OP is chosen to be equally inclined to all three axes. It direction cosines

will then be l

1

= 1

2

= l

3

= l/(3)

1/2

.

Consider the triangle ON'Q, the component of σ

2

along OP is OQ (i.e., OQ = σ

2

cos

β = σ

2

/(3)

1/2

), repeating this for σ

1

and σ

3

it can be seen that the length:

OP = (σ

1

+ σ

2

+ σ

3

)/(3)

1/2

OP can be resolved along each of the coordinate axes, its component in the σ

2

direction is l/(3)

1/

2 OP or = (σ

1

+ σ

2

+ σ

3

)/3 and similarly, its component along the other two

axes will be (σ

1

+ σ

2

+ σ

3

)/3 = σ

m

is called the hydrostatic stress.

Similarly, PN may be resolved along principal axis, for the σ

2

- axis the distance σ

2

=

σ

2

- σ

m

being known as the deviatoric stress components. Thus the deviatoric stress components

are:

σ'

1

= σ

1

- (σ

1

+ σ

2

+ σ

3

)/3 = (2σ

1

- σ

2

- σ

3

)/3

σ'

2

= σ

2

- (σ

1

+ σ

2

+ σ

3

)/ 3 = (2σ

2

- σ

3

- σ

1

)/3 ----------- (10)

σ'

3

= σ

3

- (σ

1

+ σ

2

+ σ

3

)/3 = (2σ

3

- σ

1

- σ

2

)/3

The distance PN is the vector sum of σ'

1

, σ'

2

and σ'

3

= (σ'

1

2

+ σ'

1

2

+ σ'

3

2

)

1/2

and is the

resultant deviatoric stress.

J

'

1

= σ'

1

+ σ'

1

+ σ'

3

= σ

ii

= 0

J

'

2

= ½ (σ'

ii

σ'

ij

) = l/6[(σ

1

- σ

2

)

2

+ (σ

2

- σ

3

)

2

+ (σ

3

- σ

1

)

2

] ----------- (11)

J'

2

=l/3(σ'

ij

σ'

ik

σ'

ki

)

= σ

1

σ

2

σ

3

+ 1/27 (σ

1

+ σ

2

+ σ

3

) [2(σ

1

+ σ

2

+ σ

3

)

2

- 9(σ

1

σ

2

+ σ

2

σ

3

= σ

3

σ

1

)

N

Q2. Derive the mathematical formulations of current value of yield function and current value

of yield stress of the following yield criteria for the determination of plastic behaviours.

(i) Flock and Brown Yield Criteria

(ii) Mohr-Coulomb Yield Criteria

Answer:

(i)Hoek and Brown Yield Criteria

Hoek and Brown (1980) proposed the empirical failure criterion and when

σ

1

> σ

3

, σ

1

= σ

3

+ (m σ

c

σ

3

+ s σ

c

)

1/2

----------- (a)

Where, σ

c

= uniaxial compressive strength of intact rock

Rewrite the equation (a) by invariants,

Equation (a) may be rewritten in terms of mean stress and stress invariant by

substituting the values of σ

1

and σ

3

.

( ) 0 sσ

3

mσ σ

cosθ 3 sinθ

3

) σ ( mσ

cosθ ) σ 2( F

2

1

ci

2 c J1

2

1

J2 ci

2

1

J2

·

¹

¹

¹

)

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

+ − −

′

− ′ · --------- (b)

( ) 0 sσ σ mσ cosθ 3 sinθ

3

) σ ( mσ

cosθ ) σ 2( F

2

1

ci

2

m ci

2

1

J2 ci

2

1

J2

·

¹

¹

¹

)

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

¹

+ − −

′

− ′ · --------- (c)

The current value of yields function can be written as

( )

m

2

1

J2

ci

2

J2

mσ cosθ 3 sinθ

3

) σ m(

σ

θ cos σ 4

F − −

′

−

′

·

----------- (d)

The current value yields stress or equivalent yields stress is:

ci ey

sσ σ ·

----------- (e)

(ii) Mohr-Coulomb Yield Criteria

The form of this yield criterion in terms of shear stress (Τ) and effective normal stress

(σ

n

) on the failure plane is given by:

τ = σ

n

tan φ + c ----------- (a)

Where, c and (φ) are effective cohesion and angle of internal shearing friction

respectively

Alternative form of Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion can be expressed in terms of

effective principal stresses as

σ

1

(1 -sinφ) - σ

3

(1 + sinφ )-2 c cosφ) = 0 ----------- (b)

Using the relationship between σ

1

, σ

3

and the stress-components from the geometry

of the Mohr circle can be written for plane strain conditions as

( ) ( ) 0 cos 2 sin 4

2 2

· − − + · φ φ σ σ τ σ σ c F

y x xy y x

----------- (c)

In terms of σ

s

, σ

d

invariants, equation (2-12) becomes particular simple. It is

F = σ

d

- 2 σ

s

sinφ - 2c cosφ) = 0 ----------- (d)

This relationship follows immediately from equation (c) by introducing the

definitions of Sin σ

s

and σ

d

, or from equation (b). The current value of yield

function is:

0 ccosφ

3

sin sinθ

cosθ

3

9

sinφ σ F

m

· −

¹

)

¹

¹

'

¹

− + − ·

φ

-----------

(e)

current value of yield stress or equivalent yield stress is:

φ · σ cos c

ey

----------- (f)

Q3. Explain the followings of the Finite Element Method (FEM).

(i) Elements

(ii) Shape function

Answer:

(i) Elements

The starting point of an analysis is the division of the structural into elements.

Eight basic element types are illustrated in figure (3). Some of these shapes represent a

number of different types. Thus a 2 or nodded line element can represent a bar having no

bending stiffness in 1, 2, or 3 dimensions. For these applications it will have respectively 1,

2, or 3 degrees of freedom per node. Alternatively it may be a bending element in which case

an extra rotational degree of freedom per node is added for 2-D Applications and three extra

rotational degrees of freedom (making a total of 6) are added for 3-D applications. Similarly,

the triangular and quadrilateral elements may represent membranes or plates in 3-D. In the

former case their bending stiffness is neglected and they have 3 degrees of freedom per node.

Plate bending elements may have 6 degree of freedom per node.

For geotechnical work the triangular and quadrilateral elements applied in a plane

strain analysis are most commonly used. (They then represent a solid block of material with an

out of plane thickness, which is usually one). Sometimes the plane elements will represent an

ax symmetric geometry. Line elements can represent ties or props, or flexible linings to

tunnels.

Higher order elements with more than one midside node are available but although

they give better accuracy per element it is doubtful if they offer any advantage on a 'per

node' basis. It seems to be widely accepted that the so-called parabolic' elements which have

one midside node offer the best value per node.

The bottom row of elements illustrated in figure 3.12 are therefore widely used,

especially the 8 noded quadrilateral.

(ii) Shape function

These define the variation of quantities across elements. The quantities comprise the

nodal unknowns in the first instance, but include any quantity which is required to vary

smoothly across the element between fixed (known, or to be determined) values at the

nodes. Let Q stand for the value of the quantity at some point x, y (we restrict to 2-D for

simplicity), and suffix I indicate the value at node i, then,

∑

·

·

n

1 i

i i

Q N n Q

in which Ni is the shape function of x, y for node I and n is the number of nodes in

the element. Clearly, if the n values of Qj are known, Q may be determined at any point

inside the element.

If the finite elements are restricted to straight-sided triangles or rectangles, it is

perfectly satisfactory to define the shape functions directly in terms of x and y. This is

restrictive. Modern practice defines the shape functions in terms of curvilinear

coordinates, ξ, η in 2-D which relate to a mapped element.

Figure (3) Some basic finite elements

Definition of shape functions in terms of ξ, η makes a single simple expression

applicable to a particular mapped shape. This can represent a wide range of actual element

shapes. Figure (2-3) illustrates the mapped and parent elements for the 6 noded triangle and 8

noded quadrilateral.

The shape functions must have a form such that when the ξ, η values corresponding

to the same node, i.e. node i for Ni, are substituted the function assumes the value 1. Also

it must be zero for the ξ, η values corresponding to all the other nodes.

Thus the three-noded bar having ξ = -1 for node 1, ξ = 0 for node 2, and ξ = + 1 for

node 3 (η does not apply here) has the following shape function for node 1:

N

1

= - ½ ξ (1 – ξ) ----------- (a)

This has the value 1 at node 1 for which ξ = -1 and zero at the other two nodes. The

other two shape function are :

N

2

= ( l - ξ2) ----------- (b)

N

3

= ½ ξ (1 + ξ) ----------- (c)

(a) Mapped element (b) Parent element

. Figure (3) Illustration of the mapped and parent elements

Q4. Discuss the basic steps of finite element analysis process and explain the sequence of

computer analysis.

Answer:

(a) Basic steps of finite element analysis process

To specify the problem it is necessary to provide the computer with input data. This

material consists of data specifying the geometry of the idealized structure, its material

properties and the way it is loaded and supported in space. The data also include certain

control numbers that may help the generality and efficiency of the program and should be

supplied early in the input data, such as the total number of nodes and elements or a

control number which indicates whether the problem is plane stress, plane strain or plate

flexure. This enables the main routine to ascertain how much storage is required and which

subroutines are needed in the analysis.

The following details are needed specifically:

i. The number and the co-ordinates of the nodal points; it is convenient to number the nodal

points 1... i... n, so that for each node the node number i and its coordinates (X

I

, y

i

) are

supplied. The importance of adopting the most effective method of numbering the nodes

has already been demonstrated.

ii. The finite elements may also be numbered 1...N, so that for each element its nodal

numbers (connectivity) and the corresponding nodal co-ordinates of the element can be

supplied, thus enabling the dimensions of the element and its position in the overall

structure to be determined. It is also necessary to specify the material properties of

the element, i.e. Young's Modulus E and Poisson's ratio v.

iii. The applied loads.

iv. The 'fixed nodes' corresponding to the various types of supports.

Figure (4) summarizes the basic requirements of the computer program necessary for

the complete solution of a problem by the finite element method. The analysis is carried out

using input data which describe fully the idealized structure and its loading, and produces

output consisting of tabulated nodal displacements and element stresses.

(b) Sequence of computer analysis

Q5. Discuss briefly the followings.

(i) Terzaghi's Rock mass Classification.

(ii) Rock Structure Rating (RSR)

(iii) Tunneling quality index (Q-system)

Answer:

(i) Terzaghi's Rock mass Classification

The design of tunnel support can be estimated by Terzaghi's rock loads. This method

estimates based on descriptive classification. The clear and concise definitions and the

Input Data

- Geometry

- Material properties

- Loading

- Support condition

Evaluate

Individual Element

Stiffness matrix [K]

Assemble

Overall Stiffness

matrix for structure [K]

Applied Boundary

Conditions

Solve

[F] [K] [δ]

Evaluate Stresses

[σ(x,y)] = [H] [δ

e

]

Print Results

Figure (4) Sequence of Computer Analysis

practical comments included in these descriptions are good examples of the type of

engineering geology information, which is most useful for engineering design.

Terzaghi's descriptions are:

-Intact rock contains neither joints nor hair cracks. Hence, if it breaks, it breaks

across sound rock. On account of the injury to the rock due to blasting, spalls may drop off the

roof several hours or days after blasting. This is known as a spalling condition. Hard, intact

rock may also be encountered in the popping condition involving the spontaneous and

violent detachment of rock slabs from the sides or roof.

Stratified rock consists of individual strata with little or no resistance against

separation along the boundaries between the strata. The strata may or may not be weakened

by transverse joints. In such rock the spalling condition is quite common.

Moderately jointed rock contains joints and hair cracks, but the blocks between

joints are locally grown together or so intimately interlocked that vertical walls do not

require lateral support. In rocks of this type, both spalling and popping conditions may be

encountered.

Blocky and seamy rock consists of chemically intact or almost intact rock fragments

which are entirely separated from each other and imperfectly interlocked. In such rock,

vertical walls may require lateral support.

Crushed but chemically intact rock has the character of crusher run. If most or

all of the fragments are as small as fine sand grains and no re-cementation has taken place,

crushed rock below the water table exhibits the properties of a water bearing sand.

Squeezing rock slowly advances into the tunnel without perceptible volume increase.

A prerequisite for squeeze is a high percentage of microscopic and sub-microscopic particles

of micaceous minerals or clay minerals with a low swelling capacity.

Swelling rock advances into the tunnel chiefly on account of expansion. The capacity

to swell seems to be limited to those rocks that contain clay minerals such as

montmorillonite, with a high swelling capacity.

(ii) Rock Structure Rating (RSR)

Wickham et al (1972) described a quantitative method for describing the quality of

a rock mass and for selecting appropriate support on the basis of their Rock Structure

Rating.

(RSR) classification: Most of the case histories used in the development of this

system, were for relatively small tunnels supported by means of steel sets, although

historically this system was the first to make reference to shotcrete support. In spite of this

limitation, it is worth examining the RSR system in some detail since it demonstrates the

logic involved in developing a quasi-quantitative rock mass classification system.

The significance of the RSR system, in the context of this discussion, is that it

introduced the concept of rating each of the components listed below to arrive at a numerical

value of RSR = A + B + C.

1. Parameter A, Geology: General appraisal of geological structure on the basis of:

a. Rock type origin (igneous, metamorphic, sedimentary).

b. Rock hardness (hard, medium, soft, decomposed).

c. Geologic structure (massive, slightly faulted/folded, moderately faulted/folded,

tensely faulted/folded).

2. Parameter B, Geometry: Effect of discontinuity pattern with respect to the

direction of the tunnel drive on the basis of:

a. Joint spacing.

b. Joint orientation (strike and dip).

c. Direction of tunnel drive.

3. Parameter C: Effect of groundwater inflow and joint condition on the basis of:

a. Overall rock mass quality on the basis of A and B combined.

b. Joint condition (good, fair, poor).

c. Amount of water inflow (in gallons per minute per 1000 feet of tunnel).

Note that the RSR classification used Imperial units and three tables to evaluate

the rating of each of these parameters to arrive at the RSR value (maximum RSR= 100).

(iii) Tunneling quality index (Q-system)

Barton et al (1974) of the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute proposed a Tunneling

Quality Index (Q) for the determination of rock mass characteristics and tunnel support

requirements. The numerical value of the index Q varies on a logarithmic scale from 0.001

to a maximum of 1,000 and is defined by:

SFR

J

x

J

J

x

J

RQD

Q

w

a

r

n

·

where, RQD is the Rock Quality Designation

J

n

is the joint set number

J, is the joint roughness number

J

a

is the joint alteration number

J

w

is the joint water reduction factor

SRF is the stress reduction factor

The rock tunneling quality-Q can now be considered to be a function of only three

parameters which are crude measures of:

1. Block size (RQD/J

n

)

2. Inter-block shear strength (J

r

/J

a

)

3. Active stress (J

w

/SRF)

The first quotient (RQD/J

n

) representing the structure of the rock mass, is a crude

measure of the block or particle 114 size, with the two extreme values (100/0.5 and 10/20)

differing by a factor of 400. If the quotient is interpreted in units of centimeters, the extreme

'particle sizes' of 200 to 0.5 cm are seen to be crude but fairly realistic approximations.

The second quotient (J

r

/J

a

) represents the roughness and frictional characteristics

of the joint walls or filling materials. Where no rock wall contact exists, the conditions are

extremely unfavorable to tunnel stability.

The third quotient (J

w

/SRF) consists of two stress parameters. SRF is a measure of:

1) loosening load in the case of an excavation through shear zones and clay bearing rock, 2)

rock stress in competent rock, and 3) squeezing loads in plastic incompetent rocks.

6.Discuss the followings.

(i) Bond strength of rock bolt and cable

(ii) Effects of grouting quality on the stiffness of rock mass

Answer:

(i) Bond strength of rock bolt and cable

The forces and displacements associated with a stressed cable grouted into a borehole

in rock are illustrated in Figure 1. As the cable pulls out of the grout, the resultant interference

of the spiral steel wires with their associated grout imprints or flutes causes radial

displacement or dilation of the interface between the grout and the cable.

The radial dilation induces a confining pressure that is proportional to the combined

stiffness of the grout and the rock surrounding the borehole. The shear stress, which resists

sliding of the cable, is a product of the confining pressure and the coefficient of friction

between the steel wires and the grout.

Shear strength, therefore, increases with higher grout strength, increases in the grout

and the rock stiffness and increases in the confining stresses in the rock after installation of

the cable. Conversely, decrease in shear strength can be expected if any of these factors

decrease or if the grout crushes.

Figure (1) Forces and displacements associated with a stressed cable grouted into a borehole

in rock.

(ii) Effects of grouting quality on the stiffness of rock mass

The question of grout quality has always been a matter of concern ii

reinforcement systems for underground construction. One of the critical factors ii this

matter has been the evolution of grout pumps capable of pumping grouts with low enough

water/cement ratio (by weight) to achieve adequate strengths.

This problem has been overcome and there is a range of grout pumps which will

pump very viscous grouts and will operate reliably under typical underground conditions.

Design of tunnels

Design of tunnels

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