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THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY

MACMILLAN AND
LONDON

CO., Limited

BOMBAY CALCUTTA MELBOURNE

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY


NEW YORK BOSTON CHICAGO

DALLAS

SAN FRANCISCO

THE MACMILLAN

CO. OF CANADA. Ltd. TORONTO

THE VERSE
OF

GREEK COMEDY

JOHN WILLIAMS WHITE


HONOEARY DOCTOR OF LETTERS, CAMBRIDGE DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY, HARVARD HONORARY DOCTOR OF LAWS, WESLEYAN AND OHIO WESLEYAN PROFESSOR OF GREEK EMERITUS IN HARVARD UNIVERSITY
;

TAXY

r'

AN Ay'naio MAN0ANeiN nepi pyOmcon

MACMILLAN AND
ST.
I

CO.,

LLMITED

MARTIN'S STREET,
91
2

LONDON

Pft

Z7v/b

COPYRIGHT

TO

THOMAS DWIGHT GOODELL


PROFESSOR IN TALE UNIVERSITY
IN

GRATEFUL ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF HIS CONTRIBUTIONS


TO METRICAL SCIENCE

INTRODUCTION
Greek poetry
a remote past.
inherited from
in the fifth century before
art.

developed and complex

Christ was a highly Greek poets had begun to sing in Their successors in the age of Aristophanes had
singers in

many

many

lands

the islands of the


of

Aegean and the Continent a great treasure rhythmical phrases that had gradually been developed and

the coast of Asia,

perfected during centuries of practice

among

a song-loving people,

admitted countless harmonious variations, just as the English heroic line, passing from Shakespeare to Milton and from Milton on to Tennyson, became under his magic touch a newinstrument of melody modulated to every theme. The poets of the

and that

still

later age,

guided by that intuitive apprehension and appreciation

of beauty of form

creative art,

which characterized their race in all ranges of combined these phrases into harmonious periods and symmetrical strophes with extraordinary skill, but they were
only vaguely conscious
of
historical
relations.

What
?

is

the

rhythm

of these phrases

and

their metrical constitution

What
?

are the laws

by which they are combined


?

in period

and strophe

Whence

did particular phrases come

We despair

of a complete

Many problems confront us answer to some of these questions. that in consequence of the loss of the music to which these Greek odes were sung do not, we must frankly confess, now admit of
but such knowledge as we may be able to get, by sure solution patient investigation, of the origin, nature, relation and development of the materials with which the poets wrought will con;

tribute to a juster understanding of their art


tion
of
their
skill.

and

a truer apprecia-

And

in

a fashion

we

are

better able to

some of these facts than the poets themselves would have been, had they been interested in formulating the rules of
ascertain

viii

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


Thus
also historical investigation

their craft.

and comparative

study have enabled modern scholars to determine the laws of the use of the Greek language as a means of expression with a fullness and precision that would not have been possible in the time

modern

who would doubtless have inspected these on Greek Syntax with austere surprise. Ancient rhythmic, of course, is a mggeder field, with hidden pitfalls, where we must proceed with extreme caution. I have endeavoured, within the range to which this book is
of

Demosthenes,
treatises

and complex subject in a direct and simple manner, and I have derived the principles on which its scientific study must proceed in the main from the writings
restricted, to treat this difficult

of ancient

teachers,

chiefly

Aristoxenus, Aristides, Heliodorus,

It is only a hundred years since Bockh first and Hephaestion. saw the profound importance of Aristoxenus, a younger conFrom temporary of Aristotle, in the investigation of rhythm.

long way, but the journey

Aristoxenus to Aristides, a rhythmician of inferior authority, is a The statements of is worth making.

Hephaestion in his manual on metric must be weighed with care his treatises on poetic composition have particular and unique The doctrine of his master, Heliodorus, embodied in his value.
;

analyses of the structure of certain of the plays of Aristophanes, is of great moment to the student of comedy, but has not hitherto

been systematically
as

utilized.

sufficient justification

for

This fact will perhaps be regarded the reconstitution of the text of


unfortunately

these

remains,
in

which
the
last

are

meagre,

and

their

publication

chapter of this book.

Where

ancient

authority

silent, and this happens only too often, I have is turned to the poets themselves and there sought the laws which they unconsciously but unerringly obeyed, and I have submitted

the

validity

of

all

conclusions

to the practical test

of their

applicability to the poets themselves.

Their application to the

comic poets

is

recorded in the second and fourteenth chapters

inclusive of this book.

The fifteenth There is one exception to these statements. chapter treats of the origin of the forms of Greek poetry, and the
conclusions there submitted for consideration have undoubtedly determined the point of view from which my investigation and treatment of the manifold rhythms of Greek poetry have pro-

ceeded but here our ancient authorities give


:

little direct

testimony,

INTRODUCTION

ix

Still these views are not and the poets naturally are silent. mere speculations, they are supported by parallel manifestations in languages closely akin to Greek. The significance of Westphal's comparison, over fifty years ago, of Avestan and Vedic with Greek dimeters and trimeters has been amply confirmed by subsequent investigations made by Professor Arnold and other

The fundamental concept is a primitive phrase, longer which the various forms of poetic rhythm were gradually evolved and differentiated by regulated arrangement The dimeter and trimeter thus of long and short syllables. developed are precisely the greater or compound foot of Aristoxenus, and for that matter also of Aristophanes, the true source from which the metre and simple foot were gradually derived.^ The final test of the probability of the views advanced in this chapter must be the extent to which they are judged to explain consistently and satisfactorily the numerous and, when viewed independently of one another, perplexing metrical phenomena of
scholars.

or shorter, from

Greek
subject.

verse.
I for

Logaoedic rhythm, for example,

is

befogging

one confess that I did not clearly apprehend its historical significance, its unquestionable relation to the four

common rhythms with which we

are familiar in ancient and modern poetry, and the limitations of its use, until I saw how these rhythms had all gradually been evolved from the primitive dimeter and trimeter.^ Non-melic verse in Greek comprises the spoken trimeter and recitative and melodramatic tetrameters, hypermeters and trimeters, and constitutes the greater part of each comedy of Recitative and melodramatic rhythms are an Aristophanes. element foreign to the modern drama, and the Greek mode of rendering them would doubtless seem singular to us, but it was a great advantage to the comic poets to have them at their command as a vehicle of dialogue, and they used them with
I hope that the importance of nonmelic verse will be thought to justify the attention I have given I have used the statistical method in its treatment from to it.

excellent discrimination.

the conviction that an accurate

and precise knowledge of the

laws of our poet's usage can best be acquired in this manner, and that such knowledge is the only means that we moderns can
safely

employ
1

in attempting to differentiate his style


^

from that

See 664.

See375flF., 603

flF.

X
of other poets.

THE VEKSE OF GKEEK COMEDY

His spoken trimeter is not the trimeter of the The ignorance or disregard Menander. of the usages of individual Greek poets exhibited by many of their emenders and by many modern composers of Greek verse
tragic poets nor that of

in

results

The application of the a particular manner is incredible. obtained by bald statistics may prove to be a salutary

corrective, as I may have shown in a recent monograph, in which proposed emendations and restorations of the text of the

four newly-discovered plays of


test of his

Menander

are submitted to the

actual practice.

It would, perhaps, be indecorous to

summon

the emenders of Aristophanes hither to trial at the bar


is

of his usage, but the process


for the entertainment of

legal

and may be recommended


attention

an

idle hour.

Notwithstanding
non-melic verse,
its

the

considerable
is

here given to
I

investigation

by no means complete.

have discussed caesura and diaeresis with particular care, but lack of space has precluded the study at any length of our poet's The trimeters different manners in each sort of non-melic verse. in one play, for example, differ in interesting particulars from
those in another, and Aristophanes modulates his spoken verse skilfully to varying themes, although the range of emotion and

sentiment is not so great in comedy as in tragedy. The determination of the structure of the Greek melic strophe is a problem that has been repeatedly essayed, but no system of strophic analysis has yet been proposed that has been Two scholars have lived to reject, with a generally accepted.
certain degree of scorn, the systems that they had themselves others declare that the problem is insoluble. Professor fathered
;

Schroder has recently given a brief account of the views that have been successively put forward only to be combated or He has an alluring theory of his own, which he abandoned.^
defends and illustrates in an article that comes
write.'

to

hand

as I

This
warily.

is

treacherous ground, on which


attention

it

Sufficient

has

not

always
is

behooves one to walk been paid by


ultimately a question
to

investigators to the fact that the problem


of melodic correspondence.
If the

music

which the odes of

See his Vorarbeiten, 136 ff. See Classical Philology, vii. (1912), 158 ff. See also his editions of the text
^

of Pindar and of the odes of the Greek dramatic poets.

INTRODUCTION

xi

the Greek poets were sung had been preserved with the text, the question would not come up since it is lost, the metrical
;

form of the text

is

the sole means to an answer.

The metrical

correspondence of antistrophe with strophe is generally close in Greek odes,^ and it is agreed that the melody to which a strophe

was sung was repeated


within a strophe
final
?

in the singing of its

antistrophe.

"What

similar correspondences

are

there between subordinate periods

With few

exceptions, the last metre of the


is

colon of a subordinate period

catalectic

or ends in a
is

variable syllable or hiatus."

The

effect of

each phenomenon

the same, a pause in singing that marks the close of a period, I observed, in studying the metrical commentary, that the
inference that the Greek dramatic poets probably arranged the subordinate elements that compose a strophe in the same ways in which they combined whole strophes in the parode

natural

and other great divisions of their plays,^ was confirmed in a startling but conclusive manner by the testimony of Heliodorus.* His practice, furthermore, establishes another important fact,
that a long strophe
is

apt to be divided into intermediate melodic

groups similarly arranged.^

On

the legitimate assumption that

two subordinate periods that have the same metrical form were, like strophe and antistrophe, sung to the same melody, analysis now a simple process.^ The groups are generally triads, is
tetrads, or

Hephaestiou

pentads successively derived, the larger from the smaller. testifies to the same groupings of strophes in the
of the drama,

main

divisions

the correctness of his statements.

and the plays themselves confirm I have applied the principles

outlined above to the comedies of Aristophanes in the eighteenth

chapter of this book with results that seem to


evidence of their truth.

me

to

constitute

The two rhythms treated in the eleventh and twelfth chapters have been the subject of vigorous discussion during the past I shall probably be thought to have said quite fifteen years. Aeolic Verse is on a different footing enough about the former.'
1 If it is not, the change in form is After the mauuSee 51. deliberate. script of this book had been sent to the printers, I received from Professor von Wilamowitz a copy of his recent monograph on the Vespae, in which I am gratified to find that the conelusions which I have stated in 51 are

confirmed by his high authority, ^ gge Bbckh's Pindari Opera, 308 tf. ' See chapter xvii. See 722 ff. = See 728. ^ See the illustrations in 729 ff. See 475 ff., 630 ff., 812 ff.
*
'

I.

ii.

xii

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


less

and requires
importance.

formal treatment, although it is of profound very considerable part of Greek melic poetry is
its

issue

The question of composed in it. and demands reconsideration,


is

constitution

is

a serious

for the theory of its

rhythm
is,

that

now

generally accepted in England and America

believe,

without ancient warrant, is due to misconceptions, and is I must beg for indulgence if I write at demonstrably wrong. length in venturing to offer a chapter in continuation of Mr.
Caxton's great work on The History of Human Error. Our ancient authorities all regard the four completely

developed feet of Aeolic verse as simple and as tetrasyllable, to each of the four syllables of each foot its normal Their statements are poetic value of long or short unreduced. Hephaestion devotes two chapters of his Manual to an explicit.

and they give

exposition of the uses of the choriamb and antispast, and in subsequent chapters discusses certain related cola and periods.^

His predecessor Heliodorus exemplifies ancient opinion on the constitution of this form of verse in his analysis of such odes as are found in the first parabasis and first stasimon of the Knights.
Aristides analyzes each of the four completely developed feet of Aeolic verse into thesis and arsis, designating the feet by the
earlier

names that were

in use in the time of Aristoxenus,

and

in a following chapter he gives an account of choriambic and Aristoxenus, whose authority is not to be antispastic periods.'^

questioned, states that simple feet


four syllables but not of

may

consist of two, three, or

more than four, classifies tetrasyllable feet as isomeric or diplasic, and in a fragment of his Principles of Rhythm, recently discovered in Oxyrhynchus, names and discusses three of the four tetrasyllable feet of Aeohc verse and
quotes passages from the poets in illustration of their use. defer for the present detailed consideration of this evidence.
respectable
I

This united testimony would seem to give Aeolic rhythm a standing, but most modern metricians who have written on Greek and Latin verse during the last century have

banished this rhythm, in its ancient constitution, from their Procedure so drastic as this rouses curiosity possibly it books. In my twelfth chapter I have outjustifies a stronger emotion. lined the structure of Aeolic verse and analyzed the Aeolic odes
;

SeeHeph. 29
f.

ff.,
ff.

See Aristides, 39

M.,

26.

20

J.,

43 ff. 54 f. M., 34. 33

fif.

J.


INTRODUCTION
last part of the fifteenth chapter
xiii

of Aristophanes in conformity with ancient doctrine, and in the


^

have stated what

believe

to be a credible theory of its origin from the primitive dimeter

and

trimeter.

It

now remains

to recall the history of the astonish-

ing break with ancient tradition which began about a hundred years ago and to re-examine the grounds of belief,
Gottfried

Hermann

is

the founder of the modern science of

ancient verse.

1796
able,

and

wrote three books on this subject between 1816, and has powerfully influenced opinion.
first of

He

Elmsley, writing in 1811, calls the


that

his books incomparof

and deprecates the severity of the criticisms


enliven
;

Hermann
of the

Person's celebrated preface to his

edition

Hecuba
still
'

but those were stirring days when the classics were generally thought to be of vital concern, when a metrical

law

'

might provoke the

applause of Europe, and


if

when two

literary antagonists, to use a

phrase of Elmsley's, were doomed

to

become personal enemies,

these two scholars.

Hermann was

they were of the temperament of only twenty-four years of


in his

age

when he wrote his first book on metric, but even he was intolerant of criticism.

youth

He was
at
this

a metrician, and his notions of rhythm, in his early

period, were crude.

He

seems not to have known Aristoxenus


Morelli

time, although

had published

his

edition

of

He did not hesitate, of Rhythm in 1785. however, to express opinions on such matters as the relative timethe
Frinciples

values of successive feet and the difference between Greek and

modern music. He held, in brief, that a long syllable was never more nor less than long, and that a short syllable was always short, and that these were the only syllabic values with which Greek poets operated. Any line, therefore, that combined dactyls, trochees and spondees was an agglomeration of isomeric and diplasic feet promiscuously mingled. Greek music was rude and passionate. These views provoked lively remonstrance, and Hermann's Tactlosigkeit in the scientific sense of that term became a by-word among those learned in these matters. Voss, the celebrated translator of Homer, and Apel, the former in 1802 and the latter in 1806, took issue squarely with Hermann and insisted that successive feet in the same colon, in Greek poetry and music as in modern, were all of equal length,
'
'

See 651 S.

xiv

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


rhythmical,
as has just
triple

since they were


line

been mentioned in

Voss rendered such a logaoedic common time throughout,

It was the latter who came upon the which has had great vogue. He aimed to formulate a system of universal rhythm, and ominously announces in the preface of his big book that he intends to pay no attention to grammarians and philologians in his attempt to re-establish

Apel in
'

time.

cyclic

'

dactyl,

'

the true

rhythm
poets,

of verse,

he

'

will derive his conclusions directly

from the
adequate.
fancy.'

with

whom

in fact

his

acquaintance was in'

as an ephemeral Bockh, writing in 1808, at first welcomed them, but soon afterwards, while maintaining firmly the theory of the

Hermann

stigmatized his views

temporal equality of
within the
foot.

feet,

rejected

Apel's cyclic

dactyl and in

general his a priori conclusions as to the distribution of times

In his great edition of Pindar Bockh turned from the metricians to the rhythmicians and was the first modern to utilize Aristoxenus in the study of Greek rhythm, but his sturdy maintenance of the doctrine of the exact equality of feet brought him more than once into conflict with his chief authority, as in his
conclusions in regard to the irrational metre and the logaoedic
dactyl.-^

Eossbach
in

published

the

first

edition

of

his

Greek

1854, the first modern book that treated the subject separately and as a whole and aimed to set forth the ancient system of rhythm completely, a task of great difficulty because the early ancient sources of information are scant. Eossbach gratefully acknowledges his indebtedness to Bockh. His opinion of Apel is contemptuous a fact to be noted, since a distinguished scholar, in a lively and entertaining criticism of the new metric but why the new metric ? has recently announced himself as the defender of the principles of Apel as developed by Eossbach, Schmidt and Christ.' It would be hard to find in any field of philological controversy a more scathing arraignment of another man's views than Eossbach makes of Apel's. Point after

Bhythmic

'

'

'

point

is

made with deadly

precision in proof of Apel's ignorance

and

folly.

Eeferring to Apel's cyclic dactyl, Eossbach says that

he has by the grace of God hit the mark just once


tion to ancient tradition,
1

this, too, is

the only time that, contrary to his principles, he has paid atten-

but this single gain disappears in a


See 16 and 390.

INTRODUCTION
welter of hariolations and hypotheses.

xv
in fine, " die bliude

Henne, die ein

giites

Apel is, Koru gefunden hat."


:

Even the gentle

Bockh, after a statement of reasons, says " inde profectus universam Apelii doctrinam, ut desperatam prorsus, coepi relinquere." Hermann had no quarrel with the choriamb in itself, on the
contrary he artificially extended
its

use.
it

Nor did he absolutely

because it was rough and harsh, as he thought, and he dispossessed it of its rightful place among the eight prototypes by the very process by which He had fallen into diffihe enlarged the use of the choriamb. culties with the undeveloped syllables which begin the Glyconic, whose origin and significance are now, after investigations that He gave have extended over a century, clearly apprehended.^ these syllables the name basis and discussed them at length in He held that they were a sort of praeludium his first book.'' et tentameutum of the feet that followed, but were themselves unrhythmical, that they consisted of two theses, and that they The etfect of the were to be treated as a separate element.
reject the antispast, although he disliked
'
' ' '

application of this theory

is

wholesale production of choriambs.

The greater Asclepiadean, for example, is made to furnish three Hermann treated these Aeolic verses choriambs by this process.'^ The acatalectic lesser Asclepiadean, like the inconsequentially.
greater Asclepiadean,
is

choriambic, but the Phalaecean

is

log-

aoedic, as also the Glyconic*

He

does not state

why

he thus

discriminates.
it

This classification was

made

in his first book,^

and

should be noted that he thus advanced the theory of logaoedic scansion of certain Aeolic cola before any of his successors in the

same field had written on this subject. Hermann's theory of the nature and use of these undeveloped syllables was at first thought to be new learning and they still Hermann's basis,' but this doctrine crops out pass current as among the Latin derivationists,' who on demand will furnish
'

'

almost
allowed

anything
it

that

is

desired.

They, however,

made
'basis,'

the

Phalaecean choriambic.*^
follows, regarding
1

Bockh accepted Hermann's

but

only one thesis and completely severed it from what of only two or at the it, although it consists

See506ii., 652f.

- ^ - v^|- ^
|

c;

^ |-^^ -^ |

See

De

^i=L\-^^-\-^^-\-^^-^^^Mj_^^_i_>^^-\^-; ^x|_^^|

Metris (1796), 21

ff.

518
^
^'

ii.

and

De

511. Metris, 216.

See532.
4

-sd\-^'^-\-^-^-ff.

See Caesius

Bassus, 258

K.

xvi

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


three syllables, as a
' '

monopodic colon. The basis was a and the trochee and but might be irrational ( ), These irrational colon might be resolved (^ ^ ^ and w ^ - ). were its only forms in Pindar, who did not admit the pyrrhic

most

trochee,

'

'

it

{^ ^) or the dactyl. When the iamb occurred (as it does in Pindar) was not to be considered as a basis but as an iambic colon
' '

prefixed to a following trochaic or dactylic colon with an effect

Eossbach and comparable with syncopation in modern music.^ Westphal protested vigorously against the separation of the
syllables grouped in the
'

basis

'

from the following


a

feet, alleging

that these

syllables

constituted

triseme

foot

in

descending

rhythm, characterized by great freedom of form, and as closely connected as possible with what followed." We need not follow these troublesome syllables farther. It is obvious that the original segregation and prolonged discussion of this unruly combination would strongly individualize it and give it that sort of general recognition which comes from possession of But its recognition as a separate element, whether as the field. It beheads prelude or colon or foot, goes much deeper than that. aU antispastic cola, and no victim survives that fatal process. The antispast disappears, and the remainder of the colon must now be analyzed as either choriambic or logaoedic. No other

To what extent is existing prejudice against general, due to the unfortunate accident of Hermann's misconception of the origin and nature of the unThese syllables formed syllables that begin many Aeolic cola ? disturbed the Latin metricians also, but their trouble was that The pure antispast was they contaminated the antispast.

method

is possible.

the antispast, which

is

unobjectionable.^
that, if

Is it pertinent

(or impertinent

?)

to

surmise
^

modem

metricians had had from the beginning of the


as

discussion as clear a conception of the polyschematist dimeter

we now

have, thanks to the intuition of Professor von Wila-

mowitz,^ and had seen that the unformed initial syllables of the Glyconic were only a minor manifestation of the same pheno-

menon,^ they might never have raised their turbulent outcry They would, to be sure, have needed also ? to rid themselves of the obsession of an ictus, that Old Man of
against the antispast

the Sea.^
^

2 2

See Find. Op. i. ii. 6.5, 80 cf. 149. See Spec. Metrik," 554 ff. See Marius Victorinus, 88. 3 ff. K.
;

^
^

See 506 f. See his Choriavibische Dimeter. See 653. See p. xxiii
'^

f.

INTRODUCTION

xvii
basis,'

When Hermann
as choriambic or as their books

had established

his

'

but had

left

the

question open, whether the following feet were to be regarded

Voss and Apel, both predisposed rhythms of modern poetry and music, promptly decided for logaoedic scansion, and Bockh adopted the same view. Rossbach states the fact from precisely this point There was now general of view and in precisely this way.^ disagreement arose when agreement that the choriamb must go another deadly process into the it came to dismembering it Apel's two diplasic feet required by logaoedic scansion.^ extended exposition of his theory of rhythm^ had undoubtedly It was his ignorance or neglect of principles influenced opinion. of Greek rhythm transmitted in ancient sources of information The extant that involved him in fantastic conclusions. still mere conception that the complex but authentic tetrasyllable rhythms of Greek poetry can be stated in terms of the simple dissyllabic and trisyllabic rhythms of modern poetry is alluring,
logaoedic,^
to the

show

but

if it is consistently applied, the consequences are appalling. Eossbach and Westphal were unable to face them and left the Other scholars, such two ionic tetrasyllable feet untouched. as the late Professor von Christ in Germany and Professor Shorey in America, sustained by the courage of their convictions, consistently sacrifice the ionics along with the antispast and Von Christ even choriamb and give them logaoedic scansion.^

feels

doubt about the pentaseme


of

feet of

Greek

heniiolic rhythm,"^

but halts abashed before the repeated testimony of Aristoxenus

and the paeonic odes

Aristophanes.
is

Historic evidence of

logaoedic scansion of Aeolic verse

Eossbach and Westphal confess that it is entirely without the support of ancient authority, Greek or Latin, early or late." It is neverthewholly lacking.
less,

they allege, the true theory, the theory of the poets of the

classical period,

but

choriambic theory devised by two

Alexandrian period, on metric* This


^

and was replaced by an ionicunknown grammarians of the whose doctrine was adopted by Latin writers
it

was

lost

is

startling
5

statement.
See

shall

shortly
f.,

'

XV. - Spec. Metrik,^ 521. On the first of these two feet, the cyclic dactyl, see 390.
p.
'^
'

See

Von
is
jjjs

^^
6
'

Christ, Metrik,- 71 rendered as

where

J.

J*'.

ggg

Metrik," 64.
Metrik,'^

"~"

^2
See

Spec.

521.

my

His two volumes occupy over twelve hundred pages. He announced a third volume, but died before it was written.

'Logaoedic' Metre in Greek 31 jf. s ^^^^^ Metrik,^ 518 ff

Comedy,

xviii

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


evidence
that

advance
fourth

has

convinced

me

at

least

that

the

logaoedic theory of Aeolic verse cannot have prevailed in the

century before Christ, when Aristoxenus, a man of profound intelligence, with the wealth of the poetry and music of the preceding century at his command, undertook to formulate the principles of rhythm which the great poets had unconsciously
obeyed.

had extraordinary had the honour of making the outlines of Schmidt's general system known to English and American scholars w^ho had not become acquainted with it in the original by the publication in 1878 of a trans-

The

'

logaoedic theory

'

of Aeolic verse has


it.^

vogue.

J.

H. H. Schmidt adopted

lation

of

his

summary statement

of

it.

logaoedicos vae, Misit Temptavit in dulci iuventa Fervor et in The present book, therefore, is a palinode, if so fine furentem.

Me

quoque pectoris

word may be applied

to a performance

so pedestrian.

The

logaoedic theory has been adopted in

many

editions of the poets

and has been repeatedly presented in books and monographs, notably by Professor von Christ, an ardent and eloquent Two American scholars have recently come forward advocate.^ in its support, Professor Goodell in a cautious and judicial
reconsideration of the ancient evidence, strictly confined to Aeolic forms,^ and Professor Shorey with a vivacious monograph in which the author's views are expressed with ardour and the

main argument
It

is

enlivened by practical suggestions, discussion

of pedagogical methods, and piquant criticisms.^

challenged.

must not be supposed that the new theory has gone unProfessor Henri Weil condemned it and repeatedly Professor controverted what he affirmed was false doctrine.^
disappear. ... If the Greek accents are ignored, there is no consciousness of any difference between Greek and English metre. Both are rhythmically stressed, and both, if we regard the practice of the better English poets, are quantitative though English is less exquisitely so. It is possible with the schemes of Rossbach, Schmidt, and others, to teach students to read with appreciation the choruses of tragedy and the odes of Pindar. The aesthetic effect obtained, the pleasure received, is precisely analogous to that enjoyed by appreciative readers of Shelley and Swinburne, ^ First in the iVews Jahrhucher fiir

1 In his Kunstformen der griecMschen Poesie, a vohiminous work of considerable originality. 2 In his Meirik see also his 'Grund;

in

fragendermelischenMetrikderGriechen' the Transactions of the Bavarian ^ca(^e??/, XXII. ii. (1902), 213 ff. 2 See his Greek Metric, 212 ff. He In his Choviambic Dimeter.
his general position at the beginning of his monograph in the following and similar tenets : In prowe study any foreign portion as

outlines

system

of

verse

alleged

differences to which

between

we

are

fundamental its rhythm and that accustomed tend to

INTRODUCTION
Susemihl declared against
attention to Aeolic
verse,
it.^

six

The publication of Professor von


interest in

Wilainowitz's Isyllos and HeraUcs powerfully stimulated renewed

and

the subject became

general on the Continent

when

Dr.

Kenyon published

the British

Museum

papyrus of Bacchylides.

Professor Blass in his edition

of the text of Bacchylides

in the treatment of the Aeolic odes

(1898) abandoned the logaoedic theory among the newly discovered

Professor Schroder's poems, and monographs began to appear. Pindar was published in 1900, and was followed by his metrical
editions of the
his master, Weil,

Greek dramatists. Professor Masqueray followed and Professor Hugo Gleditsch went over to

the enemy.^

very strong on the Continent


volume.
scrutiny

The reaction against the logaoedic theory of Aeolic verse is its waves have hardly as yet reached the shores of England and America. It has gradually gathered
;

Scholars have subjected the fundamental principle,

first

affirmed by Apel, on which this theory rests to severe but judicial

and found

it

untenable

they

have observed

with

surprise the disposition of extreme advocates of this theory to

minimize plain differences between Greek and modern languages and to establish equivalences that do not exist they have reexamined the ancient evidence and found it, though meagre, convincing they have successfully submitted the ancient theory to
;

the practical test of


feet in

its

application to the poets.


tetrasyllable simple

The new doctrine denies the existence of


Greek poetry.
In justification of
theory of universal

Apel affirmed a rhythm which, developed a priori, would satisfy all the demands of ancient and modern verse. Submitted to this test Ionic and Aeolic Greek rhythms were doomed to disappear, for they are not found in modern poetry. But Apel neglected certain elementary but fundamental principles. The sense of rhythm is universal poets have been singing since the world began, and a mere child is charmed by the rhythm of motion. Ehythm has various media of expression. Language is only one of them and it is the stubbornest of all. Even in Greek
this,
;

650
vi.

Philologie for 1862, 346 tf., aud 1865, Later in the Fievue Critique, ff. (1872) 49 ff., and in tlae Bulletin de Correspondance Hellenique, xix. (1895) His views are summarized in 399, 411. his tudes de Rhythmique in two papers with expressive titles Les Prelendus
:

Logaedes (181

fiF.)

and Za Vraie Mesure

dcs faux logatdes {203 ff.). ^ Jahrbiicher fiir classische Philologie, 1873, 294 fi'.
-

See the Bibliography, pp. 459-464

of this book,

" ;

XX

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


make
it

not only the order but also the length of syllables had to be
regulated to

an instrument
difficult

of

rhythmical expression.

English
give

is

still

more

us by their delicate
it

medium, and our great poets charm but sure control of the means by which they
spoken verse, their
is

rhythmical

effect in their

skilful sub-

stitution of natural stress for the quantity that

inherent in

Greek, and their facile use of hold and pause in marshalling the

almost colourless and very uncertain syllables of English speech so


that they march in time.

But

vs^hile

the sense of

rhythm

is

universal possession, the forms of


various,

its

expression in language are

of the

and the degree medium. There

of variation is conditioned
is

by the nature

nothing improbable in the supposition


like

that a strictly quantitative language like Greek developed forms


of

rhythm of which a modern language

English

is

incapable

on the contrary probable, since as Aristoxenus says rhythm is an ordering of times. It is, of course, a mere rhetorical pleasantry to deny the existence of a fact because it does not come within the range of one's own experience, but if this were said seriously, in the attempt to dispossess tetrasyllable feet of their rightful place as indivisible measures of rhythm in Greek, it would be an ineffective argument. Modern poetry cannot manage these longer rhythmical elements with ease, but one of the facts that deterred Professor von Christ from dismembering the paeon was Brambach's discovery of modern melodies in fiveeight time,^ and Westphal quotes an aria from Mozart's Bon Juan that is in ionic rhythm.'-^ That is, modern music with its greater resources can compass rhythms that are not found in modern
it is

poetry.

We may

go farther.

The English poets have developed three


a fourth.^

simple rhythms, and perhaps

These are

the only

rhythms natural
ambics
is

to this particular

essayed others successfully.


'

medium, but our poets have The charm of Swinburne's Chori'

undeniable

Large red lilies of love, sceptral and tall, lovely for eyes to see Thornless blossom of love, full of tte sun, fruits that were reared for thee.
;

See Rhein.
ff.

Museum, xxxv.

(1880),

242
-

See Hhythmik,^ 195 ff. * Swinburne in a note prefixed to his spirited rendering of the parabasis of Aristophanes's Birds speaks of English as "a language to which all variations

and combinations of anapaestic, iambic, or trochaic metre are as natural and pliable as all dactylic and spondaic forms of verse are unnatural and abhorrent. The battle over the hexameter that began in the sixteenth century still
rages.


INTRODUCTION
This
is

xxi

Horace's

Tu ne

quaesieris, scire nefas, qiiem mihi, quern tibi

the greater Asclepiadean.^

have nothing
theory'
of

to

do,

it

should be

this

verse.

Swinburne, a good Grecian, would logaoedic noted, with the He has followed Hermann, perhaps
'

Horace, in separating the first two syllables of each verse from His technical the choriambs that then flow on to its iambic close. skill was unrivalled, and is here seen in his delicate attention to
natural length of syllables and in his use of stress, both reinforced by caesura, to secure just the effects he wished. Professor
Gilbert Murray, another good poet and Grecian, has kindly sent me verses composed in the same rhythm, but in what he I am

happy

to

know

believes

was Sappho's

manner.'-^

An He

old eagle, a blind eagle, who waits hungry and cold and still he stands lone on a lonely hill. seeks nothing, he fears nothing
:

Here we

see the

same
is

skilful

use of natural length,


effect.

stress,

and

caesura to produce the desired

These are tours de

force, it

may

be

said.

That

precisely their value in this discussion.

rhythms have not been used by modern poets because modern languages are constitutionally inadequate to sustain these longer rhythms easily, not, as has been alleged, because these rhythms are impossible in any language. Apel's system of universal rhythm not only put authentic Greek rhythms into a strait-waistcoat, but it has also gradually The effect of its adoption was altered the cut of that garment. real differences between the as inevitable as it is deplorable
Greek
tetrasyllable

ancient and the modern language are minimized, alleged equivaOne's sense of the significance of features lences are multiplied.

that are sharply characteristic


language,
is

now

of one,

now

of the

other

Thus the distinction between melic and spoken verse is broken down, and Greek dramatic choruses that were rendered by a dozen or fifteen performers in song, and were often accompanied by a dance, are treated precisely as modern verse that is read or recited by a single person. Stress, which is the vital feature of modern poetry and is there combined with the word-accent, is imposed upon Greek poetry
blurred and deadened.
1

See 532.

xxii

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


to
is

and alleged

whereas there

be an indispensable element of Greek rhythm, no evidence for an ictus in Greek poetry, and

many

scholars

modern invention.
rhythms
with

consequently believe that ictus in Greek is a Quantity, inherent in the language and fixed
is

in almost all syllables,


their

the solid foundation on which Greek


orderings
of
'

varied

times

'

are

based,

whereas in modern poetry one school of metrists practically denies that it exists, another affirms that it has a function comparable with that in the ancient languages, and meanwhile the shows that whatever the true arbitrators practice of the poets

role

it

plays

is

entirely secondary to that of accent.

Finally, the

pause and the hold are indispensable in rhythmizing the uncertain syllables of modern speech, but in Greek the quantity inherent in syllables requires no support, and the use of pause

and hold while


Iambic
in Greek.
is

strictly defined is purely artistic.

the only

rhythm that was used


and
in

in

spoken verse
are

Iambic, anapaestic, trochaic


recitative

dactylic

the

rhythms that were used


an
actor's

rendering, but recitative


of

does not signify in the least what


reciting his lines.^

we mean when we speak

These are the four rhythms that modern poetry has developed. Both Greek and English, therefore, employ only simple dissyllabic and trisyllabic rhythms in nonmelic verse.

The Greeks, however, developed other rhythms,

paeonic, ionic, dochmiac, prosodiac-enoplic, Aeolic.


exceptions, these

With

rare

The choruses rhythms were exclusively melic. Only a highly imaginative mind can grasp of tragedy were sung. The word lyrical has the idea of reading dochmiac verse. now a connotation far removed from its original Greek sense, and Bacchylides and Swinburne are not, in fact, poets of the same genre. If now the rhythms just named were not used in spoken verse in Greek, how credible and convincing is the allegation that the metrical structure of Aeolic verse must have
'
'

of the simple trochaic a bastard form, at best been a form and dactylic rhythms that the Greek poets did employ in nonmelic rendering, because we moderns cannot read Aeolic verse

in
to

Eegret that we cannot teach our pupils ? render the odes of Pindar as Greeks rendered them is an amiable sentiment, the resolution to read them even at the cost of reading them in the wrong fashion is prompted no doubt by

any other manner

See 59.

INTKODUCTION
determination of

xxiii

a generous impulse, but neither has the least significance in the


scientific
facts.

The more ardent advocates of the logaoedic theory of Aeolic To verse assume stress in Greek poetry and make much of it. English-speaking men stress seems a natural and necessary manifestation, since, whatever its precise nature may be, and about that modern prosodists are at loggerheads, and however
perplexing
verse
particular Hues,
is

reasons its determination may be in remains true that the great body of English composed in simple feet of which one part is distinguished
for

various
it

from the other part or parts by what we


this coincides with the word-accent.

call

But

in

stress/ and that Greek there is no


'

evidence for any such phenomenon, no historic proof that the Greek poets distinguished the thesis from the arsis by variation
of stress.^

Two

The ancient authors have been searched in vain. passages have recently been brought into the discussion, but

both refuse to give the testimony for which they were summoned. Louginus in his prolegomena to Hephaestion's manual ^ says that
a passage
^A/j,(biaa7)

in one of the orations of Demosthenes, tov


iroXefxov,
hi

yap

iv

ov et? 'EXaretay rjXde ^iXcTnro^,

may

be rendered as heroic verse, as it can, but that this was not observed because the orator declaimed it in the prose manner.

The inference from

this

cannot be that Greek verse was distin-

guished from prose by a foot-stress,


that verse was stressed,

and

therefore

generally

because Longinus himself

tells

us what

So important is it in interpretation he means, and it is not that. He has just been saying that to pay attention to the context. it is the ear which determines whether or not a given combination of words constitutes a verse, but that the voice must In order to get previously shape and regulate the syllables.
rhythmical
detection.''

effect

the sounds
is

must
so

first

be given proper length,

otherwise the combination

much

prose and the verse escapes

This doctrine that syllables in their natural state

vary in length, not all longs being of the same length nor all shorts, is older than Aristoxenus, and Dionysius in his treatise on literary composition gives it due attention.^
1

^ *

See 28. See Consbrueh's Hephaestion, S2.

De corona, 143. The argument of Longinus

Hephaestion with some change of See Consbruch, 178. phraseology. ^ See the second paragraph on next
page,

is

found

also in

Choeroboscus's commentary on

xxiv

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


The second passage is in Aristides.^ He believed that simple in antithetic rhythm might be combined even in the same

feet

colon,

a doctrine

now

exploded,

for instance

that a dactylic

metre might be joined with an anapaestic metre, as in dvBpe'i an illustration from oirXtrat Siara^dfievot, to furnish him
he assumes.
that the
'

Aristophanes (Vesp. 360) that has just the metrical constitution But in a preceding chapter (xxiv.) he has stated
dactyl ^ and spondee are proper feet in anapaestic rhythm, and he therefore recognizes that his assumed dimeter
'

may

be

purely

anapaestic.

He

regards

either

solution

as

legitimate, but

doubt which the poet intended, and until he can determine that fact he does not know how to beat This particular combination of long the time of this dimeter. and short syllables, he says, is ambiguous, SvaBcaKpirov Troiet Tr}v l3d<7Lv, and it is clear that the ambiguity remains for him, There is nothing in this whether we assume or deny stress. passage from the De musica to show that Aris tides would have stressed the theses of his assumed colon when he had determined
he
is

in

its

rhythm.

There

is

time with hand or


intensive
genial protest
^

foot,

plenty of evidence that the Greeks beat none that they accompanied this with

utterance on the
is

down
il

beat,

and M.

Kawczynski's
avec
le

just

"

Or
la

me

parait inadmissible de faire


qu'ils faisaient

executer aux anciens par


pied."

bouche ce

Quantity in Greek
a syllable.
;

is

the relative time occupied in uttering

Greek vowels are by nature long or short, diphthongs are long a syllable that contains a long vowel or diphthong is long, one that contains a short vowel is short, but syllabic length Time is is increased by conjunction of vowels and consonants.
the conception underlying these elementary principles, quantity
is

innate in the

Greek language.
all

Greek
all

rhythmicians

early

noted the fact just intimated that


of precisely the

long syllables were not

same length, nor

short syllables equally short,

that the length of a naturally long or naturally short vowel was

The speculations of increased by the addition of consonants.'* Aristoxenus some rhythmicians on this subject were fantastic.
apprehended the element
of truth in them, a certain slight varia-

tion in the length of syllables,


1

and therefore made the primary


^ *

57 M., 36. 36 See 11.

ff.

J.

See his VOrigine, 56. See Dionysius De coinp.

verb.

chap. xv.

INTRODUCTION

xxv

The time, not the syllable, the unit of measure in rhythm.^ time of the syllables of speech required regulation in order that This regulation they might become proper measures of rhythm.
was
effected just as soon as

men began

to sing.

It

that unconsciously established the simple laws of poetic

was the poets rhythm

in Greek poetry all short syllables are normally of the same length, all long syllables are normally of the same length, and the time-ratio of the former to the latter These simple rules are beautifully illustrated by is one to two. pure anapaestic and pure dactylic verse in comedy, which admit

that prevail in Greek

no exceptions.

But verse and melody limited to syllables and tones of only two durations, long and short, would have been monotonous, and variations of these two times arose in the most natural manner in the development of certain rhythms from the primitive cola.
These
variations

include

irrational

arses,

displaying

long long

syllable shorter than the

normal long and short syllables shorter


;

than the normal short


syllable longer than the

protracted

theses,

displaying a

normal long, in trisemes and tetrasemes ;^ and in iambic and trochaic verse a short longer than the normal short."* Variety was further secured by resolution,^ by the
pause in melic verse that occurs at the close of most subordinate periods, by this pause and an additional rhetorical pause at the
close

of

most spoken, melodramatic, and

recitative lines,

and by

caesura and diaeresis in non-melic verse, which were in no sense comparable with the hold that is so frequently necessary in

pauses that interrupted the flow of the rhythm.*^


the
"

English verse in order to secure rhythmical length, but were true So little do

new
the

metrists," as Professor

Shorey

insists

on calling them,
shorts.

merit

charge

of

simply

juggling

with
faith,

longs and

Defenders rather are they of the true


to

who

piously rejoice

and triseme theses


struggling.

have themselves escaped from the welter of irrational arses in which they see their apostate brethren
Professor Goodell declares that the theory of English metric This cannot be due to lack chaos.^
See 11. See under Pause, Diaeresis in the Index.
^

is

as yet little better than


1

See 1, 2. See under Irrationality in the General Index. See under Protraction in the Index. ^ See 228.
'

Caesura,

and

'

Greek Metric, 20.

xxvi

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY

of attention to the subject.

vast

number

of books

and mono-

graphs on English prosody has been written, and every possible Since the time of Spenser view has been advocated and denied.
theorists in plenty have been ready to instruct the poets in their
art.

Theories

on

English quantity

range

all

the

way from

the

dogmatic doctrine of the


to

classicists,

who

in

the sixteenth

century attempted to saddle Latin rules of quantity upon English


to the view that all English The same time for utterance. conceit that English verse may be written in the classical manner It is attractive, and the malady recrudesces from time to time.
syllables,

those

who

incline

syllables take practically

the

broke out violently soon after the middle of the


'

last

century

when Matthew Arnold delivered his lectures On Translating Homer' at Oxford and Professor Munro declared in Cambridge that modern speech had lost all sense of syllabic quantity.
Specimen English
hexameters done
in

the Virgilian

manner,
all

quantitative hexameters that sadly disregarded the accent of the

English words, even rules of English quantity were


coming.

forth-

Tennyson satirized these hybrid hexameters in kind. Spenser had humorously said three hundred years earlier that the middle syllable of the word carpenter (which the classicists had made long by position ') " seemeth like a lame gosling that draweth one leg after her." But our great poets are endowed with too sensitive and delicate powers of perception not to feel Tennyson that English syllables are not all of the same length. once said that he believed he knew the quantity of every word
' '

'

in

the

English

language
if

except

perhaps

'

scissors.'

It

is

important to discover,

what he meant by that. He seems to be laughing behind his mask in his hendecasyllabics, and he himself said of his " Boadicea," of which the metre is " an echo of the metre in the Atys of Catullus," ^ that " he wished that
you
can, just
'
'

it

'

were musically annotated so that it might be read with proper quantity and force." This can only mean that he regarded the quantity of English syllables as in itself so unobvious that a
'

musical score was required to indicate


four simple rhythms of English poetry.^
^ The common form of this catalectic v^ ionic tetrameter in the Attis is y^^^, "Fear not, isle of blowing woodland, isle of silvery

it

in

any except

the

_^

w^

^^ ^^
"
!

parapets

- Elsewhere in the Life his son records: " He gloried in his new English metre, but he feared that no one could read it except himself, and wanted some one to annotate it musically so that
'

INTEODUCTION
It
is

xxvii

confidently

hard to make one's way in the ruck of opinions expressed by contending prosodists about stress,
like

quantity, hold, pause and the

in

English poetry,
it is

but so
not
that

much may
fundamental,

safely

be

said about quantity, that

the
it

inevitable
is

element
it

in

English
a

poetry

unquestionably

in Greek,

is

not

structural

necessity.

neglect or consciously disregard the difference between quantity in Greek and in English breeds lamentable confusion.

To

This difference

may

be summarily stated as follows.


is

In Greek

poetry the quantity of syllables


stress,

fixed

and
is

they are long or short, and variety


processes that
are

independent of secured by modifying


is

them by

regular in operation and perfectly

determinable.

In English poetry the role of syllables in prois

ducing rhythm
degree
of

secondary

when they
varies
'

differ

in

length, the

difference

constantly

and no rules
' ;

can

be

formulated, the most of

them

are

common

they are fitted


all

into the rhythmical scheme,

which in the poetry of

languages

demands that feet in the same series shall be of equal length, Chief among these are pause, hold, and by a variety of devices. Time and stress are intimately related. The skilful stress. use of pause and hold, the indispensable means by which the
rhythmical units
of hold

temporally imperfect elements of English speech are grouped in is the highest art, but this particular function

and pause
of

is

unknown

in Greek.

Neglect

real

differences

and assumption

of

false

re-

semblances between Greek and modern languages confuse the investigation of a subject that is in itself difficult, and obscure
the
individual

charm

of

each
of

language,

but

they
feet

do

not

ultimately invalidate the fact


poetry.

tetrasyllable

in

Greek

These are established by the testimony of Aristoxenus.

An

important part of this testimony has been recently acquired.

In discussing the principles of rhythm Aristoxenus states


that a simple foot
or foot-times, that

may
is

consist of two, or of three, or of four parts

syllables in

poetry,

presently state

why

these parts are never

and adds that he will more than the four

which the
fulfilment

foot has in virtue of its

own

special character}

The

of this

promise

is

unfortunately no longer
can read her except myself? ^ See 290 M., 18 W.
"

extant.

people could understand the rhythm.' "

Again
lish

"
:

her

Boadicea,' no, I cannot pubyet, perhaps never, for who


'

' ;

xxviii

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY

with In a subsequent passage, in which he is considering feet and reference to the number of primary times that they contain arsis and thesis, he says: into times these of distribution the Feet of this "Hexaseme feet constitute the fourth class. magnitude admit two divisions into arsis and thesis, the iambic For of the three ratios that six primary and the dactylic'
'
'

times admit, namely the isomeric (i.e. 3 3), the diplasic (i.e. 2:4 = 1:2), and the pentaplasic (i.e. 1 5), the first belongs to but the the dactylic class of rhythms, the second to the iambic, This classification covers the two last is not rhythmical."^
: :

ionics in diplasic

rhythm, and the choriamb, antispast, diiamb Aristoxenus does not name and ditrochee in isomeric rhythm. them here, but the earlier names of the four-part isomeric feet, with which we are now particularly concerned, are given, and
of these feet are briefly characterized by Aristides in a passage "The source: original the is Aristoxenus agreed is it which
KprirtKO'i
(i.e.

- ^ ;

a trochee

as arsis

^), which consists of a trochee as thesis and the SaKrvXo^ kut cafi^ov (i.e. ^ - ^ -),
thesis

which

is

composed of an iamb as

and an iamb
(i.e.
;

as

arsis

the BdKTv\o<; Kara ^aKxecov rov airo rpoxalov which has a trochee as thesis and an iamb as arsis

- ^ ^ -),

the BaKTvXo^ Kara ^aKx^lov rov airo Id^i^ov (i.e. ^ - - ^), which has the same constitution as the foot just named but with iamb and
Aristides designates the parts of trochee in converse order." " these feet by names (iamb, trochee) with which all his readers would be familiar; but he here treats the feet all as simple
feet, TToSe?

to

be considered, which

davvderot,^ as does Aristoxenus in the evidence still we owe to the energetic and learned

discoverers of the treasures found in Oxyrhynchus. This important document is a fragment of the same

work

that I have twice cited above, Aristoxenus's Frinciples of Rhythm, and treats of protraction in the ditrochee, diiamb, and choriamb, and of other special cases of rhythmization. Elsewhere in this

book I have gratefully availed myself

of the

Oxyrhynchus

frag-

ment

fragment as in the passage in Aristides the ditrochee is called KprjriKo^;, the diiamb BaKrvXo'i Kara cafxjSov, the choriamb briefly ^aKxeio^, and each
in discussing iambic catalexis.^

In

this

is
1

regarded and treated as a simple isomeric


2

foot.

The diiamb

is

See 302 M., 34 W. See 49 f. M., 26. 20 ff. J.

'
*

See Caesar, Grundziige, 223. See 780.

INTRODUCTION
consists of four foot-times, or syllables, of

xxix

incidentally described in the last part of the fragment as a foot that

which the
from

first is short.

Each

of these feet

may

be used continuously and each


quotes
freely

may

be
in

protracted.
illustration

Aristoxenus
of both facts.

the

poets

The bare metrical form of the proIn re-establishing, tracted measure in all three alike is - w -. in the apparently defective feet, the length demanded by the rhythm, this becomes - v^ l_ in the ditrochaic series and i- ^ -

One might feel doubt which form the choriamb Aristoxenus tells us and states the reason. would assume. The rhythmical value of the protracted form of the choriamb because triseme protraction is more suitable to the is L_ ^ trochaic movement with which the choriamb begins than to the iamb with which it closes. Aristoxenus characterizes and describes the choriamb in this
in the iambic.
,

It is congener of the it is a single, simple foot diiamb and the ditrochee it is consisting of two long and two hexaseme it is tetrasyllable, short syllables, and each syllable has its natural poetic length of long or short it is isomeric, and each half consists of the same metrical elements, but these are arranged in reversed rhythmical
;

fragment with unmistakable precision.

order.
'

Yet the

'

logaoedists

'

declare
this

that the
is

choriamb

is

catalectic dactylic dipody,'

and

dipody

the corner-stone

of their theory.

Harvard University,
Jj)ril 1912.

METEICAL CHAEACTERS AND EXPLANATIONS OF USAGE


The references
are to sections.

For

V.

(/),
(I),

(r),

(J),

I- (J.),uj (^),
(P-),

m
23

(J^J), gee
n.

3.

For A For

A,

AA, see 33, 35, 572


,

For N^, the equivalent of w ^


,

see

n.

in place of a lacking short or long syllable, see 31.

For

^'j in iambic
(

and trochaic rhythm,


),

see 228.

For the cmy/xTj

placed over

w and
see 51 n.

in the thesis, see 8 n.

For ~, indicating correspondence,


Brunch's lining

is

followed in referring to the plays of Aristophanes,

Kock'a numbering in referring to the fragments of comedy.

Hypermetrical periods (47) are analyzed into cola in both strophe and
antistrophe.

See 89, 93, 94,

etc.

Indentation of cola signifies the continuation of a subordinate period


or hypermeter.

See 82, 83, 84,

etc.

In the text of antistrophes arranged in subordinate periods, a heavyface letter signifies the beginning of a colon within the period.

See 82,

83, 85, etc.

The

close

of

colon within a

word, in strophe or antistrophe,

is

indicated by a

hyphen (') placed


line.

after the metrical analysis of the colon,


etc.

above the level of the

See 84, 85, 86,

The numerals that follow the metrical analysis of a strophe signify the number of metres that each preceding subordinate period or hypermeter
contains.

See 80, 82, 83,

etc.

When
is

minus sign

is

added, the final


etc.

colon

is

brachycatalectic or hypercatalectic.

See 301, 303, 344,

"When

is

added, the preceding period

dochmiac.

See 465, 467, 468,

etc.

The small

capital letters attached to these numerals, above the level of

the line (^^^), signify respectively catalexis, variable syllable, hiatus.


80, 82, 83, 88, etc.

See

The lower-case
indicate

letters

abcde, in the analysis of the structure of odes,


;

subordinate periods or hypermeters


;

the

small capitals abcde,

intermediate periods
46, 48.

the capitals

ABCDE,
XXX

systematic periods.

See 41,

CHAPTER

FUNDAMENTAL PEINCIPLES
1.

Poetry

is

distinguished from prose by

its

measured move-

ment, or rhythm, and was inseparably associated by the Greeks

^st^eJ^ts

with the kindred rhythmical arts of song and dance.^ "^^^ Greek comic poets were poets in a threefold
sense, 'makers' not only of verse but also of melodies^

and dances. Aristophanes composed the music to which his odes were set, and, when these were rendered with a dance, devised the rhythmical bodily movements by which they were accompanied. Melic poetry, among the Greeks, preceded in order of development verse that was simply recited or spoken (59). 2. Greek poetry differs from modern poetry in an essential particular the language in which it is written is strictly quantitative. Greek accent, as the name, irpocrw^ia, implies, signifies pitch, variation in tone. In Greek songs Ouri^itaUvJ the distinctions of tone indicated by the written accents, an Alexandrian invention, were lost in the ampler tones of the melody. Length of regulated syllables, not accent nor stress (28), was the basis of rhythm in Greek poetry, as length of tones was its basis in melody, and length of time of bodily movements its basis in the dance. Aristoxenus defines rhythm as y^povoav ra^t? (Walz, Rhet. Graec. v, 454) and calls the fundamental unit of measurement of rhythm, whether in poetry, melody or dance, the primary time,' 7rp(t)T0<i TMV '^povcov (280 M., 10 W.).
: '

'

iari

de

to.

f>v9/xi^6fieva

rpia-

Xf^is,

M^Xoj,

Klvr)ais

awiiariKT),

Aristox.
f.

278
il.

- Agathon 'composing' in the is prologue of the Thesmophoriazusac (39-

M., 9
21. 15

W.
f.

pv6fj.it^iTaL v fiovaiKy

Kivriffis

175),
(99).

"/ieXoioetv

yap irapaaKevd^erai"

<Tw/j.aTos, fj.\iii5ia, Xefts,

Aristid. 31

Cf.

49

ff.

J.

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY

syllables of speech are not in themselves proper 3. The These measures of rhythm, since their values are not constant.^ values are regulated in poetry, and we may for ^ convenience, in dealing with the forms of poetry, ^^s^^e^^ch regard a short syllable in rhythmical measurement

primary time, equivalent to an eighth-note The long syllable has then the value of two primary times, or of a quarter-note ( J). Aristoxenus names this rhythmical doubled-time 'x^povo^ Sl(T7]/j,o<i, and in agreement
as the '^p6vo<; Trpeoro?,
(J") in

modern music.

with this we may, with convenience, speak of a

'

diseme

syllable.'

But

as

in

reTpdo-jj/xo'i

rhythm there is also a and & ^povo'i Trevrdar] /j,o<i

')(^p6vo<;

TpLar]/MO'?,

a ^povo'i

{Avistox.

280

M., 10 W.),

so a long syllable or five times,

may be and may be

protracted to the value of three, four

designated as a triseme, tetraseme or

The metrical signs of the length of syllables pentaseme syllable. are ^ short, - long, l_ triseme, l_i tetraseme, lu pentaseme.^

On

rules of quantity in

comedy

see 790

ff.

time,' %/3oi^o9, is here applied solely to the 4. The word measurement of rhythm, and is not to be confused with the word time signifying the tempo (dycojrj, Aristid. 42 M., empo. 2^^ 29 ff. J.) in which a strophe as a whole was The tempo of Greek songs varied, as in modern music, rendered. but it was probably consistently maintained throughout a single strophe in most of the simple songs of comedy.
*
' '

THE FOOT
5.

Syllables are

foot, 7rov<i, as that

Aristoxenus defines the combined into feet. by which we apprehend the rhythm and make
others.^

this

perceptible to

In poetry, the foot


of the verse."*
^

is

sort

of

rhythmical
1 t;

common measure
xP^''v
-^^

A
rrj

simple

foot, 7rov<i

5^

(rvWa^ri
^jpeixtl:

Tivbs

ixirpov
fJ-^y^Gv

odcra ovk
fjikv

Kara rbv
^'^

yap xp^^^"
ai

avTo. Karexovfrg. ap. Psel. 1

xpo'''"')

MO** iroLoOnev

(TLv

crvWapal, Aristox.

76 W.). Bellermann, Anon, de Mus. 1, 83 See also, for triseme syllables, (p. 18). Aristoxenus in the first volume of the Oxyrhyyichus PaiJyri and the inscription of Seikelos, both quoted in 780, 781.
(p.
2

t6v pvd/j.6v Kai yvwpiaicrdrjaei. trovs eaTiv eh t) Aristox. 288 M., 16 W. With this definition, of which the exact meaning is disputed, cf. Aristid. 34 M.,
(^

(7r)/j.aiv&fj.e6a

TrXeious

iv6s,

22.

26

f.

J.

ttoi/s

ixh oZv

iaTi.

fxipos

toO
**

iravrbs pvd/xoO

8i'

oS rbv 8\ov Kara-

Xoyii/Sdvo/iec.

Goodell, Metric, 132.

, '

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES
one that cannot be divided into smaller
normally consists (Aristox. 288 M.,
least

3
feet.

d(Tvv9eTo<;, is

It

17 W.) of at
in

two parts (^povoL


v/

ttoBckol),

or syllables

poetry, as the iamb,

it

may

consist of three, as the anapaest,


,

(11)

w V and
;

or of four, as the ionic,

^ ^

but only by resolution

rarely of

more than

four.

6.

feet.

The

Promiscuous combinations of syllables do not constitute possible combinations of a short and a long syllable
(two units) number four in two places, eight in
^^^^ places, sixteen
in four
places,
feet'

Rhythmical

and ancient
iii.),

metricians

name

all

these

'

(Heph. ch.
'

but some of them were avoided by the poets as arrhythmical, as named by the metricians first epitrite N^ and
v./ ,

and

'

fourth epitrite.'

Such arrhythmical conjunctions of syllables and long

occur of course in prose, but not in poetry of developed forms.


Feet, then, consist only of such combinations of short
syllables as were felt to be rhythmical (Aristox. 274,

276

M.,

and their number is limited. 7. The parts of a foot are divided between the upward beat, TO avo), and the downward beat, to kuto) (Aristox. 286 M., The general practice, following Aris 17 W.). tides (31 M., 21. 10 f. J.), now designates the r^l^^ part or parts of the foot that were sung to the upward beat as the arsis, apac<;, the remainder of the foot as the
8 W.),
thesis, 0cn<;.

FEET IN IONIAN VERSE


8.

The simple
are

feet

that

occur

in Ionian
to

Verse (603
the

fF.)

classified,

with reference

ShnpSreet
of six times.
i.

P^'i^^^y times that

number of each contains (Aristox. 302 M.,


four, of five,

31

ff.

W.), as feet of three, of


iamb,

and

TToSe?

TpLCTTj/jLot.

^\-

,'^

ii.

irohe'i TTpdcn)[jboi:

anapaest, v^v^j and |

and trochee, -\^. and


,

dactyl,

v^

v^

and - 1

iii.

TToSe? TrevTaaTj/jLOL
1

first

paeon,

v^

v^

cretic,

o
[

and bacchius, o - ^

The

hair-liiie

here marks the division


thesis.

between

arsis

and

The

thesis

indicated by the (TTiynT) {),&% in the inscription of Seikelos (781).


is

4
iv.

THE VEESE OF GREEK COMEDY


TToSe?
^dcr7]/jbOL
:

minor

ionic,

^ v^|- -,and major

ionic,

The

thesis

of a simple foot never contains fewer primary


arsis,

times than the

and generally

it

has more.
to

The

principle

prevails that short syllables stand in the arsis, long in the thesis.
9.

Feet, classified with

reference

the ratio of primary

times in the arsis to those in the thesis, called their


Rhythmical
-^^^yg^

7roSio9, fall into three classes, pv0fj,tKa yevij

(Aristox.
i,

300 M.,

30 W.)

7eVo9 taov, in which


jevo<; StirXdaiov, in

the ratio
,

is

equal, isomeric

class,

including anapaest, ^ ^
ii.

- and - - and
,

dactyl,
:

- ^
v^

v^

and - -

including iamb,

major
iii.

ionic,

^ - ^
v./

trochee,

which the ratio is 1 2, - v^ minor ionic,


ratio is

diplasic class,
...

- -

and

761/0? rjfitoXLov, in

which the

including the feet of five times, - o -, and bacchius, o - -.


10.

first

paeon,

2:3, hemiolic class, - ^ ^ -^ cretic,


,

The

arsis of the

anapaest and dactyl

is

v./

The
is

form of each foot, In the one times called spondee.


dissyllabic

^ or - (607). is some,

case,

the foot
'

the

'

spondaic anapaest,'

- -

in the

other,

the

spondaic

dactyl,'

- -

11.

long thesis

is

in the iamb,

w o o
is

and

trochee,

sometimes resolved into two shorts, as This trisyllabic form o o v^


.

called tribrach.

The

thesis of the anapaest


,

may

likewise be resolved, giving


celeusmatic,
anapaest,'
,

by resolution of ^ ^ by resolution of - - (' spondaic anapaest with resolved The thesis of the trisyllabic, but not of the spondaic, thesis). This gives o o ^ v^, by dactyl may likewise be resolved. resolution of - ^ w, but it is rare.
' , '

^ ^ o o called prodactylic and - o o

On
12.

The bacchius

the probable relation of the cretic to the See 447 f. rarely occurs in comedy.

first

paeon, see 620.

Simple
ee
.

ou

e-

feet of three or four primary times are combined, by doubling, into a higher rhythmical unit called by the syzygy, av^vyia, or BiTToSia, j^p^^jy^

metricians

iambic dipody,

v^

anapaestic dipody, =^

- o - =^
1
1

trochaic dipody,
dactylic dipody,

- o - v^ - ^\-^
|

16
first

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES

two dipodies consist each of six, the second two each of eight primary times, and all four are isomeric, with thesis and arsis equal. 13. Each of these dipodies will hereafter in this book be called a metre, in accordance with the ancient practice by which an iambic, trochaic or anapaestic tetrapody was

The

called a dimeter.

This grouping prevailed in melic

and anapaestic verse. rhythms conThe sisted of a dimeter, four simple feet combined in pairs. term metre may be applied in the same sense to all simple feet Thus -<.^^\-o^^isa paeonic dimeter, of five or six times. ^^^^l^^-:--!. an ionic dimeter.
dactylic as well as in melic iambic, trochaic

The fundamental colon (22)

in each of these four

compare the phraseology of metre 14. For the dactylic SaKrvXtKo. SLfj-erpa. See KwXa fS Heliodorus in Schol. Eq. 328 f also Aristid. 52 M., 33. 29 f. J. ftatvova-t 8e rtve? avTo Kal Kara
'
'
.

TTOLOvvTes TTpa[j,rpa KarakrjKTLKa, and Schol. Heph. 112. and 132. 14 f. But the heroic, non-melic verse in which the Homeric poems are written was called a hexameter,' and this name, iv eTreai which appears first in Herodotus (ev l^a/xer/aw tovm i. 47 vii. k^ajxkTpouTi 220), implies monopodic division of this verse.

(TV^vyiav

15

f.

'

See

333.

15. The normal forms of iambic and trochaic metres are ^ _ o - and - o - w and in both the ratio of arsis to thesis But in each, the ratio of the parts that constitute the is 3:3. arsis to those that constitute the thesis may be irrational, and Thus o this arsis may appear as ^ This variability in the form of and -^ o - MetiS^^ these metres is commonly expressed by writing - and - ^ - ^ The time of the long syllable them o ,

v../

that

may

thus be substituted for the short

is

irrational, aXoyo'i

20 W.), that is, it is not an exact multiple of the primary time, as is the normal long, but while greater
(Aristox.

292

M.,

than

the

'^6vo<;

irpcoro'i

is

less

than
this

the

'^p6vo<;

Sicr7]fxo<i.

The

general

rhythmical

effect

of

metrical

variation

is

retardation.
16.

Modern
eflTect

metricians differ

in

opinion as to the rhythmical

value and
gives
it

of this irrational syllable.

Voss {Zeitmessung, 184


,

fF.)

the value of a normal long syllable and measures the irrational for metre in dactylic or isomeric time, the trochaic metre, - ^

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY

17

example, as J. J*J J.^ Apel (Metrik^, i. 372 flf.) holds that the irrational syllable has the time of a short syllable, but is rendered with special force, 'sforzando.' Bockh (Find. Op. I. ii. 107), believing that the irrational half of the metre retains its original value of three primary times, makes the ratio of the normal long to the irrational long ^^ to f, instead of V- to -f (2:1), thereby shortening the time of the normal long and lengthening that of the short syllable represented by the irrational long. Westphal {Ehythmik ^, 131 ff. ; Aristoxenus von Tarent, i. 25 f.) gives the irrational half of the metre the value of three and one half primary times, and makes the ratio between normal long and irrational long 2 1 1, with actual lengthening of the primary time represented by the irrational syllable. Goodell {Metric, 112) regards the ratio as indeterminate, but somewhere between 2 1 and 2 2. These differences of opinion result from the uncertainty of the meaning of the expressions ixka-ov and {Mera^v as used by Aristoxenus in the passage cited above (292 M., 20 W.).
: : :

long syllable in
.
.

by resolution of the normally becomes v^ v^ - for ^^ \^ .. irrational trochaic metre becomes by similar resolu Besolution m Irrational tion -w|^v^- for -w] The forms w e res. ^c ^ (j^ctyl,' i.e. resolved irrational iamb) and (' anapaest,' i.e. resolved irrational The trochee) are legitimate. long syllable in each is irrational, and it is never resolved. regarded 18. The irrational metres o - v^ - and - ^ - ^^ from the point of view of the probable origin of iambic and trochaic verse (606, 608), are simply metres in which two of
17.

An

irrational iambic metre,


its

arsis,

v..

>

"^

v,-

v./

the three forms of the primitive variable arsis of Ionian verse


are interchangeably retained in fixed places.

FEET IN AEOLIC VERSE

The feet that occur in Aeolic Verse (651 f.) are the choriamb ^^ the antispast v^ - - ^ the diiamb ^ - v/ - yj, all simple feet of six primary times, and the ditrochee TToSe? ^dcrr)fMOL. These are likewise all isomeric, the ratio between the parts being 3:3, and belong to the 7eVo<? ta-ov. Each may
19.
v./
1

.^

with convenience be called a metre.

On the probable origin of these feet see 600 ff., 651 ff. On the undeveloped metre that begins the polyschematist dimeter, and on the semi-developed metre that begins the Glyconic, see 506.
^ This view was ardently maintained by Karl Lehrs as part of his general doctrine that all Greek feet, including

ionics, were in even time Kleine Schriften, 449, 462.

See his

23
20.

FUNDAMENTAL PEINCIPLES

The diiamb and the ditrochee are identical in form with the iambic metre and the trochaic metre of Ionian verse. These Aeolic metres, which were originally of a fixed number of times and syllables, v^ - w - and - v^ - v^ under the influence of the iambic metre and trochaic metre gradually admitted ^ ^^^ "^y resolution and irrationality but even pro^^tvles traction (31). It is probable that the diiamb and the ditrochee were not differentiated from the iambic and the
,

trochaic metre by poets of the fifth century.

See 659.

COMPOUND FEET OR COLA


21,

The

feet thus far considered contain

from three to eight

primary times.
in

The most

of

them

are simple (5), but four are

dipodies (12).

All these, in turn, were combined

^TeeT"^
and
they

larger rhythmical units that

were

also feet, in

the exactest sense, with balanced arsis and thesis,


(rvvOerot

To these KoiKa, cola, membra,' was specially applied by Greek metricians (cf. Heph. 68. 18,
*

named feet by Greek 296 M., 22. 4 W. longer compound feet the name
were
(Aristox.

rhythmicians,
;

-n-oSe?

298 M.,

26 W.).

63. 2), since they are constituent parts of a higher rhythmical


unit,

the

period.

The prevailing
is

cola

in

Greek comedy are


of

the dimeter and the trimeter.


22,

colon

rhythmical unit capable

continuous

control by the voice, and therefore of limited extent, the parts


of which are unified by modulation. Its length .*= ^ vanes accordmg to the nature oi its division into arsis and thesis, and the normal ratios that determine this division are those that govern simple feet, namely, the isomeric ratio, the diplasic, the hemiolic. According to the doctrine of Aristoxenus,^ isomeric compound feet may extend to a length of sixteen primary times, diplasic to eighteen, and hemiolic to
,

The

Colon.

-^

twenty-five,
23, The simplest cola, within these limitations, are those composed of feet that may be continuously rhythmized (Aristox. 300 M., ^30 W.). The following occur in comedy
:

Frg. ap. Psel. 12


ff.

(p.

85 W.).

See also

frg. Paris., p. 93.

15

flf.

W., and Aristid.

35 M., 23. 7

J.

2
:

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


Isomeric Cola
Dimeters.

24

paeonic

5 6 6

thesis
arsis
:

arsis

iambic
trochaic

thesis
:

thesis
arsis
arsis
:

arsis

minor

ionic 6 8

thesis thesis
:

anapaestic
dactylic

thesis

arsis

Diplasic Cola

Trimeters.

paeonic

5
6
12

thesis
arsis
:

arsis

iambic
trochaic
1

thesis
:

6
12

thesis
arsis
:

arsis

minor

ionic 6

thesis

- w v^ - ^ ^ - ^ - ^ - w ^ -^
1
1

v.

v.

On
see 276

the anapaestic metre and the dactyHc metre developed as cola,

and

337.

24.

A
^

liemiolic paeonic colon

- ^

^25.

^-

v^/v^j-

tions of length set

of twenty-five primary times, ^ s^ ^, might occur under the limitaby the rhythmicians, but it is rejected by

^-

Heliodorus.

See 435. Cola of more complicated structure also occur in comedy.

These
Mixed
Cola.

are

composed

of

different

feet

and,

like

those consisting continuously of the same foot, are

dimeters and trimeters.

For logaoedic cola, in which iambs are combined with anapaests and trochees with dactyls, see 375 For Aeolic cola, in which the choriamb, antispast, diiamb and ditrochee are variously combined, see 506 ff. For cola in prosodiac and enoplic rhythm see 475 ff., and
flf.

for the dochmius, 458

ff.

26.

Tripodies and pentapodies, consisting of simple feet of

three or four primary times, might occur within the limits of

length allowed in
rare in

compound

feet (22),

but they are extremely

comedy
Pentapodies (hemiolic).
68,

Tripodies (diplasic).

iambic

^ - ^ - ^ - ^ - ^ - ^ trochaic anapaestic ^ - ^ - ^ -

dactylic
^

^_^_^_^_^_ _^_^_^_^_^ ^_^_^_ ^ ______ __________


to indicate that

393

203, 395

277, 394
338,

396

The sign ua has exactly the value of v./v-', which are given this form simply

v^ and are convertible

in certain simple feet.

28

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES

It seems probable, from the point of view of the origin of Ionian Verse, that these cohi, evolved in the process of phrase-building, are to be regarded, when they occur, as protracted (31) catalectic dimeters and trimeters, or as brachycatalectic (35) dimeters and trimeters. They will be separately considered, as they hereafter occur, under

each form of verse.


27.

The

thesis

of a
arsis,

shorter

than the
^^^^^

generally

simple foot in Ionian verse is never It seems longer (8). it is

probable that
the^Thelif

it was rarely reduced,^ whereas the ^^^ variously affected it might be shortened
:

(388,
(15).

389), or omitted (31

f.),

or

made

irrational

The

thesis of a foot, therefore, is its

more constant and


the

prominent
Greek.^

part;

it

is

the

thesis

that

gives stability to

foot in the processes,

sometimes complex, of rhythmization in


part

28. The thesis, then, of a simple foot, that marks and fixes its rhythm, is metrically as well as The distinguished in Ionian verse from the arsis. of the thesis and the instability of the arsis are
distinctions.

which

functionally

permanence fundamental

This clearly appears in the gradual evolution, through logaoedic forms, of iambic and anapaestic cola from the Was the thesis otherwise disprimitive dimeter (603 ff.). In the Germanic languages it is tinguished from the arsis ?

marked by heavier

generally assumed that the Greek were similarly marked But this assumption of an intensive utterance. G?e'ek pl)Vtry. ^J ictus in Greek poetry is unsupported by ancient evidence. Aristoxenus and Aristides recognize the division of the foot into arsis and thesis, accompanied respectively by upstress,

and

it

is

theses of simple feet in

beat and down-beat of hand or foot, but neither of them, nor any other ancient authority, even intimates that the thesis was stressed. Yet Aristoxenus (296 ff. M., 22-29 W.), followed
1 The only instances recognized in this book are iambic and trochaic metres v^u-w (75, of the form ^u-w- and

228), but it is to be observed that the thesis of the simple foot that is shortened in each of these metres is a part of the Some scholars hold arsis of the metre. that the thesis of a simple foot may

These views dactyl recorded in 390. are considered in 391. - "The series of 0e<xis was in the whole rhythmic design a sort of central beside and tliread, a firmer pattern along which are grouped the more varied dpcreis. It is the latter chiefly that
provide the needful relief from monotony, from an arithmetical precision that would be machine-like and repellent," Goodell,
Metric, 174.

See Bbckh's be shortened on occasion. theory of the irrational metre stated in 16, and various views on the 'cyclic'

10

THE VERSE OF GEEEK COMEDY


Aristides (34 M., 22.
particularity
definitions

29

by

great

seven
of

ancient

28 ff. J.^), ways in rhythm and

specifies

which
foot

and defines with differ, and The are numerous.


feet

inference seems inevitable, whatever our prepossessions

may

be,

that in Greek verse the thesis was not distinguished from the
arsis

by variation

of stress,^

Cola in which the arsis precedes the thesis, and the voice of the singer advances from the less to the more important iambic and anapaestic verse, P^-"-^ ^ ^^^ ^*^*^^' ^^ ^^
29.

Ad'

were the first to take form in the development of j^^^.j^^ rhythms (604 ff.). These cola, to adopt a convenient modern form of statement, are in ascending or those in which this relation is reversed, as in rising rhythm trochaic and dactylic verse, in descending or falling rhythm In Greek, it must be noted, these terms do not carry (608 ff.). The distinction of ascending the connotation of stress and pitch.
Descending

Rhythm.

and descending rhythm is important and is an essential part of Greek rhythmical theory. Aristoxenus makes it (298, 300 M., antithetic relation of feet composed 22, 29 W.) in noting the of the same primary times, but with arsis and thesis reversed, Aristides (34 M., 23. 4 f. J.), noting the as iamb and trochee. same relation, speaks of thesis and arsis as the greater and
' '

the

'

less

'

foot-time

orav Svo

iroSoov Xafi^avofiivrnv 6

fjuev

eyrj

Tov fiei^ova ypovov Kadr)<yovfMvov, eirofxevov Se tov iXarrova, o oe The same distinction is marked in the names of the evavTla)<;.

two
art,

ionics,

airo

fX6i^ovo<;
it,

i(oviK6<i,

avr'

e\daaovo<i lwviko^.

Modern poetry maintains


had
it

to

abandon

it,

but modern music, a highly developed and rigidly begins each bar with a stressed

thesis.

but

This was inevitable, to prevent intolerable complications, is unfortunate that Hermann should have followed the

practice

of modern music in treating Greek and Latin verse. His theory of anacrusis,' applied to periods in ascending rhythm,
'

obscures real differences.


30.
1

It

seems probable that the conception of thesis and


Grundzuge der Ehythmik,
of a stress-ictus in very general, but it has
.

arsis

See
ff.

Ca.es3ir,

L'Origine,

53

ff.

Bennett

and

105
2

The assumption

Greek poetry is Protest against not gone unchallenged. it was made long ago by Capperonnier and Madvig, and it has recently been vigorously discussed. See Kawczynski,

Hendrickson in the American Journal of Philology, xix. 361 ff., xx. 198 ff., 412 ff. ; Schultz, Beitrage, 314 ff. ; See also Goodell, Metric, 155 ff.
Westphal, Rhythmik^, 102 ff. discussion has been spirited, but not lacked humour.

The
it

has

.:

32

FUNDAMENTAL PEINCIPLES
'x^povo';

11

and iXda-acov ')^p6vo<; did not originally exist which could combine feet as diverse 'as the diiamb and ditrochee in the same colon, as - ^ - ^ ^ - ^ - and in which the often in the Glyconic thesis and arsis of the other two feet exactly but antithetically - w v^ - and - - ^ balance one another within each foot Here the distinction of ascending and descending rhythm, it would
as fiei^cov in Aeolic verse,
:
, :

->/

seem, must originally have been excluded by the perfect balance that characterized the verse, but with the general elimination of
original differences

between Ionian and Aeolic rhythm, due to

the partial

lonianizing of Aeolic cola (20), it seems probable that the rhythm of Aeolic verse ultimately came to be regarded This is indicated by the great preponderance of as ascending.

diiambs over ditrochees in the


31.

fifth

century, well illustrated in the

odes, for example, of Aristophanes.^

colon

Some cola are metrically defective. In melic poetry a may lack one or more syllables necessary to satisfy the rhythm. - ^ Thus we meet such iambic and trochaic cola as - v^ - w the dot indicating the lack- ^ - and - v^ v.^
. . ,

ing syllable that 27.

is

demanded by the rhythm.

Aristides (40

f.

M.,

tf.

J.)

xp vos
Kvo<;

Kvos.

a time unrepresented in the words of the song, but necessary to complete the rhythm, void. j^ .^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^ 'Xp6vo9 Kv6^ {' inane tempus ')
calls

fiev

ovv

iarL

y^p6vo<i

avev

(pdoyjov

'irpo'^

avairXyjpcocrcv

Tov pvdfiov,

Xetyciyua

8e ev pvdfifp )(p6vo<t

Kevo^;

ekd-x^KTro^;, nrpoo--

The Xelfifta Be 'vp6vo<; fxaKpo<i ekayicTTov hiirXaa'iwv. 6e<Ti<i This had the value of one primary time, the 7rp6(rdeai<i of two. unrepresented rhythmical time was made effective in two ways. The
protraction,' the first is seen in the process called tov^, The time, in protraction, second in catalexis and acephalization. was taken up by the long syllable adjacent to it in
'

This long syllable was ^^^^ ^^^^ simple foot. By thereby lengthened to a triseme or tetraseme syllable (3). this process the 'Xp6vo<; K6v6<i became a factor in the melody.
32.
^.
-

ro rac ion.

Protraction occurs chiefly in iambic (72


.

ff.)

and trochaic
.

Chiefly in

cola (207 ^

ff.), '

occasionally in logaoedic cola (380,


, , ,

Iambic and Trochaic Cola.


foot

384).
^^ ^^^^

In
or

these the xPvo^ '^^^o'? ^^ ^"^ ^^^^ Either simple simple foot, a primary time.
all

of an

iambic
^

trochaic
'

metre
'

may

be protracted, but
ff.

See the Editor's

Logaoedic

Metre, 34

12

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


is

33

protraction

mucli more frequent in the


(12), the

arsis

of
.

the metre

than in

its
.

thesis

common forms
^
^-

being

- ^ - and
w
see
75,

- ^ -

On

the

metres

^ -

and

v^

227 f., 620. Protraction does not occur in melic anapaestic and dactylic verse in comedy, nor in paeonic, dochmiac, or prosodiac and enoplic. In minor ionic verse, the 'Xp6vo<; kv6<;
is

the last half of the thesis, a diseme time (3).

On

protraccola, see

tion in Aeolic verse, chiefly in diiambic

and ditrochaic

516

f.

33.

If the '^p6vo<; Kev6<i that occurs in

the last simple foot

of the final
Catalexis.

colon of a
syllable
"^
*

period
, ,

is

not taken up by the long


it

adjacent
,

to

in

suppressed, the colon


TiKov,
'

that
,

foot
^

(31)
.

but

is

is

called catalectic, KaraXrjK-

iambic dimeter,

Thus ^ - ^ - ^ - ^ is a catalectic - ^ - ^ - ^ ^ catalectic trochaic dimeter. The corresponding complete dimeters, ^ - ^ - y^ - y^ - and
incomplete.'
a,

-v^-vy -^-v^,
6
ff.)

are

called
cola

acatalectic.

Hephaestion
e-^ei

(13.

defines

catalectic

as

oaa

fxe/xeco/juevov

rov

reXevraiov iroBa, Aristides (50 M., 32. 27


d(f)aipel

J.) as

6aa crvWa/Srjv

Tov TeXevraiov ttoSo?


is

aefx,v6Tr)T0<}

eveKev t^? /j,aKpoTpa<i

assumed in catalexis normal at the close of an acatalectic colon iamb ^ - trocliee - v^ anapaest dactyl minor ionic v^ enoplius paeon - ^ - choriamb - ^ v^ A final pause that normally is equal to the ^p6vo<i Kev6<; of the rhythm in which the colon is composed follows the catalectic metre and completes the rhythm of the period before . _ Final Pause. ^, ^tthe singing or the next period begins, its purpose was to ease the strain upon the voices of the singers. Four pauses are recorded and each has its own sign. A pause of one time is indicated by a one of two times by tt of three by "a, of four by r (Bellermann, Anon, de mus. 102). The first of these is the initial letter of the word \elfjbfia, the second, third and fourth are the same character with the signs respectively of the long, triseme and tetraseme syllable incumbent (3). Since
KaTaXi]^eco<;.

The form of the simple


,

foot

is

that which
,

v-/

v./

v./

...

the final long syllable short


at

of a

period or verse

may

be long or

pleasure (43), the length of the pause may vary in two equal cola in the same rhythm, conformably to the actual

length of the final syllable

35

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES
^ - ^ ^ _ ^ _ ^-^^ - ^ ^ _ ^ _ ^ - ^ ( A or ^ - ^ ( TT or v ) 272
A

13

iambic
anapaestic

66,

67

minor

ionic

^^
- ^ - ^

^w
- ^ ^

^.^^(TTorA") 418
201,

trochaic

_^_^ -^-v. -^^(AorA)


dactylic

202

paeonic
enoplic

..

^^

- ^ ^ - ^ (a

TT

or a

335

or^) 437

polyschematist

Glyconic
34.

_^^_ v^^^(AorA) 477 0000 -w-(AorA') 508 00-^ ^-^(Aor^) 511

of the normal pause is easily determined in most In iambic and trochaic rhythm and in the Glyconic, it is that of a primary time ; in anapaestic, dactylic, enoplic and minor The evidence for determining the ionic rhythm, that of a diseme. facts is not abundant in case of the choriamb ( - ^ v^ - ) and paeonic ( w ). Hephaestion (29. 7 ft'.) states that the proper catalectic In the fragment of the form of the choriamb is - ^ ^^ or - v^ rhythmical treatise found in Oxyrhynchus and edited by Grenfell and Hunt {Oxyr. Papyri, i. 16, col. iii.) Aristoxenus vouches for the form ^ - (l_ w - ) in protracted choriambic verse, that is, the xpoi-os The legitimate Kevos in this verse has the value of a primary time. conclusion from these facts is that the choriamb in catalexis becomes The catalectic form of the paeon, which rarely occurs, -_. The two examples of catalectic paeonic is determined analogously. (for - ^ - ). periods quoted by Hephaestion (42. 15 ft".) end in The only instance of a catalectic paeonic colon in Aristophanes {Av. We may 247), the chief exemplar of this sort of verse, ends in fairly conclude that the xpovos K-eros in paeonic verse had the value of a primary time and that the paeon in catalexis became The final syllable, then, is long in catalectic cola in all rhythms. The following pause is lengthened one primary time, if a short syllable is substituted for this normal long syllable. On the current theory of iambic and anapaestic catalexis, see 779 ff.

The length

rhythms.

'

'

v./

^.^

35.

The

final

colon of a

period

may

lack not simply the

Xpovo'i Kev6<i of its final simple foot but the

It is then said to be brachycatalectic.^

whole of that foot. The pause

length.
1

which completes the rhythm is of corresponding Thus in apparent tripodies and pentapodies
The Ithyphallic
is a protracted, not a brachycatalectic dimeter. See 203.

Heph.
J.

29

principle

13. 18 ff. ; Arist. 50 M., 32. Hephaestion's application of the (19. 5 ff.) needs correction.

'

14

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


anapaestic
logaoedic

36

^ - ^^ - ^^ (a
.^--w^

or

^-^(TT

a ^ ^

277

_^-

^^
or

(a or r) 379

dactylic

-^-^ -^
is

A a) 338

On iambic and trocliaic cola that in form apparently are tripodies and pentapodies, see 68, 203. On a form of the choriamb in Aeolic
verse that probably 36.
brachycatalectic, see 509.

The length
a

of

brachycatalectic

cola

may

in

turn be

reduced,

successively

shortened dimeter finally becoming a Greek metricians regarded such a penthemimer,


^.^^^^

Hypercatalexis.

^^^^ ^^^

^^-^j. ^^

^-^^ ^f ^^^ following form


'

and spoke of

its final syllable

as a syllable in excess, but Aristides

clearly recognizes the true relation of such a colon to the brachycatalectic form that precedes.^
catalectic is established

hypercatalectic

The term hyper-

by usage and should be retained, but it should not be allowed to obscure the real process that it designates. diminished 37. The relation of the various successively ('incomplete') forms of the dimeter may be illustrated by a
trochaic series
acatalectic dimeter
catalectic dimeter

brachycatalectic dimeter hypercatalectic monometer acatalectic monometer

^ ^ ^ ^ ^

^ w ^ ^ ^

- ^ - ^ complete - w ^ deficient normally A a ~ .^ "a ^


7:

Acatalectic dimeters are the rhythms, and, with a few exceptions, all It is Brachycatalectic dimeters are relatively rare. catalexis. the possible that in given instances they were rhythmized by but as tripodies. poet, in setting his song to music, not as dimeters important to hypercatalectic cola, which are extremely rare, the

prevailing cola

Greek these dimeters admit


in all

As

fact to note is

that they sustain catalectic relation to the ante-

cedent brachycatalectic forms.

They may have been rhythmized

sometimes as tripodies, at other times, with a longer final pause, We are unfortunately left uninformed on this point. as dimeters. No satisfactory proof can be adduced that they were in some manner compressed in rhythmization so that their rhythmical
value was that of the succeeding form.
1

See 488.
ff.

Aristid. 50 M., 32. 29

ff.

J.

See also Heph. 14, 4

41

FUNDAMENTAL rRINCIPLES

15

The reduced dimeters and trimeters will be separately considered under each rhythm in the following chapters.
38.

Syllables

may

be suppressed not only at the close but

also

at

the

beginning of a rhythmical period, with the same


purpose of easing the strain upon the voices of the
singers.

This process

is

called acephalization.

The

times necessary to complete the rhythm are ^poz^ot Kevoi (31). Acephalization is rare in the simple lyrics of Aristophanes, but
it

often occurs in songs of

more elaborate structure


PERIODS

in other poets.^

39.

ordinate period.
Subordinate

Two, three or four cola may be combined to form a subThe bond of union is the rhythm, which is so
regulated that the combination of cola
^

is felt to be with beginning and close or beginning, middle and close, as the name, 'jrepioho'i, implies. This harmonious union of phrases is easily rendered by the singer and easily apprehended as a whole by the hearer.^ A single colon may, with special effect, constitute a subordinate period, It is assumed in this book that the but this is not common.

whole,

greatest length of the subordinate period


40.

is

eight metres.

Combinations occur of more than four closely connected To these the convenient melic cola, all in the same rhythm. name hypermeter has been given. The melic hypermeter is, in fact, an extended subordinate period, a series of cola continuously combined that is so long as
to entail

some

loss

of

the

sense

of

harmonious union that

characterizes the subordinate period.


are of great length.

Some melic hypermeters Cf Ach. 266-78 (90), Av. 209-22 (285).


all

Melic hypermeters occur in Aristophanes in nearly

the varied

rhythms of comedy, iambic, paeonic and Aeolic.


41.

trochaic,

anapaestic, dactylic, ionic,

Subordinate periods and melic hypermeters are designated

in this book by the lower-case letters abcde.

On

subordinate periods and melic hypermeters certified by Helio-

dorus, see 698.


^ See the Editor's Origin and Form of Aeolic Verse, 300 ff. See also 608. ^ Compare the instructive statements

of Aristotle in his Rhetoric (in. ix. 3-7) ou the rhetorical period.

16

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


limitation
of

42

the length of the subordinate period to 42. The eif'ht metres arranged in three or four cola is adopted in this book as Trustworthy ancient evidence on the limit of a working hypothesis. The fact, indeed, may length of the subordinate period is lacking.

been consciously determined, the subordinate period For example, the decameter gradually merging into the hypermeter. of five cola that constitutes Putn. 384-8 (89) may have been felt to possess the essential unity of a period.
never have
43.

The

final colon

of a subordinate period or melic hyper-

meter
'

is

generally indicated by one of the forms of catalexis (33, The 35, 36), but it may be signified in other ways.
'

Variable

^^^ holds in Greek poetry that a short syllable

may

be substituted for a final long syllable in the last The result colon of a subordinate period or melic hypermeter.^ of this substitution is a pause of the value of a primary time that This pause serves as one is necessary to complete the rhythm.
of the

^ ^

^'

marks

of the

close

of the subordinate period or melic

hypermeter, especially in paeonic verse, which avoids catalexis, and it is sometimes accompanied in the odes of Aristophanes by

change of rhythm or speaker, or of both, in the following period. Hiatus also, caused by the concurrence of a vowel sound at the end of a word with a vowel sound at the beginning of the
following word,
Hiatus.

may mark

the close of a subordinate period or


is

melic hypermeter, and the phenomenon


^^ ^^^^ nature of that just described.

precisely

long vowel

or diphthong, at the

rhythm demands a long

end of a period or hypermeter, where the syllable, is shortened before a vowel or

diphthong at the beginning of the following period, with a conseHiatus is frequent quent pause of the value of a primary time. in paeonic verse, and it may be accompanied in comedy by

change

of

rhythm

or

speaker,

or

of both.

The

close of

subordinate period

may

be indicated also simply by change of

rhythm
44.

(735).

periods and melic hypermeters lack the mentioned (775), a period following in the same rhythm without an intervening pause. But no period or hyperTheir constituent cola, on the other meter ends within a word.

Some subordinate

indications

Heph.

(14, 15

ff.)

defines the avWa^r)

aSid<popoi ('syilaba anceps') broadly, and his bald statement of facts has someIt should times been misinterpreted. be observed that no proof can be adduced

that a long syllable was ever substituted in Greek for a normal short in this position. The long syllable that may close an acatalectic trochaic colon is the
irrational syllable.

51

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES
in
this

17

hand, frequently end

manner, indicated by hyphena-

tion in writing.

The

close connexion of the

cola

that constitute a subordinate period or hypermeter


is

called avvdcpeta, si/7iapliea.


45.

Two

or

more subordinate
intermediate

periods, or one or

more subbut

ordinate periods and a hypermeter,

may

be combined to constitute

an
Intermediate

period.

This

sometimes,

rarely, consists of a single hypermeter.

Its close is

generally
pause,

marked
in

in Aristophanes

by a rhetorical
See 728.

which
is

is

indicated

the

text by punctuation (734).

Heliodorus
46.

authority for

the intermediate period.

Its recognition is important in analysis.

Intermediate periods are indicated in this book by the

small capital letters abode.


47.

Subordinate periods and hypermeters


This
of
is

may

be united to

form a systematic period.

generally simple in

comedy

and
Systematic
j^^

consists
j^^^^y

limited
of

number
a
single
If
is

of

elements.

even
is

consist

subordinate

period or hypermeter (773).

the structure of

the systematic period

complex, the period

broken up into

intermediate periods.

systematic period that contains a hyper-

meter

may

with convenience be called a hypermetrical period.

48.

Systematic periods are indicated in this book by the

capital letters

ABCDEF.

On

systematic periods certified by Heliodorus see 695.

49. Heliodorus designates all the periods that have been mentioned, including hypermeters, simply as TreptoSoi, leaving it to his reader to
differentiate them.

50.

Au

intermediate or systematic period


consist
solely

may

be

stichic,

and

of

melic

tetrameters

or

trimeters.

of verse

may
the

be combined in the same stichic period.


of

In Aristophanes, not more than two different sorts See 778.


systematic

On
51.

structure

and intermediate
flF.

periods,

an

important but

difficult subject, see 720

The music
only

to

be repeated with a

new

which a systematic period was sung might stanza of the same metrical form, with
variations
of

such

as

resulted

from

allowed

Ssteophe

correspondences

variant

syllables.

The

first

stanza was then called the strophe and the second

the antistrophe, and the two taken together a monostrophic dyad.


c

18

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY

52

Three such stanzas constituted a monostrophic triad, four a tetrad, This subject is fully treated in 701. six a hexad, eight an octad.

The correspondence of strophe and antistrophe is generally close. Sometimes, however, the poet deliberately changes the rhythm and
melody of a subordinate period in the antistrophe. Cf. Av. 333-5 -349-51 ^ (473), a dochmiac pentameter in correspondence with a paeonic decameter; Pax 950-3- 1033-6 (583), a diiambic octameter Sometimes two in correspondence with a diiambo-Glyconic octameter. subordinate periods, although in the same rhythm, are not of the same We must infer in these cases, not a lacuna, but a lack of length. correspondence that was deliberate, with change in the structure of the systematic or intermediate period of which the subordinate period Thus Ach. 937-9 - 948-51 is a part, and slight change of melody. iambic heptameter - iambic octameter; Ban. 897-994 (214), (86), Ban. 536-8-592 f. (217), trochaic trochaic trimeter ~ dimeter hexameter - pentameter.
;

52.

Two

systematic periods of variant metrical constitution

may

be united to form a pericope,

irepLKoirri,

AB.

A
53.

pericope

may

be repeated and the two double-

stanzas stand in antistrophic relation,

AB = AB.

See 705.

systematic period

may

stand alone without equivalent.

Some of these non-antistrophic periods were melic, Non-^tistrophic Q^j^gj^g ^^^.g rendered melodramatically or in reof which The order of arrangetwo are metrically equal. Triadic Groups. -jt^ t a t^-o a t> a ment may be AAB, epodic, ABB, proodic, or ABA, mesodic. See 715 ff.
54.
,

See 706 ff. citative (59). Three systematic periods may be combined,

NON-MELIC VERSES AND HYPERMETERS


55.

Certain tetrameters, trimeters and hypermeters occur in


ff.)

the melic periods described in the preceding sections (39

that

were found

to

be suitable in

melic rendering.

movement for continuous nonThese gradually (59) came to be employed

not only in song, but also as recitative, melodramatic and spoken

Thus the 'heroic line' in dactylic rhythm came into use, and anapaestic tetrameters, the iambic trimeter, and especially in the drama iambic, trochaic and anapaestic
verse.
ianibic, trochaic

hypermeters.
^

The sign ~

indicates correspondence, as

indicates equivalence.

58

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES
'

19

56. The dactylic hexameter/ the tetrameters and the trimeter occupied each the space of a line in writing and were named
(xri-xoL,

verses.

Hephaestion (62. 16
it

f.),

defining

the length of the arlxo'i, says that


less

contains not

than three nor more than four syzygies or dipodies.


'

The
the

longest
shortest

line

'

in

comedy

is

the

anapaestic

tetrameter,

The iambic trimeter does not exceed the limit of length allowed the colon in diplasic rhythm the other verses mentioned are all dicolic, but each was (22)
is

the iambic trimeter.

felt to

was regarded
anapaestic

be a well-defined whole, and the spoken iambic trimeter verse,' no less than iambic, trochaic and as a
'

tetrameters

and

the

dactylic

hexameter.'

To

facilitate rendering, a slight

pause marked by the end of a word

might be introduced within the verse. If this pause is coincident with the close of a colon, as regularly in tetrameters, the
Diaeresis

dividing of the verse and diaeresis, if 8ia{,p6(n^


;

at
it

this

point

is

named

falls

within a colon, as

generally in the iambic trimeter and in the dactylic


'

hexameter,' the division


57.

is

called caesura,

to/xj].

The non-melic hypermeter ^ is a combination of closely connected monorrhythmic dimeters and trimeters in iambic and trochaic rhythm, of dimeters and monometers in
Hypermeter!" anapaestic
for

rhythm.
it is

Its

cola

are

rhythmically
of

connected, and

in fact a single line, overlong

comfortable

rendering.

The
'

trochaic

hypermeters
(668).

the

parabasis were, therefore, called

chokers

'

Each dimeter,
;

trimeter and

these cola were connected

monometer had its own modulation as a colon but by synaphea (44), and there can have been no appreciable pause between them. They were united, therefore, exactly after the manner of the cola composing the
subordinate period or melic hypermeter.

In this particular the

recitative

or melodramatic hypermeter

was in marked contrast


final

with the

a-Ti^o(?, which was rendered not only with a but also with one or more interior pauses.

pause

58. Heliodorus designates Pax 974 ff. (974-92, 993-101.5) as 'two periods,' applying the same name he uses for the melic hypermeter (698) to each of these recitative trochaic hypermeters. Cf.
^

The won!

is

used by Hephaestion

exceeds the limit of length he allows the


(ttLxos (66).

(18, 19), who applies the epithet vir^pfiiTpov to the trochaic pentameter, which

20
Schol.

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY

59

Pax 974. He uses the name TrepioBos also in application to a non-melic anapaestic hypermeter, whatever its length, that continues See Schol. Uq. 824-35, Pax 82-101, without catalexis to its close.
154-72, 1320-8.

On

non-melic hypermeters in Aristophanes see 710

ff.

MODES OF EENDEEING
59.

There were probably four


:

modes of rendering Greek

comic verse

^* by a

"

the melic, the recitative, the melodramatic, and the In the earliest times Greek poetry was spoken.

sung

to the

single voice or

accompaniment of lyre or flute, either Thus also in comedy, some by a chorus.

From songs are monodies, duos or trios, others are choruses. The singing song other modes of rendering verse originated.
voice
eci

was
^^

modified,

but

this
still

ive.

^^^^

^^^

verse
are

was

modulated accompanied

recita-

by

accustomed to designate this In further development towards simple mode as recitative. speech Archilochus, on the authority of Plutarch ama ic. ^^^ ^^^ 1141), invented melodramatic rendering, irapaKaraXoyrj, in which it was the speaking voice that was
musical
instrument.
sustained by the tones of the instrument.

We

Finally

comes plain speech, verse without accompaniment.


'

y^ikr)

Xe^a, declamation of

identify

rendering is denied by some scholars, who with recitative and regard it as the sole See Christ's variation in passing from song to simple declamation.
60. Melodramatic

TrapaKaTaXoyi)

Parakataloge, 166

ff.

Zielinski in his Gliedermig,

313

f.,

differentiates

n-apaKaraXoyt]

as

recitative

with accompaniment

from

KaraXoyi],

He recognizes also, 305 f., recitative withmelodramatic rendering. out accompaniment, secco-recitative. For a discussion of the modes in which the different parts of a comedy were rendered, see 803 ff.

STRUCTURE OF COMEDY
61.

A
in

comedy

of Aristophanes, like a tragedy of the

same

period,

begins

with

a prologue and ends with an exode.

parode,

prologue.

which the chorus enters, immediately follows the Here strict resemblance between comedy and

61
tragedy ends.
ara
asis.

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES
About the middle
of a

21

comedy occurs

a division
implies,

called the parabasis in which, as the

name

He ^^^ ^^^^ comes on and addresses the audience. does not appear in person, but is represented by the leaders of parabasis, when complete, consists of the two half-choruses.

seven

parts.

The poet may come on a second time

in

an

additional parabasis found in the second half of the play. singular and interesting division, called the debate,
is

some

of them, indeed, have two.

found in most of the comedies of Aristophanes Two actors appear in this and

discuss, as in a court of law, the

main theme

of the play.

The

The debate occurs chorus presides and renders the verdict. regularly in the first half of the play and when complete consists
of nine parts.

Another division which,


is

like

the parabasis and


regularly of four

the debate,

wholly peculiar to comedy is the syzygy,


it

^^^'
balanced

thus
parts,

named because
song

consists

and a spoken part united with a A syzygy may occur second song and a second spoken part. The action of the play is at a standin either half of the play. still during the debate and the parabasis, and a division, called scene, was gradually developed, the purpose of which was chiefly to adjust these larger divisions It is normally a spoken part and generally to the action. The occurs, as would be expected, in the first half of the play. action of the second half of the play is carried forward mainly in a division consisting of episode and stasimon, which in their
a

form and function resemble the corresponding parts of tragedy.


This subject is treated at length in 665 ff., and an outline of the structure of each of the eleven plays will be found in the " Table of Structure and Rhythms," at the end of this book.

::

CHAPTER

II

IAMBIC VERSE
62. The fundamental colon of iambic verse is a dimeter composed of two metres that consist each of two simple feet

(12,13):
Ttves TTod' otSe Kol TToOev
;

-^

v^

v^

Av. 408

An

iambic dimeter normally consists of twelve primary times and


All iambic verse
is

eight syllables.
63.

in ascending rhythm.

The

arsis of

each metre

may

be irrational
y^

Kol Kafia^oiv aTraAAayei's


oOevTrep ets eKKXyja-Lav
A-i]fjL7^Tep

dyi/wv opyiwv

^ ^ ^ ^

^ ^ ^

Ach. 270
Ec.

490

Ran. 384

Irrational metres are extremely

common

in all forms of iambic

verse in
64.

comedy (186 f.). The thesis of each iamb may be resolved


^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^
y^ ^ Ach, 850 ^ '^ PZ. 311 wv^^-- PL 293 w^ Th. 970

6 7rpi7rov;/oos 'Apreiiiov

Aa/3ovr

I'TTO

cfuXrjBias

j3Xy]X(i>iJ.V0i

re irpofiaTiwv

fiiXTTovcra

Kol t^v To^ocfyopoi'


jxoyepos yoj

vv
ws^^v^

(TTuyepos eyw.

w-/^^

Ach. 1208

65.

If the normally long syllable in the arsis of an irrational


resolved, the arsis
o Se

metre

is

becomes a

'

dactyl
v^ v^

'

(17)

fji,aiv6p.vos

XWov

(SaXeiv

l3ovX6p.vos ev CTKOTW XdfSoi

v^v^<^ s^v^

v^ v^

Ach. 1168

f.

66.

The dimeter, by suppression of the


catalectic (33)
22

arsis of its final iamb,

becomes

69
Sc' 6(rT(i)v

IAMBIC VERSE
oSvfyTo.

23
v^

ai)T<j)

Sta/vovetrai
ix^raftifid^ei

^ ^ ^

ts

aya^a

-^ ^^

w ^ ^

Ach. 1226
-^ch.

101

<

Pax 947

The
its

fiual metre, if catalectic, is never irrational, nor is either of long syllables ever resolved, but its last syllable may be short

(33).

It 67. The second colon of iambic verse is the trimeter. normally consists of eighteen times and twelve syllables, and its metres admit the varieties of form found in tlie dimeter, but the

thesis of its final

iamb

is

never resolved
a.(f)p(i)v

TTidov TTidov XoyoLO-L,

fJ-TjB'

^_^_ ^_^_
^_
^ -

ykvQ

^ - ^ ^ - ^ -

Vexp.

729

8'

do-TTts

eV

TW

cf)(il/dXoy

KpefiTqcrcTai

Ach. 279

<f)iXi']craT6v

fie

fxaXOaKio'i

a)

xpvcrtco

^_^_

^ - ^

^ -

Ach.

1200

Trpol^oXo'S /xos,

o-WTTyp

8d/xots,

^_^_ __^_
rdXa^i tyoj

ix^P^'-'^ fSXafSi)

- - ^ - Nub. 1161
^ - ^ Ach. 1191

CTTvyepd rdSe ye Kpvepa irddeo.-

(OS

TOVS KpLrds

fJi

(j)pT'

TTOV 'cTTtV 6 /SaO-iXeVS

^^^^ ^_w^ ^_ ^^^;

v^^w^

Ach.

1224

Ktti

yap yap

irapal3Xe\{/a<; ti fxeipaKia-Ki^s

^
(TV KaT(T\i(r(>i

^ -

Ran. 409

piv

tTrt

yeAwrt

^_^_ ^-^^ ^-^

Ran. 403

"laKX^

TroAvTi/tryre,

p.kXo'i

eoprrj'i

^_^_

^^

i?an.

398

The trimeter is much rarer in melic verse than the dimeter. iambic tripody {^ - ^ - ^ -) and pentapody 68. The Certain do not occur in comedy (26).

(^_^_^_^_^_)
is

apparent tripodies found in simplified logaoedic verse, are protracted (74) catalectic dimeters, the single pentapody that occurs

a protracted catalectic trimeter (393). 69. The equivalents of the iamb in the

first

half of the iambic

metre are

^^, - is

the equivalent

and -^ (11, 15, 17); in the second half w..^. These forms, in their respective places,

and also full and protracted (72 S.) metres, are interchangeable with one another in strophe and antistrophe and in two
corresponding subordinate periods.

24
70.

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


The logaoedic metres
of ascending rhythm, ^^

70

- ^ - and

^ _

^_

(376), occasionally occur in melic iambic verse, generally

Cf. Ach. 1040 = 1011 (83); This anapaest is simply Vesp. 886 = 869 (470). r^. 988'' (589) a manifestation of the variability of the arsis of the simple

as the first metre of the colon.


;

foot that characterized

the primitive Ionian dimeter (603), and

the periods in which

it

occurs should not be

'

emended.'

This

On the normal in logaoedic verse (375 f.). logaoedic anapaest (389) in spoken and melodramatic iambic
manifestation
is

verse see 113


71.

ff.,

177.

A choriamb,

- ^ ^ -, apparently
Cf. TJiesni.

in place of an iambic metre.

occurs in a few instances 1016, 1020 (374) Ban.


;

This is not the and Pax 663, a spoken trimeter. true choriamb that is the fundamental foot in Aeolic verse (651) the form is here due to interior anaclasis, - ^ for ^ -. 72. By suppression of the first syllable in the arsis of an iambic metre, the metre assumes cretic form

213

(373),

'

'

ofJLOppoOoj, a-vvdeXu)
(TviJ.TrapaLvi(ra<i
e)(^b)

^^
.

^ ^

^ ^ _ ^ _
.

Av. 851

f.

This
verse.

is

the most frequent form of protraction (31

f.)

in iambic

The

thesis
:

of the second

iamb

in this protracted metre

may
J)

be resolved

Ziv Ti TTore

)(^pq(r6fX0a

roto-Se tolctlv kvwSolXols

^
73.

v^

Lys.

476

The

first

syllable in the thesis of an iambic metre


'

may

be suppressed and the metre then assumes


this is less
iTravy^rjcras

bacchiac

'

form, but

common

Se

tois crots Aoyois

^ .

._^_

_4t).

t)28

This protracted metre

may

even be irrational

<f>ev (f)v Trjs

^paii

Tov KaXXovs

Av. 1723

74.

metre assumes

Both syllables are sometimes suppressed and then the spondaic form
' '
:

vyyou 5e y'

wS' atiTos

_
'

Th.

987

Similarly a catalectic colon

may have
w ^

'

spondaic

close

KaAet Tts dvdpwTTiov

Av. 1314

78

IAMBIC VERSE

25

75. The long syllable in the arsis of an iambic metre is sometimes shortened, so that the metre appears not as ^^ - ^ On the analogy of a not infrequent correspondbut as v^ w
>^
.

ing manifestation in trochaic verse {- ^

^-

for

- ^ ~
v^

^^

see

223

S.), this

iambic metre

is

probably to be regarded as

v^

it

the second syllable in the arsis .of the metre being slightly protracted,

but not to the value of the normal long syllable


Cf.

represents.

the recitative verse


kvxvovs
airifiiv

d7ro<r/?0-avTe5 rovs

oiKaS' avToi

^_^_

^_ ^^.^_

Vesp.

255

Cf. in

melic verse

TTLVwy pvTTWv CLTrapaTiXro's, e^ erwv aXovros

^ - ^ TrT(pO(f>6p'
(ttI

^v..^-

w-v^. ^

^
v^

Liis.

279

f.

TreSov

Aius Kat A)(os ya/xv/Atov

^^w^^ ^ v^
76.

Av. 1757

f.

The subordinate period that occurs


is

oftenest

in

melic

the catalectic tetrameter, formed by the union of This is the only period an acatalectic and a catalectic dimeter.

iambic verse

The used in stichic (50) systematic and intermediate periods. catalectic trimeter, when employed as a subordinate period, is
confined
to
ff.

imitations of primitive forms of the strophe.


(82).

Cf.

Ban. 398

The

catalectic dimeter also

may

be used as

a subordinate period, and pentameters, hexameters, heptameters and octameters, compounded of dimetrical and trimetrical cola,
occasionally occur.

The

chief constituent of the melic iambic

hypermeter
to

On the combinathe dimeter; trimeters are rare. tion of subordinate periods, hypermeters and intermediate periods
is

form systematic periods, see 720 ff. 77. The acatalectic iambic trimeter became the set verse of Spoken and melic trimeters are the dialogue of comedy (95 ff.). The distinguished by marked differences of form (126 ff.). non-melic tetrameter also has large use in comedy, and was effectively employed by Aristophanes as both recitative and
melodramatic verse (167 ff.). These tetrameters may be followed On caesura and diaeresis in iambic by hypermeters (190 ff.).
verse see
78.

130 ff., 166, 179 ff. Iambic has special affinity for anapaestic and dochrniac rhythm, and iambic cola may be combined with anapaestic and

26

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


cola,

79

dochmiac
79.

and occasionally with cola


origin, stands

in other rhythms, in

the same systematic period.

Iambic rhythm, in

in close relation with

the primitive cola of Ionian verse (605 f, 613).


of the parode of the
in

In comedy

it

has varied use in song, ranging from the primitive processionals

Ranae

to the festive

duos of the Acharnians,


Aristotle

which

it

approaches in use the trimeter of dialogue.


iv.

says (Foet.

14) that nature herself discovered the trimeter as


:

the verse appropriate to dialogue


(f)V(Ti^

\e^eo)<i

8e yevo^evT]<i avTrj

r/

rb OLKelou fMerpov evpe' fj^aXicrra yap XeKTiKov rSiv fierpcov


icTTcv
rfj

TO

lafi^eiov

ar)fi,etov
rfj

Be

tovtov

TrXeicrra

Xeyofjuev iv

8ia\eKru>

7rpo<i aX\7]\ov<{,

yap lafi^ela and elsewhere also


r;

{Rhet. iii. 8. 4) he remarks speech of everyday life 6 S'


:

how iambic rhythm pervades the twv iafi^o<; avTrj ianv r) Xe^t?
tmv
fxerpcov
la/x/Seia

iroWcov
\eyovre<i.

8i6 /jLaXicTTa ttuvtcov

<p6eyyovTai

Melic Iambic Verse


80.

Ran. 416-39 (Parode).


Strophe
I.

'H/x.

f3ovXe(r9c 8yJTa Koivrj


crKCoiJ/oiixev 'Ap)(^e8r]fj.ov,

>=i

417

^ ^ ^ w ^^ w ^

2*^
2*^^

OS 7rTTrjs

wv ovK

e(f>v(r

(^parepas

Strophe II.
'H/x. fi'

vvvl Se S>;/xaywyei
V Tois

420

avw

veKpoi(rt

Kacrrlv to. Trpwra tv}s cKet fxo^dripia'i.

Strophe
'Hyu,.

IIL
a/couw

Tov KXeto-^evovs

S'

423

Iv Tats Ta(fial(rL TrpojKTov

TiAXetv eavTov Kal cnrapaTTiLV ras yvddovs.

Strophe IV.
'Up.
j3'

KOLKOTTTer

eyKCKv^ws

426 KUKkae

KOLKeKpciyei.
e'cTTiv

"Zepivov ocTTis

ava</)Auo-Tios.

82

IAMBIC VERSE
Strophe V.
*H/x.

27

KoX KaA-Aiav yk

<^acrt

429 TovTov rhv

'Itttto^ivov
kvi^iijxkvov.

KVcrOov XeovT-Jjv vav/iaxeiv

Strophe VI.
At.
e)(^OLT

av ovv (fipdaaL vwv


OTTOV 'v6d8' oIki
eo-/xv
;

432 IIAovTwv' ^vo) yap

dpTiios d(f>iyf/.evw.

Strophe
'Up..

VII.

^'

pL-q?>\v

paKpdv
avdL<i
i(t6'
eTT

direkOij^;

435

/X7y8'

eirai'epy pe,

dA/V

avry]V ri]v dvpav dc^ty/txevos.

Strophe VIII.
At.
a'lpoc

dv avOa &
-qv

irai.

Ha-

TOVTt Ti
i)

TO irpdypa

439 dXA'
418 ^pdrepas Dindorf

Albs KopivBos kv roh a-TpMpacriv


<pp6.ropa.s

427 di'a^Xyo-Ttos Porson

avaipXvuTioi

The

eight strophes constitute a monostrophic octad (701).


3,

(704)

= aab,
81.
Ai.

2 2

epodic triad

two

catalectic dimeters with

an acatalectic

trimeter as epode.

See

737.

The preceding
S'

verses (414, 415) read:


v^

eyo)

del ttws <^tAaKoA.ovt/x.t

dos

Kol piT

avrrjS

^ v^
^a. Kccyojye

-^ ^ ^

415 Trai^wv

;;(opi'etv

(iovXopai.

Trpos.

These are apparently a tetrameter and a trimeter, but Dobree's The verses suggestion that p.eT avrqs is a gloss is probably right. then become the ordinary trimeters of the dialogue, and are exactly The inclusion of the gloss in the adapted to the sentiment expressed. text may have been furthered by the form of ode in the following
lyric

(416
82.

flf.).

Ban. 398-402

= 403-8 = 409-13
I.

(Parode).

Strophe
'H/x. a

"laKxe irokvTiptjTe, pkXos

co/dttJs

^ - ^
399
TJSio-Tor vp<i)y,

Z^""'

Sevpo (TwaKokovd^t

^ - ^

3^'^

28

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


TTpOS TTjV diOV

83

KOI Sel^OV

COS
^

w
\_i

i=i

^
\j

avev TTOvov ttoXXtjv 68ov

Tre/aatVets.

"IaK)( (fiiXo^^^opevra

(rr)/i.7r/307re/i.7re

fie.

Strophe II.
'HjLi.

^'

(TV

yap

Kari(Txi(T(a fxkv iirl ye Aeon

404
408

KttTr'

eureAeia tov re cravSaXLO-Kov


K(x^r]vpe<s

Kol TO paKOS,

wa-T

d^vj/itovs Trat^eiv re
fie.

Kal

x"/'^'^*'^*

"la/cxe <f>iXoxopevTa o-vixTrpoirefXTve

Strophe III.
'H/i, a' Kat

yap
Si)

TrapafSXeiJ^as Ti fieipaKL(rKrj<i

410 vuv

KttTeiSov Kai /xaA'

evTrpoa-Mirov

(TVinraia-TpLas ^(Itwviov Ttapappayevros

rndiov

irpOKVipav.

413 "laKXe

(f>t,XoxopevTa a-vjirrpoTveinve

fie.

404

Toj/

re Bentley

rbvot rbv
(701).

The =
aabc,

three strophes constitute a monostrophic triad


3 3 5 3,

(704)

epodic

tetrad

catalectic

pentameter,

with

the

two catalectic trimeters and a same ephymnium, an acatalectic


See
742.

trimeter, as epode in each of the three strophes.

83.

Ach.

1008-17 = 1037-46 (Syzygy


LYRICAL DUO
Strophe.

III.).

Kop. a

(r]X(i)

(re

ttjs

ev/3ovXias
rrjs

1009
At.

fiaXXov 8e
avOpwire
Tt SrjT

etiw^tas

ttJs Trapovcntjs.

tTTCtSav TcLs
;

Ki)(Xas

70

oTTTWfievas iSrfTe
Ko/D.

w ^ ^ 6^ ^ ^ :^ ^ "C v^ v^i=^ 5 ^ ^ w 4*^^

^_^_

olfiai ere

Kot tovt

ev Xeyeiv.

__^_

At.

TO TTvp VTroa-KaXeve.
iJKOVcras

^ ^

Kop. a

ws

fiayeLpiKU)<;

i=;_^_ k^ ^ 4*^^ i=i_v^_ ^ ^

Kopifw<; re Kal 8enrvi]TLKU}<;

avTW BiaKovelrat

10

w ^

v^

6^

Ko/o. f3' avrjp avrfvprfKev ti

Tais aToi'Satcriv

i^Su,

kov/c coikcv ovSevt p-era.8w(reiv.

85
Karaxei
/3'
/i^'

IAMBIC VERSE
(tv
rrj'i

29

At.

x^P^V'^
;

'^^

/xcAt,

Tas CDyTrias CTTadive.

Kop.
Ko/3.

I'JKOvaras

6pBia(Tii.a.Tiav

At.

oTTTare rayxikeia.

a-JTOKTiveh

At/iw

'/x^

'^'^'

^ovs

yeiVova?

Kviirrj

re.

koI

(JKuvr/

roiavTa
1017 auTv Bentley
:

\a<XK(x)V.
dvjjp

aun^ or (R) aiVa

1037

avrip

Elmsley

A = abba, 6 4 4 6, paliuodic tetrad a Monostrophic dyad. hexameter as proode, two tetrameters, and a second hexameter as See 746. epode that repeats the melody of the first period. Heliodorus See the metrical scholium on 1008 and the note. reduces the number of cola by thrice combining two dimeters in a tetraHis combinations destroy the meter, which he regards as a colon,' symmetry of the period, which clearly is palinodic.
:

'

84.

Pax 512-19 (Syzygy


aye vvv aye
Kal
[X7]v

II.).

Kop. a
'E/3.

Tra?.

43, 276,
VjS?;.

281

-^^

^^

ofjiov

Vrti'

Kop.

13'

firi

vvv dvoifiev dAA'


TeLvcafxev

eirev-

^ ^
v.^
5

2 ^ w w

515
'Ep.

avSpiKiiWepoi:
eKelvo.

-^Bt]

Vti tout
t3

Kop.

a'

&

ela vvv,
u)

ela ttu?,

^ ^

v^

e?a era ela vvv,


eta

w
^
eia-

em

e?a Tras.
e7aeta-

^ w
v./

wv^4
w
k^

2^^

^ v^

518 Richter: w era- eta519 Richter: w eta- eTa- ela-

era

eia iras-

R R
4 2

w
ci

eia eta eta eta eia eta


eia.

eta eta eta eto.

ttSj

Non-antistrophic.

A = abcbd, 12

6,

epodic pentad

a tetrad

composed of an anapaestic monometer, and two iambic dimeters that enclose an acatalectic iambic tetrameter, with an iambic hexameter
as epode.

See 762. See the metrical scholium on Pax 512 with the note.
85.
Eccl.

478-82 and 483-92 = 493-503


Proode.

(Epiparode).

Kop. a

efi(3a

x^p"-

43, 276,

281
>}-

v>

1"

479
Kop. B'

ap'

ecTTi
filv

Ttjv avSpiav Tts

^
4

oo"Tts 7raKoAov^t

v^>^^
a-avTi]V d(r<^aAais,

(rTpe(f)OV (TKOTrei, (fivXarre

TToAAoi

yap

ot

avoupyot,

482

fJil]

TTOV TIS eK TOVTTLCrdeV u>v

TO (TX^/^a KaTa<f)vXd^r].

^ y^ ^ ^^

^ ^

^
4

30

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


Strophe.

85

'Hu. a

dXA,'

o)s

fidkiara toiv ttoSoiv


^epot

kTTLKrvirwv /3aSt^e-

484 485
486

T^/xiv

8'

av

aio-;;(iJvryv

^ ^ ^ ^ y^ ^=^ w w4 v^ v^
v-^^^^^

TraxraKTi irapa rots avSpao-tv

TO irpayfj-a tout' lA.eyx^^*':r/3bs

5v:;

TauTa (ruo-TeAAov
Kol

(Ttav-

w w
v^

i=d_^_ w 06
i^^

v^ v^

Tr)v

Trepco-KOTTOv/iei'T;


4^^

TttKEtcre

Kai tuk Se^tas


07ra)S>
ft"!]

488
Kop. a

<(f>vXaTd'

^vfifftopa

i=i_^_ ^ y^
10

^_^_6
v^ V.

yevTjcreTat to Tpayfxa.

V.

dXX

kyKOvQip-iV tqv tottov


eo-/xev
7]8rj

yap eyyus
490
491
^pfiwfJied'

oOevirep ets KKX7]aiav


rjViK
rjp-i^v.

Tr)v 8'

oiKiav
17

'i^ea-Q'

opdv
o vvv

oOevTrep

crTpaTr]yo?
evpovcr

^ - ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 15^ w ^ v^
v^

^ - v^

i^

w-c;4
v^

^
^

w4
v-'

492

eo-^'

17

to

Trpay/i,'

eSo^e ToTs TroAiVats.


Antistrophe.

'Hu.

/3'

wcTT

etKos i/juas /a^ fSpaSvyetv eaT


fir)

eTravayxevowas

TTwycovas k^t^pTrjixkva<i,

Ka'i Tts (.^OTTicrOev

y xrip-MV

tcrws Kareiiry.

496 dXA' 499


Kop.

?a 8e?p'

ctti

q-kius eX^ovo-a Trpbs to retxi^ov -napafSXeTrovcra

darepo)
TrdXiv [Meraa-Keva^e cravTrju avOi?
fJir)

r]7rp

^aOa.

/3' Kai;

f3pd8vv

ws

Tr/vSe Kat
6pu)[j.ev.

8^

Tr]v (rrpar-qyov '///xwv

Xwpouo-av e^ eKKXrjcrias
diracra Kai
p-Lcrei

dXX' eVetyou

craKov irpb? tou' yvddoiu e)(ovcra

XauTtti ya/3 i'jKOVcrtv TrdXai to <rxW'^ tout

ex^'"'^'-

487
y

TdKeio-e
:

Faber
6^ed'

KOLKtlae

488 (puXard' Sirm Blaydes

495 i^bTncOtv

von Velsen

iifias

abcb,

= three strophes constitute a proodic triad, ABB (717). an anapaestic monometer as proode to 5 4, proodic tetrad two iambic tetrameters that enclose a pentameter. See 750. B = A probably = abba (776), 4 6 6 4, palinodic AB (483-8, 489-92). The

14

a tetrameter as proode, two hexameters, and a second See tetrameter as epode that repeats the melody of the first period. See 778. B a stichic period composed of four tetrameters. 746.

tetrad

87
86.

IAMBIC VERSE
Ach.

31
II.).

929-39 = 940-51

(Episode

LYRICAL TRIO
Strophe.
Kop, a
cvSt^o-ov
^ei'ff) (5

/JeAriCTTe

tw
(fiepiov

930

Ka\(JtJ<;

T-qv e/x7roA^v
cii'

o
Kard^y.

ovTW<s OTTWS

firj

Ai.

ifiol

{xeXr'jO-et

rauT

eirei

934
Kop.
Ai.
a' Tt

XdXov TTVpoppayls KaAAw?


rot
Kttt ipoffjei

Tt Kat

o w 5 v^
^ ^

^ v^ ^ w

deolcTLv \dp6v.

^_^_ ^_^
w
kj

7CV

\pi](Tf.Ta'i ttot'

aiVw

c;

Tza.y\pri(Trov

ayyos eWai,

w ^

2 2^

Kparrjp kokwi', TpnrTrjp Sikwv,

w v^

v--

938

cf)aLViv

virevdvi'ov<;

Xvxvovxo<i Kal kvXl^

51

939

xa

Trpd.yfj.aT'

eyKVKdcrOai.

ioM_^_ __^_ __^_ 7^ w


^./

v^

Antistrophe.
Kop. ^'
TTois

S'

av

TTeTTOiOoir)

tis

dyyeuo toioutw Xpwp.vos


TocrdvS'
dei

Kar' OLKiav

xpo(f)ovvTL
ttot',
etirep

Ai.

tcrxupdv

t'oTtv

wyd^',

ojctt'

oi'k

av

/carayetTy

eV

TToSwV KCtTW Kapa KpefJLaLTO.

Kop. ^'
Bo.

7}8r;

K-aAws ex^'

<^<^^-

/AcAAw ye toi OepcSSeiv.


ottoi

Kop. ^' ttAA' w ^ei'wr /JeAricrTe o-uv0pt^ Kai toutov Xa/Swv irpdcr/?aAA'
jSovXet
cfieptov

irpos Travra crvKocjidi'Tijv.


Sttoi

943

^o-Tic

Princeps

eo-r'

950

Fritzsche

6'toi;

Monostrophic dyad. A = aabbc, 7 7 2 2 7 (8), proo lie pentad: a heptameter as proode that anticipates the melody of the first period of the following periodic tetrad, composed of a heptameter, two dimeters, and a heptameter in the strophe, but in the antistrophe an See 754. On the lack of correspondence in strophe and octameter.
antistrophe see 51. See the metrical scholia on 929, 946, 948, and the discussion
in 723.

87.

Fax 1305-10 = 1311-15 (Stasimon


Strophe.

I.).

'HfjL.

a vpdv TO AoiTTov pyov


Srj

7;-

v^

v^

40

'vTavda Twi/ pevovTiov

ii_v^_ ^

32

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


<^/\.av

88

1306

Tavra Travra Kal


111]

o-TToSetv

^
5

^ ^
w
i^

Kul

Kcvas irapekKeiv.

1307 aAX' dvSpiKws 6/x^aAAeT


Kai
(rfx<j3\<iT

w w

^^v:72

dfX(f)Oiv

toiv

yvdOotv

i^_^ i=i_^_
v^

ouSev

yap w

TTOvrjpoi

1310 AeuKwv oSovTwi' epyov


)jv
/A7J

eor',

Ti Ktti fxaa-wvTai,.

Antistrophe.
'H/i.

^'

rifJitv

fieX-qcrei
TT/Do

ravTo.

y\

v irotets Se Kat crv (f>pd^(Dv.

1312 dAA' w
<i)S

Tov 7reivwvTS /ij3dXAcr^e twi/ Aaywajf,

ov)(l rrdcrav t^fiepav


4'crTiv

irXaKOva-iv

evrvx^iv trXavcofjLevoLS
?}

epn^p.oi'i.

1315

Trpos

Tavra ftpvKer
:

rdx'

I'/i'*'

^VH-'^err'

/xeTa/xeAr;o-ii'.
^<rr2j'

1307 ifipdWere Portus

^n^dWeroy

1310

Bentley

or
:

^crriy

Monostrophic dyad. A = aabaa, 4 4 2 4 4, epodic pentad a tetrad composed of two tetrameters, a dimeter, and a third tetrameter, with a final tetrameter as epode that repeats the melody of the first, second, and fourth periods. See 760. See the metrical scholia on 1305 and 1307.
88.
P/m^.

290-5 = 296-301; 302-8 = 309-15;

316-21

(Parode).
I.

Strophe
Ka. Kat firfv eyw OpeTTaveku
l3ov\-Q<Top.o.t
rbi'

v-'

KuKAcoTra

^^

^
v./

291

UlflOV/AVOS Kol Tolv TToSolv


0)01

Tra/aevcraAei'wi'

^
5
-^

292
293
295

vp.ds ayeiv,

dAA' ela tckc-

^ -

a dap.iv' Travaf3owvT<i
(iXrj\(lip.tvoL

^v^=^
^
v^

^ w4 ^ v^ * ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ w ^^4
v./

re irpofiarLUiv

^
^ ^ ^ w4
v--

aiytuv re Ktva/JpwvTtov fikXr]


eirea-d'

43
10


v:?

>^

aTre^wAiy/iei'ot
8'

rpdyot

aKpaTLeicrOe.

^ - ^ v^

Antistrophe
'Hu.
a'
17/i.ets

I.

Se y'

aS
ere

^Tjrr^o-o/iev

QperraveXo rov KvKAcoTra

BXyivwfJLevoi,

tovtovi ireivwvTa KaraXafSovTes,


t'

298

7rr;pav

e'xovTa

Adxavd

dypta Spocrepd, KpaiiraXQvTa


ttov,

nyovpLevov TOis 7r/3o/3aTtot5. eiKy St KaraSap^oi/Ta

301 /Atyav Aa/^ovre?

r^jw/jievov

(T<firiKL(TK0V

eKTV(f>Xw<TaL.

89

IAMBIC VERSE
Strophe II.

33

Ka. iyw

Se tjjv KipKrjv ye ti^v

Toi

(^dpfxaK

ai/aKVKwo-av,
"J>iAa)-

303 304

?')

Tot's

kraipovi tou

viSou ttot' Iv Kopivdu>


eVeio-ev

ws oVras Kapirovs

fJupLayfievov (TKwp iaOUiv,

auTi) 8'

([xaTTiV avTois,

306

fxiixi](TOixai

TravTas T/aoTrovis"

w ^ ^ ^ ^ .^ ^ ^ 4*^^ w w 4^^ ^ v^ w 5w v^^=^ i:i_^_ o ^ w w ^ ^ 6^^ ^ ^


^
v^

v/xeis Se ypuAi{'ovTS

iVu

<fiiXr)8ta^

^^
v^

7^

^ ^

eVecr^e IxrjTpl x^'po'-

10

Antistrophe II.
*H/i.
/3' ouKoiJi'

(re

T^i'

T^ipKYiv ye

t^v ra (^dppaK

dvaKVKMO-av

310 Ktti fxayyavevovcrav ixoX.vvovcrdv re tovs 311 Xa/Sovres vtto <^6A7/Stas tov Aaprtov

Taipov<;
fxiixov/jLevoL

twv

o/D;^a)v

Kpe/xwyuei'

313

fiivduxTOfxiv

6'

iocnrep

rpdyov

y-qv

piva,
epels,

crv

8'

'ApicrrvXXos
;(otpot.

vtto-

)(^acrK(av

irrea-de fJ-r}Tpl

Epode.
Ka. dXX!
eia vvv

twv

(rKw/j.fJi.dT(jJV

__^_ __^_
v^

d:raAAayevTes

r/Si^

vy

v^

4^

317

v/zets

e:r'

a A A' eiSos TpiTrea-9',


i(av
i]8ri

w
^ ^
5
v^

eyo) 8'

Xddpa

w w
v^

jSovX-qaofiac tou SecTTroTOU


Xa/Siov Tiv'

dpTOv KoX Kpeas

w ^
w

^
v^

321 /iacrw^evos rb Xoiiruv ov-

Tw Tw

KOTTO)

^wetj/at.
:

__^_ ^__4C
Karaoapd^vra

w <^

300 KaradapdovTa Porson

The

five

strophes constitute

an
of

epodic
five

pentad,

AABBC
of
:

(716).

which the fourth is acatalectic. B = aabe, 4 4 6 7, epodic tetrad two See 778. tetrameters and a hexameter, with a heptameter as epode. See 743. C probably = ab'a (776), 4 8 4, mesodic triad two tetrameters, with an octameter as mesode. See 739.
:

stichic

period

composed

tetrameters,

89.

i^an.

384-8 = 389-93
Strophe.

(Parode).

Up.,

LS.i'jp,y]Tp

ayv-tuv

opytwv

385

dvacraa o-vpTrapaa-rdreL

34

THE VERSE OF GEEEK COMEDY


Kal crw^e tov
Ktti
/a'

90.

(ravTT^'i

x^pov
5

v^

v^

a.o-(f>aX.Qs

iravrjfi^pov

388

Tvala-ai t

Kal )(opev(raL.

^ ^

o
v^

v^


10

Antistrophe.
'Hyu,.

^' Kal TToAAa


7re6i/,

/xev

yeXoid

jx'

et-

390

ttoAAoL Se (r7roi;Sata, Kat


(Trj<i

T^s

koprrjs d^Loys

Traia-avTa Kal crKwipavTa vlKr](TavTa raiviov(r9at.

Monostrophic dyad. D (704) See posed of a single decameter.


90.

is

an indivisible hypermeter com-

773.

Ach.

263-279

(Scene

I.).

Monody
At.

of Dicaeopolis (593).
v^

^aA)}s eraipe BaKX^ov


^vyKiofxe vvKTOTrepnrkdvi]-

w
v./

^ ^
w^>w^^

265

re p-OLX^ TratSepacrra,
CKTO)
cr'

eVet TrpocrelTrov Is

rhv

Sr^fiov

eXOoiV acr/xevos,

^ w v^ ^

^ ^ 6^^ w w
v/^^^y

(TTTOvSas Troi7]crd[xevos e/xav-

Tw
270

7rpay/i,aT(uv re

Kat /xa^wv

Kat Aa/i,axwv aTraAAayets.

TToAAw yap
p6v6'

(r^'

Tr'^Stov

__^_ __^_
v^

^ w ^

w w w
v^
v^y

^aA?}? 4>aA^S KAcTTTot'o-avev-lO


(optKr)v

vXi](f}6pov

^ ^

^ ^ ^
v.^

273

T'))v

^Tpv/JioSwpov

Oparrav

Ik

w
v^

Toi)

^cAAews

p.ka-y]v

XafiovT

dpavra KarafSaXovTa Karaytyaprt'cr'

w ^aXrjs
7)p.a;'

^aXrjs-

277

cav p.^'

^vjnr'i.rj<i,

^ v^ ^.^ 15^ w ^ ^

^ ^ ^ ^ -^

v./

eK KpanrdXi]'i eutOev
P'qvy]';

el-

po(f>rjcrei

Tpv/iXiov,
cf)t\f/dX(i)

__^ ^_^_ __^_ __^^30


3,

279

17

8'

do-TTts

Tw

Kptiiyja-erai.

Non-antistrophic.

A = abc,
scholia

30

pericopic

triad

hexameter,

hypermeter
See
the

of thirty metres, trimeter.

See

771.

metrical

263-79 and 280-3

into a pericope,

Heliodorus combined on 263, 274. AB, but the latter is the beginning
.

In his edition 271-3 (ttoAAw See 234. of the second parode. TpvfBXiov) ^eAAews) were arranged as three trimeters, 277-8 (Idv
.
. . .

as two,

and 276 {^aXTj^

^aX'7]^) as a

monometer.

92
91.

IAMBIC VERSE
Eq.

35
IT.).

756-60 = 836-40 (Debate


Strophe.

fi.

36
93.

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


Av. 851-8 = 895-902 (Syzygy
Strophe.
I.).

93

'Hfi.

a ofioppoOw, (rvvOeXo),
(TVfXTrapaiveo-as e'x'^

v7
.

852

w ^
-^
^^

v^

^ ^

TTpoaoSia p.ydXa o-epiva


kvai deolcriv,

irpocri-

^
v^

-^

^^^^^^
v^v^wv~

a^a

8k irpoae-

w
w

Tt )(^dpLTo<i eVeKtt TrpofiaTLOV Ti dvetv.

857

ITO)

ITW 6TW 8e II V-

w
73
v^

v^ v^ v^

^tas /3oa ^w, o-wa- 69,


Serco Se

Xatpts wSav.

- ^ O ^^

v^ " - o 6^^

'H/LA. /3' etr'

avdi<i

av rdpa
SiVTepov

croi
yiteAos
Itti-

896

Set /i

XepvLJSb 6eocref3e^ 6(riov


f^oav,

KaXeiv 8e paKapas
itirep

eva

Ttvot pLOVov,

iKavov e^er' 6\pov.

901

Tci

8ev

yap irapovTa dvpar ovaAAo TrXrjv yeveiov t'


Ka6 KepaTa.
857 trw trw Irw
:

o-Tt

856 -irpo^driov Bentley rcji 6ii^ deep Bentley


:

irph^arov

all

MSS. except

Monostrophic dyad. See 770. hexameter.

A = ab,

11

6,

pericopic

dyad

hendecameter,

The metrical form of the lyric is 'tragic,' marked by preponderThe scholiast on 851 says So^okAcovs ance of the rational metre. Cf. Ach. 1190 IF. iK IlTjAews, and again on 857 koI tovto Ik Ht/Acws. (599) and Aves 406 ff. (290).
94.

Lys.

256-65 = 271-80
Strophe.

(Parode).

Xo.

Fe/O.

rj

TToAA' aeATTx' ecrriv kv


T(x

69

^_ _^_
_ w _ ^ k^
. .

257

^ _ ^ v^^^v^ ^ _ ^ ^Tpvp.68(op' a.KOva-at 5 ^ ^ 260 ywaiKas as ejSocTKopev ^ ^ Kar' oiKOV /x(^aves kukov ^v^os^ w Kara pev dy tov e'xeiv /3peTas, xy ^~^ ^ ^^ ^ Kara 8' aKpoTToXiv ep.dv XafSelv v 69, 94 f. w v^ pLoxXois 81 Kol KXyOpot10 =^w ^^ crtv Ta irpoTrvXaia iraKTovv 265
p.aKpw
/Sio)
(fiev,

4C

7rt

TtS av TTOt' tJXtTKt'


v^^.

w ^ ^ ^ w ^

4CV

y _
12*^^

95

IAMBIC VERSE
Antistrophc.
Xo. Tep. ov yap
fxa T'tjv AtjurjTp'

37

efxov

272

{'wvTOS
7rt

iy^avovvTaf
at'-

ov8e KAeoyuerr;?, 09

275

aTrrjXdev a.\pa.XaKTO<;,
O/XWS KaKlsiVlKOV

aW

7ri/tov

tw;(TO OcoTrXa irapaSovs efioi,j


ja-fMiKpov e'xwv Travu Tpij3u)VLov,J
TTtvaiv

pvirCiv dirapaTLX-

280
264 /uoxXo'J Brunck
:

Tos, ^ erwv aAovros.

The '111 vx^" ^'!ji"Xa is the reading of F. /ulox^oIctlv and the reading in R, vxe^' S^Xa (vx^'^'i "ot^ VX^^') implies it. 277 thus becomes ^^^ - ^^, by resolution of the theses of but Aristophanes avoids the latter the simple feet in the logaoedic metre Bothe (376 ii.), and ^ ^ ^^ ^, although it occurs once elsewhere (563), is dubious. In the next colon (278), which has the same metrical proposes ^wttX' yx^^oform, Meineke proposes (TfUKpbv irdw rpi^ibviov ^x'^"article is necessary, The first metre in
;

Monostrophic dyad. (704) = aab, 4 4 12, epodic triad: two See 737. tetrameters with a dudecameter as epode. The lyric is tragic,' that is, it has tragic form with comic intention. Only six of its metres are irrational as against twenty-two that are rational, whereas irrational metres outnumber rational on the average

in the melic iambic verse of Aristophanes (186).

indignant but unavailing complaint of sentiment, querulous old men in the strophe, and exultant but buffoon reminisHere, as in Av. 851 ff., metre cence of past glory in the antistrophe.
expresses the
is

The form admirably

made

the means of special comic

effect.

Non-Melic Iambic Vekse

95.

paratively rare.

Pure trimeters, which consist solely of iambs, are comOf 8835 non-melic trimeters in the eleven

extant plays of Aristophanes only 128 are pure, 1 in 69." Eleven occur in the Acharyiians 34, 150, 454, 472, 474, 500, The JSfubes has relatively the most, 513, 514, 588, 799, 1189.
:

The numerical statements and

tables
in-

main,

in this section are the

product of an

dependent investigation and frequently are not in agreement with those in Rumpel's Trimetrr des Aristophanes, but
the results of his investigation have often been quoted by editors, I it best to follow, in the thought have
since

the order and method of his presentation of the facts, in order to For melic trifacilitate comparison.
^ ;

meters see 126 ff. in Sophocles In Aeschylus 1 in 14 See in Euripides 1 in 22-5. 1 in 17


;

Rumpel's Trimeter, 601.

38

THE VEESE OF GEEEK COMEDY


1

96

18 in 758,
114-7.
96.

in

42

the Equites the fewest, 6 in place

688, 1 in

Irrational

and

trisyllabic feet, in

of the

normal

iamb, are very common, and verses are not rare in which no Cf. Av. 119, 192, 439, foot has iambic form except the last.

672,818,819, etc. There are 1 8 7 of these non-iambic trimeters, The Acharnians has relatively the most, 22 in 811 1 in 47'2.^
trimeters, 1 in 36-9, the Mibes the fewest, 11 in 758, 1 in 68-9. Of the 8835 trimeters 97. Irrational metres preponderate.

2299 (1583 with at least one trisyllabic foot and 716 that consist solely of dissyllabic 3857 (2586 + 1271) have feet) have one long arsis, 1 in 3-84 two, 1 in 2-29; 2199 (1328 + 871) have three, 1 in 4-02. The number of irrational metres is 16,610, over 62 per cent of The number of trimeters in which the total number of metres.
in Aristophanes,

somewhere

in the verse

one

or

more

metres

are

irrational

is

8355.

The

16,610

irrational feet are distributed as follows


i.''

%
54-4
5-2

iii.

%
58-6
9-6

y-

%
58-4
1-8

'Spondaic 'feet
'Dactylic 'feet

4804 459 5263

5174 849 6023

5162 162

Total irrational feet

59-6
'

68-2

5324

60-2

98. Eesolved feet, tribrach and dactyl,' occur in nearly every other trimeter, 1 in 2*14.^ 99.

on the average

The

distribution of the various forms of the foot that


is

are found in the trimeters of Aristophanes

as follows

Iambs

101

IAMBIC VERSE
tribrach

39
first

the

may

occur

in

any

of

the

five

feet.

The

following table exhibits the usage of Aristophanes


Play.

40

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY

102

He allows it in iii. in maintain penthemimeral caesura (130). case of a tribrach that overlaps forward oftener than elsewhere
in
Cf.
iii.,

because this commonly produces hephthemimeral caesura.

Vesp.

1218,
in
iii.

1306, 1383, 1385,

1512.

The

trisyllabic

tends to produce medial caesura (137), which, as the poets of the Old Comedy felt, was rhythmically objectiontribrach
able.
Cf.

Ach. 733, Uq. 134, 670.


at the

Aristophanes eschews the


v.,

tribrach

contained in one word in

in order

to

avoid four

short syllables
syllable.
Cf.

end

of the

verse followed by a variable

Ach. 175 (proper name), 473, 748 (proper name),


facts are

812, 1097. 102. These

summarized
i.

in the following table

Trisyllables

Overlap forward Overlap back Overlap both ways


.

Totalin one word

117

384

32

304

20

857

103. Tribrachs composed of two or three words or parts of The following table shows the distribution words number 1797. of tribrachs thus composed
^ :

107
105.

IAMBIC VERSE
Eighty-five tribrachs are divided
v^ v/
1

41

,^

in trimeters

of

which
i.

the

text

is

generally

accepted,

and

these

may

be

classified as follows

The

first

word

is

compound

dissyllable of

which the

second part

Of. 6 n Xeyeif Av. 1382, (13 instances). OTL he Av. 181, airep cKel Vesp. 767, ore irep Av. 7l, OKa fiev Ach. 754. The first word is a dissyllable and the second a monosylii. labic enclitic, which loses its accent and its identity as an
is enclitic

Cf. e'/xe ye Av. 1670, ht ye JEc. 373, independent word (13). TToXv ye Ahib. 1335, e/xe re Uq. 1159, ^paxv ri TIi. 938, oaa 890. fjue Eq. 1336, <l>epe ae Lys. Cf. airo yap Nub. 792, ep,e in. The second word is yap (4).

yap

Ec.
iv.

714,

t<xa

The

first

yap Av. 1167. word is elided

(7).

Cf.

Trpoaer

aTrey^rjadpL-qv

Ran. 490, dirLr diro Eq. 728, irarep eXavuet^ Nub. 29, rafXTropt dvecpyp^eva Av. 1523. v. A preposition and its case constitute the tribrach (25). Cf. hua xpovov PI. 1055, eVt i/6ot7;to'? Vesp. 1199, Kara ae Ran. 500, irapa rov Th. 489, irepl yvvaiKO'^ Av. 1639, virep ifxou Nub. 839,
vi.

vTTo (})t\opvt0la<i

Av. 1300.

Cf. uKovere The tribrach occurs in a fixed phrase (13). \M Ach. 1000, avrUa pcOC Eq. 746, ra-xp irdw Th. 916, riva

rpoTTOv Av. 180.


vii.

Miscellaneous cases (10).


Eq.

aj>e<i

diro
Afco.

diro Ach. 1023, Cf. iroOev ; 1159, A/a rov Nub. 817, raStKa Xiycov Nub.

884,

Tra^v Lys. 24,

daTriSa

Xa/Setv Lys.

52,

e'/io?

dvrjp

Lys. 102.

106. In most of these eighty-five cases the two words that Editors eliminate some form the tribrach are closely connected. 728, Nub. 817, Cf. Ach. 1023, of them by emendation. 884, Av. 181, 1575, 1639, Lys. 24, 102, Ec. 989, PL 838,

Twenty
second,

of the 85 instances occur in the first foot, 33 in the 29 in the fourth, but only two in the third {Ach. 71, It is noteworthy Av. 1588) and one in the fifth {Ach. 830). that 53 occur in the first metre.

107.

By
'

resolution

of

the

theses

of

irrational

feet

in a
tlie

trimeter a
1

dactyl

'

(resolved irrational iamb)


607,
see

may

occur in

Besides Rumpel's
ff.

Trimeter,

Bachmann's Zur Kritik der Komodien,

248

42
first,

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


third and fifth feet.

108

The following

table exhibits the usage

of Aristophanes
Play. Trim,

-^v^

i.

iii,

v.

Total.

Thes.

^112

IAMBIC VERSE

43

44
113.

THE VERSE OF GEEEK COMEDY


The anapaest occurs
in

113

comedy without

restriction in

the

first five

places of the spoken trimeter,^ but, as

we have

seen

(70), it is

virtually excluded from melic iambic verse.

In the

spoken trimeter, which approached as closely as possible to the man in the street, it is simply a reversion to the earlier, less settled form of poetic expression that was marked by extreme variability of the arsis of the simple foot. See 389, 603. 114. The following table exhibits the usage of Aristophanes
speech of the
:

Play. Trim,

wv.y

i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

v.

Total.

Th. Lys.
Ra7i.

Ec.
Vesp.

Ach.

Paz
Av.
PI.

Nuh.
Eq.

757 711 839 895 752 811 695 925 1004 758 688

286 276 349 384 324 352 302 407 446 360 354

83+18 19+4 44+64 86+21 18+3 59+ 9 17+3 56+ 44 78+20 28+8 68+15 28+7 24+ 56 66+19 20+6 59+ 11 31 + 10
62+ 62+ 34+ 41+
495
70 71 61 65

46+ 49 71+ 13 35+ 52 71+19 49+ 73 75+ 42 42+ 58 109+ 31

8-r
11

56+

25
18

12+
15+

2
5

12+2 39+18 22+6


+ 10 10 + 10
51+

94+ 89+
928

38

13

+ 10

60+ 69+

91+34 22+9 82+ 98+28 16+7 71+


15

13 14 16
9

30 + 17 44 + 17 17 + 12

22 + 12

27+

193+ 179+ 201+ 263+ 224+ 258+ 200+ 259+ 301+ 236+ 248+

93 97 148 121 100 94 102 148 145 124 106

+ 663

+ 280

180 + 81 697 261

+ 166

262 + 88 2562 + 1278


350

8835 3840

1158

1208

863

3840

The anapaest is a conspicuous feature of the comic non-melic trimeter, which might with fitness be called the 'anapaestic trimeter,' and anapaests (3840) are nearly as common One anapaest as tribrachs and dactyls taken together (4124).
115.

occurs on the average in 2"30


of this form of foot that in

trimeters.

So natural

is

the use

352
is

instances,

90

in the first foot,

96
the

in the second,
fifth,

20

in the

third,

121

in the fourth,

and 25 in
jxev

anapaestic scansion

secured by position, the original


in Uq.

form being a tribrach, as


'Apyiov<; (fiiXovi
rifiiv

7rp6<f)a(7cv

466, irpo^acnv

iroiel.

Cf.

Eq.

53, Nuh.

62, Vesp. 196,

Pax

19, Av. 5, Ec. 766, 1110.


116. Anapaests contained in one

word (117) number 2562.

This In 919 of these, about one-third, the word is a trisyllable. form of the anapaest preponderates in the first foot, 279 in 495, Cf. Ach. 26, and is very common in the fourth, 270 in 698, Of the remaining 1643 31, 113, 134, Ran. 85, 91, 137, 156. anapaests contained in one word, 1027 begin a word which overlaps the following foot

846),

465 end

(cf. Ach. 160, Av. 439, Lys. 146, PL word which overlaps the preceding foot (cf. Th.

^ It occurs also as a vagary twice in the sixth foot, Ran. 1203 and 1231.

Here the anapaest points the metrical


jest.

Cf.

1197

ff.

120

IAMBIC VERSE
are contained in

45

words whicli overlap 65, 162, 214, 237), 151 both the following and the preceding foot (cf. Av. 125, 201, Aristoplianes uses the anapaest contained in one 1249, 1301).

word sparingly
dactyl
(109).

in

iii.,

as

This

is

he does the tribrach (101) and the due to the same desire to maintain

pentheminieral caesura.

He

allows

it

in

iii.

in

case of

an

anapaest overlapping forward oftener than in other cases, because this commonly produces hephthemimeral caesura. C Ach. 518,

The trisyllabic tribrach in iii. tends to produce 536, 624, V65. medial caesura, which was rhythmically objectionable. Cf Ach. 499, 526, 535, 922.
117. These facts are summarized in the following table

46
ii.

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


The word Ata
in

121

oaths

may

begin an anapaest in the

second and fourth feet, rarely in the third and fifth. 1239, Ran. 41, 164, 285, 288, 738, 863, 1433.

Cf Nul.

Any other word that consists of two short syllables may iii. begin an anapaest in any of the first five feet, if a pause in sense Such words are ore, on, Xva (Ach. 516, 535, Uq. 14); precedes.
(pepe,

\al3i,

e';^e,

dye,

Wi

(Ach.

519); and dissyllabic forms of

rt? {Fq.

584, 831, Av. 809, 935, Ban. Less 728, Fax 104).
;

common
Trdvv,

are oa-a, 66ev, oirep, iroQev, orav

afxa,

cnap, en,

ircikiv,

TToXv, Tayy, Tore.

Some
Cf.

exceptions to the restriction of

a pause in sense occur.

and
first

(dissyllabic enclitics) Ves'p. 9'il,Ban.


foot,

Av. 54, 134, Th. 922, Ban. 158, l70 {nve^ etc). In the

arsis

may
Cf.

be

separated from thesis by punctuation.

Cf.
is

Vesp.

816, Pax 926, 930,

^u

22.
;

In other feet this licence


ttw?), Lys.

exceptional.

NuK 664

{<\>epe

731, Th. 219,

Ban. 483.
iv. The dissyllabic arsis of the anapaest may consist of the last two syllables of an unelided word of three or more syllables, but It appears examples of this anapaest are relatively rare.^ Cf. in the second foot chiefly in the second and fourth feet. Av. 1022, 1228, 1363, Lys. 124, 746, ^c. 1027, P/. 476; in The caesura the fourth Ach. 107, 1078, Th. 637, Ban. 754.

of the verse (130

ff.)

is

generally so disposed that the parts of

the anapaest are not separated, but in two cases in the fourth foot {Pax 233, Av. 1226) the arsis and thesis are separated

This anapaest rarely occurs in the third and fifth Nuh. 73, Pax 1195 (in both the vulgate has been corrected), PL 942. 121. Anapaests divided ^ ^ - or ^ ^ - may be classified

by a pause.
feet.

Cf.

as follows
i.

The monosyllabic forms of the

article

o,

t6v,

to,

to.

and

short monosyllabic prepositions

may begin

the anapaest.

Cf Ach.
a,

481, 498, Eq. 84, 120, 646, Nuh. 1188. The interrogatives rt?, rt, the forms ii.
relative,

09,
a-v,

6v,

6,

of the
in the

also

fie

and

ere

when

accented,

and

fjbd

formula ^a
precedes.
1

Ai',

may

begin the anapaest,


Vesp.

if

a pause in sense
90,

Cf Eq. 1046, Nuh. 22,


had
'

142, 158, Av.

This polysyllabic word always has dactylic close ( ww), and Hermann condemned the anapaest thus formed Bentley and Elmsley {Epitome, 154).

previously banned many of the examples, and subsequent editors have

emended them
'

freely.

121

IAMBIC VERSE

47

to the restriction of a

982, 1021, 1685, Ban. 47, 171, Ec 440, 550. Some exceptions Cf. Vesp. 815, Pax pause in sense occur. The formula ^la At" is a 930, Av. 20, 847, Lys. 131, Ran. 749.

notable exception

(cf. Ach. 88, 461, 966, Nuh. 694), and it may be separated by a strong pause from the final syllable of the

anapaest
arsis,

The two short syllables of the (cf. Pax 930, Ec. 551). - or ^ v^ - may not be separated whether the form be v by punctuation. The sole exception is found in the first foot of The second word in the anapaest, whether monoAch. 750. The only syllabic or dissyllabic, may not be an enclitic. ^ - and they are rare. The comexceptions have the form
v./
| |

v.^

bination

Tfc

TTOT (rt TToO') occurs

six times, as
;

in Eq.
finally

97, Nuh.
Se
rv, in

187

6 TL occurs twice, Ec.

998, PL 349

and

dialect, in ^j.
iii.

1225.
syllable of the arsis of the anapaest

The

first

may

be the

final

word of two or more syllables.^ Examples of this anapaest in iii. and v. are rare (cf. Eq. 26, 121, Nub. 1192, Av. 90, 93, Lys. 927), but its occurrence in ii. and iv.
syllable of

an

ujielided

cannot be said to be infrequent,


small relatively the total
first
iv.,

if

we

take into account

how

number

of anapaests divided after the

short syllable

is

in these positions,
discussion.

118

in

ii.

and 82 in
anapaest
has penthe-

including those

now under

When

this

occurs in the second foot, the trimeter generally

mimeral caesura as the primary pause within the verse {Ach. 6, Nub. 684, Pax 48, Av. 79, 843, Lys. 44, Th. 946, 1184, Ran. 847, 1393), sometimes hepthemimeral {Av. 114, 144, 1024, Th. 1198), twice {Nub. 1221, Vesp. 25) octahemimeral (137), Only two and the parts of the anapaest are not separated. exceptions occur {Ach. 178, Ran. 1462), on which see 138,
note.

When, on
its

the other hand, this anapaest occurs in the

is generally divided by hephtliemimeral caesura {Ach. 912, Eq. 208, Nub. 62, 214, Vcsp. 1369, Pax 187, 415, Av. 40, 1495, Ran. 1220, 1307, Ec. 146, 167, Less often the trimeter has penthemimeral caesura {Av. 428).

fourth foot,

dissyllabic arsis

^ The anapaests in this subdivision and the following subdivision have been vigorously discussed and many of them have been emended out of existence. See Bernhardi, De incisionibus, 246 If. Elmsley on Ach. 178 and 262 if. (Auctarium) Enger, Lysislrata, xviii. ff. Most of the verses that have been
' '

brought under discussion are here cited, Some of them are objectionable on otlier accounts than the suspected anapaest, the true reading of some others is now furnished by the manuscripts, but wholemerely because the sale correction, rhythm is supposed to be objectionable. is not to be countenanced.

48

THE VERSE OF GEEEK COMEDY

122

441, 1614, Lys. 768, Ban. 652, 658), once {Lys. 838) triemimeral (138), and once {^Nvh. 70) octahemimeral (137). iv. In the same category with the preceding belong anapaests
of which the
first

syllable is a monosyllabic enclitic or Se, av or

'^ap} since these monosyllables adhere closely to the preceding


Cf. in the second foot Nul. 876, Av. 1281, each with penthemimeral caesnra. In PZ. is hephthemimeral, in Bl. 664 medial (137), in mimeral (137). When this anapaest occurs in the caesura is generally penthemimeral {Av. Ban. 77, Ec. 998), once hephthemimeral, with

word.

847, Ban. 107, 1173 the pause


Th.

469
Th.

tetre-

the fourth foot


78,

173,

division of the

arsis

(Jjys.

760).

This

anapaest does not occur in the third

foot

and rarely in the

fifth.

Cf Av. 23,

Ec. 219.

122. It should be observed, finally, that the last remaining

remaining two syllables of elided polysyllabic words may freely begin an anapaest in the second or fourth foot, even with interior punctuation less freely in the third and fifth. Cf. in the second foot, Eq. 11, Niib. 849, Av. 442, 1026, 1222, 1638, Lys. 45, Ban. 1407, Bl. 1191 in the fourth, Ach.
syllable or last
; ;

^lZ,Nub. 66, 70,


in the third, Nuh.

Vesp.
3,

969, Th. 472, 926,i^fm. 118, ^c. 1011 630, 749, Bl. 1085 in the fifth, Bax 31,
; ;

Av. 956.
123. Eelatively few tribrachs, dactyls and anapaests are composed in comedy wholly or in part of proper names. There occur 196 such tribrachs, 100 dactyls and 340 anapaests. Of these 8 tribrachs, 4 dactyls and 54 anapaests are each a trisyllabic word.

124.

trimeter

frequently occur.

Combinations of two or three trisyllabic feet in a single Twelve hundred and sixty-nine of

2654

tribrachs,

723

of

1470

dactyls,

2025

of

3840
least

anapaests,

are found each in a trimeter that contains at


trisyllabic foot.

one other

The combinations
I.

of trisyllabic feet in Aristo-

phanes are

set forth in the following table,' in

which the columns


ii.

designate in order:

the feet that are combined;


;

the total

number
it

of times the combination occurs

iii.

the most frequent

arrangement in the combination, the


occurs being

feet of the trimeter in


i.,

which

named

in the order of

and

in

parenthesis the
See his Tri-

1 [jAv does not occur in this use in the trimeters of Aristophanes. ^ Rumpel's statement of facts has been

completed and corrected.


meter, 617
ff.

125
of times
it

IAMBIC VERSE
occurs
; ;

49
;

number

iv.

next in order of frequency


II.

vi.

an example an example.

v.

the arrangement

50

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY

126

forbidden combinations which have been the subject of great dis-

Dawes first pronounced against them.^ See the on the following passages, which have all been brought into the discussion at one time or another. Many emendations by Bentley and his successors have subsequently been confirmed by authority of the manuscripts. For ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ - see Ach. 47, 68, 190, 867, 928; 32, 134; Nub. 663, 845; Vesp. 1169, 1356; Fax 246; Av. 108, 444, 1011, 1283, 1506,
cussion, since
editors

HJc.

1693; Lys. 923, 1002, 1148; Thesm. 100, 285, 730, 1203; 162,315; Plut. 179, 1011. For - ^ ^ w v. -,see^c^. 18, 144,615, 733; Vesp. 961; Pax 900; Lys. 20; Iia7i. 473, 551 Plut 145, 178, 204.
;

SPOKEN AND MELIC TRIMETERS COMPARED


126.

There are 76 melic iambic trimetrical cola in the extant

plays of Aristophanes," according to the analyses of his odes


this book.
cola.

made in

The count excludes

protracted, acephalous
arsis, 1 in 4*8
;

Sixteen have one long

and catalectic 32 have two, 1 in

2-4; 11 have three, 1 in 6*9.

metres
cola in

is

113, 49*6 per cent.


feet,

The total number of irrational The total number of trimetrical

irrational is 59. There are on the average one in 2-8 cola, but all but four of these are tribrachs which are distributed as follows

which one or more metres are

27 resolved
Cola.

wv./v>

i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

v.

Total.

76

23

0+10
of
|

1+3

1+6
;

4+19

Four

trisyllabic words two have the ^ The dactyl occurs three times (Vesp. 886, Ba7i. 266, He. 914); the anapaest but once (Vesp. Five cola contain each two trisyllabic feet, one has four 886).

tribrachs
v^

consist

division

four

v^

v>

{Ach. 1191).
127.
1

It is obvious that the virtual exclusion of the anapaest


;

HerDawes, Miscellanea, 253 ff. Reisig, Conmann, Elementa, 126 ff.


;

Dobree, Addenda to iectanea, 11 ff. Vovsons Notae in Aristophanem, III S.; Rossbach, Spec. Metrik? 227 ff., who seeks to establish the proceleusmatic as a legitimate foot in the comic trimeter. 2 Ach. 279, 364 f. 391 f. (2), (2), 492 f. (2), 1158, 1170, 1191-3 (2), 1199 f. (2), 1203, 1211, 1213 f. (2), 1216, 1218, 1220, 1222, 1224 ; Nub. 709 f. (2), 1156 f. (2), 1161, 1303, 1311,
;

1345, 1347, 1349, 1391, 1393, 1395 Vesp. 729, 731, 743, 745, 868 f. (2), 885 f. Av. 228 f. (2), 417, 430; Lys. 288, (2); 298, 1299, 1306; Th. 369, 679, 718, 958, 975, 983, 985; Ran. 266, 268, 402, 408, 413, 418, 421, 424, 427, 430, 433, 436, 439 Ec. 480, 914, 920 Plut. 307, 314. See Zielinski's differentiation of "lyric," "tragic" and "comic" trimeters in his Gliederung, 292 f. His method is not followed in this
; ; ;

book.

130

IAMBIC VERSE

51

from the melic trimeter is the most important mark of difiference The next signiticant between melic and spoken trimeters (113).
difference
is

the sparing use of the dactyl (108).

The

tribrach,

on the other hand, holds its place, one tribrach in 3-3 cola (100), Irrational metres also abound, as in the spoken trimeter (97). 128. But it happens that the percentage of irrational metres in these 76 cola is somewhat lower than in mehc iambic cola in A second, broader means of comparison is general in comedy. secured by grouping all the melic iambic cola found in the eleven
plays, excluding those that are protracted or acephalous.
cola,

These

including of course the 76 trimetrical cola that served as the basis of the first comparison, number 611, and they contain 1100 complete metres, roughly equivalent to 367 trimetrical cola.

The anapaest occurs only six times, once in the equivalent of 6 But the tribrach is trimeters; the dactyl 23 times, once in 16. found 122 times, on the average once in 3 trimeters, and there The perare 618 irrational metres in the 1100, or 56 per cent.
centage in spoken trimeters
129.
It
is

is

6 2 (97).

apparent that the irrational metre abounds in The poet, however, comic iambic verse, both sung and spoken. In the processional in skilfully varies its use in melic verse.

Ban. 384

ff.

(89) the
is

retarding effect of the irrational metres

(77 per cent)


ingly similar

marked.
at the

The metrical tone of

this

ode

is strikit.

to that

of the anapaestic lyric that precedes

Even

in the

Song

Bridge {Rail.
90)

416

ff.,80) irrational

metres

greatly preponderate (70 per cent).

Dicaeopolis {Ach.

263

ff.,

is

lighter

The tone of the monody of and the use of irrational

metres

is

come within the range


(93),

When we pass this limit we diminished (53 per cent). Cf. Av. 8 5 1 ff. of parody and paratragedy.
ff.

instructive to

It is (290), Ach. 1190 ff. (599, and see 598). compare the iambic lyrics of Aeschylus, composed almost wholly of rational and protracted metres, with those of Aristophanes, who uses protraction sparingly but, since he is a

405

comic poet, irrational metres in abundance.

CAESURA
130.

IN

THE TRIMETER
is

The spoken trimeter

a colon and can be rendered

continuously without difficulty (22), but it is in constant use in the drama, and a single mode of rendering it would have made
the dialogue of comedy, in particular, intolerably monotonous.

52

THE VERSE OF GEEEK COMEDY


and
is

131

pause, therefore, was developed within the colon, such as


in the English heroic line

natural to

all

is found spoken verse,

which produced variety by introducing a double instead of a This pause followed a complete word, which cadence. might however be elided, and its place in the verse was determined with due attention to the thought. This fact, which is sometimes overlooked, is emphasized by the anonymous writer in Studemund's ^?iec(^ote Varia (215. 24 f.), in his discussion of the pauses of the dactylic hexameter TOfir] 8e rcov ari'x^av iarlv 6
single
' '
:

TOTro^i 6 SecKvv<i iv

jxeaw rov eirovi Sidvoiav,

crri'yfjLTjv

i'7riT7]Seico<i

Xa/x^dvovaav.

Compare

his repeated use of the phrase to vorj/xa

in the passage quoted in 360.

Aristides (53 M., 34. 21

ff.

J.)

records two alternative pauses of the trimeter, the penthemimeral,


third simple foot, ^ - ^ hephthemimeral, which generally follows the arsis of the fourth foot, ^ - ^ - v^-v^|- ^ - ^ but sometimes divides it, v^-v^- ^ - ^\^ - ^-w-.

which

follows

the

arsis

of

the

v^j-w- ^ - ^ -

and the

131. These are the chief but not the only caesuras of the
trimeter, notwithstanding

the

reported

opinion of Hephaestion

The ancient actor, like the modern, studied and tested his poet's lines and determined the appropriate place -for the pause with due regard for thought and rhythm. He doubt(229. 15
ff.).

less often

rendered the trimeter without pause, when the logical connexion of its parts was close or involved, especially if the

sentiment justified rapid delivery.

On the other hand, two pauses sometimes occur, one generally stronger than the other, producing a triple cadence. It was possible to secure great variety of
effect in rendering the trimeter.^

132.

dramatic and recitative verse.


place within

Caesura and diaeresis (56) are peculiar to spoken, meloIt is obvious that a pause had no
a melic subordinate period, which in

comedy was

generally sung by twelve voices, often in accompaniment to a


dance.

Virtual equality in length of rhythmical elements was

necessarily observed in the melic period, but a pause that facilitated

rendering might be introduced into a verse that was spoken or


recited

by a single

voice,

without seriously disturbing

its

rhythm,

precisely as in English blank verse.

final pause,

furthermore,
caesura

of the

same nature

as

that which accompanied

and

diaeresis, followed the


^

nou-melic verse.

pause which had the


ff.

For tragedy, see Goodell's Bisected Trimeters, 148

133

IAMBIC VERSE

63

value of at least a primary time certainly followed tetrameters, which are all catalectic, but a pause must have occurred also
after the iambic trimeter

of

this

is

the

constant

and dactylic hexameter.' One evidence but wholly irregular occurrence of


'

the variable syllable and of

apparent hiatus at

the

close

of

the trimeter and hexameter, implying separation of the verses second proof is the fact itself that these non-melic generally.

Most somewhere within the verse


verses allow caesura.

trimeters, for example,


to facilitate rendering.

admit a pause The thought

expressed in

many

of these verses, that

end

in a syllable that is

not affected by hiatus and is long by nature, is brought to such a conclusion at the end of the verse as naturally to require a following pause, indicated in the modern printed text by punctuation.
It is not credible that the pause natural to such a close should have been ignored, while the pause within the verse was observed. The identity of the spoken trimeter, indeed, as a rhythmical unit

would have been lost in a succession of trimeters thus rendered. But a single trimeter may on occasion be followed by a pause that is very brief, or it may even directly overlap the following Compare verses that trimeter, just as some verses lack caesura. end with ore {Acli. 170, 189, 375, 502), o-rrm {Ach. 26, Hq. 211, Nuh. 887, 1107, 1181), eVet (Mth. 781, 1470, Vesp. 79, 1164, 1393), iva (Eq. 8, Nuh. 196, Vesp. 845), or some similar word. 133. This fact of a final pause bears upon the question of the
extent to w^hich logical relations should determine the position of
the caesura within a given trimeter or even effect its rejection. Sense and pause, whether inner or final, generally coincide, but a

pause

may occur that breaks the continuity of the thought. Every trochaic tetrameter, Tetrameters furnish evidence of this. for example, is followed by a pause due to catalexis, but such a tetrameter is sometimes closely connected in meaning with the
tetrameter that follows.
Cf.

Ach. 239, 311, 313, 329, 706,

The pause also that follows the melodramatic iambic tetrameter, which is intimately related to the trimeter in form (173) and mode of rendering, often separates words that are logically Cf. Bq. 354,432, 435, 844, 850, 852, 860, closely connected. The same separation is seen in tri861, 862, 868, 869, etc. The signifimeters. Cf Ach. 7, 13, 19, 21, 23, 28, 37, etc. The practical cance of these examples is not to be ignored. conclusion which they justify is that, while due regard is to be
714.

54

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY

134

paid to the thought in determining caesuras in the trimeter, any separation of words logically connected that the poet permits at
the end of the verse
caesura.
is

to

be allowed within

it,

if

required by

134. Caesura consequently

may

divide not only sentences,

phrases

speech that are connected by coordinate conjunctions, as well as principal and subordinate sentences connected by subordinate conjunctions and relatives, but also verb and object, verb and subject, verb and dependent infinitive,

and parts

of

adverbial phrase, noun and adjective or dependent genitive, noun and appositive, noun or pronoun and Caesura is thus participle, subject and predicate, and the like. seen to be an independent and significant phenomenon of non-

verb and adverb or

melic verse.

Nevertheless,

its

place in the verse

is

not to be

determined by a merely mechanical observance of word-endings. A word ends with the arsis of the third simple foot in 71 of the first 100 verses of the Acharnians (excluding 43, 61, 100), with
the arsis of the fourth simple foot in 46 of these 100 verses, in Only eight verses, thereboth places in 25 of the 71 and 46.
fore,

close of a

occur in which neither the third nor the fourth arsis is the word (31, 37, 51, 71, 74, 78, 83, 96), but it does not

92 of these trimeters are best rendered with either a penthemimeral or a hephthemimeral pause.
follow that
135. It
is

to be noted, as a general rule,


he/ore

first,

that a pause

must not be made

an enclitic, or a recessive word, such as fxev, Be, yap, av, closely connected with what precedes and not admissible at the beginning of a trimeter secondly, that it must not be placed after a progressive word closely connected with
;

what

follows, such as

the article, a preposition


^irj

when
and
is

it

precedes

its case,

kul {and), ov (proclitic),

(progressive),

in general

any word that on account of


the close of the verse
;

its

progressive force

avoided at

thirdly, that it

must not be placed between

the two short syllables of the resolved thesis of the tribrach or Of the first 100 verses of the 'dactyl' in the trimeter.
12, 32, 55, 102 cannot be given the penthemimeral pause, nor 39, 80, 97 the hephthemimeral. 136. The penthemimeral is the prevailing pause in the trimeter only second to it in importance is the hephthemimeral

Acharnians, therefore,

but there are nine verses in the first 100 trimeters in the Acharnians that admit neither of these pauses, verse 1 2 in which

138
is

IAMBIC VERSE

55

the third arsis


singular;

followed by an enclitic, and the fourth ends

within a word, and the eight cited above (134).

These are not

59 such verses occur

in the first

Acharnians, about one-half of the total


the play.

400 trimeters in the number of trimeters in


is

The second metre


is

of

a verse of this class

either

wholly without division. 137. Trimeters that do not admit either the penthemimeral or the hephthemimeral pause may have medial caesura, the pause occurring at the middle of the verse, ^ - ^ - w-{v^- ^ - ^ -.
divided at the middle or

Or the caesura may Ach. 139, 170, 172, 409, 434, 499. be tetremimeral, ^ - ^ -\^ - ^ - ^ - ^ - the pause following
,

the

first

metre, so that the verse

is

divided into monometer and

diaieter, as in 47, 51, 7 1.

Cf

also

163, 382.
Cf.

Or the caesura
that the

may be octahemimeral,
dirision is into dimeter

v^-w- ^-^-\^-^-,so
and monometer.

The octahemimeral pause may Cf. 54, 105, penthemimeral caesura, if observed, is secondary. The tetremimeral pause like188, 254, 430, 451, 452, 473.
wist

465, 905, 1021. occur also in a verse in which

may
L38.

occur in a verse in which the hephthemimeral pause,


is

if

observed,

secondary.

Cf 48, 176, 437.


and
hephthemimeral
pauses
so

The penthemimeral

divice the trimeter

that the second

rhythmical phrase always

Much less frequent are the begias strongly with a thesis. medal, tetremimeral, and octahemimeral pauses, after which the folloA^ing phrase, dimeter, hemistich, monometer, begins with an
arsis

Two

other pauses sometimes occur that are in the same

class

with penthemimeral and hephthemimeral pauses, since the caesira follows an arsis, the triemimeral following the second
arsis..

^ - ^\-

^-^-

^-v^-,asin

Ach.

24,

137,

145,

179, 257, 405, 461, 484, 485,^ and the freqvent, following the fifth arsis, ^-v..^in A37i. 753, 771, 782, 815, 910,

cretic,

^-wWe

which is less v^|-v^-,as

1065.

even find verses

with a pause well defined by the sense after the first thesis, ^ _ ^ _ ^ - ^ _ V. - .. -, as in 4, 19, 110, 445, 450, 467,
or

bss

often

after

the

fifth,

^ - ^ first

^ - ^ -

^ -'
it

-^

as
is

in 134, 262,
dissyllabic

406.
!),

Even the

arsis,

or part of

if

it

(750

may

be separated from the remainder of the


Elmsley reads ^o-r', but see the cases of similar division in the fourth foot cited in 121, iii.

In Ach. 178 the triemimeral pause

diviies the dissyllabic second arsis, tl 5' 1(774' ; iyCo fi^v 8vp6 croi <nrov8a.i (pepuv.

56
verse, as in

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


4i, 106, 108.

139

So ov in the thesis at the end of

the trimeter, as in 46, 421.


arsis

The pauses

after or within the first

and before a final thesis are secondary, and if appreciably observed must have been very brief. 139. Two pauses in one trimeter give it a triple cadence, but verses of this kind are comparatively rare in Aristophanes. Cf. Ach. 2, 402, 408, 410, 417, 470, 471, 473. Each of these has either penthemimeral or hephthemimeral caesura combined with one of the other pauses mentioned above. Other combinations are possible, but verses are very rare that have both penthemimeral and hephthemimeral caesura. Perhaps Ach. 53 should be thus rendered with a pause before and after the vocative, [n verses that might admit both, if mechanically divided, one pause is generally strongly demanded by the sense to the exclusion of the other, as the penthemimeral pause excludes the hephthemimeral in 13, 57, 86, 89, 93, the hephthemimeral the penthemimeral in 27, 34, 50, 75. The hephthemimeral caesura excludes the penthemimeral likewise in 16, 36, 82, if the logical connexion of words is regarded. Hephthemimeral caesun is excluded from 2, because the sense demands cretic ending, and probably also from 5, because all that here follows the peiithe-mimeral caesura is a single paratragedic combination of the
nature of a quotation. If the rendering of 11, 24, 9.^ is determined by logical relations, 11 and 24 have triemineral caesura and cretic ending, 98 triemimeral caesura and ianbic ending, but the last pause in each is secondary and may lave been ignored.
140. It
is

now

impossible to determine

how

freely the ictor

may have

used a triple cadence.

That most spoken trirmters

had each at least one caesura is not to be doubted. The penthemimeral and hephthemimeral pauses were so important that, as we have seen (133), they might break the continuiy of
the thought.
It is

possible that the logical relation of \^ords

was, in general, a consideration so subordinate to the maintenince


of the flow of the

rhythm that a secondary pause required hy the

thought

may
a

often have been ignored.


active,

Two

opposite tendercies

would then be
disregard

one to establish a main pause, the other to subordinate pause, but both operating to effect

harmonious rendering.
of the secondary pause.

The

result

would be

to abridge the ise


tre

Trimeters with three interior pauses

143
very
is

IAMBIC VERSE
rare.

57

merely enumeratory, the rhythraical effect Perhaps Ach. 30, 31 should be thus rendered. When a Cf. 551, 554, 1090, 1092, and Plut. 190, 191, 192. verse is divided between two speakers into four parts the effect is so odd as to be in itself eminently comical, which is the
not displeasing.
Cf. Eq. 999, 1161, Niih. 219, Vesp. 48, Pax The only instance of this in 198, 268, Ran. 40, 56, 306, 312. tragedy is Soph. Phil. 753. Ehythm can hardly be affirmed of a verse such as Ach. 46, the only trimeter of its kind in Aristophanes. Cf. for 141. Pauses are observed without regard to elision. the penthemimeral pause, Ach. 155, 247, 403, 408, 460, 609 The for the hephthemimeral, 50, 165, 752, 761, 891, 1091.

When

poet's intention.

last

involves aspiration, as in Nub. 1270,


is

Pax 275.

The

dis-

regard of elision

a curious phenomenon, from the point of view

both of rhythm and of thought.^ 142. The trimeter of comic dialogue with

its

varied cadences,

which are comparable in spoken verse with melody in verse that It made serious was sung, cannot have been a monotonous line. but stimulating demand on the skill of the ancient actor.
143. It is certain that no two ancient actors would have rendered any considerable number of trimeters in just the same manner, much Nevertheless it is worth less are any two moderns likely to agree. while to attempt to apply the principles deduced in the foregoing discussion to a concrete case, and the first 100 verses of the

Acharnians
It will

indicate half-feet.

The figures in italic type the purpose. The odd numbers signify arses the even, theses. be remembered that the thesis of the tribrach and dactyl and
will

serve

the arsis of the anapaest in the trimeter are each dissyllabic. Thus 5 signifies that a verse has penthemimeral pause 4 <5> ^^^^ 1 signifies an alternative. it has tetremimeral and octahemimeral.
'

.'>:!,

3, 5, 6, 7,

8,

9?

10, 13, 14,

15,

17, 18,

29, 33,
72,

38?

39,

41, 42, 45, 49, 52, 57, 58, 59, 62, 63, 65, 66,

70?
34,

73, 77, 36,

80

84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 93, 97,

98? 101, 103.


26, 27, 28,
32,

7: 16,
53, 55,

21, 22,

23,

25,

35,

44,

50,

56? 60? 67, 68, 69, 75, 79? 82, 90, 92, 94, 95, 99, 102. Nme:9 1 12? 37? 39? 60, 63? 70, 76, 79, 80, 83, 91, 103? ^: 37, 78, 96. 4: 20, 31? 47, 48, 51, 56, 71, 76? 8 : 9,12,40,54,74,81. 5: 11, 24, 98? ^:_4?19. 5 9 : 2, 30. 5:7 : 53 ? 3 5 : 4, 38. 64. o' ,9 : 1 1 ? 24 ? 3:10: 98. 4.: 8: 311 2:5:9: Z01 2:^:8: 31.
:
:

1 See Goodell's Bisected Trimeters, 150 226 (note on v. 1502).

f.,

and Jebb's

Sophocles,

The Electro, 201,

58

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


THE TRIMETER IN MENANDER
144. Pure
^

144

Only 18 of trimeters are comparatively rare. 728 trimeters now taken into account are pure, 1 in 40, but the number is relatively larger than in Aristophanes, 1 in
the

69

(95).

145. Irrational and trisyllabic feet are common, and verses There occur in which no foot has iambic form but the last. The are five such non-iambic trimeters in Menander, 1 in 146.
ratio in Aristophanes is 1 in 47*2 (96).

of Menander,

Of the 728 trimeters 199 (131 + 68) have one long arsis, 1 in 3-66; 327 (211 + 116) have two, 1 in 2-23; 149 (89 + 60) have The number of irrational metres is 1300, three, 1 in 4-89. The 59 per cent. The percentage in Aristophanes is 62 (97). number of trimeters in which one or more metres are irrational
146.
Irrational metres preponderate.

is

675.
147.

The 1300

irrational feet are distributed as follows

(of.

97):
i.
'

%
49-2
9-2

iii.

%
54-9
8-8

V.

%
51-6
4-8

Spondaic
Dactylic
'

'

feet

358
67

'

feet

400 64
464

376 35
411

+
+

Total irrational feet

425

58-4

63-7

56-45

148. Eesolved feet, tribrach and 'dactyl,' occur on the The average oftener than in every other trimeter, 1 in 1*88. ratio in Aristophanes is 1 in 2*14 (98). 149.

The distribution

of the various
is as

forms of the foot that


(cf.

are found in the

728

trimeters

follows

99)

153
150.

IAMBIC VERSE

59

By

resolution of the theses of iambs, the tribrach


first

may

occur in any of the


the usage of
Trim.
v^-v^v,.

five feet.
:

The following

table exhibits

Menander
i.

(cf 100)
ii.

iii.

iv.

v.

Total.

728

222

18 + 17

27

+ 50
77

8 + 20

12

+ 59
71

35

28

0+11 = 65 + 157 = 222 11

151. The ti'ibraclis in Menander, 1 in 3'28 trimeters, slightly outnumber proportionally those in Aristophanes, 1 in 3-33 (100). In The difference in distribution is marked in i., iv. and v. Menander the tribrachs in i. and v. outnumber those in

Aristophanes (the divisor^


iv.

is

12) in the ratio of 2

to 1,

but in

the

9.

number in Menander is relatively smaller, about 7 to The tendency in Menander to increase in the number
i.

of trisyllabic feet in
for the

relatively to those in Aristophanes holds

dactyl and anapaest as well as for the tribrach.

The

proportion of tribrachs contained in a single


greater in Aristophanes, 32-3

word

is

slightly

per cent (101), than in Menander,

29-3 per cent.


152.
in detail (cf

The following tables exhibit Menander's use of tribrachs 102 and 103)
:

i.

Trisyllables

Overlap forward Overlap back Overlap both ways


.

Total in one word

In three words w In two, divided In two, divided ^

v^
|

v.^

v.^
|

v^
v.1

v v
.

Total divided tribrachs

17

50
of

20

59

11

157
feet

153.

By
'

resolution

of

the

theses

irrational

in

trimeter a

dactyl

'

may
i.

occur in any of the odd

feet.
:

The

following table exhibits the usage of


Trim,
-v.^^
iii.

Menander
v.

(cf 107)
Total.

728

166

23

+ 44
67

+ 57
64

+ 33 = 32+134
35

166
Menander.

Determined by the

ratio of tribrachs in Aristophanes to those in

65

62

THE VEESE OF GREEK COMEDY


Combinations of Tkisyllaeic Feet
16(142)
6
(59)
2, 4 (8)
3,

166

4 (3)

1,

5 (2)

2,

5 (2)

1,3(3)
1,

1, 2,

5 (3) 4 (5)
2, 1,
2,

18 (405)

4 (5)

5 (3) 4 (5)
5 (3)

1,

(2)

34 (549) 23 (245) 26 (225)


1

1,2(7)
1,

4, 1 (6)

2,

4 (4)

3 (6)

2,
1,

(3)

4, 1 (3) 3,

1,3(4)
1, 2, 1, 2,

4(4)

3, 1 (3)

2(3)^

(54) (26)

4 (1) 4 (2)

4
4
1

1,3,4(1)
1, 2,

2, 3,
1, 5,

4 (1)

(46)
(7)

1, 3, 4 (2) 1, 3,
1, 2,

3 (1)

2 (1)

5(1)
3 (1)
1, 2,

(32)

5 (1)

1,

4,

5 (1)

1,5,3

(1)^

(16)
(10)
(40)
(1) (5)

5,1,2(1)
1, 3,

5, 2, 4 (1)
1, 5,
1,

4 (1)

2 (1)

4(1)

3, 5,

2(1)

1, 2,
1, 3,

3(1)
5 (1)

4,

5(1)

3(1) 5,2, 1(1)

1, 2, 3, 4 (1)

165.

v^

v^

v^

The famous forbidden combinations, ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ - and -, are found in the Cairo MS. of Menander, but the

trimeters in which they occur arouse suspicion because objection-

emended (cf 125). The penthemimeral and hephthemimeral pauses occur much less often in the trimeters of Menander than in those of Aristophanes (130 ff.), because Menander inclines strongly He makes great use of the medial to other forms of caesura. pause, in particular, which takes its place in the plays of the
able on other accounts, and have been

166.

younger poet as a regular form of division on an equality with Menander employs the tetremimeral and the hephthemimeral. octahemimeral pauses also more frequently, and is very free in His verse is characterized by great his use of the triple cadence.
variety of movement.

THE TETEAMETER
is used by Aristophanes both as a melic period (76) and also continuously by line in Its component recitative and melodramatic composition (77).

167.

The

catalectic iambic tetrameter

cola,

when
168.

it is

used by

line, are

generally separated by diaeresis

(179).

The
5,

recitative

(59) iambic tetrameter


2

is

used by line
;

Also

(3).

Also

2, 3,

5 (1)

2, 4,

5 (1)

3, 4, 1 (1).

173
in

IAMBIC VERSE

63
debates,' in other

the parode,^ in exhortations that precede hortatory parts of the play,^ and once in a verdict that closes a The verses were recited by the leaders of the halfdebate.'*

by an actor,^ but probably never by the The recitative tetrameter is characterized, in metrical structure, by sparing use of tribrach and dactyl and by complete disuse of the anapaest, and it is well adapted to the
choruses, occasionally

whole chorus.

vigorous

movement

of a chorus that

marches into the orchestra


Ves2}.

at steady pace but not with

undue

haste, as in

230-47.

Compare the counter-use


(245).

of

the recitative

trochaic tetrameter

169. Irrational metres abound in recitative tetrameters. Only two tetrameters in 155 have no long arsis and both are 70 have two, purely iambic; 32 have one long arsis, 1 in 4-84 Seventy per cent of the 51 have three, 1 in 3-04. 1 in 2-21
;
;

complete metres are irrational.


170.

See the table in 186.


times, once in
iv.

The tribrach occurs 7


i.

22 tetrameters:
vi. 1

Tetram. w^v^

ii.

iii.

v.

Total.
1

155

3
L^js.

0+1

0+1

+6

See

Vesp.

237, 246,

281, 373, 374, 539,

PL 274.

No

tribrach consists of a trisyllabic word, or of three words,


division

and the

171.

w v^jw does not occur. Four dactyls are found,


Tetram.

1 in
iii.

39

-^^^
4

i.

v.

Total.

155

0+1

+3

1+3

See Lys. 285, 357, Th. 381, PL 278. 172. The anapaest occurs but once, in an emended reading No verse has more than one that is fairly certain (He. 288).^
trisyllabic foot.

173.

The melodramatic

(59) tetrameter differs notably from

the recitative

It is found ouly in both in use and in form. debates," in which feeling runs high and the language is violent,

1 Vesp. 230-47. Lys. 254-5, 266-70281-5, 306-18, 350-81, Ec. 285-8, Fl. 253-89. 2 Sq. 333-4-407-8, 841-2, Nub. 1034-5, 1351-2-1397-8, Th. 531-2, Pan. 905-6. ^ Pax .508-11, Lys. 467-70-471-5, 539-40, Th. 381-2, 571-3.

Ilq.

457-60.
Cf.

= Notably in PL 253-89. Pax 508-11 and Ban. 905 f.

also

'JovXiov

in

Eq. 407
synizesis.

is

probably a

trisyllable,

bv

^ Eq. 335-66-409-40, 843-910, Nub. 1036-84, 1353-85- 1399-1445, 2%. 53370, Pan. 907-70.

"

64

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY

174

often approaching Billingsgate.

resolved foot occurs, on the

average, oftener than in every other line, and the anapaest is The metrical form of this tetrameter admitted very freely.
differs in

no material respect from the trimeter of dialogue.

See

the table in 186.


174. In

362 melodramatic
45
;

tetrameters

eight
arsis,

are

purely

iambic,

in

four
'

others
'

have no

long

but some

Two non-iambic lines occur {Eq. 893, Th. 567). Seventy-five tetrameters have one metres abound. 104 have three, long arsis, 1 in 4-83 l7l have two, 1 in 2-12 Sixty-seven per cent of the complete metres are 1 in 3-48.
resolved feet.
Irrational
;

irrational.

175.
Tetram.
.362

The tribrach occurs 107


i.

times, once in 3-4 tetrameters:


iv.

^^yv^

ii.

iii.

v.

vi.

Total.

107

12 + 23

+5

13

2 + 5

+ 35

25

+ 82

preceding
di%dsion

Eight of the 25 tribrachs that consist of one word overlap the Three of the Seven consist of trisyllabic words. foot.

82 that consist of two or three words or parts of words have the ^ ^| w, all in the sixth foot {Eq. 893, Nv.h. 1056, 1440). In the 18 tetrameters that have a tribrach in the fourth foot,
diaeresis (179) is neglected in 13.^

176. Tlie dactyl occurs


Tetram.

48

times, 1 in 7*5 tetrameters


iii-

--^^

i.

v.

Total.

362

48

10

3 + 18

11

+ 39

None

of the words constituting the 9 dactyls contained each in a single word are trisyllabic. In two instances {Nuh. 1052, 1372) the dactyl contained in one word overlaps both the preceding

occurs in two of and the following foot. The division - ^ the 39 dactyls formed of two or three words or parts of words, once in the first foot {Eq. 422) and once in the fifth {Ran. 952).
>.y
|

177. There are


in the first six feet
Tetram.
:

65 anapaests

(cf.

113), 1 in 5-6 tetrameters,

ww65
12

1.

ii.

iii.

iv.^

v.

vi.

Total.

362

+9

4+ 4

+8

+2

40 + 25

1 Eq. 435, 853, 893, Nub. 1083, 1361, Th. 565, 566, Ran. 921, to which must be added (180) Eq. 873, 880, Nub. 1039, Rossbach's statement 1067 Th. bA2. {Spec. Metrik,^ 237 f.), that the tribrach avoided in the fourth foot, needs is

- One also, in a proper name, in the seventh foot, Th. 547. * Rossbach's statement (S>cc. Metrik,'^ 237), that the anapaest is confined to the first three feet of the first colon and the first two of the second, needs

correction.

correction.

180

IAMBIC VEESE

65

Fourteen of the forty anapaests contained in one word consist of trisyllabic words; 11 overlap the preceding foot, one {Eq. 902)
overlaps both the preceding and the following foot.

Eight of

the 25 that consist of two or three words or parts of words have


the division ^\s. - (Th. 548, Ran. 919) or ^\^\- (Eq. 359, In the 8 tetrameters mib. 1066, Th. 555, 558, Ban. 918, 937). that have an anapaest in the fourth foot, diaeresis is neglected in two (Nub. 1359, Han. 937), but maintained in six (Nub. 1050,

1427, Th. 550, 560, Ban. 912, 932). 178. One hundred and fourteen tetrameters contain each one none has four. trisyllabic foot; 43 have two; 7 have three 179. The tetrameter is a compound verse consisting of two cola and was rendered with at least one pause within the verse. The chief pause is generally coincident with the close of the first colon (56). There may be a change of speaker at this point, as in ^^. 340, 870, Nub. 1052, 1379, 1444, Th. 552, 559, 567, Ban. 922, 926, 927, 930, 944, 952, although this change occurs at the beginning of the verse in most tetrameters that Aristophanes
;

uses in dialogue.

The pause

at diaeresis is oftener coincident

with a pause natural to the thought, without change of speaker,

by punctuation. Cf. Eq. 350, But the 354, 359, 366, 412, 415, 423, 433, 434, 440, etc. pause at diaeresis, just as the penthemimeral and hephthemimeral
a fact indicated in the printed text

pauses in the trimeter,


expressed in the
logically

may

break the continuity of the thought

tetrameter, and the


is

same separation of words


that
is

connected
See 134.

here

allowed

admitted in
is

the

trimeter.

180.

While the pause that


than
all

results from diaeresis

more
the

frequent

other pauses combined, variety of effect in


to be

rendering was
trimeter.

felt

desirable in the tetrameter, as

in

In 84 of the 362 melodramatic iambic tetrameters in Aristophanes, or in one in 4*3, tlie first colon ends within a word, and diaeresis is impossible. To these must be added a considerable number of verses in which the first dimeter ends with a progressive word, as in
Eq. 363, 365, 873, 880, Nub. 1039, 1046, 1067, 1372, 1406,

This was secured by means of caesura.

1410, etc., or the second begins with a recessive word, as in Eq. In tetra883, 904, Ntib. 1385, 1408, 1412, etc. See 135. meters which do not admit diaeresis, the main pause may fall after the arsis of the fifth simple foot, ^ - ^ ^ - ^ F

66

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY

181

^|_ ^ _ ^ - -, as in Eq. 337, 865, Nuh. 1060, 1068, 1409, Ran. 916, 917, and (recessives) Nuh. 1385, 1408, or less often after the arsis of the fourth, ^ - ^ - ^ - ^\- vy-w- v^ as in Nub. 1080, Ban. 933, and (progressives) Nub. 1039,
,

1046, 1067, 1406.

Other caesuras occur.

Two

are

common,

one after the arsis of the sixth simple foot of the tetrameter,

^ - v^l- v^ - -, as in ^g. 351, 353, 860, 895, and the penthemimeral, v^-^- v^|-v^^ _ ^ _ ^ - -, as in A pause may fall 336, 854, 883. also after the arsis of the second simple foot, v^-v^|- v^-^^ _ ^ _ ^ as in ^^. 439, Nuh. 1047, but it is extremely
861,
871,

^ _ ^ _

^ _ ^ _

rare after the arsis of the

first

{Eq. 888) or seventh {Eq. 876).


after theses,

Pauses occur
second,
after
.^

also,

but

less

frequently,

after the

s^

-\.^

- ^ -

^ - ^ -

,asin-'2'. 344,
v^
,

853

the third,

^-v- w-|^-

v^-v^-

asin

Eq.

427, 436, 904; after the fifth, vy - -, as in Eq. 346, 850, 885, 890, 893
first

^-^;

v.-|v.less often after the

or the sixth.
181. Different pauses are variously combined, with agreeable

effect,

but their number

is

limited with rare exceptions to two,

producing three cadences.


at
diaeresis.

One

of the
are

two pauses
illustrated

is

generally

These

combinations

in

the next

paragraph.
182. The following analysis of 100 melodramatic tetrameters {Eq. 335-66, Nnb. 1036-69, Ban. 907-40) will serve to illustrate the foregoing statements. For the significance of the italic figures,
see 143.

single pause, at diaeresis, occurs in the

52 tetrameters not

cited below.

9 -.Eq. 337, 339, 343, 349; Nub. 1044, 1051, 1060, 1068; Ban. 7 -.Eq. 363, 365 Nub. 1039, 1046, 1049, 1057, 1067 916, 917. 11 :Eq. 353; Nub. 1043, 1058; Ban. 907, 923. Ban. 933, 936. 5 :Eq. 335, 336 Ban. 919, 921. G:Eq. 352; Nub. 1056. 10 :Eq. Jf.:Niib. 1041, 1048. 346 Nub. 1042, 1055, 1059. 3 9 ;Nub. 1064. 7 12 -.Ban. 937. 8: 11 -.Eq. 351 ; Ban. 915. 5 8 -.Bern. 914, 924. 3 8 :Nub. 1047 ; Ban. 918. 8 -.Eq. 344. 6 8 :Nub. 1062. 2: 8 -.Nub. 1063. 4; ; ;
;
. :

5:7: 10 :Eq.
183.

338.

The

recitative

iambic

tetrameter

is

somewhat more

restricted in its use of caesura than the melodramatic tetrameter,

186

IAMBIC VERSE
Diaeresis
is

67

especially in the second half of the verse.

neglected
in

20 times, once in 7"8 which two pauses occur


that has three pauses.

tetrameters.
is

relatively

The number of verses smaller. The varieties

of

combinations of two pauses also are fewer, and no verse occurs


184. The melic iambic tetrameter differs from tlie melodramatic in restricting the use of the dactyl and anapaest. There
are

86

melic

iambic tetrameters in Aristophanes.^

None

of

these are non-iambic.

One
;

is

purely iambic {Pax 1314) and

two others have no long


one long
1
arsis, 1 in

arsis {TJi.

312, 352).
1 in 2
;

Fourteen have

6'14

43 have two,
cent
of

26 have

three,

in

3-3.

Sixty-nine

per

the

complete metres are

irrational.

185. There are 19 tribrachs, 1 in 4*5


Tetram. ^^y^
i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

v.

vi.

Total.

86

19

+3

+ 2

16

Of the

three

tribrachs

contained each in one word

{TJi.

352,

^c. 493, P^. 292), one {Th.

352)

division ^
Lys.

w|w does not


PZ.

occur.

1318,
fifth.

in the

290, 296), 1 in Five anapaests are found in the manuscripts {Ach.

The Four dactyls occur {Vcsp. 538, 21-5, one in the first foot, three
consists of a trisyllable.

Fifteen tetraSee 70. 849, 1040, Paa; 948, TA. 312 f. bis). meters have each one trisyllabic foot, three have two, two have
three.

186.
figures in

The following
the
first

table
lines
:

will

further

comparison.

The

six

indicate verses, those in the last

line percentages of

metres

68

THE VEKSE OF GREEK COMEDY

187

187. It appears that the irrational metre preponderates in forms of iambic verse in comedy, that the dactyl and anapaest are much less frequent in melic than in spoken and melodramatic verse, and that the recitative tetrameter is the severest form
all

of this verse in its sparing use of trisyllabic feet.

of the

The iambic tetrameter had great vogue with the poets Old Comedy. See Cratinus 26, 43, 195, 196, 231, 300; Crates 14; Pherecrates 93, 105; Hermippus 4, 5, 6; Eupolis 13, 117, 118, 158, 190, 231, 232, 233, 351, 352, 354, 355; Phrynichus 69 Aristophanes 79, 107, 163, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 252, 363, 364, 569, 657, 658, 659; Plato 23, 69, 98, 113, 130; Archippus 24, 25; Strattis 30; Theopompus 55, 56 Philyllius 3 Polyzelus 3. See also Antiphanes 25, 300
188.
;
; ;

Anaxandrides 34; Anaxilas 39;


189.
.

frg. incert.

294, 766, 767.

The protracted iambic tetrameter, v./-^- ^-v^^ but also in ^ (72), is used not only in lyrical recitative parts of comedy,^ in which the verses were taken by Eecitative the leaders of the half -choruses or by an actor.

_ ^ _

protracted tetrameters are found only in the parode.

In the

25 tetrameters

in

Vesp.

248-72

irrational

outnumber rational

metres in the ratio of 34 to 16, and no trisyllabic foot occurs. On the metre v v./- ^ - in verse 255 see 75.^ The verse gains in lightness of movement by resolution of the thesis, as in Ban.

440 f. The anapaest never occurs. Diaeresis of the cola is almost invariable,* and in tetrameters thus divided the time of the suppressed arsis may have been represented by an actual
pause, \eififia (31), in recitation.

THE HYPEKMETER
190. Acatalectic iambic dimeters into hypermeters both in melic (76)

and trimeters are combined and in recitative and meloseries

dramatic verse
*^

(77).

See 712.

The

commonly ends

in a

and with one exception it follows recitative or melodramatic tetrameters. The connexion between the tetrameters and the following series of cola is so close that sometimes the speaker does not change (Uq.
catalectic dimeter, once in a catalectic

trimeter,^

Eq

757

f.

=837

f.

(91),

Pax 939

The exceptions

are Vesp. 252, 265.

(583), Lys.
2

258 f. = 273 f. and 271 f. (94). Ve^. 248-72, Man. 394-7 (2), 440-

* Eq. 939 ff. Cf. Heliodorus in the rpifiiTpov Karascholium on Eq. 911
:

7 (4) 3 Cf.

\tiktik6v.

Ean, 394

f.,

442

f.

Nub. 1089

ff.

194
ff.),

IAMBIC VERSE

69

440 K, Nuh. 1088


is

and even the grammatical construction


11'.,

continued {Nuh. 1385


191.

1445

ff.).

At the

close of the parode

of the Lysistrata

(382-6)

Aristophanes uses a series of six dimeters that were recited by Tliis hypermeter ends in the leaders of the two half-choruses.
a catalectic dimeter and follows thirty-two recitative tetrameters. All the dimeters in the hypermeter except the last are composed
exclusively of irrational metres, and they contain no trisyllabic
feet.

192.

but
in

is

found only in debates.^

The melodramatic hypermeter occurs more frequently, The closely connected cola are
joins,

made

the vehicle of abusive discussion in a dialogue of actors,

which one of the leaders of the chorus sometimes


is

and

the tone

often virulent.

193. The metrical form of the melodramatic hypermeter is Irrational outthat of the melodramatic tetrameter (173 ff.). number rational metres, and tribrach," dactyl and anapaest (see
If the 213 complete metres that occur 177) are freely used. the melodramatic iambic hypermeters found in Aristophanes are expressed in terms of the tetrameter, reckoning three comin

plete metres as the equivalent of a tetrameter, the ratios


as follows: tribrach, 1 in 3'38 in the tetrameter in the
1

are

and

1 in 7*88

hypermeter; dactyl, 1 in 7-54 and 1 in 8-87; anapaest, and 1 in 5"91 percentage of irrational metres, 67 In all four particulars the hypermeter is slightly less and 63. free than the tetrameter. 194. The dimeters and trimeters of which iambic hypermeters are composed are closely connected by synaphea (44),
in 5*56
;

and were therefore in danger of confusion in transmission. A hypermeter in which the number of metres is even may have been written by the poet solely in dimeters, without the variation in cadence which would have resulted from the introduction of trimeters, and it would seem, on the evidence of the two oldest manuscripts of Aristophanes, that Nuh. 1386 ff. and Ban. 971 ff.
were composed in
least
this

manner.
ff.,

On

the other hand,

K introduces

four trimeters in Eq.

441

one trimeter

is

At which consists of 32 metres. inevitable in hypermeters in which the


-

1 Eq. 367-81-441-56, 911-40, Nvh. 1089-1104, 1386-90 - 1446-51, Ran. 97-

Even

in the fourth foot:

Eq. 931,

Nub. 1386, 1388, 1389, Ran. 979.

191.

; ;

70

THE VERSE OF GKEEK COMEDY


f!'.,

195

911 ff., number of metres is uneven, as in Eq. 367 1089 ff., 1446 ff. The final colon in the first (E), second (EV), and third (EV) of these is a catalectic trimeter, and Heliodorus,
Nuh.
in the only note

now

in Aristophanes, confirms the trimeter in the second.

extant on a recitative iambic hypermeter See the

metrical scholium on Eq. 911.

In the fourth, the trimeter

is

the antepenultic colon (EV).


195. The two oldest manuscripts have certain characteristics common. Both resort to the familiar palaeographical device writing two dimeters continuously in a single cni')(o^, in order save space, and both occasionally end a colon within a metre.
:

in
of to

'

V often writes is one serious discrepancy in their practice a single metre as a colon, and Heliodorus recognizes an iambic monometer once in melic and once in recitative verse. See E, on the other the metrical scholia on Ach. 274 and Eq. 911.
There
'

hand, has this anomaly in only two verses, ^g-. 911 and Lys. 382, in which each hypermeter begins with a dimeter composed

The two exclamatory dipodies rendered by different speakers. 'monometer' affected by V is to be rejected, for the division of a trimeter into metre and dimeter or dimeter and metre is forbidden in iambic verse, in which the trimeter is a normal This mode colon (67), and this division lacks historical support. of writing iambic and trochaic trimeters is probably an imitation of the mode properly employed by the colometrists (831) in writing the anapaestic dimeter and monometer, which are both
of

true cola (276).


in
. .

On

the best tradition, the following iambic cola

hypermeters were probably trimeters: Eq. 380 f. (Ke-^rjvojo'i rerrapa^); 447, 448^ (tov 442 ((f)v^i x^'^"'^9);
. .

Sopvcf)6pav)
.
. .

(TTpi^e

448^ f. k6Xoi<;); 939


;
.

(ttolcov
f.

'Ittttlov)
. .

454
.
.

f.

(7a-

(^ov\6/jb6VO<;

ivairoTrvtjeir]^)
.

Nuh. 1096 (Kal

aKoirec);
.

1100, 1101^

(/cat
.

epeU)

1103

f.

(Ool/MaTLOv

vfid<;);

1449

(ovSev ae

i/x/SaXeiv).
ff.

E
is

needs correction only once.

The colon that begins Eq. 441

All other probably not a trimeter, as in E, but a dimeter. cola in iambic hypermeters in Aristophanes are probably dimeters. These hypermeters are all in dialogue except one (and this closes a dialogue, Nub. 1386 ff.), and the speaker sometimes changes

within the colon, as in the spoken trimeter. 196. The close connexion of the cola in non-melic iambic

hypermeters

is

seen not only in the quantity of the final syllable

196
colon,
in

IAMBIC VERSE
which
is

71

of the acatalectic

always long, as the rhythm


in

demands, but also

the

manner

which the cola are joined.

colon frequently ends within a word, as in Eq. 375, 378, 445, 912, 915, 927, 936, 937; it may close not only with the
otto)?

subordinate conjunctions

and otl (132),


it

as

in Eq.

917,

Nuh.

1386, but

also with

Kai (and), as in Eq. 453, and with


;

prepositions, as in Eq.
enclitic, as in

931, 935

may even

begin with an

Eq. 922, or with recessive av, as in Eq. 918.

CHAPTER

III

TEOCHAIC VEESE
197. The fundamental colon of trochaic verse is a dimeter composed of two metres that consist each of two simple feet

(12,13):
Se^LOV Trpbs dv8p6i (rTt

v--

v^

\y

Ran. 540

trochaic dimeter normally consists of twelve primary times


syllables.

and eight
198.
aAA,a
Tis

All trochaic verse

is

in descending rhythm.

The
fj.'

arsis of

each metre

may

be irrational

vo)X^^^ eToifjios
6

yap eaS'
ixv

ravrd

cr'

eipyoiv

^ w

v^

Tov

doTeidv tl Ae^etv

_^__ _^__

^ ^ w

Vesj).

341

Vesp.
Jian.

334
901

Irrational metres are extremely

common

in all forms of trochaic

verse in comedy.

See 247, 256, 261, 268. 199. The thesis of each trochee may be resolved

7r'

dyaOw

/lev rois iroXirai';

^

-^

dXX.' iTraTToBvwfj.eO'

&v8ps

-^

ovK OLKaipa,
ju.eya

(fypevas e'xoucra

v^

rh Trpdy/xa, ttoXv to veiKOS


8ovaK09,
oi'

^.^ y^

w v^ v^ ^ v^^ v^ ^^ ^ ^
^^
y~'

Ban. 1487
Lys.
2'h.

cVeKtt

vTroXvpiov

^^v^..^vy

615 462 Ran. 1099 ^^v^^^v^ Ran. 233

200. If the normally long syllable in the arsis of an irrational

metre
e'i

is

resolved, the arsis

becomes an

'

anapaest

'

(17)
\j

Tis dya^oi' /SovXerab 7rai/xol


-x^pi]

diLV Tl Trap'

KadevSeiv

^ ^

^^

^^

^ ^

Ec.

893
its

f.

201.
trochee,

The dimeter, by suppression becomes catalectic (33)


72

of

the arsis of

final

203
aAX'
v<ficr6e

TROCHAIC VERSE
rod rovov
-^
Ky

73
Veq).

^
v^
v^

Trepcc^avws Sovvat SiK-qv


TToAAo, 7r;067r7rAevKOTOs
oil'

Aa^j;

iJLijKer'

aTroSw

^ w w

^ v^ v^ ^ ^^ w

337

Th.

465
1057

Ban. 535
Lys.
is

The
but
it is

final
it

may

long syllable of a catalectic metre be short instead of long (33).


of trochaic verse
It normally
its

never resolved,

202.

The second colon

is

the trimeter, but

not common.

consists of eighteen times

and

metres admit the varieties of form found in the dimeter, but the thesis of its final trochee is never
twelve syllables, and
resolved.
Tov^vdvfJLQv,

Ko\a(ojU(T6a, Kivrpov
Vesp.

406
1095

prjcriv

Ae^etv e/xtAAo/xev tot', oi'Se


Vesp.

uicnrep

oiKaS'

et's

eauTwv ytvvtKws,

w>j

Lys.
Tr]v

1070
529

iraXaidv

vtto

Xidu)

yap

Travri ttov xprj


Th.

K0/xi/'0T/30V

eV

i)

TO TTpoTepov

ava7re(f>r]vev

Th.

460

avaye St^xe Trdpaye irdpex^

TrepLTrerecrde

^^^^ _^^w ^ ^ w ^ ^
^

Av. 1720
Lys.

alfJLvXav dk<i)TrKU)v Travcraip.e6a


TTtt/od

v^^

1269

(ro(f)olv

dvSpolv aKOvcrai riva Aoycuv

^^
203.

_wv^

Ban. 896

trochaic colon of the form

v?

occurs in
Cf. Lys.

trochaic, simplified logaoedic

and enoplic

verse,

and occasionally

elsewhere in comedy, as the final colon of a period.

812, 813 (242); Ran. 1377 (218); Th. 319, 330^ (411); Ec. 953, 959, 961, 967 (415); Nub. 460 (500); Pax 111, This is not the trochaic 796, 799, 818 (497) Han. 884*^ (347). tripody, - ^ - v^ - v^ (26), since the final syllable is long, and

658^

(241),

the law of the variable syllable in Greek does not permit the The colon substitution of a long for a short (43, note).

_ ^ _ ^ _ ^ _ ^
:Eq.

iambic colon,

wherever ^ - ^ -

it

occurs, like the corresponding but rare

(393),

is

protracted dimeter,

Its

first

metre

may

be resolved,
,
TIi.

v^

v^

616^(231),

^^^w,
or

Th.

1055

(374),

Man. 1490

(219),

Fc.

1177 (354);

be

protracted,

-^-

326

(411),

74

THE VEESE OF GREEK COMEDY


.

204

^w,

Eq.

616

(231),

Its

'

L^js.

1264
is

(412); or

have

paeonic-trochaic form,

- ^^' ^,

Lys. 783, 788, 789, 790, 791,

792^ 814, 816

(242).

second metre

constant, except

that under the law


Eq.

of the variable
;

syllable

short

may
;

be

substituted for the final long


Cf.

but this variation rarely occurs.


;

683^-

= 616^- -

1499

= 1490

(219).

(231) Lys. 807 = 783 (242) Ran. This colon had great vogue and received
' '

the distinctive

name 'Idv^aWtKov, Ithyphallic (Heph. 19. 5 ff.).-^ Like any other dimeter, it may be used independently as a
Similar to this in
all particulars is

subordinate period.
metrical colon

the

tri-

-v^-^ -^^-^

-.-

that occasionally occurs.

This
first

is not a pentapody (26), but a protracted trimeter. The two metres admit great variety of form, but the third is constant. Cf. Th. 955 (589), Zys. 666 f., 690 (241), 1260, 1261 (412). The penthemimer (36) is found in parody in Av. 945, 953 (585), and once in a hyporcheme, Lys. 1307 (413). 204. The equivalent of the trochee in the first half of the trochaic metre is v.^ v^ in the second half the equivalents are ^w - (11, 15, 17). These forms, in their respective places, and also full and protracted (207 ff.) metres, are interchangeable with one another in strophe and antistrophe and in two corresponding subordinate periods. 205. A logaoedic metre (377) occurs in Th. 461 (237) in an ode otherwise purely trochaic. Dobree wished to emend this. -^ Logaoedic metres in descending rhythm, - ^ - ^
,

- ^ - ^, occur not infrequently in recitative trochaic tetrameters and hypermeters. Here the dactyl (389) usurps the place of
the
first

or last simple foot in


Cf.

a dimeter,

which may be part

301, Av. 396, Ach. 318, Eq. 319, Vesp. 496,^?;. 373, 1113 (synizesis ?), EccL 1156. See 386. Editors have attempted to emend these passages, but the dactyl is here merely a manifestation of the variability of the arsis of the simple foot that prevailed in the primitive dimeter. Compare
Eq.
'

of a tetrameter.

'

the use of the logaoedic anapaest in iambic verse (70). manifestation is normal in logaoedic verse (375 ff.).
206.

This

choriamb, -

v^

v^

in place of a trochaic metre, as in Ec.


(408).

- apparently occurs in a few cases 898 f. (220), Lys. 1293


,

This

is

not the true choriamb (651)


anaclasis,
v^

the form

is

here

due to interior
^

for

v^

Cf. 71.

Hephaestion erroueously regards this colon as a brachycatalectic dimeter.

210
207.

TROCHAIC VERSE
By
form

75

suppression of the second syllable in the arsis of


'

a trochaic metre, the metre assumes


iKiricroL crov

cretic
.

'

to Tprjfxa

Xp;o"i/xov /xev oi'Sev,

uAfxkya

Aws re SetAov koI


eV^ev ^a)v eycu

^ w w w ^ _
.

_ ^ _ ^ ^ ^ -^ ^^
.

Ec.

906

Av. 1476
Lys.
f.)

t.

625
in

This

is

the most frequent form of protraction (31

trochaic

verse.

The

thesis of the first trochee in this protracted


is

metre

may
e/xe

be resolved, but this form of the metre


re Movcrat

rare

yap ea-rep^av evXvpot

^^
!roXvKoXv/jifSoi.a-L fieXecrLv

_^_^ -^
w
^^

Ea7i.

229

.^

Ran. 245

Cf.

(415).

343 (238), Th. 959 = 962 = 966 (589), ^c. 958 - ^ ^ (72). The corresponding form in iambic verse is 208. The second syllable in the thesis of a trochaic metre
Vesp. 342,
-

may
(

be suppressed and the metre then assumes

'

antibacchiac

'

form

vvv ap

a^tov iraa-LV

cipyacTfiev'

eW

CTreA[jlol

dois airavrd

crac^ws

aipead' av(a lai

^ ^ _ _ _ ^ _ ^ ^ ^ w _ _ ^ _ ^
. .
.

_ ^ _ _
.

Eq. 616

Eq. 618
Lys.

1292

Such protracted metres are rare. 209. Both syllables are sometimes suppressed and the metre then assumes spondaic form
' '
:

TavT ovv ovx


Cf. the

v/Spi'i

TO,

yj

Lys.

658

remarkable imitation of an ancient popular song in Lys. 781 ff. (242) and the hyporchematic ode in simplified logaoedic rhythm in Lys. 1247 ff. (412). Similarly a catalectic dimeter
or trimeter

may have

'

spondaic

'

close

auTov avTo.

X.rjpiv

^^

v^
^..>

w
.^

_
_

Sid rh (rwTos ehai

_ _

Han. 1377

Ean. 1490

These are Ithyphallics (203).

For the metre 210.

v.^

- v^, see 223 S.

The subordinate period that occurs


verse
is

oftenest in melic

trochaic

the

catalectic

tetrameter,

composed
is

of

an

acatalectic

and a

catalectic

dimeter.

This

tlie

subordinate

76

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


in

211
period

period employed
in
Vesp.

the long,

stichic

systematic

found

form of employed, but trimeters are rare. and octameters are not uncommon.
are rare.

The hexameter is also a favourite subordinate period, and the dimeter is constantly thus
(243).

415-29

Pentameters,

heptameters
trimeters

The
is

chief

constituent of
;

the melic trochaic hypermetrical period

the dimeter

On

the combination of subordinate periods, hypermeters

and intermediate periods to form systematic periods, see 720 fF. 211. The catalectic tetrameter is the trochaic verse chiefly used by the comic poets in recitative rendering (244 ff., 259, 260 ff.). These tetrameters may be followed by hypermeters
(267
ff.).

212. Trochaic

has special

affinity

for

paeonic

rhythm, of

probably the immediate source (619 ff.), and melic trochaic tetrameters frequently occur in systematic periods that See 442. It occurs also combined with are chiefly paeonic.

which

it

is

other rhythms.
213. Aristides (98 M., 60. 5
ff.

J.) characterizes
(9, ii.) as

the regular
:

iamb and trochee


rd')(0^

of diplasic

rhythm
ol
fjuev

follows

twv

S'

eV

BnrXaaiovL yLvofiivwv
re eTrt^aivovai

cr'^icrei

airXol rpo-^aloi koI cafM^ot

Kai

elcn

depjxol

koI

op'X^rjaTticoL
is

The
ff.),

genetic relation of trochaic with iambic

rhythm

close (608

but on their distinct separation (610, 789) they were differentiated Iambic rhythm is lively and singularly adapted to in use. express the give and take of dialogue, whether in melic or
trochaic rhythm, as the name implies, spoken verse (79) became pre-eminently the rhythm of quick movement, whether Aristotle {Bhet. iii. 8. 4) includes trochaic of dance or march. among the rhythms that are not appropriate to rhythmical prose composition: 6 Se rpo-^alo^; KopZaKCKoirepo^' StjXol Se ra rerpafi;

fierpa,

ecrri

yap

rpo-^epo'i

the trochaic
stated

tetrameter
scholiast

The use of pvdpLo<i ra rerpd/j^eTpa. by the dramatic poets is excellently


:

by the

on Ach. 204

evrevOev

rj

irdpoZo'i yiverat

Tov yopov ov crvfnrXrjpovaiv ol ^A^apvei^' Trapdyovrai, Be avvkol p,Td ctttouSt}?, hidoKovre^ tov ^A/jb(j}l6eov cr7rovBa<i t6v(i)<;
irocTjcrdfievov TT/ao? tov'? AaKeBatfioviov;.

yiypairraL he to fMerpov

TpovaiKov, irpocr^opov
Be
TToielv

Ttj

TOiv BicoKOVTaiv yepovTOiv airovBrj


Bpafjudrayv
irocrjTal

TavTa

eldiOaaiv ol
eTrecBav

tmv

koX TpayiKol Kot


Xva o X070?

kco/jukoI,

Bpo/xalco^;

eladycoaL tov<;

')(^opov<i,

(Tvi^Tpi'Xj} Tc5 BpdfjbaTi.

(Codd. FE.)

^214

TROCHAIC VERSE

77

Memc
214.

Trochaic Verse
(Debate).

Ban. 895-904 = 992-1003


Strcplie.

'H/x.

a Kol fiyv

ry/ieTs tTTLdvfJLOviJieu

281 :=^

c^i^__2

896 Trapa

(TO(i>olv

avBpolv aKovaai two. Aoyoji'

_^^_ _^__
v--

^^-s'^
v^v:;
3*^^

(fifjieXeiav cTrire Satav 68dv.

51

yAwcraa

/zei/

ya/a tjy piiDTac,

w ^^w v^ w ^ ^y

899

ATy/xa

S'

oi'k

aroX/iov

d[x<f)Oiv,

ov8' a.KLvqTOi ^pkves.

900 irpoaSoKav ovv


901
Tov
/xev

eiKos ecrrt

ttOTetdv

Xe^ew

Kal KareppivqfJievov,

_ _

^ _ _ w ^ ^ _ _

_ _

^ ^ ^ ^ ^

6^^

^ ^ ^ gcv

902 TOV

dvao-TTwvT

avroTrpefj.voL';

10

-w

Tots koyoKTiv e/JLTreaovTa crvcTKiSav iroX-

Xas dXtv8i]6pas

CTTolv.

Antistrojjhe.
'H/i.

jS'raSe
(TV 8e
/u,ij

jJLev

AciVo-eis <^ai8t// 'AxtAAeu*


<^e/3

993

Ti

Trpos

ravra Ae^ets

/yidvov

ottcds

(T

o dvfJLOS apTTacras

995 KTos

OMTCi

Twv cAawv, Setva yap Karqyop-qKev


di'TtAe^ets,

aXX

ottws

yevvaSa

998

p-y]

Trpbs

dpyi)v

dAAd
Kai

o-vcrretAas

aKpoicn

j^pw/xevos

T06S l(7TtOlS,

1001 eiVa pdXXov pdXXov

civets

^vAu^ctS,

lyvtV'

av

to

irvivpa

Aetov Ka6 KaOecTTijKos Xd/Sys.


993
Schol.
:

(Til

5^ ri

Bentley

cru

5?;

ti

A,

cri)

Stj

R,

(ti)

5i

St) t/

TOiS icTTloKXiv

RU,

rotffiv laTLOiaLu

VM,

roZa-ii'

ioriots

V A

1000

toTs io-xtou

A = AB (895-7, 898-904). a = abb, 2 3 3, Monostrophic dyad. an anapaestic dimeter as proode to two catalectic In the antistrophe A = abc, 2 3 2. See 738. trochaic trimeters. b = aab, 6 6 7, epodic triad two trochaic hexameters with See 771. See 737. Anapaestic rhythm and trochaic a heptameter as epode. are not concordant and the effect of the shift of rhythm at 896 is
proodic triad
:
:

marked

(281).

78
215.

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


Aves 1470-81

215

= 1482-93
Strophe.

(Stasimoii XL).

'H/i.

a TToAAa
jxda-T

Srj

koI Katvot koi dav-

1471

eTTCTTTO/xecr^a

kol

207

Seivo, TrpdyiJ-aT
lo-Tt

eiSofXiV.
7re<f)VK0^

yap SevSpov

CKTOTTOV Tl KupStttS d-

1475

TTwrepo) KXewuvp-os,
^prjcrijxov [xev ovSev,

dX-

AcDS Se SeiAov Kat //eya.

TOVTO <Tovy

/txev

^pos

del

802

{3Xa(rrdvi koI (rvKO(f)avTL,

1480

Tov Se

xetju.c3i'os

TraXiv ras

acTTTiSas

(fivXXoppoei.

_ ^ _ v^w6 ^ w v^ vy ^ wv76 ^ ^ v^ ^ ^ i ^ ^ ^ 10 w v^ ^ ^ ^ _^ii8


^ ^ ^ ^ 5 w w ^

v--

^ ^

w
v--

'^H/x. 13' ecTTt

8'

av

X'^P^
T^pwcriv

'^P^'^

avTi3 T(p o-kotw Tr6ppu> Tts Iv

tj^

Aux"i>*'

1485 evOa

Tois

dvOpwiroL a-vvapi(TTM(rt,

Kal

^vveicn

ttXtjv

ttJs

IcTTrepas.

1488 TJjviKauTa 8' oukct 1490 ei yap evrvx'' ^is

17

v da-<^aAes ^m'Tuyxai'e'i'-

T/yotf)

twv jipoTwv vvKTwp


7rA>^yts
i'tt'

'Opio-Trj, yu/xvos

t^v

auroiJ Trcivra xaTrtSe^ia.


(sic)

1478 <Tov>

/J-^"

Bentley

fiiv

ye

Vp2HC
:

A = aabc, 6 6 4 8, epodic tetrad two hexaMonostrophic dyad. See 743. meters and a tetrameter, with an octameter as epode. On the protraction in the second colon, see the second colon (hyphenated) in the following lyric, in which the same melody is
repeated with slight variations.

216.

Aves

1553-64 = 1694-1705 (Syzygy


Strophe.

III.).

'H/x.

a TTpos 8e Tois 2Kta7roo-tv AtaAovTos ov fivrf Tis ecTT


i/'^xaywyt' SwKpctTT^s"

v^

w
i^

v--

_^_^_v^_.
_ ^ _ ^

1555

evda KOi Heca-avSpos rjXde


Seop.evo'i

^vxqv

I8eiv

i]

5^w
^
zp^ ^^

^wvt' eKelvov TvpovXiire,


a-(f>dyi

e'xfov

Kdp.'qXov arjs

1560

/xvov Ttv,
(lio-irep

Xaifiovs re/j-wv

_^_^ _^_
^

w ^ 6'^ w o v^ v^ ^ 6*^^ ^^
>

4C

ov8v(T(Tevs diTTJXde,
ai;T(^

K^T dvTJXO'

KoiTw^ev

10

..^

w v^

v./

217
TT/oos

TROCHAIC VERSE
t5 AatT/xa
r^ys
Kafi,ii')\ov

79

^ ^

'^KH.

j3' eo-Ti

S'

eV

'I'ai'ato-i

tt/jos

tj/

KXeij/vSpa

Travovpyov eyyAwTToyao-TO/)wv yi/os,

1697

ot

dept^ovcTLv

re

kuI

cnreLpova-i

Kal

Tpvy(iJ<Ti

rats

yAwTxato-i
re*

crt'Ku^oucrt

1700

f3dpj3apoL
Ka-n-b

8' i(rlv

yevos, ropyiai re Koi ^iXittttoi.


iravTa;(o{5 tv/s

ruJv

cyyAwTToyacrTopwv iKiivwv twv ^tAtTTTTWv


'Attikt}?
r}

Y'^^''"''"**

X'^P'^ Te/iverai.

1561 ovdvajeCis Bentley

'Odva-aevs

A = aabc, 6 6 4 8, epodic tetrad two Monostrophic dyad. See 743. hexameters and a tetrameter, with an octameter as epode. The eighth colon is catalectic in the strophe but ends full (proper Compare the corresponding colon in name) in the antistrophe (44).
:

the preceding lyric.

217.

Ban. 534-48

= 590-604

(Syzygy).

LYRICAL DUO
Stro2)he.

Kop. a Tavra
voi;;'

fiev

wpos avSpos eWt

c^ovTos koi ^pevas Kat

:roAAa TrepLireTrXiVKOTos 535 536 iMeraKyXivSeiv aiVbv del


TT/DOS

^ w w ^ c^ w 801 ^ ^

TOV V TT/OClTTOVTa TOIXOV


fj

5
51

>^

IxdXXov

yey pafjifievr]v
Xafiovd' iv
Se

538

etKov'

ecTTctvat,

a-)(^r]fJLa'

to

peTacrrpifjifcrdai

539 Trpos TO p.aX$aKi!)repov 540 Se^iov Trpos dvBpos eo-Tt


Kai
Ai.
(fivcret

v^ vy ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ 10 w c;

w w w v^ 6*^^ w v^ w^ 6^^ ^ ^
v./

_^__

Qijpap.evovs.
'>]v,

w ^ 6^^^ v^ ^ ^ 4CV

ov yap av yeXocov

ei

Hav^tas

p.ev

SouAos wv

iv

MiArjo-iois (TTpwp.a(rLV MiAr/criois

543 dvarerpapp-kvos kwwv


\r](TTpi8'

op-

- V. - V. - v^ M 15.^^ ^ _^

^ ^ ^

6^^
^^

ctT

yTTjaev ap-ib ,e-

_^___v./C3^

yw
Tos
eibe,

8e Trpos
'

toCtov

/SXeiriDV

545 TovpefBivOov
S'
oit'

8paTT6p.7]V,

ov-

_^__
^ ^
v--

6'^'^

wv

aTJTos Travovpyos
ti;s

Kar eK

yva(7oi;

20

^ ^
^ ^ ^

548

TTV^ TraTa^as p.ov^Koij/

_^_^
v^
4^^

Tous X"P0^'5 Toi'S Trpoddiovs

80

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


Antistro'phe.

218

Yiop. (3'

vvv crov epyov

eW,

IttciS^

Tqv crToXrjv

iXr](fia<;

-qvinp

etx^s e^

592 avavea^eiv koI ^Aoteiv av^6S to Setvov, tov diov p,epviqiiivov 594 ^Trep etKa^ets creavTOi'. ei Se TrapaXrjpMV aXuxreu KaK/JaAeis
juaA^aKov,

Tt

596 av$LS
Hav.
01J

atp<r6ac

cr'

dvdyKQ 'arai
Trapaiveir,

-n-dXtv

ra

(TTpdyp-aTa.

KttKws

&v8pes

dAAd Kaurbs Tvyxavw

TaCr'

aprt

(rwvoou//.VOS.

599 on

/Afv

ow,

^v

xprjcrTuv

rj

ti, toi^t'

dffiaipetcrOai TraAiv ireipdcreTaC


/x'

eu otS' OTi,

601 dAA' o/iws eyw irapk^m '^avTov dvSpeiov to

Xrj[j.a

Kal

^Aotovt'

opiyavov.

604
542
/cai /SdXrjj

Setv S'
arpihiiacriv

eoLKev,

ws ukovw
:

7%

6vpa<; koI

8rj

^6<jyov.
:

Brunck

(rrpiifiacL

RAU,

xai (SdXXeis

M
:

595 KCLK^aXeh Hermann 596 Vrai Dawes Vrt V, cm.


:

KOK/SctXiys

V,

RAUM
A=
aaab,

Monostrophic

dyad.

A = AA

(534-40,

541-8).

a hexameter as proode that anticipates the 6 6 6 4, periodic tetrad melody of the two hexameters that follow, and a tetrameter as epode.

See

747.

But

in the antistrophe
4.

592

f.

is

a pentameter and

there

abac, 6 5 6

See

748.

See also

51.

218.
Xo.
7rt7rovot

Ban. 1370-7 (Episode


y
oi

II.).
^^ y^

Se^ioi.

-^

1371 ToSe yap erepov av repas


vcox/'^ov,

^ ^^
el

droTTias TrAewv,

o Tts av eTrevorjcrev
jxa

aAAos/
dv
tis
5

Tov

eyo) jxev ov8'

1375

e'Aeye fiot tojv


iTrL66p.rjv,

OTtTvxovTwv
Mop-rjV

dXX

dv

arrov aiira

X'qpelv.

203
Bentley
:

^ ^^ ^ v^v^v^^ -^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ -^ ^ ^ ^
^^

_^__

v./

w ^ ^ w

2^

2^^
2^

^^v^

^ ^ _ _ lo^
.

1376

^Tn66fn]i'

iweido/xriv

= aaab, 2 2 2 10, periodic tetrad: a dimeter Non-antistrophic. as proode that anticipates the melody of the two dimeters that follow, and a decameter as epode. See 747.
219.

The same melody, expanded by a


Fum. 1482-90

colon, occurs as the

second stasiraon.

= 1491-99
Strophe.

(Stasimon

II.).

^Hpi..

a p.aKdpi6% y

dvrjp

e^wv

^w
^^ ^^
^^

^Tjvecriv rjKpLl3(jjp^ivr]v.

irdpa Se 7roAAoro"iv padeiv.

w -v^ ^ w ^ w

2^ 2^
2

221

TROCHAIC VERSE
yap
v cfypovetv SoK^cras
cLTreicrtv

81

1485 oSe

TrdXtv
eir

otKaS' avdfi,
Toi<;

204

ayadt^

fi\v

TroAirais,

ktr

dyado) Se rot? eavTov

^^^ w 5^^v^ \^ ^^ ^ c^^ ^


^^v^^ss?
.^

s^v^

^vyyeveart t Kat (jiiXois

1490

Sta Tu o-rrero? tu'at.

204 203

==

v^

^ >^ O ^ ^ w _v^ 12<^^ _


.

i:^

'H/i.

^' xapUv oSv

/ii)

SwKpaTCt
AaAeti',

1492 -apaKaO/jfievov
aTTofSaXovra
Tct

fj.ova-iKrjv

re fiiyca-Ta TrapaXnvovra
TTj?

1495

TpaywStKTjs
8'
eTTi

rexi'*;?.

TO
Kal

(TefJLVoiCTLV

XoyoiCTi

(rKapi,(fiy](r[xoiari

Xr^pinv

8LaTpif3->]v

dpyov

TTOieicrdaL

7rapa<fipovovvTO<; dvSpo^.

1496

(Te/xvo'icriv

Brunck

(refivolai

A = aaab, 2 2 2 12, periodic tetrad: a Monostrophic dyad. dimeter as proode that anticipates the melody of the two dimeters that See 747. follow, and a dodecameter as epode.
220.
F/aatis.
1

Ecd.
Tis

893-99
7ra-

(Episode

II.).

894

897

^n^ w v^ v/^-~ ^ v^ w y^ ^^ ^ ov yap v veats to (ro(f)OV ev ^ ecTTcv dXX 1' Tat'? TreTretpctS' w>^ ov8e Tts <TTpyLV dv edeXoc 5 ^
dya^ov /SovXerai
6eiv Ti, Trap' p.ol

XPV KaOevSeir.

'-y

pdXXov
dAA'
e<^'

i]

'yw Tuv
erepov

(filXov

cS-ep ^vvenjv,

206
a.v

_^___^^__^-
v^^^v^

ttctoito.

^ v^15

Non-antistrophic proode of a proodic combination of eleven strophes See See 773. is an indivisible period of fifteen metres. On the acatalectic close of this systematic period, cf. Ec. also 777.
(717).

938 (567), Ban. 323 if. (427), 372 ff. (301), 398 fF. (82), 416 ff. (80). This form of close is normal in periods that end in paeonic rhythm
flF.

(430

ff.).

221.
Kop.
/8'

Thesm.
8i)

659-666
XPV

(Syzygy).

em

TTpMTio-Ta p.\v

Kov(f>ov

l^opp-dv TToSa

660 Kal

Siaa-KOTreiv o-Lwirrj
p.ovoi'

7ravTaxj7,

8e

\pr]

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^

"^

_^^4^
^ ^
4^

82 661
[JLr]

THE VEESE OF GREEK COMEDY


PpaSvveLV, ws 6 Kaipds
IcTTi
ju,^

v^

222

5
XPW

v^

/AcAAeiv

eVi,

vy w w

4*^

662 aAAo,
'Hfi.

TT^v TTpwTrjv
iJSt;

rpex^iv
kvkAo).

~^
w ^
-^

~^
v^ 4^ ^^ ^

ws Tax'O'T

(id vvv I'xveue Kal fxd-

reve

raxv

Travr,

ct

rt? ev tottois eSpato?

aAAos av
'H/x.. /3'

XiX.y]$ev wv.
oju/ia,
Tci

796

v^ v^

7ravTax2? S pii/'ov
Kttt
Tci

666

rfJSe

Kat

Seupo

TravT

dvatTKOTret
IJ-^vov

KaAws.
:

v^ w ^ w
fiovov 5e
:

^
v^ ^y

w yj
6

660b iravTaxVj Bentley xPV


:

di

XPV Kiister
piif/ov

xpV Travraxv

662 xPV"

665 5^

Hermann

didppi^pov

A = AB (659-62, 663-6). A: a Non-antistropHc. See 778. mediate period, composed of four tetrameters. See 770. heptameter, hexameter. pericopic dyad
:

stichic inter-

B=

ab, 7 6,

222.
Xo.

Thesm.

520-30

(Debate).

tovtI fievToi davfiaa-rov^


rjvpkdrj

281

w2^
^^w v^ w w %^

621 oTTodev

^ ^ ^ X'/Tts ^^pei/'e X^P'^ w rrjvBe ti]v dpacrelav outw. ^ TaSe yap etVetv rrjv iravovpyov 5^~w ^^v^^w ^ Kara to (pavepov SjS' dvaiSm 525 ^ ^ ^ ovK av (^ofxrjv ev r^fuv ^ v^v^l4 orSe ToXp.rj(raL ttot av. w v^ ^ dAA' dirav yevoiT dv rySr;* 10 ^ ^ w T'qv TrapoLjiiav 8' eTratvoi
to XP^ll^^

T'^v

TTaAaidv
SaKy

-utto

Xido)

yap

Travrt ttou

xP^

530

fJii]

prjTtap

ddpecv,

v.^

9"^

Non-antistrophic.

A = abc,

hypermeter

of fourteen metres,

2 14 9, pericopic triad: nonameter. See 771.

paroemiac,

Paeonic-Trochaic Verse
223. In

many

odes of Aristophanes metres that appear to

be paeons ( - v^ v^ v^ ) or cretics ( - v^ - ) and trochaic dipodies are freely mingled in the same subordinate period and even in the

same colon
dAA' aTTttAov dv
p.'

tSots

Kat ttoAv vewTepoi' d-iraAAayei'Ta 7rpayp.aTCov

Pax 351

ff.

(232)

225

TROCHAIC VERSE
fiovi]

83

iraaiv ottoctol yewpyiKov (iiov eTplfio^iV

yap

ly/i-ds

tic^eAei?

Pax 589
Cf. Li/s.

ir.

(233)

1046

ff.

(239),

1192

ff.

(240).

224.

The time

of the metres

in periods such as the pre-

The same necessity is even which there are many in these odes even in parts that it is agreed are trochaic, where the equivalence of - w - C7 with - v^ ^^ ^ and - w - is established by correspondence between strophe and antistrophe
ceding must have been equalized.
cases, of

more obvious in

oiiTcus

yv veaviaKos

MeAanwv

Tts,

o>j

(ftevywv ydfjLOV
K'dv

d<|>t/<r'

et's

kpi^p.iav

TOis opecrii' wKCt

TtytAWV

'//V

Tt9 dtSpi'TOS d.Po.rOL(TLV iV (TKioXoKTL TO. Trp6<T(x>~a TreplLpyfXiVOS

'KpLvvwv doppio^

_^-- -w^w -.oi)(^eTat,

Lijs.

784

f.

= 808

f.

(242)

KVKVOV re TroXiwrepaL

Si]

=
- ^ - ^ Veqx 1064 = 1095
(235).
ff.

prjcriv

cu

Xk^etv kjieXXojxtv tot, orSe

-w-o
Cf. Lys.

-wv5^

789
(243).

=813

(242), Vesp.

342

f.

= 373

f.

(238),

412

468
'

ft".

Editors, with grave disregard of tradition, have

endeavoured, in order to secure exact metrical agreement, to

emend many
'

of these passages that are otherwise unobjection-

But these correspondences are not to be set aside in a manner so summary. 225. The problem in these cases is of the same nature as that in logaoedic and simplified logaoedic verse (388 f., 400). Within the limits of a subordinate period, at least, the time must have been approximately unified, there must have been a single prevailing rhythm. In the following analyses it is assumed that this was consistently trochaic, and that the time of the apparent paeons and cretics was in some manner equalized with that of the trochaic metres among which they occur. This is the natural conclusion. The cretic (- v^ -) is a familiar form that both iambic and trochaic metres with a suppressed arsis constantly assume in both tragedy and comedy. See 72 and 207. But the paeon is not to be separated from the cretic, i.e. protracted trochaic metre, in these odes. That they are metrically equivalent is proved by their correspondence in strophe and
able.

antistrophe.

Cf.

Vesp.

428 = 486

(243),

Pax 352 = 390, 354 =

84

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY

226

Furthermore, the paeon occurs quite 392, 359 = 398 (232). independently among metres that it is agreed are trochaic
:

Kal KeXever

avTov

yjKeiv

ws

7r'

avSpa fiLcronoXiv

ovra KOLTToXovftevov,

on

<->

v^
\j

TovSe Xoyov dcrc^kpn.

www

v^ w w^v^ ^ ^ -^ ^ ^
.

_^__
Vesp.

410

ft".

226. The ease with which the paeon could be associated with trochaic metres is remarkably exemplified in the Lysistrata (10141035), where Aristophanes has used Kara arl'x^ov a form of trochaic tetrameter in which the third metre is continuously

227.
is

It
'

seems probable that the


trochaic metre

'

paeon

'

in all these cases

'

light

and arose

in the dance.

The long

syllable in the arsis of the trochaic metre

the long in the thesis by shortening.

from Expressed in mechanical


differentiated

was

symbols,
syllables
(

- w - w became - w - ) is a later

-www.

The

cretic

of

three

substitute for

-www.

See 620,

where this interesting subject is considered from the point of view of the probable origin of paeonic verse.
228. It must not be forgotten, however, that the equalization

combined metres of different metrical constitution Greek verse was neither mathematical nor slavish. The equality of metres was not absolute even in Greek melic poetry. That conception of Greek rhythm is disproved once for all by The forms - w - w the existence of irrational metres (16).
of the time of
in

-w
metres

controlled

were felt to be different, but they were The mechanical devices for by a uniform rhythm.
one
another
are,

-www

expressing the metrical relations of the different forms of trochaic


to

unfortunately,

inadequate.

To
is

indicate these relations, so far as this can be done, the dot

used in this book to signify not only the loss of a syllable, with

measurable protraction of the adjacent long syllable (see 31 f.), but also the shortening of a simple thesis in the arsis of a
trochaic and an iambic (75) metre

(-www

for

-w-w,

and

In the rhythmization of an entire subordinate period, -w and - w are rhythmical equivalents, although not mathematically equal. The paeonic-trochaic metre, then, embodies the contrary phenomenon
for
,

w w w -

w - w -).

-w-w, -www

to that observed in

an

irrational metre.

One must accustom oneself

230

TROCHAIC VERSE
v^

85

to

- ^ w
229.

as

the rhythmical equivalent of


of the

- ^ this

v^

just as

-^
(

for

-v^-w
effect

has become a familiar substitution.


introduction
of
lighter

The

form

v^

vy

vy )

of the trochaic metre,

which

is

not found in tragedy,

unmistakable. Originally hyporchematic, these light metres quicken the movement perceptibly when they occur, and this is especially marked when they are brought into contrast with the
is

irrational

form

of the

metre with
(241),

its effect

of retardation.

Cf.

Lys.
et

664-6 with 667-71


230.
Lijs.

1192-4 with 1197-9


(Parabasis).

(240),

passim.

614-25 = 636-47
Strophe.

Xo. Vep. 0VK6T

epyov eyKaOevSeiv
eo"T

ooTis

eXevOepos,

615 dAA'

eTTaTToSvwfJLeO'

wvSpes

TOVTuyl

Tw

TrpdyfiaTi.

616 617

I'lSr]

yap

o(eiv raSl

367

ff.,

72

TrXei6i'(ov

Kal yxet^dvwv
[xol

Trpayp.dTwv

SoKei,
Trj<i

618 KOI
619 Kol

jxdXia-T 6(T^paivop.ai

'Imrtov Ti'pavviSos'
Trdvv 8eSotKa
fxrj

^ ^ _^_i^ ^ \^ w 4^^ v^^^c; _^ _ 4CV _ ^ _ _ _ ^ - ^ -' ^ _ ^ _ m _ ^ _ _ ^ _ _ ^ _ 6 ^ ^ ^ w v^ w 4*"^


v./

;;^

y_,

v.^

10

^^^^^-^^
.

_^_.
_ ^ ^ 4CV v^^.v^ _ ^ _ 4CV

-Twv AaKh)vo)V T^ves


8evpo a-vveXi^XvOoTe-i

dvSpes ts KAeto-^evovs

_ ^ _ ^ ^- ^ _ ^ _
.

623 Tas

deoLS

ixOpas ywat/cas

_^_i:i

_^_^

i^aipw(rLU 86X10

15
))p.wv

v--

w
v^

4'-'

624 KaTaXa/Sdv rd
h'Oev
e'^'uv

)(p'/jfiaO'

tov

re.

pna-dov,

e'yoi.

_ ^ _
Antistrophe.

_ ^

5CV

Xo. Fvv.

ot'K

dp

etcrtovTa
c3

cr'

oiKaS'

1^

TCKouo-a yvwo-erat.
"vafiai.
rrj

637 aAAa

awfjiecrd'

</)tAat

ypdes TaSl irpCtTov

638 r/^eis yap w Travres aaroi Ao'ywv KaTdpy^ofxev 640 iKOTws, CTrei ^AiSwcrav dyAaws Wpexpk /xe. 641 eTTTo, /xev ctt; yeyaio"' ei'^iis i)ppy)(f)6povv

ttoAci xp-qcripnov

643 eiT dAeT/ots 1; ScKerts ovcra rapXT^yeTt 645 KUT e'xoDcra tov k/doko>t6v S/oktos r] j3pavp<j)VLoi,<s 646 KaKavi-ji^opovv ttot oSo-a Trats koAt) ';^oi)o-' lO-^dScDV

6p[j.a66v.

fivSpes TBC, ivSponroi R 615 wi'Spes Meineke (i(n6vTa a' Bentley yap etV:6vTaj 645 k^t'
: :

636
?x<'<''*

oiJk 4p'

Dobree
:

oO

Bentley

FBC,

(caTaxeoucra

Karixovaa

'

86

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY

231

= AB (614-18, 619-25). A = aaba, 4 4 6 4, Monostrophic dyad. two trochaic tetrameters and an iambic hexameter epodic tetrad with a third trochaic tetrameter as epode that repeats the melody of See 744. B = aabc, 4 4 4 5, epodic tetrad two the first two periods. paeonic-trochaic tetrameters and a trochaic tetrameter, with a penta: :

meter as epode.
231.

See

743.

Eq.

616-23

= 683-90

(Syzygy).

Strofhe.
'H/[z.

a vvv ap a^Lov
ecTTiv

TracriV

204, 208

oAoAv^at.

203

617 618

S>

KaXa Xeyoiv ttoXv S' afjielvov Tt Twv Aoywv

w v/ V v V c^ ^^ ^ 4CV w>.--vy v^^-w wv^-v^ v^ 4*^


.

elpyaa-jjiv,

eW

iireXfioi
craffiW'i

v^^^v^
v./

dois
COS

avavrd
fJLOL

eyw
wcTT
TUTTe.

Sokw
irpos rdS'

621

Kttv

jxaKpav oSov SteA^ctv

_ ^ _ ^ w
.

^ v^

_^_.
4*"

aKovcraf
dapp-qcras

w
a-

(3eX-

_^_i=^
10

_^_m
w v^
C7

_ ^ _ w

Xey

d)s

623

7ravTS rjSofjLecrOd

croi.

v^ w v^

8^

Antisti'ojJhe.
'H/u,.

^' TTavTa rot TTiirpayas oia ^pv) tov evrvx^ovvra-

684 Tjfipe 5' o Travovpyos eVepov ttoAv Travovpytais 685 p.et^o(Tt KeKacrpevov koI 86Xoi(ri ttoikiXols 687 p-qpa(TLV 6' atfivXois. 688 dAA' OTTWS aywvtei (f>p6vTi(e rdiriXoLTr dpiarra
'

crvfJip,dxov^ 8'

ij/i/ia?

;^ojv

tVous cTTicTTOUTae TraAat.


687
ai/xi5\ots

618

elpyaa-fjiiv'

MSS.

Bentley proposed

epyaffd/jiev

Princeps

ai/ivXt'ots

A = abbcd, 4 4 4 2 8, epodic pentad a Monostrophic dyad. tetrad composed of a protracted trochaic tetrameter, two paeonic-trochaic tetrameters and a dimeter, with a trochaic octameter See 751. as epode. Heliodorus See the metrical scholium on Eq. 616 and 683. It should be noted that he employs arranged cola 8-10 as trimeters. There the term paeonic to designate both ^ v^ v^ and '^ is ancient testimony that he classified paeonic feet, at least in such See Choeroboscus's Commentary connexion as this, as k^da-rip^oi.
:

'

periodic

'

'

'

(Heph. 247. 11
232.

AT.).

Pax 346-60 = 385-99 (Syzygy


Strophe.

I.).

'H/x.

ei

yap kKykvoir
T-qv
fj.k

tSeiv rav-

TTore

t^v

rj/xepav.

v^ ^ w ^ ^ ^ -

i^

232
347 TToXXa yap

TROCHAIC VERSE
rjviarxofxijv

87
.

206 w
b

t;

348

TrpdyfxaTa. re Kal crTi.f3a.8as,

a? f\a)(^e ^opjxiwv

349 KovKiT av

350
351

355

356 358
359

ovSe Tot'S rpoTTOvi ye S^ttov (TKkriphv oicnT(.p Kal Trpo tov, _ v^ =t v^ 10 dAA" airaXhy av fi lSocs w;^0 Kal TToXv vewrepov a^ ^ TraAAayevTtt itpay [xaTiav. v^^-v^ Kat ya/a tKOi/ov xpo^'o^' " wv^-v^ TToXXvpeda Kal Karare15 v^>^-v^ TpipiiiOa TrXaviop.ivOL ^ tS AvKLOV KiXK AvKeiOV w ^ ^VV Sopl ^VV aCTTTlSl. ^ ^- ^ dAA' o Tt pdXicTTa xapi oi'peda TTotorvre?, aye 802 v^^-v^
f2 vpot<s SiKaa-TTji'

SpLfMVV Ov8i SvCTKoXoV,

^ ^^ ^w w O ^ o w

_ ^ _ ^ w^..^/ ^ v^ 6*^
v^

w
v^

v^

4*"'^

v^^4*^

^ _ ^^;^o
.

w
w
w
v^
^

6^

wc^rO
w^^-v^
6^

^
^-

4*^^

v_,^.w

4>p(>-C^

'

o"^

y/> avTOKpdrop'

20-W--W -w
ctya^/y

ei'Aer

ns

>}/iti'

rvxi].
(ant.)

801

-^...^

-^-. -^-9^

Antistrophe.
'Hyu,. /8'

pr^SapoJs

SecnroO' 'Kpp.TJ,
p.r^Sap.oj'i,

/xrySajUOJS,

386 387

et

Tt

Ke)(apt(r/xevov
e-

)(04p68iov oi(r6a Trap


/xou ye KaTeSrjSoKws,

388 toCto
Tp.
oi'K

ju,i)

(fiavXov vofjLt^' ev

Tw8e Tw irpdyfiaTi.
uKovei? oia ^wTreuwi'a^ SeoTTora
;

oucrt cr

'Up..

(3'

pr]
(T

yevrj TraAty koto's

dvTtd^oiio-tv
/ir)

'///.iv,

391

wcTTe T^vSe

Xa/Selv,

dAAa

x'^P'-^'

(fiiXav-

OpmoraTe Kal p,eyaXoSojpoTare 8atp,6vwv,

395

et

Tt TLei(rdv8pov /38eXvTTi
TOl"J
X6(fiOV<i

Kal TttS
te-

6<f)pv<i.

396

Kttt

o^e

6vcriai(Tiv
Trpo(ro8oL'i

pala-i

re peyd-

88

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


Aaio-i Sta TravTos
<S

233

399
:

Seo-TTOT
:

dyaXov/JLev

Tj/xeis

aet.
:

avv 357 ^vv Ms Person 346 TTore ttjv Tj/iipav Dindorf rriv yj/xipav wori dvripoXovffiv, R reading 390 <t' dvTid^ovffiv Ed. vofil^uv 388 vofu^ Bentley 396 iepaiai. Trpoaodois Princeps hpah wpoabSoLai. RV TraXiyKorSs (sic) avTi^oKovaiv
:
:

Monostrophic dyad.
:

A = abc

(346-9,

350-7,

358-60).

A=

two trochaic tetrameters with a paeonicaba, 4 6 4, mesodic triad b = abba, 4 6 6 4, palinodic See 739. trochaic hexameter as mesode. a trochaic tetrameter as proode, two paeonic- trochaic tetrad:
hexameters, and a second trochaic tetrameter c is See 746. the melody of the first period. See also 733. See 773. trochaic nonameter. and See the metrical scholia on Pax 346 233. The following ode in the second
flf.

as epode that repeats an indivisible paeonic-

385 fF. Parode

is

composed

on the general model of the foregoing, but the poet has omitted two cola and has otherwise varied the treatment of his theme.

Pa^ 582-600 (Parode


Xo.
X^'V^' X'^^P
o-w

II.).

4>tXTa6', ws

dcrfxevoLa-LV lyA^es rj[XLi>-

yap

e8dfiri[j.ev

7r6$(o,

585

8ai/idvta fSovXofJLevot
els

800

^ ^ ^ ^ .^ ^ ^- ^
v^v^'v^

dypov dvepirvaaL.

^ ^ ^ ^ Ke/jSos w n-odovp.kvrj v^^-v^ 589 Trdcriv OTrdcrot yewpyi ^v^.v> KOV (3lOV iTpt./3oiMeV fJ.610 vq yap rjfxds oxftiXeis. ^ ^. ^ 692 TToXXd yap e7rao-)(o/i.V w^-w rrpiV TTOT 6776 (TOV yXvKia w^^-^ KdSd-Trava Kal (fiiXa. ^ 595 TOts dypoLKOKTiv yap rjaua
ria-Oa

yap

/AcyicrTov ly/xtv

v./

v^ 2 ^

^ ^' ^^ v^ 4 ^ v^ 4 w w w w

w
^ _
yj

6
.

^'

ww6

_^_v^
v.^ 4 ^ ^- ^^ ^ ^- ^ ^^ ^- ^

)^i8pa Kal (TMT'qpla.

15 w
^ ^ y^
^'

WCTC
Kal

(re

Ta t
6'

djXTveXia

\j k^

TO.

vea crvKtSia
OTTOcr
ecrrt

^-

rdXXa
600

<jiVTa

^-

7r/30cryeXa<rTai

XafSovr

dcrfiiva.

583 ^\ee%7)ixiv Dindorf:

7,p2v

^Xdes

599

birba'

Bentley:

6<t'

R:

6<tc

V
abc,

Non-antistrophic.
2 4
4,

A = ABC
:

(582-6, 587-96, 597-600).

A=

pericopic triad

trochaic tetrameter.

trochaic dimeter, trochaic tetrameter, paeonicThe melody may have been abb, See 771.
4,

proodic triad,

b = abba, 4 6 6

palinodic tetrad

a trochaic tetra-

'

235

TROCHAIC VERSE

89

meter as proode, two paeonic-trochaic hexameters and a second trochaic tetrameter as epode that repeats the melody of the first period. See 746. See 773. C is an indivisible paeonic-trochaic nonameter. Heliodorus regards See the metrical scholium on Pax 571 ff.

571-600 as a pericope, of which the first period is 571-81, but probably this trochaic hypermeter, following tetrameters, was not In the text of Heliodorus the first colon (582) melic. See 808 f. was acatalectic. His analysis does not include the last eight cola.
234.
'H/i.

Ach.
oStos

280-3 (Parode

II.).

oiiTOS ai;Tos eVrtv,

fSdXXe ftdkXi /^aAAe /^aAAe.


'H/x. /3'
Trate Traie

tov ixiapoV
;

ov /^aAeis

ov f3aXek

(717)

^ ^ ^ ^

^ - ^ -^
.

^ ^ ^ - ^ ^ ^- ^ ^ 8

is an indivisible trochaic octaNon-antistrophic proode (717). See 773. meter with paeonic-trochaic movement in the last two cola. Heliodorus regards See the metrical scholium on Ach. 263 flF. 263-83 as a pericope, of which the second period is 280-3, but the

chorus reappear at 280.

235.

Vesp.

1060-70
'<}/ietS

= 1091-1101
^ w v^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 5 ^cttw

(Parabasis).

Strophe.
'H/ii.

a w

TTctAai TTOT

6VtS

^ ^
w 4 w 2^ w^tw v^ 4'

akKLfioL fiev ev ^opots,

1061 uAki/xoi

8'

iv

fj.dxfJ-i-'S,

1062 Kal KaT avro tovto 1063


irpiv TTOT riv irplv

[xovov

avSpes fia\iiiix)TaTOi

Tavra, vvv

S'
St)

^^

-^-2*^
-wcrrv^ w ^ 5^^

ot^eTai,

KVKVov re TroAiwrepat
800

-w-^
w

-v.-^

1065

ai'6'

7rav^oi'a-ii'

T/Di'xes.

dAAa KaK Twv Xenpdvwv


TwvSe
pu)fxr]v

Set

_^_

i=^^_^
w

vfaviKrjv cr^etv

796
ws cyw
Tovfjibv
vop.i^(D
/}

10

V.

1069

yrjpas eivat kp^Ittov

ttoA-

Awv

KiKtVvovs vcai'iwv Kol

a^rjfia KevpvTrpoiKTiav.

^ _^__ ^ ^ ^ w v^ 6

_^__

i=iQ

_^

Antistrophe.
'HjLi. /3'

apa Seivos
Ktti

7)

rd^' wo-re iravTa

jui)

SeSoiKei'at

1092

KaTe(rrp\p6.p.-qv
eKCtcre

Tovs evavTtoi's TrAfwv


ov

rais rpi'ijpeaLV

yap

-qv

rjplv

ottws

90 1095

THE VEESE OF GREEK COMEDY


prjaiv ev Ae^etv t/ieAAo/xev tot, ouSe auKO(^avT7yo-eiv Tiva
<^povTts,
ciAA'
ocTTts
kpf.Trj<;

236

1097

eVotT

ctpicTTOs.

Totya/Dovv

TroAXa?

TToAeis Mr^Scoi' lAovTes

aiTitoTaTOt

(jikpecrdaL

jov

(f>6pov

8evp

ecr/xev,

ov

kXtvtov(tiv

oi

vewTcpor.

1097

o(rris

Elmsley

Sorts a^

abc,

A = ABC (1060-2, 1063-5, 1066-70). A = Monostrophic dyad. trochaic tetrameter, paeonic- trochaic 4 2 4, pericopic triad The melody may have been aba, See 771. dimeter and tetrameter. B = ab, 2 5, pericopic dyad trochaic dimeter, paeonicmesodic triad. C probably = a'a, 6 6, monostrophic See 770. trochaic pentameter. two hexameters in correspondence. See 767. The ordinary type indications of the close of the first subordinate period in C (1066-8) are lacking, but Aristophanes affects the trochaic hexameter. See 776.
:
:

236.

Ban.

1099-1108 = 1109-18
Stro2)he.

(Debate).

'H/x. a' fjLeya to 7rpay/xa, ttoXv

to vetKO?,

=^v^
z^

^
.^

.^v^

aSpos 6 TToAe/xos epx^Tat.

^
^^

1100

x^'^f^oi' o^'' epyov Siaipeiv,

^
c;

c; w 4*^ ^ ^

OTav 6

fiiv

Te'ivrj

^tacws

;^w

1102

6 8' iiravaa-rpecjieLv Svvrfrai KaTrepiiSecrOaL

5=^w
w

ropm.
eio't

v> vy .^

1103 aAAa 1104


1105

[XT]

'v

ravro} Kcidrjcrdov

_^_m _^_^
v-'

ctcr/?oAai

yap

TroAAat

"^^arepai (TO<fiL<T/xaTwv.

o Tt

7re/3

otjv

e'xeTov epi^eiv,

AeyeTov otitov dvaSeperov

ra T6

TraAato. Kat to. Kaivd,

\^ _v^ ^ ^ v./ 6 10=^v^ o c^w ;^w;:zrv^ =^v^=^ ^^ ^ ^ x^ ^

1108

KOLTroKivSweverov AeTTTOV Tt Kat a-0(f>bv Aeyetv.

_^_m _^

v./

10

'

H/x.

^'

et

Se
jXTj

TovTO KaracfiofSeLcrOov,
Tts afxadia irpoa-y
9iii[X.kvOl(TlV,
yu.'^

1110

TOtS

WS

TO.

AcTTTa

yvwvat AeyovToii',
Tovd'
'

1112

fJiljSeV

6pp(t)8lT

ws

ovkW
1113 1114
1115

OVTO) TaVT* X^'-

icrrparevfjievot

yap

elcri,

(iifiXiov t' x<v cKao-TOS

pavOdvet, ra Se^udat
<^uo-ts

t'

aAAws

Kparirrrai,

238

TROCHAIC VERSE
vvv 8e Kal iraprjKovijVTai.
fiyjSev

91

ovv

Seccrr^Tov,

dXXa

1118

iravT' kwe^LTOV d^arOfV y'


oi've;^'
(OS

oVtwi' (rocfxov.

= abed, 4 8 6 10, pericopic tetrad: tetraMonostrophic dyad. meter, octameter, hexameter, decameter containing a single paeonictrochaic metre.

See

772.

See also
Thes7n.

777.

237.
Xo.

459-65

(Scene

I.).

Tpov av re Ay/xa tovto


KO/JLiporepov

^/^..v^

^ ^

460

eV

r/

to TrpoTepoi'

dvaTrecjirjvei'.

oia KaTecTTMfivXaTO,

205
Ov8'

OVK aKaipa,
Kol

<^/3evas

e\ov(Ta
VOlJfJL,

TToAwAoKOV

da-vver'

dXXa

iriOava Trdvra.
r?]<5

^-^ ^ v^ 5 ^ ^- ^ s^ ^^ ^^
tov dvSpa
v^v^

.^

v^

v^

7*^^

^ ^ w ^^ ^^ ^

465
467

See

Se ravrrjs

vjSpews

I'ljuv

7repi(j>avo}S

8ovvai

SiKiji'.

w
dyad:

11

Non-antiatrophic.

A = ab,

11,

pericopic

hendecameter containing a single paeonic-trochaic metre.


238.
Vesp.

heptameter, See 770.


I.).

334-45 = 365-78 (Syzygy


LYRICAL DUO
Strophe.

^ov, TT/oos evvov<s yap (^pacrets. ^ 335 ^^v^ ov/ios vios, aAAa yu,^ ^o^i. 5 w OLTe' Kal yap Tvy^*^^^' 337 ovTOO-i irpocrOev KadevSwv. k^ ciAA' vcfiecrOe tov tovov. ^ Kop. a' Tou 8' 4'^e^tv ai fxdraLe ^ Tttwra 8pdv ere /SovXeruL
Kop. a
Tt's

yap kaO'

ravrd

cr'

ti'pycoi'

v>

KdiroKXyoiv ry 6vpa

Ae-

_^

m ^
v?

_^_v
w kj v^ v^ ^ ^ ^ ;^v^^ _^ v^ ^ _^ w ..^ ^ u^v^

^ ^
6^^

^
4*^^

^
^

v./

i^
y^

4^
2*^^

339 <Kat> Tiva


<i>l.

Trp6<^acnv )(U)v;
atv8/3S
StKtt^eil/

10

wn./'v^

OTJK

/x'

orSe 8pdv ov8lv KttKoi',

341 dAAa
ecrr'

p.'
"

cuwxetv eTOip-os
eyo) 8'

^^w _ ^ _ ^
^^ ^ 15 ^ 207 w ^

i^

;=i

4*^^

^
4*^

ou /SovXopai.
6 utapos X*"

Kop. a' tout'

iroXp-rja-'

veiv 6

^rjpoXoyoKXewv 204,

'

92

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


343
344
oTi Aeyets ti Trepi Ttuv vewv a\i)d<i

239

ov yap av
tout'

irod'

outos avr^p
Aeyetv
vyr.

iroX/j-rjcrev

et

345

)Lii)

^uvw/AOTiys Tts

^ ^ ^ 20 v^ ^

_^_ii

_^ v

^
13^

Antistrophe.
Ko/3. /3'

aAAa
COS

Kttt

vvv

kKiropt^e.
,

/i,7/^av>)v

OTTWS Ta^Lcrd
<3

t-

366
4>i.

yap

jx^Xlttiov.

8taT/oaye6i/ to6VI'v KpaTtcrrov


icTTl
fJLOl

TO SlKTVOV.
cruyyvw-

368
Kop.
/3'

ly

8e /aoi
/A1JV

AtKTWva

X06 ToO StKTVOU.


irpos dvSpos to'T
crwTrjpcav.

ravra piv
vovTOS

a-

ts

370
4>t.

aAA' 7ray t^v yva^or.


8iariTpu)KTaL toGto y'
p,r]

dXXa
/xi)

fSoare prjBapio'i,
Ty]pwpecr6' ottws

372
Kop.
(B'

dXXa
pi]8ev

BSeAvKAewv
u>

alardrjaeTai.

rdv

SeSt^i,

prjSev
ypi'-

ws yw TouTov y', eav


^7]

Tt,

7rOl7yO-W

SttKClV T>)v

KapStaV

Kttt

Tov
petv,

Trept

^i^X'y^
etS?^

Spopov 8pairarelv to.

tV

^t)

Totv deoLV
339
/cat

\pT]<f>Lcrpara.
^01;/

Bergk

378

to?;/

Cobet

rwv

^ewj/ or rai;' ^eatj/

Monostrophic dyad.
6 4
738.
4,

proodic triad

(334-7, 338-41, 342-5). A = abb, See a hexameter as proode to two tetrameters.


:

A = abc

two tetrameters that enclose a dimeter, with a third tetrameter as epode that repeats the melody c is an indivisible hyperSee 749. of the first and third periods. See also 777. See 773. meter of thirteen metres.
2 4 4, epodic tetrad

B = abaa, 4

239.

Lys.

1043-57 = 1058-71 (Stasimon


Strophe.

IL).

Xop. Fep. ov wapaa-Keva^opecrda


TCOV TToXlTWV OvSfv'

WvSpeS

cfiXavpov eiVeiv ovSe ev,

1045 aAAo. TToAv TovpiraXiv Trdvr' dyada kol Aeyeiv Kal Spav, iKava yap to. KaKa

_^__ ^ i^ ^ x^ 6^ ^ ^- ^ v^ o 2^ 5 v^^-v^ ^ ^ ^' ^^ v^s^-v


v_/

_^_m
i=i

_^_v^

240
Kol
dXX.'
Ttt

TROCHAIC VERSE
TrapaKiifiiva.

93-

cTrayyeAAeTw
dvy]p Kttt yi'vi^y

1050

TTtts

Tts dpyvpiSiov Set-

^ ^' ^ _ ^ _ _ ^ _ 10 v^ v^
. .

v^ w _ ^ _ _ ^ _ ^
Vru'

6*^^

2 2

Ta6 XajSelv /xvas

i)

Su'

7)

rpei'i,

to'i

TrAta

1054 1055

axop-ei'
KOiV TTOT
6(rTis

(SaWdvriaelpyjvj]

^icvy,

^ ^
nap
i//xwi',

^ v^ w ^

7^^
2'''^

dv vvvl

^avii(7t)TaL

av Aa/?jy fnjKer'

diroStj).

15

v^

c^w

5*^

Xop.

Ftiv. 0-T6av Se /xeAAo/xei'

^ei/oi'S

rtra? KapvcrTtoi'S, avSpas KaAots re

Kcicmi' <t'> eVvos

Tf

Kat
Kttt toi;to

1061 SeA^ciKtov

yv

Ti

//,ot,

tc^ux'j ^^"^^

i^P^'

eSecr^'

uTraAa

Kat KaXd.

1064

I'JKer'

ovi'

ei's

ipiov

TrifxepoV

Trpco

Se

^/ai)

1066 TovTo Spdv XeXov/xevovs


1069 dAAa X'^P^"' 1070 Monrep otKaS'
:

avjoi's re Kat

to

TratSt", err' eicrw /?aSi^etv,

fiT^S'

kpkcrdai

fxi-j^iva,

avTiK/3VS
ets

eavroiv yevviKcos, w?
#(rw
^Secrd'

t|

^t'/Da
:

KSKXya-erai.

?r'

1053 TrX^a Burges b-6\X' 1062 wo-re Kp^' Reisig

1054 Exofiev Burges K&xo/J-fv wcrxe rd /cp^a ^^ecr^' RF, ws Reisig


:

1060
to.

Kpia

yivead'

C dyad.
:

Monostrophic
paeonic-trochaic
:

A = AB

(1043-48,

1049-57).

A = abc,

6 2 6, pericopic triad

trochaic hexameter, paeonic-trochaic dimeter,

See 771. B = aabcd, 2 2 7 2 5, epodic hexameter. a tetrad composed of two paeonic - trochaic dimeters, a pentad See 759. heptameter and a dimeter, with a pentameter as epode.
240.

The mebdy and

dance of the preceding

ode

were

doubtless repeated in the third stasimon.


Lys.

1189-1202 = 1203-15
Strophe.
8e TrotKi'Awv

(Stasimon

III.}.

^op.

Fe/D. (Trpwp.dT(DV

Kat

i(Aavt8toji'
\pV(Tl,<JiV,

Kat ^vo"Tt5(ui' Kat


OCr'

i(TTt
/jlol

jXOl,

1191 ov

(fidovos evea-Tt

TTacrt

Trapex^'-v cfyepeiv TOt-j

7raio-tv,

oTTOTav re dvydKavri<f)oprj.

T1JP

Tivt

^ ^ ^ ;^^ v/ \j ^ w 6 w>^'^ w 2*^ v^i^^ 5 ^^ -^^ ^ ^ ^- ^^ ^ ^. ^ ^ ^' ^^ ^ 6*^

94

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


1195
TtacTiv

241

vfiiv

Xeyio

Xa^jiavtiv rdv e/xwv


^prjixdriov vvv evSo^ev,
lj.7]8ev

Kai

_ ^ _ _ ^ _ 2 ^ 2 _ ^ 10 v^ ^
.
.

ouTws

ev crea-r][xdv6at, to

f/.7]

onx^

Tovs pvTTOvs avacnraaaL,

1200

x^"^"^'

<^''>
8'

evSov

7^

(f>opeLv.

^ ^ w w
/a'>j

\j
v^

oiI/eraL

ovSev o-kottwv,

rts vjxoiv

6gVTpOV

efJbOV

/^AeTTEl.

15 v^=^w

v^

Antistrophe.
Xop. Tvv.
el

Se

Tw
Trap'

/x^

crtTos

t'/xwr

eo-rt,

PocTKit

S'

ocKeras Kat afiLKpa

TToXXd

7rat8ta,

1205 1209
1211

ecTTt

t/AoG

Aa/Jeiv

TTvpi8ia XeiTTo. p.kv, o 8' apros aTTO x''^^'<^'^ 'S^'v


ocTTis

^aAa

veavias.

oSv /^oTjAerat
^at

TW|/ TreVTJTCUV ITW


CIS

/AOu

craKKODS

e'xwi'

KwpvKovs,
S'

ws

Ai/i/'crat

7ri;poi's,

Mav/)s

ovfios

avToh

e/x/JaAei.

1213

Trpos ye /xevrot ti)v

^t'pav
W;!' ep^v,

TTpoa-ayopevw p,^
1190 ^(tt/ MO' Elmsley ai^rols ovfibs avTois Bentley
: :

^aS%iv
e>oi

dAA' evXafSela-daL
a.-

ttjv Kvva.

^ffri^

1200

Elmsley

1212

oi>,xcs

R
lyric.

See the analysis of the preceding 241.


J^ys.

658-71 = 682-95
Strophe.

(Parabasis).

Xo.Tep. ravr' ovv oix vfipa ra


Trpdyp-a.T
(rTi

ttoXX'/j ;

659

KaTTtStucretv /aoi SoKet

to

209 209 ^ ^ ^

- ^ - ^ _ 4 _ v^ ^7
.

Xp-I^pa

paAAoF, dAA'

tt/xwreoi' to ivpayii

0(t-

Tts 7'

evopx'^s

o"'''

dvr;p.

^ ^ 5 w

w w ^^7
4CV

v^

662

dAAa

Tr;v

i^wfiiS' k8v-

wpe^'

0)5

Tov av8pa
eij^i's,

8et

663

dvSpbs o^etv

dAA' ovk

^vredpcwaOaL

Trpe-nrei.

664

dAA' dyeTC AeuKOTroSes,


oiTrep 7ri Ki\pv8piov

7]X6ofiev ot' T^/xev eVt, vGi'

10 Set -

v.

v.

ic
vv.

^
^.

667

vvv dvT]Py]a-aL irdXiv KdvaTnepMcrai

242

TROCHAIC VERSE
Trav to <rw/ia KaTTOcrdija-

95
c;
.

670

(rdai TO yrjpa<i ToSe.

15 w _ ^ _

^ ^ ^ ^ 7

Antistrophe.
Xo. Tvv.
el
vrj

tw dew
ifiavTTJ'i

[J.e

^(OTrc/avyoreis,

Xvcrw
ttol/jco)

Trjv

vv

iyw

8>y,

Kal

rrjfxepov

tovs

SrjfJLOTas

(3o)(TTpeLv a-'

lyw

TrcKTOv/zevov.

686
688
692

dXXa
ws
vvr
at-

X^/^^'5
o^w/i.v
e/x'

w ywaiKC? OaTTov
tTw
tis,

e/cSvco/xe^a,

yuvaiKajv auToSa^ wpyKT/xevoiv.


iVa
p.^;

7r/30S

ttotc <^ay7/ o-KopoSa, fi-qSe Kvdfiov^

[MeXava^-

ws

el

Kai /xoroi' KaKtos epeis, vTrepxoXw yap, alerui' rcKTOVTa Kdvdap6<;


(re

fiaLevKTOfJiai.

664 XevKoTToSes

Hermann

XvKonodes

Monostrophic dyad.
pericopic

dyad
7,

aabc, 4 4 7

= AB (658-61, 662-71). A = ab, 4 7, See 770. B= protracted tetrameter, heptameter. two trochaic tetrameters and a paeoiiicepodic tetrad
: :

trochaic heptametei-, with a heptameter as epode.

See

743.
I.).

242.

Lys.

781-804 = 805-28
Strophe.

(Stasimon

Xo. Tep. [xvdov /SovXojJiaL Xe^ai Tiv'


V/XLV,

209
209

OV TTOT yKovcr
wv.

783

avTos ere

Trats

ovTios rjv veavio-Kos

^ - ^ ^- ^ _ _

- ^ ^ e^^ m _ ^
.

"

-=i

i^i.

MeAavtwv

tis,

os <^ei;ywv yajxov d-

96

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


802
Tpaxv's evrevOev
fjieXajxirv-

243

yds re tois t^Opoi^

aTracriv,

804

S>s

Se

Koi ^op/XLOiV.

^ ^ ~ _ ^ _
.

_^_^
_ ^ _
g^

Antistrophe.
Xo. Tvv. Kayoi /Sovkofiui
Oov riv'
vfjitv

fiv-

avTiXk^ai

807

T^ McXaviwvi.
Iifiwv ^v Tis atSpvTO<; dftaToicnv ev <TK(oXoi(n to,
tt/oo-

811

o-WTra Trepietpy/xevos, 'E-

pLvvoiV diroppu)^.

OVTOS ovv 6 TlfHOV


W^^e^' VTTO
fJiL(TOV<S

815

TToAAo, KaTapa(rdfjLevo<i

dv8pdo-L TTOvrjpois.
OVTd) 'xetVOS VfMWV
dvrejua-ei tovs jrovi-jpov'i

dvSpas

del,
rjv

Talari.

Se

yv-

820
Vvv.
Yep.

vat^tv
TTjv

(^lAraros.
fSor'Xei

yvdOov

devu)

)U,7ySa/xa!s

eSeicrd ye.

Tvv.
Tep.

dWd
Toi'

Kpova-io tc5 orKeAei;


K<f>avis.

a-dKavSpov
o/icos
civ

Tvv.

dAA'

ot'K

tSots

826
828
:

KaiTrep ovcrrjs

y pah's
ttAA'

ovt' avaTTCl/'l-

TOV

KOp,7]T7]V,

Aw/xevov T(p Av^vwXaKrla-ai.


:

to (tk^Xos 799 XaKTiaai Bentley 824 cydKavopof Suidas irpbawirov

810 rd

Trpocruwa.

Hermann

rb

aa.Kavdp'

Monostrophic dyad.
(plus

A = ab

2)

4,

pericopic

triad

(781-92, 793-804). A = abc, 6 9 refrain hexameter, (771) with


:

nonameter (with three dimeters in refrain), tetrameter, all in paeonicB = abbbba, 8 2 2 2 2 8, palinodic hexad See 774. trochaic rhythm.
:

The antistrophe lacks See 758. octameter, four dimeters, octameter. See 51, one dimeter in the refrain, corresponding to colon 9.
243.
Vesp.

403-29 = 461-87 (Syzygy


Strophe
I.

II.).

Ko/3. a' eiTTC fioi Ti ixeXXo/Mev

ki-

veiv iKetVTjv rrjv )(oXr)v

404

rjvn-ep

rivW dv

Tts

17/i.wv
;

^ ^^ ^

^^

^
^

^
^=^

^
v./

i=i

4.cv

'^

opyta-rj

ttjv cr(f>r)Kidv

i^^_i^_^x

4CV

243
vvv eKelvo vvv
Tov^vOvfiov

TROCHAIC VEESE
c/cetvo
(^

97

'H/x. a!

5 w o
KevTpov

v^

KoXa(pfie.(Tda

408 ttAAa
409

410
412

414

^ ^- w ^ ^ w 0)5 Ta;(icrTa TratSia 10 v^ ^ ^iTC K-at /Joare /cat KAe_ ^ _ wvt Taiir' dyyeAXfTe, v^ ^ Kul KeAei'er' auTov >JKtv ^ -^ ws ctt' avSpa fJucroTroXiv v^^^w OVTtt KaTToAoi'/XeVOV, OTt 51 15 ^ ^' k^ To'vSe Adyov d(T(f>epeL, _ v^ _ St/ca^eiv StKas.
evTerarat d^ews.

800

Oal/xdrta jSaXovTi'i

;:^w

<--

i:i

w 7^^^ v^ ^ w 4*^^ ^ ^ _ ^ ^ 4CV w v^wv^ v^>:^v^

_^bi^V
_ ^
i:^

yuii)

10*^^

Strophe II.
BS.
(Sya^ot TO irpayfi' dKOVcrar'

aAAa
Kop.

/xt)

KeKpayare.
BS.

a' vr) At,' ts Toi' oi'pai/di/ y'.

TOvS' eyw ou
'H/;i. a'

iie6i]croixai.

TttVTa

S'Jjt'

ov

Seivo,

Kat
;

Tt>-

^ y^ w v^ w ws 20 w ^ _v_/
v--

^y ^>

c/

4^^

w w 4^ w ^

pavvis ia-Tiv

efX(f)avqs
cf.

Av. 1560

(216)

-^-v^ -v^-^4^
.

_ ^ _ _ ^ _ pov 6eoL(r)(^dpLa, 25 ^ 419 Ket Tis aAAos Trpoe_ ^ _ crTr]KV rjfxwv Ko'Aa^. ^ 'Hpa/cAets Kat K^vrp' exovaiv Ha. v^^^ Becrwora ; oijx op?^5 v^ v^ B8. oi<s y' oLTTwXea-av <J>iAt777rov 30 ^ V SiKr; Tou Fopyiov.
418
(S

TToAts Kai

0ew-

'i*

_ _ _

^ _ 4CV ^ ^ ^ _ 4C w o wv^ 4^^ w ^


.

i=i

Kop.

a' Kat

as

y'

ttTJTOis

e^oXov/xeV

_^__ _^_o _^_^

4^

dAAa
etV'

Tras iTicrTpecfye

423 Seupo Ka^eipas to Kivrpov


ctt'

auTOV

I'ecro,

424 ^ucTTaAets cvTaKTOs


425
Ha.
(I)S

opyrjs

Kai /X6V0VS p,7rA7y^evos,


di/

v elSy

rh AotTrov

o-fiTjVOS

olov oipytcrev.
rjS/^

^ ^ ^ ^ 4*^^ ^ ^ w w ^^^^4'' 35 v^ ^ _v^ ^ v^v^4 _ ^_ii v^ ^ ^ o 4*^^

_^__

ToiJTO fiiVTOi Setvov

_v^__
40 ^ w

_^__

v^ At",

fiaxovpeOa'
Se-

v^^4^ v^v74

427 ws

eytoy'

avTwv opwv
Tots

_^^__ _,j_^

SotKa

eyKei'TptSas.

_^

i^

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


'H^. a

243

dAA' d^tet tov av8p'


>(eAwvas fiaKapi-

429

Tcts

tv (re

Tou

Sep/ittTos.

Antistrophe
BS.

I.

dXAa
eiTrep
/?'

/i,a

At" ou paStws outws dv auroi;? Sie^vye?,

462
'H^.

'^tv^ov
Srjr'

twv

jxiXiov

twv lAoKAeovs
Trevrycriv,
r}

/Se/SpwKores.

dpa
t

ot5k

arrd SijAa to??


Trovqpe
kolI

xvpavvts ws Xadpa y'


/xe,

ekavdav' VTTiovo-d

466

(TV

y'

(3

TTOvo)

KOfii^rapLVVLa
r)

Toiv vofiuyv rjfxas aTreipyeLs Siv eOrjKev

ttoAis,

468 ovTC

Tiv'

e^cuv

TrpocjioXTtv

ovre

Aoyov cvrpdireXov,

avrh'i

apyoiv
;

juovos

Antistrophe II.
B^.
cr^'

OTTWS dvev fidxV^

'^"^''

"^V^

Karo^etas

/3o7ys

472

eis

Aoyovs eXOoi/xev dAA^Xotcrt Kai StaAAayds

'ilfi.f3' (Tovs

Aoyovs 5

fiKToS-que

koI fiovapx^^as epacrrd

475 Kat ^Dvwv


(TTefxixdriiiv

ByDao-t8^ Kat (f)Opu)V KpacrireSa


ry)v

virr^v-qv

aKovpov rpee^wv

BS.

i'^

At"

r} i^

fioi

KpeiTTov eKO-TrjvaL to Trapdirav tou TraTpbs


6o-7//i.epat.
e'v

479 /aSAAov
Kop.
/3'

KUKOis TocrovTOiS vavfj.axeiv


orS' v o-eAtvw
o-otjottii/

owSe

p.'^v

oijS'

Trr^ydvo)'

481 tovto ydp

TrapefifSaXovfJiev
/AV

twv TpixoivcKdH'

7rwv.

dAAa vuv
BS.
ap' dv
))

ovSev dAyets, dAA' oTav iivv/yopos

TauTO, TttUTa (TOV KaravrXyj Kat ^i;vwp,0Tas KaXy.

Trpb?
p,oi

twv

^ewj/

vjjieis

dTraAAa^^^etTe pou

485
'Hp.
/3'

SeSoKTai

Zkpecrdai Kat Sepeiv St' i}p,pas;


Ti juou Aoittov
>/,

ovScTTOTe y',
OCTTtS 1]p.WV
:

o^x ws av
eTTt

Tl'paVVtS' <(SS'> (TTdXrfS.


:

TOi'S'

416 414 /xtj Princeps tbs x/^ M^? evriTar <5fi) 407 ivTirarai 6^iws Ed. debs ix^pia RY 418 deoicyexdpia Bentley Person: rix-S' R, roi'Se 7' crol 480 /j-tjv 473 <70!;s Hirschig aCris R, out^j V 422 ai^Tots Holden 487 <l!5' Hermann Hirschig fi^v 7'
:

The two

A = aab, 4 4 7, 408-14). See heptameter as epode.


strophe), epodic triad
:

= AB (403-7, strophes constitute a pericope, AB (705). epodic triad: two tetrameters with a B = aab, 4 4 10 (4 4 6 in the anti737.
two tetrameters, with a decameter as epode hexameter in the antistrophe).

in the strophe (two tetrameters with a

See See

737.
51.

Two cola (perhaps 12, 13) are lacking in the antistrophe. B is a stichic period composed of fifteen tetrameters. See 778.

247

TROCHAIC VERSE
Non-Melic Trochaic Verse
the tetrameter in aristophanes

99

244. The catalectic trochaic tetrameter is used by Aristophanes both as a melic period (210) and also continuously by When it is used by line, its two cola are line in recitative (59).

very generally separated by diaeresis (253 ff.). 245. The recitative tetrameter is used in all the comedies of
Aristophanes except the Plutus, but oftener in the earlier than in The verse is adapted to rapid movement and is the later plays.

employed when the chorus enters in haste in sometimes on the run, or when it retires from It is used the immediate scene of action in the second parode." also in the parode, and once in a syzygy, when, after a musical
therefore frequently

the parode

(213),

number, the leaders of the chorus and personages of the scene engage in a dialogue in recitative to the accompaniment of a In many of these scenes the speakers are excited, and tlute.^ sympathy with their emotion was doubtless expressed by the
chorus in mimetic dance-movements.*
246.

The chief use


is

of the recitative tetrameter, however, in

Aristophanes

the parabasis.^

found in the epirrhemata and antepirrhemata of The tone is in general sceptic. Aristotle, speak-

ing of the early drama,


language, says {Poet.

when
14)

it
:

was
to

still

iv.

fiev

satyric in content and yap irpwrov Terpa/xeTpco

-)(pMVTO Sia TO auTvpLKTjV Kol op'^rjCTTLKoyTepav eluaL ttjv TTOirjatv.

recited

The epirrhema and antepirrhema of the parabasis were probably by the first and second leaders respectively, and the recitation was accompanied by the chorus with mimetic movements.
Eecitative trochaic tetrameters occur sparingly also in

other parts of comedy than parode and parabasis.**


247. Thirty-nine of the
;

779
;

recitative

tetrameters in the
;

1 Ach. 234-6 ~ 238-40 Eq. 242-83 Paa-299-338 Av. 268-309, 313, 317-18,
;

320-6.
Poa; 553-70 - 601-50. ^c;t.303-34, Vesp. 430-60-488-525 ^r. 336-42-352-86. ^ See Haigh's Attic Theatre,^ 312 ff., and the Editor's Unrecognized Actor, 122
2

(syzvs^y),

Fesp. 26 (20 = 20) Nub. 1115-30 (669) 1071-90 = 1102-21 (20 = 20) Pax 114055 = 1172-87 (16 = 16); Av. 753-68 = 785-800 (16 = 16); Av. 1072-87 = 110217(16 = 16); Lys. 626-35 = 648-57(10 = Th. 10) and 672-81 = 696-705 (10=10) 830-45 (669) Han. 686-705 = 718-37
; ; ;

(20
6

= 20).
g
; ;

ff.

Ach. 676-91 =703-18 (16 = 16) JEq. 565-80 = 595-610 (16 = 16) ^. 1274-89 = 1300-15 (16 = 16) Nub. 575-94 = 6075
: ;
;

Pax 383-4 ~ 314-21 ~ 391-6 428-30 Lys. 1036-42 Th. 6878-726-7, 702-6 Ec. 1155-62.
426-7
; ;
;

100

THE VERSE OF GEEEK COMEDY


ai-e

248

extant plays of Aristophanes


87.
1 in

purely trochaic, 1 in 20, and 9

others have all arses short but one or

more theses

resolved, 1 in
arsis,

One hundred and sixty-one tetrameters have one long 4-84 357 have two, 1 in 2-18 213 have three, 1 in
;

3-66.

Sixty-five per cent of the complete metres are irrational.

248.

The

tribrach occurs

161
iv.^

times, once in

4-84

tetra-

meters
Tetram.

v-v^v

i.

ii.

iii.

v.

vi.

vii.

Total.

779

161

28-h32 4 + 6 13 + 4

38

11

4+13

94

+ 67

Five of the 94 tribrachs contained in one word overlap the preceding foot. These are all in the fifth or sixth foot (Vesp. 505,
Sixty-three begin with the word 510, Av. 290, 791, 1072). and overlap forward. The word containing the tribrach consists of three syllables in 26 instances. The five tribrachs in the seventh foot are contained each in a tetrasyllable word (^ ^ ^ ^) which comprises the seventh and eighth feet. These are Uq. 319, JVub. 575, 581, Av. 276, 281. Two of these are composed of proper names (iVw&. 581, Av. 281), and the other three have been Only 6 of the 67 tribrachs composed of two or three emended. words or parts of words consist of three words or parts of words, five in the first foot (Ach. 685, Pax 322, Av. 280, 358, 380) and one in the third (Fax 615). The natural division of the tribrach when it consists of two words is ^ ^ (for - v^ ) in trochaic verse, but numerous exceptions ( ^ ^ v^ ) occur in the tetrameter,
v.^
|
|

7 in the
Cf.

first foot,

1 in

the second, 1 in the third, 5 in the

fifth.

Ach. 689, Eq. 245, Vesp. 504, Hq. 281, Vesp. 451, 492.
'

249. The anapaest,' a form in trochaic verse which results from the resolution of an irrational foot (17, 200), occurs 44
times, once in 1 8 tetrameters
Tetram.
:

yj^

ii.

iv.

vi.

Total.

779

44

11

+8

+3

+ 12

21+23

Only two anapaests (Vesp. 497, Pax 553) of 21 contained in one word overlap the preceding foot, 12 overlap forward, 7 consist No anapaest consists of three words each of a trisyllabic word. or parts of words, and the division of the 23 that consist of two is
always
250.
v^

v^|-.

The dactyl occurs

six

times,

once in

the

first

foot

(Eq. 319), three times in the fourth (Av. 373,


1

1113, Ec. 1156),

Av. 341, 353

285 (emended).

254
fifth

TROCHAIC VERSE
(Ach. 318, Vesp. 496).

101

and twice in the


the
first

In each

case, it is

or last simple foot of a dimeter.

See 205.

251. The tetrameters, numbering 391, found in the epirrhemata and antepirrhemata of the parabases are less free in the use of tribrach, anapaest and dactyl than those, numbering 388, The ratios for the two sorts of found elsewhere in the plays. anatetrameters respectively are tribrach, 1 in 6 and 1 in 4 dactyl, 1 in 391 and 1 in 78. paest, 1 in 20 and 1 in 16 252. One hundred and fifty-three of the 181 tetrameters that contain trisyllabic feet have one trisyllabic foot, 26 have two, Fifteen tetrameters contain each two triand 2 have three. brachs in 8 combinations, of which 1, 5 occurs three times (Ach. The collocation ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ occurs QSO, Bq. 262, Av. 34:0).
: ; ;

twice, in

5, 6

{Vesp. 498, Th. 838).

One tetrameter contains


one

three tribrachs (Av. 1116).

Nine contain one tribrach and anapaest in 6 combinations, of which 1, 6 (Bq. 600, 1308) One contains 5, 2 (Eq. 280, Av. 303) each occur twice. cribrachs and an anapaest, involving the combination ^ Two contain one tribrach and (Av. 302). v^ ^ - v^ ^ v^
253.

^.^

and two ^
one
is

dactyl (Ach. 318, Uq. 319).

The trochaic

tetrameter, in its observance of diaeresis,

closer to the recitative than to the

melodramatic iambic tetra-

meter (183).
the iambic

Diaeresis

is

neglected

tetrameters, once in 7*1 verses.

tetrameter

(180),

which do not admit diaeresis the end of the first dimeter, as in ^^. 283, 571, 1281, 1283, Nuh. 622, 623, 1128, Vesjx 506, 514, etc., or of a reqessive word at the beginning of the second, as in Eq. 268, Vesp. 488, Eossbach's assumption (Spec. 491, Fax 306, 334, 559, etc. Mctrik^ 188) that diaeresis is neglected oftener in trochaic tetrameters found in the epirrhemata and antepirrhemata of parabases than in those
that occur

110 times in 779 trochaic To these must be added, as in a considerable number of verses because of a progressive word at

elsewhere in
recitative

comedy

is

not
in in

supported by

facts.

There are 391

tetrameters

parabases and 55 neglect diaeresis; there are

388 elsewhere

comedy, and, as it happens, 55 of these neglect diaeresis. 254. Caesura is allowed after the second arsis, - v^ - v^ -W-, as in Ach. 322, 324, Eq. 244, -w-v.
|

-^-^
Vesp.

257, 269,

457,

_^_^

-^:-v.

-^-v.

1075, Pax 305, 558; after the third, - ^ -, as in ^7. 572, 576, 600,

102

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


1277,

255

1276,

1281,
Vesp.
after

1283,

Nub.

_^_^ _^_^
1307, 1309,
occurs
also

_ ^|_ ^
theses,

-^-,

583, 615; after the Ach. 239, as in


after

fifth,

Eq.
It

503, 506, 510, Pax 302, 324, 426.


not
infrequently

the

second,

_ ^ -, as in Ach. 237, 240, 328, 435, 442, 498, 524; sometimes _|^-^ - ^ - ^ -.^-, asin Ach. after the third, - ^ - ^ 331, 333, 708, Eq. 266, 395, 603, Nuh. 580, 614, 1122, When diaeresis is not possible, a pause may occur after 1125. the fourth thesis, - ^^ - ^ - ^ -\^ - ^ - ^ -v^-,as in
Eq.

_ ^ _|^

^ - ^

258,

283, 1315,

Vesp.

Ach. 235, Nub. 620, 623, 624, 625,


often
in
after

Vesp. 444, 1110; less - ^ - ^ - ^ - ^ -|v^-^ - ^ - as Pauses are rare elseEq. 282, 1311, Pax 630, iys. 631.

the

fifth,

where in the verse than in the places named, but occasionally one occurs after the sixth thesis, -v^-w -^-v^ -v^-|v^

- ^ -, as in Ach. 714, Eq. 1315, Nib. 584, Pax 317, 384, Illustrations Verses occur with two pauses, rarely with three.
follow.

255. The following analysis of 100 recitative trochaic tetrameters found elsewhere than in parabases (Ach. 303-34, Fesp. 430-60, and Av. 268-304) and 100 that occur in parabases (Ach. 676-91, 703-18, Vesp. 1071-90, 1102-17, Av. 753-68, 785-800) Avill serve to illustrate The odd numbers signify theses, the even the foregoing statements. It will be remembered that the thesis of the tribrach and of arses.
the
'

anapaest

'

may

be dissyllabic.

is found in the 58 non-parabatic and 68 parabatic (P.) tetrameters which are not cited below. 6:Ach. 332; Fesp. 443; Av. 4.:Av. 273. F. Ach. 681. P. Ach. 684; Fesp. 1082, 1087, 1114, 1115; Av. 785. 281, 285. 20: Ach. 308; Fesp 432; Av. 268, 279, 284, 286, 291. P. Ach. 682, 715; Fesp. 1073, 1112; Av. 754, 758, 768, 788, 791, 793,

single pause, at diaeresis,

794, 798.
Vesp. 445. S -.Ach. 316, 331, 333; Av. 272, 297. P. 7 -. Fesp. 434, 438, 444, 456, 459; Av. Fesp. 1083. ^c^. 708 P. Fesp. 1072, 1077, 1084, 1088. 270, 283, 294, 298. 8 -.Ach. 313, 324 Fesp. 457. 4 10:Ach. 322. 6:10: 4. 6:11: P. Fesp 1111. 8:10: Av. 277. P. Av. 799. Av. 269. 3:10: Ach. 328; Av. 282. 8 12 :Av. 299. P. Av. 759. 3:8:
;
:

3:

Fesp. 435, 442.

P. Av. 1^1.

3:11:Av. 295. 5:8: Av. P. Ach. 714. 5:7: Av. 301. 3:7:10: Fesp 458.

274.

7:13 : P.

1 :S :F. Ach. 685. Fesp. 1110.

8:11:

259
256.

TROCHAIC VEESE
The melic trochaic tetrameter
in
is

103

the

recitative

exchiding the

dactyl

somewhat severer than and in some minor

particulars.

There are 116 melic tetrameters in Aristophanes.^ Eleven of these are purely trochaic, 1 in 10'5, and four others Thirtyhave all arses short, but one or more feet resolved. 43 have two, 1 in 2-7 three have one long arsis, 1 in 3*5 Fifty-six per cent of the complete 25 have three, 1 in 4-6. metres are irrational.
;

257.
Tetram.

The tribrach occurs 23


i.

times, 1 in 5
v.
vi.

^^^
23
2

ii.

iii-

iv.

vii.

Total.

114

+3

0+1

3 +

1+0

12 + 11

A single

preceding foot.

(Lj/s. 1285) contained in one word overlaps the The word is a trisyllable in 3 instances. The single tribrach in the seventh foot {Vesp. 461) is contained in a No melic tribrach consists of three tetrasyllable ( ^ ^ ^ - ). The division ^ ^ w does not occur. words or parts of words.

tribrach

The anapaest occurs six times, 1 in 21, three times in the second foot {Vesp. 461, 462, Lys. 615), three in the sixth {Vesp. 478, Pax 346, 583). The dactyl is not used. 258. Of the 1 6 tetrameters that contain trisyllabic feet, 9 Three have one trisyllabic foot, 5 have two, 2 have four or more. tetrameters contain two tribrachs {Pax 733, Ran. 1109, Ec.
1165),

The combination
461, 462).
259.

one has four {Ran. 1099), one has six {Lys. 1285). of anapaest and tribrach occurs twice {Vesp.

The trochaic tetrameter, which preceded the iambic

tri-

meter as the stock verse of tragedy (Aristot. Rhet. in. i. 9, Poet. iv. 14), remained in favour with all the comic poets for just the reasons that made it a means less fit than the trimeter to express In the language the exalted sentiments of developed tragedy.
of

Aristotle

it

was

KopSaKtKcorepov,

op^TjcmKcorepov.
in

The

remonstrance Socrates addresses to

Strepsiades

the Niibes

(641

f)

was evidently a

live

question in our poet's


;

own day

1 Ach. 204-7 (4), 219-22 (4), 284, 286, 293 296 335, 337, 341, 343, 985, 999 En '312 f. (2), 326 f. (2), 330, 389 f. (2), Vesp. 336 f. (2), 338, 400 f. (2), 404 340 f. (2), 367 f. (2), 369, 371 f. (2), 403 f. (2), 403 f. (2), 415-417 (3), 420427 (8). 461 f. (2), 466 f. (2), 471 f. (2), 478-485 (8), 1060, 1091, 1093, 1267,
;
;

1283, 1291 Pax 346, 349 f. (2), 356, 389, Lys. 291, 294, 395, 583, 587, 595, 733 301, 304, 614 f. (2), 618, 623, 636 f. (2), Th. 640, 645, 662 f. (2), 686 f. (2), 1285 Ran. 263, 265, 659-662 (4), 674, 714 540, 548, 596, 604, 1099, 1109; Ec.
; ;

1164

f.

(2).

104

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


epcoTM a, aXX" 6 re KoXkcarov fxerpov
rj

7)<yel'
|

260

ov TOVT

irorepa

TO rpi/jbTpov

TO TeTpoLfxeTpov
(see

The trochaic tetrameter was the


fragments
the

metrum Epicharniium

in Kaibel's Fragcomic poets. Fragments are extant that begin with Magnes and extend to Poliochus. Magnes 6; Ecphantides 1; Cratinus 25, 36, 52, 97, Of. 122-5, 164, 197, 198, 298, 301-5; Crates 20, 29, 32,

the
all

menta) and was affected by

41; Pherecrates 10, 22, 78, 83, 143, 182; Teleclides 41; Hermippus 29, 37, 43, 44, 70, 71, 81 Eupolis 76, 268, 357 Phrynichus 15, 38; Aristophanes 108, 221, 306, 411, 433, 496, 550-2, 671-3; Plato 24 Ameipsias 13; Callias 1, 3, 4;
; ;

Strattis 5 7 Apollophanes 6 Antiphanes 40, 45, 49, 52, 71, 97, 117, 142, 171, 174 (in part), 179, 181, 204, 205, 301; Anaxandrides 6; Eubulus 49 Nicostratus 24 Philetaerus 9 Amphis 7, 8 Anaxilas Cratinus iunior 2 Aristophon 4, 14 22 Euphanes 1 Alexis 79, 98, 115, 117, 156, 164, 165, 212, 301, 302; Eriphus 4 Mnesimachus 2 Axionichus 8 Timocles 1 6 Diphilus 20 Theophilus4; Philemon 213 Menander 23-6, 100, 162, 205, 244, 352, 367, 379, 433, 442, 470, 494, 508, 923-5, 927, 929, 930, 1113; Dioxippus 3; Alexander 6; Evangelus 1 Poliochus 1 Erg. incert. 38, 295-7, 770-2, 7749
;

Lysippus

Metagenes

13

8,

1324-7.
THE TETRAMETER IN MENANDER

260. An especially trustworthy means of determining the form of the trochaic tetrameter in the period of the New Comedy MS. of Menander recently published. is found in the Cairo

There are ninety-eight trochaic tetrameters in the Periceiromene

and Samia that


script.-^

are, in

effect,

metrically intact in the

manu-

It appears to

from these verses, which are of


that

sufficient

number

justify broad comparisons,

Menander

uses tri-

syllabic feet in the trochaic tetrameter

much more

freely

than

Aristophanes.
261. Five of the 98 tetrameters are purely trochaic, 1 in 20,
as in Aristophanes (247), while five others
1

have

all

arses short

Periceiromene [Samia in the Prin:

ceps)

348-52 (5), 354, 360, 375-84 (10), 386-8 (3), 394-9 (6), 401, 412-15 (4), 417 f. (2), 427, 433 f. (2). Samia 202-8 (7), 211-32 (22), 236-42 (7), 245-54(10),
:

256-64 (9), 269 f. (2), 325 f. (2), 330, 332 f. (2). There are also 51 mutilated
trochaic tetrameters in the Perifeiro7?i7ie

and 24

iu the

Samia.

266

TROCHAIC VERSE

105

with one or more theses resolved, 1 in 20 in Menander, but only Twenty-six have one long arsis, 1 in 1 in 87 in Aristophanes. Fifty3-8; 41 have two, 1 in 2*4; 21 have three, 1 in 4-7. In Aristoeight per cent of the complete metres are irrational.

phanes the per cent


262.

is

sixty-five (247).

The tribrach occurs 44


iii.

times, once in 2-23 tetrameters,


:

but in Aristophanes once in 4"84 (248)


Tetram.

^^^

i.

ii.

iv-

v.

vi.

vii. 1 1

Total.
1

98

1+0

13 + 6

27

17

Compare the table in 248. Aristouse the tribrach sparingly in the second and fourth feet. phanes avoids it in vii., but Menander has it twice in vii. in whole
verses {S. 257,

Both Aristophanes and Menander

262) and three times in broken lines (P. 407, Of the 27 tribrachs contained in one word in Menander 6 are trisyllables, 1 overlaps back but 20 overlap Of the 1 7 contained in two or three words or parts of forward. v^ words, 2 have the division ^\^\^ o y^\^ ^ and 12
422, 426).
, ,

v.^

v./

263.

The anapaest occurs 17


18

times, once in 5-8


:

tetrameters,

but in Aristophanes once in


Tetram.
wv./ii.

(249)
iv.

vi.

Total.

98

17

+3

10

+7

Compare the
in
vi.,

For other examples of the anapaest table in 249. Four 341. broken verses, see P. 419, 425, 428, of the ten anapaests contained in one word overlap back, 3 Of the 7 contained in two or three forward, 3 are trisyllables. words or parts of words, 1 has the division v^|-^|-, 2 have
in
*S'.
v.^
I

vy

264.

- and 4 ^ The dactyl occurs but


,

v./

once, in the fifth foot of a broken

verse (P. 421).

have one

Of the 47 tetrameters that contain trisyllabic feet, 34 trisyllabic foot, 12 have two, 1 has three. 266. The first dimeter ends in a complete word in each of these 98 tetrameters, and this word is a progressive only twice; but nevertheless many of the 96 remaining tetrameters are not
265.
to be rendered

When Aristophanes with a pause at diaeresis. employs trochaic tetrameters in dialogue, the change of speaker
generally occurs at the beginning of the tetrameter Menander is The strongly disposed to change the speaker within the verse.
;

speaker thus changes in Aristophanes on the average only once

106

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


and in 7 5 per cent
;

267

in 1 1 tetrameters,

of the instances the

occurs at diaeresis

in

Menander

this

change change occurs in nearly


occurs at diaeresis in

every other verse on the average, but

it

only 30 per cent of the cases.

Finally,

Menander changes the

speaker twice within a single tetrameter six times as often as Aristophanes. The general result is much greater variety in
rendering and more frequent interruption
of the

flow

of the

Menander than in Aristophanes. On the basis of a comparison of the 98 tetrameters now under consideration with the 100 tetrameters in dialogue that are analyzed above, which include the liveliest recitative trochaic number in Aristophanes (Av. 268 ff.), the peculiarities of Menander's metrical style in
rhythm
in
this

form

of verse are seen

to

be as follows.

He

introduces a

pause at diaeresis

less frequently, relatively to his total

number
of

of pauses, although 9 6 of his tetrameters admit diaeresis, but only

7 3 of those in Aristophanes.
different places in the verse.

He

introduces a greater

number

pauses absolutely and admits pauses into a greater number of


Finally, the

modes

in

which he
are

arranges two or

more pauses

within a single tetrameter

twice as numerous as those in Aristophanes.

THE HYPERMETER
267. Acatalectic cola, dimeters and trimeters, are combined
into hypermeters in
citative verse.

See 713.

Aristophanes in both melic (210) and reThe hypermeter ends in a catalectic

dimeter, only once (Fax

344

f.)

in a catalectic trimeter (in both

the oldest MSS.),

and without exception it follows recitative tetrameters. The connexion between the tetrameters and the following series of cola is so close that sometimes the speaker does not change (Fax 650 ff.) and even the grammatical construction is continued (Fax 338 ff., Av. 386 ff.). In a single instance two corresponding hypermeters conclude the epirrhema and antepirrhema of a parabasis (Fax 1156-8 ~ 118890). In all other cases the hypermeter is part of a parode and concludes
a dialogue (Hq.

284-302; Fax 339-45, 571-81, 651-6; Av.

387-99).
268.

Eecitative hypermeters are found in none of the later

plays of Aristophanes.

The metrical form

of these

hypermeters
(Uq.

is

freer than

that of the recitative tetrameters in the use of trisyllabic feet.

These number: 28

tribrachs, 3

anapaests

299, Av. 388,

i;

269

TROCHAIC VERSE

107

If the 115 complete 394), 2 dactyls {Eq. 301, ^v. 396). metres in the hypermeters are expressed in terms of the tetrameter, reckoning three complete metres as the equivalent of a tribrach, 1 in 4-84 in the tetrameter, the ratios are as follows
:

tetrameter and 1 in 1 "4 in the hypermeter

anapaest, 1
1 in

in

18

and

1 in

13

dactyl (see 205), 1 in

130 and

19

irrational

metre, 65 per cent and 67 percent.


ever, that these

It should

be noted, howthemselves.

hypermeters

differ structurally

among

Only 3 19 cola
is

28 cola in the Pax, but 18 in The tribrach in the Equites and 12 in 13 in the Aves. a natural form to employ in the expression of excited feeling
trisyllabic feet occur in

or of lively sentiment.

269. The dimeters and trimeters of which trochaic hypermeters are composed are closely connected by synaphea, and were
liable to the

same danger
ff.
;

of confusion in transmission

which the

corresponding iambic cola suftered (194).


cola in ^57.

Heliodorus records 19

meter'; 10 in Pax 571

Pax 339 ff., making 344 a 'monomaking 579 a monometer and 580 f. a tetrameter; 5 in Pax 651 ff, making 655 f a tetraSee the meter and 3 each in Pax 1156 ff. and 1188 ff. Pax 344 f. constitute metrical scholia on these hypermeters. Pax 578^ is a monometer in EV, the a trimeter in EV

284

7 in

If.,

'

'

following colon a dimeter.


of

Both manuscripts resort to the device combining two dimeters into a false tetrameter, but V only twice. The preposition at the end of Pax 577 may be thought to be an indication, reinforced by the sense, that 577, 578^ originally constituted

a trimeter.

colon ends within a word in Eq.

301, Pax 339.

CHAPTER

IV

ANAPAESTIC VERSE
270. The fundamental colon of anapaestic verse is a dimeter composed of two metres that consist each of two simple feet
(12, 13)
ToXffqo'ov ava^ ^apLcracrOal. [loi Trddos OLKTipas,
r/


-^

<^

^^


^^

fie

Kepavv(3

.^

SiarivdaXeoi o-TrdSicrov Ta;(eoJS,


KaTretr'
eis

^ ^^
^^
5

^^

Vesp.

aveXwv

fj,'

a7ro(^v(rr;o-as

^^

6^d\fir]v {if3aX depfju^v

^
of

327

ff.

An

anapaestic
271. Melic

dimeter
is

consists

sixteen

primary

times.

All anapaestic verse

in ascending rhythm.

anapaestic

verse

has

varied

constitution,

owing
only
(11).

to the

number

of forms the simple foot


(8,

may

assume, not

v^

- and
dimeter

10)

but

also

^^

^ ^ ^
'

and
as

- ^ ^
in
'

may

consist

solely of or

anapaests,

the
or

third

colon just quoted,


:

or spondees,

even of

dactyls

proceleusmatics
ovKOvv
e'A/cw

Ka^apTOJ/xai

Pax 470

KdvaTTi'dM/xeda TOvcrSe riVes Trore

^^

^^

..^

^^^

Av. 403
Lys.

KarkXafiov,

ecfi

o ri re /xeyaAoTrre^ov dfiarov

^^^^

^.^-^^

481

f.

or proceleusmatics are Dimeters consisting solely of dactyls found only in melic verse. 272. The dimeter by suppression of the arsis of its final anapaest becomes catalectic (33)
'

Tov crepLVOTaTov
Koi'TTO)

8c

OXvpirov
Kapirovs

^^

^^w

Th.

1069

p-evTot
8'

ye TTeiravpaL

Th.

709

(Tw^w

evdaXel^i

Av. 1062
108

277
273.

ANAPAESTIC VERSE
The
catalectic dimeter
is

109
Its
final

called paroemiac.'^

It rejects the probe short instead of long (43). celeusmatic, allows the dactyl only in the first simple foot, and admits the spondee as the third simple foot only in melic verse.

syllable

may

'

'

274. The paroemiac is used in the recitative verse of comedy only as the final colon of a tetrameter, pentameter, heptameter, In melic verse, it may be used as a octameter, or hypermeter.

component part of an ode in any position. Cratinus {frag. 144) employs it continuously
criyav vvv OTras iy^e (nydv,

In
:

his

Odysseus,

Kol iravra Aoyov rdxo- Treva-ef


qfiiv 8'

'WaKT] Trarpis
8'
afjL

icrriv,
.^^

wXeofiev

'OSvcrcret 6euo

^^ -^
^~ ^^

-^ ^~
v.~ ^^^

v^

See Heph. 27. 1 ff. and Ban. 372 ff. (301).

cf.

Aristophanes frag. 503, 504, and

Such continuous cola were probably rhythmized as full dimeters, On this supposition, the conjunction with a pause after each colon. of vowels at the end of the second colon and beginning of the third (43) in the fragment quoted from Cratinus has no metrical significance.
275. Every melic anapaestic colon in Aristophanes ends in The first metre also of the melic acatalectic

a complete word.

dimeter generally ends thus, but the first metre of the melic paroemiac, in fully one-third of the instances of its occurrence, For the corresponding facts in the ends within the word.
recitative tetrameter

and hypermeter, see 315, 329, 330. The anapaestic trimeter was not employed as a colon, since a trimeter composed of true anapaests in normal isomeric rhythm (9, i.) would have exceeded the limit of length allowed diplasic compound feet (22), but the monometer was thus used,
276.

generally

in

combination

with

dimeters.

On

the

probable

origin of this use of the

monometer

as a colon see 613.

277. Anapaestic

tripodies

(26)

occasionally

occur

in

Aristophanes
ToSe
(TOi

TO Trddos fur

e/xoG

303

^^

^^

^
^^

Lys.

479

aKpoTToXiv Upuv Te/xevos


1

^^^^^^

Lijs.

483

Hephaestion

(26. 17

word from

wapoifxla,

ff.) derives the proverb, maxim

Rossbach {Sf-iec. Mctrik,''' 131 f.), regarding TrapoL/xLaKOi as of equivalent meaning

with TrpotroSiavos, suggests oi/xo^ ( = d56s), Clirist {Metrik,'^ 254) march-rhytlim proposes OLfj.rj, song ('lay'),
'
'

110

THE VEESE OF GREEK COMEDY


'

278

These are true brachycatalectic cola (35) and have the mensuraThey may end in the spondaic anapaest tion of dimeters.
'

(f)OViav,

TTTepvyd re Travra
re KUKAwcrat

473, 303

v^

^~ -^

kiriPaXf. irepL
Ai//.wva)v

-^^^-^^^
301

Av. 345

f.

iyKpovwv

Ban. 374.

The pentapody
ere

also occurs, but only twice


fxkv

ovv KaraXeva-oiiev

^^-^This
is

____ __

fiiapa Kec^aA^

Ach. 285

= 336

(452).

probably

brachycatalectic
is

trimeter
also

in

logaoedic

The penthemimer (36) time (389). with the mensuration of a dimeter.


1318, 1319
278.
of (406).

occasionally found,

Cf.

Av. 455, 458 (409);

Protraction (31) does not occur in the anapaestic verse

comedy. 279. Melic anapaestic verse prefers hypermetrical structure, and hypermeters occur in the odes of Aristophanes that range
in length from nine to twenty-seven metres.

subordinate

periods

are

the
is

catalectic

tetrameter

The commonest and the

paroemiac, but the hexameter

not rare.

On

the combination

of subordinate periods, hypermeters and intermediate periods to

form systematic periods, see 720


280.

S.
is

The

catalectic

tetrameter

the

anapaestic

verse

chiefly used
fif.,

by the poets of the Old Comedy in recitative rendering These tetrameters are often immediately followed 320). (305 by hypermeters, which may also be used independently (321 ff.). 281. Anapaestic cola may be combined with cola in other rhythms, but especially with iambic, dochmiac and paeonic cola, Compare, for example, the in the same systematic period. combination of anapaestic and iambic cola in Zys. 476 ff. (303), Such anapaests probably keep their true Av. 400 ff. (290). Generally they constitute a isomeric time in most cases.
considerable part of the systematic period in a series of connected
cola, as in the

odes just cited and in Av.


ff.

328

ff.

(473),

1058

ff.

(455),

Th.

667

(472),

Vesp.

317
f.

ff.

(577).

Introductory

anapaestic cola also were probably sung in even time, as in

Fax

512

(84), c.

478
(214),

(85),

JVuh.

510

(561).

When
is

they thus

introduce a trochaic ode, the rhythmical contrast


in Ban.

marked, as

895

Th.

520

(222).

The same

effect of contrast

284
result from

ANAPAESTIC VERSE
singing

1 1

would
time,

anapaestic cola in parodies in even


for just

and here the poet probably sought


(374),

such

eftect, as

in

Th.

1051
f.,

1332

ff,

1351

f.

(592), as also

when he combined

various different rhythms in the same period, as in N2ib. 1160,

1165
cola
triple

1168

(474), Av.

254

ff.

(595).

composed exclusively

of anapaests

On the other hand, were probably sung in

rhythm

time when constituent parts of odes in simplified logaoedic Other examples of logaoedic anapaests (389) are (394).

occasionally found combined with subordinate periods in other

rhythms.
282.

It

These will be noted as they occur. is sometimes difficult to distinguish melic

from
(i.)

recitative anapaestic verse.

The
of
;

positive
is

metrical evidence in

comedy that a
'

series

of anapaestic cola
;

melic
a

is

the use
solely

of the proceleusmatic

(ii.)

a dimeter
(iv.)

composed

of

dactyls

'

(iii.)

of a

tripody

of

paroemiac

at

the

in succession

beginning of a series or within a short series or of two paroemiacs (v.) of a paroemiac with spondaic close (vi.) of an
; ;

acatalectic dimeter at the

end of a series (vii.) of subordinate or hypermetrical periods in other rhythms in proode or epode, or even within the same systematic period. Less certain indications that the anapaests were sung are the frequent use of spondaic dimeters and the division of a systematic period into many
;

subordinate periods.^
283. But some anapaestic hypermeters are melic although they are severe in form and exhibit none of the peculiarities just enumerated. The play itself in this case furnishes evidence
as to their nature.

Compare,
ff (588).

for

example, Av. 209


J.)
:

ff.

(285),

1726
of

ff

and 1743

284. Aristides(97 M., 59. 19


parts
in isomeric
Bt"

f.

notes the pleasing balance

rhythms
that

(9)

Kal

ol fxev

iv

law Xoyw
balance

Teray/LLevoi

o/xoXoTTjra
thesis

'x^apiiaTepoc.

It

is

this

of

from iamb, in which the ratio of the primary times in arsis and thesis is unequal. The iambic dimeter and the anapaestic dimeter were derived from the same primitive element, but gradually, through the mediation of logaoedic cola, they were completely differentiated, and anapaests with their equal division were found to be the measure adapted to the march (607). Little remains
anapaest
in

arsis

and

distinguishes

comedy

of this
1

embateric

use of the

anapaest,
f.

so familiar

See Smyth's A7iapaests of Aisckylos, 142

112
in

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


tragedy
(306,

285
the
the

321), in

but

the

actual
is

range of

use

of

anapaestic
paestic

rhythm
of

comedy
its
:

extensive,

and

anatetra-

verse

Aristophanes,

including

his recitative

meters, admirably illustrates


(^De

characterization
ae/xvoTrjra
S'
t)

by Dionysius

comp. verb. xvii.


[xe>ye6o<i

108

E.)

e^et TroWrjV, kol


7rd0o<i 67rtT?;Seio9
J.)

evOa hel
ia-ri

nrepideivai

toU

Trpdjfjbaacv

irapaXafji^dveadaL.
effect

Aristides (97 M., 59.

the special

secured

by variation

of

23 ff. form in

notes

isomeric

rhythm
fiovayv

rwv S' eV taa Xd<ya) ol fiev Bia ^pa'^etwv <yLvo/jLevoi, TayiaToi koL Oepfiorepoi, ol Se Sia jxaKpwv jxovwv l3paSel^ KoX Kare(na\[xevoL, ol S' dvapX^ enTiKoivov.
:

Melic Anapaestic Veese


285.

Av.

209-22
Monody.

(Prologue).

'Ett.

aye

(rvvvop.k

fjioi

irava-ai fikv vttvov,

v^

210

Xva-ov 8e vo/tons tepwv i5/avwv,

^^ v^ -^
-^

.^

ovs Sta Oiiov CTTO/xaTos Oprjvets

^^

TOV ipOV KoX

AeAi{'o/xevr/s S'

215

220

^^ '.^ 5^^ >^^ ^^ v^ ^^ -.^ yevvos ^ov6rj<i Kadapa X^P^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ Sio. cfivXXoKopov jLtiAttKos y'jX^ ^^ v^ Trpos Aios 'dSpas, I'v 6 ^/3i;croKO/;ias 792 ^^ ^^ ^^ 4>ot^os aKOVoiv Tots o-ois eAeyoi? 10 ^^ .y^ dvri^dXXoyv tAec^avToSerov ^^ .^ (fioppiyya dedv 'i,(Trr](ri xopov'i Sea S' dOai'drbiv aTopdrMV X^P^^ ^95 ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^Vp(f)U)VO'i O/iOV .^ v^ 6eta paKapwv oXoXnyy].
(TOV

TToXvSaKpVV "ItW

'^

lepots

peXeatv

27

213

eXeXtfo/i^x'r/s 5'

lepoh

Meineke

eXeXifoyaeV?; dupols

Non-antistrophic.
metres.
icrrlv

is

an indivisible hypermeter on 209


:

of twenty-seven

See

773.

Compare the
hypermeter
286.
is

scholiast

jueAtKws 8e dpxerai, to 81 perpov

dKardX-qKrov
melic

dvaTrauTTLKOv Siperpov.
is

The statement that the put beyond question by peXw^eiv av in 226.


Thes7n.

776-84
^^ 43

(Scene

III.).

3Ionody.

Mv. & x^^P^^


eyX^ipe.iv

^/^"'

-^

XPV^

^Py^t^

Troptpo).

^^2

;;

287
ay
Srj

ANAPAESTIC VERSE
irivaKiov ^eo-rwi/ SiXroi

113
.^

^^

^4*^

Se^aarOe (rni\7]S oXkovs

780 K-qpvKas ejuwv

ii6-)(duiv'

oifJLOi

.^

^
4^^'

TOVTt rh pa> fJLOxdijpov


;^w/0t
\ii>pt.

TToiav aiiXaKa

^^

(ia,(TKT

eireiyeTe irdcra's Kad' 68ovs

XPV

^^

^^

__^^_
^~
6^

KCtva xavT^

Ta^etos XPV'
777 XPV" Bentley
:

Non

antistrophic.

A = abccd, 12
*
'

4 4

6,

proodic

pentad

monometer as proode to a periodic tetrad composed two tetrameters and a hexameter. See 752.

of a dimeter,

Two
in the

of the subordinate periods

have spondaic

close.

The song

is

paratragedic, in imitation of the melic laments of tragedy

composed

same rhythm.
Xys.
oifjiOL

287.
Kt.
ri TrdOu)
;

954-79
/?iv7yo"w

(Episode

II.).

rtVa

^^

v.^

955

TT^S

KaXXicrrrj'S 7ra(rwv

i/'ercr^et's ;

TTws ravT-qvl TraiSoT/DO^vyorcu


TTOv

.^

KvvaXwTrr]^ ;
fxoL

tltOtjv.
5

.^
9*^

ixicrdiiicrov

ryv

Ko/O.

v Setvo) y'

SvcrTrjve

KaKio

960

reipei ^v^v^v i^aTrarrfOel'S

TTOtos

Kaywy olKTipo) cr' aiat. yap av yj V(f>po<i avrttr^^ot,


^vxyii TTotoi
8'

____ __^^_ ____ _^^__ ____ ___t3C



.y^

^^

TTota

opx^is,
6ppo<i

10
.^

TTOia 8' 6cr(f>vs,

TTOios 8'

____ ____

.^^

__ __
9*^

965
Kt.

KaTaretvo/xevos

Kal

[xrj

j3iVMV TOV<s opOpovs


dvTto-7ra(r/jt.ti)v.
(t

w Zeu Setvwv
969
7)

Kop. a

Tai'Tt [xkvTOL vvvi

kiroirjcr

802

15

TrapfSSeXvpa kol Traixfxvo-apd.

Ko/3. /3'

fid Ai'

aAAtt

(jiiXr]
;

Kal trayyXvKepd.

KojO. a'

TTOta

yXvKipd

fiiapd p-iapd.
<5

Ki.

<.p,iapdy 8rJT

w Zev

Zeu*
20

>^ ^^ .^ >^ ^^ __
^^

_^^ v^ v.^
>^ ^^

___]2^

iW
975

avTTjv wcTTrep tovs 6oip,ovs


Trprja-Trjpi,

/zeyaAw tvc^w Kat

^va-rpeipas Kal ^xryyoyyvAas


ot;(Oto
7)

y^]v,

<f)poiv,

LTa

p.edtr]<;,

81

<j)epoLT

av irdXiv

is

t?)v

..^ v./>^ ^^ ,^
>^
:

K^tx'

^ai(f)vqs
T7)v
:

25
TrepifSaii].
^>^

TTfpt

yp(iiXr\v

13^
noioi
Slv

956

Ta.vTyjvl Reisiff

TavTT)v

rC

972

/juapa Elrasley

964 ttojos 5' schol. 975 ^u77077uXa5 Cobet

voios
:

5'

ay

RB,

^vyyoyyvXlaav
I

114

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY

288

a abacd, 9 6 9 12 13, epodic pentad: Non-antistrophic. tetrad composed of a nonameter, a hexameter, a second nonameter and a dodecameter, with a hypermeter of thirteen metres as epode.

A=

See

761.

Four
spondaic

of

the

close,

paratragedic.

five subordinate periods and hypermeters have and there are besides six spondaic cola. The lyric is Compare the monody in 286.

288.

Th.

1065-97

(Episode
43

II.).

Mv, W VV^ Upd, 1066 ws fiaKpov


ao"Te/Doet8ea

^

5

vy

l'^

iTTrevfxa StwKcts

^
^^

>^
~^

vwra

8L<f)pivov(r

^^

aidepos Upas

^^^^

1069

TOU O-C/XVOTttTOU

8t

'OXvfJLTTOV,

The beginning of the Echo Scene, a parody of the similar situation The anapaestic cola (1065-97) are in the Andromeda of Euripides. probably all melic, but this quality is marked by the form only at The 'dactyl' and anapaest in the fourth colon the beginning. the constitute the only example of this combination in this order in

On its occurrence in recitative melic anapaestic verse of comedy. verse see 307, 330, and in the spoken trimeter, 125.
289.
2t.

^uh.

707-22
38 447
f.

(Syzygy).

aTTarat aTTarai.
TratrxciS
;

^
w
v.^

w
2

Kop. a Tt
2t.

ri Kct/xveis

diroXXvixai SeiXaios'

K rov (TKi/tTroSos

710

BaKvova-i

p.'

e^e/37rovTS ol

KopivO toi.

Kot ras TrAcupas SapSaTrrova-tv 5

Kal Trjv ^vx)]v eKTrivovcriv


Kol TOUS
OpX^I-'i

^iXKOV(riV

Kol TOV TT/DCOKTOV

715
Kop. a'
2t,

8iOpVTTOV(TLV,

Kal

jX

aTToAoTJcriv,

p.rj

vvv Papers aXyet Xiav. 10


TTCOS ;

^
v^
XP^'-'^y

Kol

OTC flOV
(f>pov8r]

(f>pov8a TO, xp^/*a'''j

<f>pov8r]

^vxrj, (f)pov8r]

8'

pf3d<i-

720

Kal Trpos tovtocs eVt TOtcrt

KaKoU

290
^povpas
oAtyov
^8ii)V

ANAPAESTIC VERSE
15
yiykviip-ai.
<fipov8o<i

115

^ ^^
,

21

Non-antistrophic.

A = abed,
dimeter,

2 2 6 21

pericopic tetrad

protracted

iambic

bacchiac

dimeter,

iambic

acephalous hexameter,

See 772, 777. anapaestic hypermeter of twenty-one metres. The anapaestic hypermeter contains four spondaic dimeters. 290.
Ko/3.

Av.
ei's

400-33
ei?

(Parode).

dvay

ra^iv TraAtv

xavToi',

^
^^

401

Koi Tov dvfibv Karddov KV\pas


Traparfjv opyrjv axnrep oTrXiTrjS'
KoivairvdwfJLida TovarSe rtves ttotc

^ ^
w^

.^ >^ v~ ^~
10^

404 406
'Ett.
to*

Kttt

TToOev tfJioXov

eirl

rtva t

tTrivotav.

802
(TTOip cr

-^^w ^^^^
^ v^ ^ w _ _ v^ _
v^
.

TOt /caAw.
;

KaAeis Se tou kAuciv OeXd^v


TivfS TTO^'
^evcu
oi'Se
a.<fj'

v^ ^

v./

Kop. a
'Ett.

Kai tto^cv

(TO(jir]<;

'EAAaSos.

w w
w ^ _ ^ _

v^ w v^ ^ ^y ^ ^

Kop.a 411

TVXT] 8e TToia ko/xi^et

72
e/iws

10

TTOT

avrijj

Trpos op'Ett.

vt^as iXdelv;

/3tov StatVrjs re

Kai

O-OU ^VVOlKeiV T (TOt

414
Kop. a

Koi ^vvelvaL rh 7rav.


Tt

15

_ ^
v^

v^

<^ys;
St)

415
'Ett.

Kop.

/3'

418
420
'Ett.

425

^^ ^ ^ w w w 6p^ Ti KipSos IvOa?)' a^iov p-ovrj^, v^ w v^ w w w v^ v^ w OTO) TTtiroid' e/xot ^wwv ^ v^ 20 rhv e'x^pov Kpareiv av ^ ^ ^ </)tAoto-tv cjcjiiXelv ex^iv; v^ w v^ w Aeyei p-kyav tlv oA^ov oijv^ w v^ w re XeKrhv ovTe ttuttoV ws >^ v^ era yap <Ta> Travra raura, Kai ^j \y 25v^ >-/ v^ '^ TO T7j8e Kat TO K?cre Kat v./ w v^ 43 TO Sevpo, TTpoa-fSifSq. Aeywv.

Aeyet Bk

riVas Aoyoi;?;
kXiulv.

aTTto-ra koi irepa

v^

t]

t)

v./

v--

y-'

v./

Kop. a TTOTepa patvdp.evos


Kop. P'
evL cro(f)6v Tt

'Ett.

a.(f)aTov

w?

<f)povip.os-

464
^pivl ;
'Ett.

..^-v^^w.^-v^.

TrvKVOTaTOv KivaSos,

430

cr6(f}i(rp.a

Kvpfia rplpp-a TratTrdAi^p,'

oAov,

'

116
Ko/3. a'

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


Alyciv Aeyetv KeXtvi
[jloi.

291

30

kXvwv yap

S)v

crv

jxoi,

Aeyets

Aoycov dveTTTepfoixai.
409 ^^yw Dindorf
:

v^ w v^ w v^
v^
:

v^_^_
v^ v^ w 9^

^ebu
423 7ap

Kock

iriwoidi

fioi

415 X^yet Dindorf \iyov<n ret Trd^ra toOto Meineke

418 irinoiB' iixol ravra y^Lp St; irdvTa

HVp2C, yap ravra

Trdvra cett.

= abed, 10 4349, pericopic tetrad: anadecameter, iambic hypermeter of forty-three metres broken only by the exclamatory question in 414 b, dochmiac tetrameter, iambic nonameter. See 772, 777. The metrical constitution of the fourth and lifth cola proves that the anapaestic hypermeter is melic. None of the iambic metres is irrational. This use of rational metres
Non-antistrophic.
paestic
Cf. Av. 851 ff. (93), Lys. 256 IF. (94). Furthermore, dochmiacs in comedy (cola 27, 28) always indicate burlesque of tragic tone.
is

characteristic of tragic style.


129.

See

291.
Xo.

Th.

1227-31
/3aSt^eiv

(Exode).

aAAa

TreTratCTTat yLierpiaJS rjfiiv

t!)(T$'

iopa

8-q

'cTTL

____

^^ ^^
^^
^^
^v.-

4C

oiKaS' eKacrTy.

tw

0a-po(f)6poi 6'

^^

5*^

1230

rjfiLv

dya6'r]v

rovTOJV Xo-piv dvTaTToBoLTrjv.


1227 iriwaKTTai Biset
:

-^

w^
:

irivvarai

1231 dvTanoSolrrjv Bentley

avrabotrov

Non-antistrophic. meter. See 770.

A = ab,

5,

pericopic

dyad

tetrameter, penta-

292. The final verses of all the plays except the which perhaps is defective, were probably rendered with the

singing voice.

See 810.

With

the

preceding

cf.

Nuh. 1510

and PL 1208-9.

All these periods are embateric.

293. Anapaestic hypermeters

and tetrameters are used in

the Ko^Mfidrcov that introduces the parabasis (668).


part was probably melic, and
it

This short seems likely that it was sung by the leader of the first half-chorus. The opening cola are addressed to the actors as they retire from the scene, the cola
that follow are a prelude to the poet's address to the audience,

the

'

parabasis

'

proper.

Compare

294.

% 498-506
7r/>a^eias

(Parabasis).

Commation.
Ko/o.

a aAA" Wl ^atpcov, Kal

499

Kara vovv tov

e/xov

Kat

ere

(^vKdrrot

296
Zeus dyopatos"

ANAPAESTIC VERSE
Kal VLKrjaas
i^/xas

117

avOis (KiWev TrdXiv ws

^^ ^^


>^
10*^^

4'A^ois CTTfc^avots KaraTrao-TO?.


V/ieiS
S'
IJjxlv

x^ v^ ^
^^^^

TrpO(Tk-)(T

TOV

I'OUl'

271

Tots avairalcTTOLS,

eavTovs.

^^

505

(J

TTavToias

^/St;

Mouo-;s

Treipa$VTe<i KaO'

____
10
pericopic

^^__7
decameter,
note.

Non-antistrophic. 7, heptameter. Sec 770. See the metrical scholium on Eq.


ab,

dyad:

498

fF.

and the

See

also 854.
is possible that the first five cola, addressed to the hero of the were rendered in recdtative (810) but the last four, addressed to the audience, must have been sung, as the form of the sixth colon

It

play,

shows.

295.

Pax 729-33

(Parabasis).

Commatio7i.
Ko/O.

a a AA' Wl ^atpwv
TaSe Ta

)}/ie6S

8e Ttws

^^

v~

^^

4^^

(TKevi]

Trapa86vTS

^^ v^
^^^

w
v^

730

TOis aKoAou^ots Sw/xev o-w^etv,


(is

5 >^

elwOacTL fidXicTTa
Tols CTKJyvas

4*^^

wepl

TrAetcrTot

KkeTTTCL

KDTTTa^etv Kal /caKOTroieZv.

^^

4^^'

aAAa ^vAaTTT ravT


r]fj.i<s

dvSpeiuyi

212
10

.^

^^
^^
4*^

8'

av

Tola-i

^earai?
ct-

733

7')v

iX^H-^^ ^"^'
TrwpLev ocra re

^oywv

vou? ^X*'*

^^

^^
^^
\^

y^

^ v./

4^

Non-antistrophic.

A
first

is

a stichic period composed of five tetra-

meters, of which four are anapaestic, one trochaic.

See

778.

See the metrical scholium on Pax 729

ff.

The

leader of the

half-chorus recognizes in succession Trygaeus,

who

is

just leaving the scene, the attendants present,

and

finally the

spectators of the play.

296.

Ach.

626-27

(Parabasis).

Comynation.
Kop. a
dvr]p
viko. toicti

Xoyotcriv

Kal Thv SrJ/xov fiiTaTreiOii.

___
-^

627

irepl

twv

otttovSwv.

aAA' aTroSvvres

^^ ^^__4<^ -^
>.~ v./4^
of

TOts dvaTraicrrois lirMfx^v.

^^

Non-antistrophic.
paestic tetrameters.

A
See

is

stichic period

composed

two ana-

778.

118

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


See the metrical scholium on Ach. 626
ff.

297

The form

of these verses gives

no indication that they were sung,

and they may have been simply


297.
Vesp.

recited.

1009-15

(Parabasis).

Commatioji.
Ko/o.

dXA.'

1010

vfieis Se

he xaipovTes T6WS w
jxtj

ottoi

fSovXecrd',

-^
-^

fjivpLaSes


^ ^
^^

wvv^4

dvapidfi-qTOi vvv to. /xeXXovT


v

^~v^

Xcyeadai

Trka-Q

<t>av-

207

>^

Aws 1013

X-y-^C ^vXafieia-Oe' TovTO yap crKaiwv dearCjv


ea-Ti

v./

^
10

TTourxctv,

kov jrpos v/awv'

^ ^

^ ^

1015 vvv aSxf Aew TrpocrexeTe rhv vovv, 271 eiTre/D Kadapov Tt ^lActre,
1011
;'{;'

^ ^^
v^ .^

w4

Burges

vvv fxev
:

A aba, 4 10 4, mesodic triad two anapaestic Non-antistrophic. See 739. tetrameters with a trochaic decameter as mesode. The form of the last subordinate period precludes its inclusion
with the following parabasis, which was rendered in
recitative.

298. For another example of a commation in which anapaests

The are combined with other rhythms, see Nub. 510-17 (561). only commation that shows no trace of anapaestic metre is found
in the Avcs (546).

299. Two other anapaestic odes belong to this class, although The first begins a stasimon and takes not parts of parabases. cocrnizance, exactly as in the commation, of the actors as they leave the scene at the end of the episode.

Ach.
Ko/).

1143-49
IttI

(Stasimon III).

iTC

By)

xaipovTi<i

(TTpartdv.

796
^^

^ -^

.^

(I)S

dvofxoLav epx^o'dov

o8oV

1145

to"
crot

piv
Se

TTtVciv (rTe(f)av(Da-apevui,

ptydv koX
KaOevBeiv

it pOf^ivXaTTiiv,

^^ .^ ^

Tco 8e

/xcTot

TraiStcr Kr^^

5 ^^

^^

uipaiOTaTrjS,

dvaTpiftop-evw T to 8dva.

^
^^

13

See 717 and This period is the proode of a proodic triad, ABB. is an Non-antistrophic. the metrical scholium on Ach. 1143 fiF. See 773. indivisible hypermeter of thirteen metres.

302
300.

ANAPAESTIC VERSE

119

Parallel to this in all particulars, except that the actors

Vesp. 863-67, a hypermeter of nine is metres that serves as proode (A) to the following strophe and

do not leave the scene,


antistrophe (717).
301.

The three odes that follow are


Ban. 372-7

antistrophic.

= 378-81
Strophe.

(Parode).

'H/j.

X^P^'- ^^^
et's

'''"^

dv8peL0}<s

282
277
2-

2 2^

3' 3

Tors evavdets koAttovs

Xeifiu)vwv IjKpovuiV
KaTTtcr/cwTrTwv

_ _ _
^

Koi Trai^wv Kal x^^'"^^^^' y)pi(TTr)Tat 8' e^apKOVVTOJS.

^^

282

Antistrophe.
'Up.. /3'

dXX'

p,f3a

XWTTWS dpeis

TTjV "Swreipav yevvatcus

379 Tg
rj

(f)0)vy

poXwd^wv
o-<i'{^eiv
<f>i^(r

TYjV

^w/aav

eis

Tas lopas,

381 Kuv OoipvKLiov


72 vw Bentley
:

pi]

fSovXrjTai.
:

Stj

vw

378

dpels Scaliger

atpeis

R, aip^ets

V
:

C (704) = aabcd, 2 2 2-32, epodic pentad a Mnostrophic dyad. tetradcomposed of two paroemiacs, a brachycatalectic dimeter and a See 759. trimetr, with an acatalectic dimeter as epode. Tb continuous use of spondaic periods would appropriately Cf. Av. 1058 (455) for a still more express solemn and exalted feehng.
strikin-

illustration

of

their

effective

perversion

to

the

uses

of

corned}

301

Pa.r

45 9-7 2

= 4 8 6-9 9
Strophe.
Heph. Heph.
11. 14 11. QO

(Syzygy

II.).

'E/3.

eia.
*a
'

Kop. a
'E/J,

pdXa.
em.
p,dXa.
d)

Ko/3.

a en
(

See Schol.

'Ep.

ita,

ela.

Tp.

0.X'

ovx

tXKOva-'
;

avSpes o/notws.

51

^ v^ w ^^ z^ y^ ^^ ^ kj ^^
v./
v--

465
'Ep.

ov ^vXXrjxpecrd'
olpio^i(r6'
.

oV oyKvXXecrO'6

ol

BotwTOi.

vvv.

; ;

120
Tp.
Ko/).

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


(la
S).

303

10
cr(})w.

^^

v^

^^

ayTov vvv e'AKere koI OVKOVV


e'AKO)

^^

2^

Up.

KOL^apTM/JLai

____ __
;

471
Ko/j.

KaTre/XTTiTTTCo

Kal (nrovSd^o)

TTws ovv ov X'^P^^

Tovpyov

______^

gcv

Antistrophe.
Ep.
T/j.

S
w
?
/3'

e'a.

ta [xaXa.
efa.
vt)

'Ep.

Tp.

Ata.

Kop.
Tp,

fiLKpov ye Kivovfiev

ouKOw
eta

Sctvov Tovs /XEV TetVeiv Toiis S' dyTto-Trai/

irAT^yas X-qxI^u-O'

wpyeioi.

'Ep.

vvi'.

Tp.

eia w.
/?'

Kop.
Tp.

KaKovoi TLvei etViv ev


v/j.is fxkv

r//i,tv.

y ovv

01 KiTTwi'Tes

T^s

elprjvrjs

<nraT dvSpeiws.
etor'

Kop

/?'

dAA'
462
ela

01

K(DXvOV(TtV.
:

Heliodorus (and B)
: :

cm.

RV

vOy ?\/ceTe Meineke 497 7' oC;' Bentley

^vvi\KeToi> R, ^wav^XKerov odv 498 dz'Speiws Bentley

464 dvSpes Dindorf dvdpa V 496 KO/c6rot Ed. olis


:

469
kkovoi.

avdpiKus

Monostrophic dyad. A probably = AB (459-66, 467-72). See Further analysis is impossible, since the metrical value gi-en to the exhortations in cola 1-5 and 9, 10 as the basis of melody J now indeterminable, but the tune to which the subordinate period ir4646 was sung may have been repeated with 470-2. Cola 6-8 n the antistrophe constitute a pentameter (51). See the metrical scholia on Pax 459 fF., with the notes, nd on
725.

486

ff.
I

303.

Lys.

476-83 = 541-8
Strophe.

(Debate).

Xo. Fep. w Zed ti Trore

\pT](T6fjLeda

72

tol(t8 ToicTLV KvwSaAois All 478 ov yap Ictt' ave/cra raSe y\

38

dAAa
479 ToSe
481
(TOL

fSaa-avia-reov

TO Trddos

p-er'

kp.ov

277

o Tt /SovXopevai ttotc rrfv K.pavaav

^ ^^ ^^ ^^' _ ^ _ _, _ 4 ^ w ^^^ ^ ^ -^ ^ k^ i^ ^^ -^ -^ 2-^ ^^ .^

KariXafSov,

<}>'

rt

re peyaXoirerpov df^arov

483

oKpoTToAiv tepov

re/i.ei'os.

277

^-^^^^^^

^^^ v,6-^^'

305

ANAPAESTIC VERSE
Antistrophe.

121

Xo. Vvv. eycoye yap <av> ovTor

Kajioi/i,'

av opxovfievf),
kottos.

542

ovS' ip.ov TO.

ydvara
Trdi'

Ka/xaTrjpo'i <av> eA,ot

WkX(ji S'

Itti

tevat
f'^'*

544

jXiTo.

TwvS*, apexes fVex'j


evt 8e <Tb>

'^vi

(f>va-i,s,

ivi X*^/"^i

^'^^

^P'^^-os,

o"0</)0i',

ei'i

<j)tAd7roAts

dperq

cftpovtixos.
acottos

541 ^7^76 70/)


yuov Kafiar-qpds

Sj'

Enger

e7w 7ap

RF

542 Ed.

ov8i ri 76j'aTa

e\et

547 t6

Hermann
since there would were made a dimeter. with a following pause,
e'/xov,

The fifth colon (479) must end with /^er' n), if be conjunction of vowel sounds (ep-ov

it

The

colon

is,

in fact, brachycatalectic (277),


(43)

Cf. has here no metrical significance. has no metrical significance at the end of the second colon (541), since the following colon is acephalous (38). = aabc, 4 4 2- 6-, epodic tetrad two Monostrophic dyad. protracted iambic tetrameters and a brachycatalectic anapaestic dimeter, with a brachycatalectic anapaestic hexameter as epode.

and conjunction of vowels Av. 345 f. (473). Similarly

it

See

737.

304.

With

the

proceleusmatics

in

the
ff.)

last

period

cf.

the

dimeter quoted by Hephaestion (27. 22


Tis opea

(3a6vKopa rdS'

e-n-icrvTo

(SpOTwv

^^^^ ^^^

Aristoph. frag.

698

Cf. also the first period in Aristoph. /ra^.

506, quoted in 442.

Non-Melic Anapaestic Verse


the tetrameter
305. Hephaestion

(25.

ff.)

records

that

the

catalectic

anapaestic

tetrameter

was

called

to
it,

^Apcarocfjdveiov,

because

our poet made distinguished use of

he naively adds, because he discovered it. Aristophanes employs the tetrameter 1235 times with recitative rendering in the extant plays, and it is found in each of them. It has great variety of use, but occurs
not,

oftenest in debates,

778

times.

Here
debate

it

is

used in the distich

in which a leader of one of the half-choruses exhorts a debater


to begin his argument,^ in the
1 Eq. 761 f., Nub. 959 f., Vesp. 546 f. -648 f., Av. 460 f.~548 f., Lys. 484 f.549 {.,Ean. 1004 f., Ec. 581 f., PL 487 f. 2 Eq. 763-823, Nub. 961-1008, Fesp.

itself,^

and occasionally

in

Lys.

548-620-650-718, ^v. 462-522-550-610, 486-531-551-597, Jian. 1006-77,

Ec. 583-688,

PL

489-597.

122

THE VERSE OF GEEEK COMEDY


verdict.-^
first

306

rendering the
the
is

In three plays it is employed only in half of the debate. The argument for the affirmative
in

stated

anapaestic

tetrameters, that for

the

negative

in

iambic tetrameters (671). In three other plays the debate is not complete (673). The anapaestic tetrameter is used also
in other hortatory
also in
'

parabases
finally

'

(676),

and

and introductory parts of comedy,^ notably * (668), and once at great length in a parode once in a syzygy^ in place of the ordinary

trimeter.

306. The embateria sung by Spartan infantry both on the march and when joining battle were composed in anapaestic rhythm. Hephaestion (25. 21 ff.), quoting a single verse from a Spartan war -song anonymously, states that the embateric tetrameter of which it was composed was called AaKwviKov. This was metrically distinguished from the ordinary anapaestic tetrameter by the spondaic form of its last metre, but it was Cf. Cratin. not eschewed by the earlier poets of the Old Comedy. 139 and Crates 17. 4, The recitative tetrameter of comedy was not a march-verse, but its employment in the debate is in felicitous accord with its military use, and the pair of tetrameters

with which
to battle.

this strife

of tongues begins

may

be a reminiscence
his

of the exhortation with

which the leader once incited


that

men

307.

The form
it,

of the acatalectic dimeter


is

constitutes

the

first

half of the tetrameter

freer

than that of the paroemiac

that ends

but there are limitations.


first

The proceleusmatic occurs


it is

but once, in the


justified

simple foot of Av. 688, where


of the
to

perhaps

by the melic quality


Bentley

opening verses of this


the
reading.

parabasis.

wished

emend

The

succession also of four short syllables resulting from collocation

dactyl and anapaest (-v^v^v^v./-) was avoided, and occurs Porson objected to this but once in a tetrameter (Vesp. 397). dactyl, independently of its collocation with a following anapaest,
of
' '

because

it

is

that prevails in the tetrameter


J

The foot found in the fourth simple foot (308). There are 112 is the spondee.
^ ^^h. 1016-50,

Fesp. 725-8 (672), Jv. 626-7 (672).

628-58,

Eq.

2 JVub. 476 f., Fesp. 346 f.~379 f., 875-8, 1516 f.. Pax 1316-9, Av. 6367, 658-60, Lys. 1072 f., 1108-11, Th. Note in 655-8, Ran. 382 f., Ec. 514-9. particularly. 1316-34 and-fiaw. 354-71.

Pax 734-64, ^.786-813.


*
^

Fesp. 507-46, Av. 685-722,

Nub. 263-74-291-7, 314-438.


Fesp. 348-57-381-402.

309

ANAPAESTIC VERSE
spondaic dimeters
Vcsp.

123

instances of purely

in the first half of the {Eq.

tetrameter, such as koX XvSl^cov koI

-yjrrjvi^cov

523).

Cf.

Eq. 517, 778, Nul. 294,

380, Av. 576, Man. 1042, etc. The spondee, indeed, is so effective an element in the anapaestic metre that 5 7 tetrameters occur that contain each six spondees,
that are possible.
Cf.
et?

all

aXKri\a<; efnTLirTovaat prjyvvvrac


Cf.

Kal irarayovaip {Nuh.


Ec. 518, 581,

378).

Eq. 522,
is

Pax 734, Av. 580,


the chief measure
Cf.

that lightens

PL 502, etc. The anapaest the movement of the verse.


Se iroptfivplaiv
6

Av. 707

jxev

oprvya

Bov<i

Se

^(fjv

Se

Uepa-cKov opvtv.

This is the only instance of a purely anapaestic verse, but the Cf. tetrameter opens with four anapaests in 16 other instances. Ninety-one tetrameters Vesp. 398, 652, 659, 1033, 1044, etc.
contain each five anapaests.

Cf Ach. 628, 630, 638, 647,

516,

etc.
'
'

308. The dactyl (11) is less common than either spondee or anapaest and was virtually avoided in the second and fourth It occurs 234 times in the first foot, 20 in the second, places.

220
was

in the third,
felt to

and 3 in the

fourth.

Evidently the dactyl


first

be inharmonious at the close of the

dimeter, and

Person {Praef. in Hecuh. 1. ff.) wished to emend the tetrameters in which it occurs {Nub. 326, Vesp. 350, 397); but it should be noted that these dimeters have their parallel in dimeters Thirteen that end in a dactyl in recitative hypermeters (330).
of the dactyls in the second foot follow a dactyl in the
first
is

that establishes the


to be

movement

none of the twenty verses

emended on account of the dactyl in the second place Eq. 805, 1327, Nuh. 353, 400, Vesp. 389, 551, 671, 1027, Lys. 500, :7%. 790, 794, Ran. 1055, ^c. 629, and Eq. 524, Nuh.
351, 409,
Vcsp.

673, 708, Ec. 659, 676.

monosyllable
is

occurs at the end of the dimeter


objectionable
;

70 times and generally

not

progressive words are rare.

Monosyllables result-

ing from elision stand at the end of the dimeter in a few cases {Nuh. 319, Vesp. 356, Ran. 1026, Ec. 684, PI. 532, 582, 591).
309. The paroemiac that ends the tetrameter is simple in form and generally has the cadence of the second half of the dactylic 'hexameter' that follows the penthemimeral caesura The only variation on this that is (361)
:

^-^-^-^.
is

allowed

dactyl

for

anapaest

or

spondee in the

first

foot.

The form

of the paroemiac is then invariably

-^

1>^-^.

: :

124

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


dactyl
occurs

310

This

68

times,

once,

on

the

average,

in

18

tetrameters.

the tetrameters in the EqvAtes,

The following comparative statistical statement covers 122 in number.^ 311. The spondees in these 122 verses number 445, on the
310.

average 3 '6 in one tetrameter:


Tetram.
i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

v.

vi.

Total.

122

445 28

+ 44

63

17 28

+ 29 76 + 6 38 + 43 41+32 274 +
in one

171

The 274 spondees contained each


as follows
i.

word are distributed


iv.

ii.

iii.

v.

vi.

Total.

Dissyllables

Overlap forward Overlap back Overlap both ways

16 12

27
1

16 10
2

35
41

22 16

22
2

138
41

35

14
3

92
3

Total in one word

28

63

28

76

38

41

274

Among

the

122

tetrameters, 7

contain each six

spondees and

15 others each five. See 314. 312. The anapaests number 353, on the average 2-9 in one
tetrameter
Tetram.
:

wv^
353
7

i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

v.

vi.

vii.

Total.

122

+ 19

14

+ 25

22

+ 20

26

+ 14

12

+ 23

24

+ 25

70

+ 52

175

+ 178

The 175 anapaests contained each


as follows
Trisyllables
.

in one

word
v.
vi.

are distributed
Total.

.498728
i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

vii.

40
87 47
1

Overlap forward 3 Overlap back Overlap both ways ....


.

11

62
6

4
1

19

14

Total in one word

14

22

26
in

12

24

70

175

The 178 anapaests contained each


ii.

two or more

words or

parts of words are distributed as follows


i.

iii.

iv.

v.

vi.

vii.

Total,

In three words, ^\^\In two, divided V. w In two, divided ^ v^ I

4 9 6

3 4 18

14
8

10

10
14

2 18 5

4 18

16

30
52

75 87
178
remainder

Total divided anapaests 19


1

25

20

23

25

Eq. 507-46 (Parabasis), 761-823 These are (Debate), 1316-34 (Exode).

a trustworthy type of the that occur in Aristophanes.

315
the

ANAPAESTIC VERSE
122
tetrameters,

125
six

Among
{Eq.

one

contains
five
(of.

anapaests

791) and 14 others contain each


etc.).

Eq, 516, 527,

539, 546, 781,


313.

The dactyls number 56, on the average


^w
56
3
i.

1 in
v.

2*18 verses
Total.

Tetram.

ii.

iii.

iv.

122

21

18

13

+ 43

The 13 dactyls contained each


follows
:

in one

word
ii.

are distributed as
Total.

Trisyllables

Overlap forward Overlap back

.30301 .00301 .02000


i.

iii.

iv.

v.

4 2

Totalin one word

13

No

dactyl occurs in the sixth or seventh foot (309), and none,

either in these

122

verses or in the remaining tetrameters in

Aristophanes, overlaps both ways.

contained each in

See 315. The 43 dactyls two or three words or parts of words are
:

distributed as follows

i.

In three words, In two, divided In two, divided

^ - v^ ^ - ^ ^^
^-'
| | |

Total divided dactyls

21

18

43

314. It should be noted that the final metre of the tetrameter


is

always

v^

in Aristophanes

(cf.

Heph. 25. 21

ff.),

and

that the sixth simple foot


is

may

be a spondee or an anapaest but


of the parts of the anapaest,

never a dactyl.
315.

The pleasing balance

with

arsis

and

thesis equal (284), distinguishes also, in

unusual degree,

the anapaestic tetrameter as a whole.


of
is

The component dimeters

nine tetrameters in ten are separated by diaeresis, and this


frequently coincident with a pause
first

demanded by the

sense.

Furthermore, the metres of the


are separated

dimeter in 1040^ tetrameters


tetrameters
in

by

caesura.

Caesura separates the metres also of


in

the following paroemiac

479

263

of the
admitted

1 In 111 of the remaining 195 tetrameters the first metre ends within a in 84 caesura is precluded by a' Tetreprogressive or recessive word.

mimeral caesura,

therefore, is

word

in 84 per cent of the anapaestic tetrameters in Aristophanes,

126

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


it

316

remainder
simple
metre.^

separates the arsis

and
first
is

thesis

of

the

preceding

foot, in

314

it

follows the

short syllable of the last

Thus
^

the

tetrameter

broken

by

caesura

and

diaeresis into four parts,

v^v/-v^v^-|v^v^-vv^-|^v^-^|-|

^ ^
I

Furthermore,

the most of which are exactly equal one to the other.^ in fully 75 per cent of these tetrameters, the
brought, within the compass of the verse, to a complete

thought
or
catalexis

is

partial

close that demands a final pause, which fortifies Commonly and leaves a strong sense of completeness.

gathers volume as

beginning with a monosyllable or a dissyllable, the tetrameter it advances and generally ends massively in a word of three or more syllables. The cadenced roll of the verse
is

impressive and its dignity befits the serious tone that often pervades the debate and the poet's address in the parabasis. Compare Dionysius's characterization, quoted in 284.
so

constant

Diaeresis is 316. Its pauses merit detailed consideration. that Person {Praef. in Hecuh. xlvii.) wished to

'emend' the tetrameters in which it is disregarded, but he The justification of overlooked some important considerations. his proposal, if the Procrustean method in criticism can ever be justified, would be found in the fact that by his proposed changes
every anapaestic tetrameter without exception could be rendered

But in certain tetrameters the first with a pause at diaeresis. dimeter ends with a progressive word or phrase, as with airo, Ach. 636;^ S^, Ach. 655; 09, IJq. 526; tva m, Eq. 785; r)
Nub. 273; t5, Nul. 372;^ (oa-irep, Vesp. 395,^^.486; kuI, The regularity with which these words occur at the Av. 462. beginning of the second dimeter demonstrates that they must Cf. for prepositions, not be rendered with a pause after them. Vesp. 700, Av. 485, Ach. 630, 632, Uq. 514, 524, 802, 808, etc.; for to?, Nuh. 971, Vesp. 348, 1023, Av. 553, PL 593; for h, Eq. 796, 803, 1317, Nub. 264, 968, Vesp. 588, etc.; for
Progressive and recessive words are precluding as Into account caesura in these three enumerations. 2 See Porson, Praef. in Ifeaib. xlvi. : "Metra sive dipodiae turn maxime numerosos versus efficiunt, cum in integras voces desinunt." ^ Porson {Praef. in Hecuh. xlviii.) wished to emend these two verses on the ground that diaeresis must not follow prepositions and the article in This is true anapaestic tetrameters.
1

also of the other progressive words

and

taken

The remedy, phrases here enumerated. however, is not emendation but an arrangement of pauses different from This is a necessity conthe ordinary. stantly imposed by progressive and recessive words in the comic trochaic The pauses in Ach. tetrameter (253). The 636 and Nxcb. 372 are at 4:11. reading of the MSS. in Ach. 636 may be objected to for a different reason
(308).

317

ANAPAESTIC VERSE
;

127

ha firj, Nub. 996, Av. 560, 712, Lys. 503, Ban. 1007 for 77, Nub. 967, 969, Ban. 355, 362, PL 513, 514, 541; for the article, Ach. 638, 643, 644, 647, Fq. 763, 778, 780, 790, etc.; iov wairep, Nub. 978, Vesp. 351, Lys. 574, 583, Ban. 1015; for Ka\, Ach. 631, 653, Eq. 522, 523, 527, 532, 541, 543, etc. The second dimeter, moreover, in certain tetrameters, begins with
a recessive word, av Vesp. 565
(?), fxev

PI.

iartv Vesp. 356, before which a pause cannot be made.

540, iafiev Av. 722, Further-

more, there are tetrameters in which a strong pause is demanded by the sense both before and after the middle of the verse, as
after

the second and fifth theses in Uq. 1324, Vesp. 397, 612, In these and similar cases, it hardly 617, Pax 758, Ec. 591. seems possible that a third pause not required by the sense

was introduced at diaeresis. 317. The doctrine, therefore, that all anapaestic tetrameters were recited with a pause between the dimeters is tenable only on a purely mechanical theory of rendering that ignores the Three of the objectionable verses that Porson and thought. others have wished to emend belong together, Av. 600, Vesp, A word ends in these within the arsis of the 568, Nub. 987. fifth simple foot, as tmv apyvpttov ovrot, <yap taaai Xeyovat No objection can be made, in 8e rot rdhe 7rdvre<; (Av. 600).^ anapaestic or dactylic verse, to a cadence that ends within an This is the cadence regularly produced by trochaic caesura arsis. hexameters in recitative dactylic (361), and examples of it For this caesura are numerous in the anapaestic tetrameter. in the second simple foot see Nub. 974, Av. 710, ^c. 640; in the third, Vesp. 565, Av. 468, He. 639; in the fourth, Nub. 355, ^v. 567 in the sixth, Vesp. 569, ^c. 687 in the seventh. Nub. 295, 351, Vesp. 594, Av. 501, 604, Lys. 529, 579, Ban. 1062, Be. 646, 663, 682, PL 532. One may reasonably ask why this cadence should be excluded from the fifth simple foot. The three discredited tetrameters must have been rendered in virtually the same manner as Ach. 656, Av. 520, PL 542, in which the pause occurs after the second syllable of the dis'

'

'

'

syllabic arsis of the fifth simple foot.

Av. 722, furthermore,


tetrameters,
since

is

quite
iafiev
^

as

objectionable

as

these

three

v/jliv

must be treated
which

as one word, precluding diaeresis of the

Cf. PI. 540, in

i/j-ariov /liv

must be treated

as oue word.

Cf. also Vesp.

565.

128
verse.
It

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


must have
been
rendered
in

318

the

same way as

twenty-eight tetrameters in which a strong pause occurs after the thesis of the fifth simple foot. Cf, Nuh. 371,

most

of the

1000,

Vesp.

355, 551, 605, 667, 686,


fifth, oo-Tt9

etc.

fourth tetrameter
arsis of the fourth

that Porson

condemned has the pause within the

simple foot instead of the


elirelv
to,

TrapeKivSvvevaev ^A6rjvaloL<i

hUaia {Ach. 645). This must have been rendered in the same manner as Av. 567, in which the two syllables of Entirely similar the arsis are separated by strong punctuation. are verses in which a strong pause precedes the whole of the arsis of the fourth simple foot. Cf. Eq. 785, 791, Nub. 1008, It is to be observed that the verses in which Lys. 582, etc. the first dimeter ends with a progressive word or phrase (316) belong in the same category with Ach. 645, since they are, in
fact, indivisible at

the middle of the verse.

318.
are

The exceptions, however, to the principle of diaeresis most anapaestic tetrameters were probably not numerous
;

rendered with a medial pause, these tetrameters observing diaeresis more strictly than iambic and trochaic tetrameters, especially
This pause may break melodramatic iambic tetrameters (180). the continuity of the thought, as in iambic and trochaic tetrameters.

See 179.

The long verse centres

at this medial pause


it

in the anapaestic tetrameter with great uniformity, but

may

have a secondary pause and a triple cadence. The commonest secondary pause follows the first metre, and verses such as Eq. 821, Nub. 326, 366, 426, Vesp. 348, 387, 389, etc., are not unusual. The pause after the first metre is more pronounced, although doubtless still secondary, in verses such as Eq. 775, The secondary 786, 792, Nub. 294, 297, 343, 369, 381, etc. pause in the first colon may follow the thesis of the first simple foot, as in Nub. 403, Lys. 559, Ec. 622, Eq. 764, Vesp. 381, PI. 512, or the arsis of the second, as in Eq. 823, Nuh. 328, Eq. 1326, Nub. 387, Ban. 1053, or the arsis of the third, as in Vesp. 556, Nub. 364, Av. 503, 516, 581. These and occasional similar combinations occur in verses in which caesura
of the metres of the first dimeter (315, first note) is impossible or

harsh.

The secondary pause

in the second dimeter, the paroemiac,

may

occur between the two metres, as in Nub. 325, Av. 463,

Lys. 504, Eq. 540, 802, Vesp. 611, or within the arsis of the

following simple foot, as in Av. 501, Nuh. 351, Vesp. 594, Lys.

320

ANAPAESTIC VERSE

129

arsis of the preceding simple foot, 347, 379, Vesp. 382, 396, Poj^ 736, Av. 597, The last combination gives the close 702, 714, Lys. 506, 514. of the tetrameter the cadence produced by bucolic diaeresis in the dactylic hexameter (360 f.)A secondary pause sometimes

579, Ban. 1062, or after the

as in Niib. 267,

fifth simple foot, as in Nul. 356, Two secondary pauses 684, Av. 572, Lys. 590. may be combined, often to the exclusion of the medial pause. See the combinations cited at the end of 316. Cf. also Eq. 524,

occurs after the thesis of the

380,

Vesp.

Av. 474, Lys. 567, Tli. 793, PL 586, in which a pause after the thesis of the second simple foot is combined with one after the arsis of the sixth. Verses occur in which even three pauses are required by the thought, but these are rare. Cf. Av. 721, Lys. 499, 503 Av. 597, Ec. 621 Nub. 324, Av. 658 Nvh. 367.
;

319. The following analysis of 200 anapaestic tetrameters {Eq. 507-46, 761-823, 1316-34, Nuh. 314-91) will serve to illustrate the foregoing statements. The odd numbers in italic type signify arses after which a pause falls, the even numbers theses. S A single pause, at diaeresis, occurs in the 145 tetrameters not cited below. 10: Eq. 776, 1332; Nuh. 357, 371. 6 -.Eq. 785, 791; Nuh. 337. 7 -.Eq. 526. J^:8:Eq. 513, 536, 775, 786, 792, 821, 1322; Nuh. 326, 332, 1 S -.Eq. 781. 2:8'. Eq. 764. 3:8: 343, 366, 369, 381. Eq. 774, 823, 1326; Nuh. 328, 387. 5:8: Nuh. 364. 7 ( - v. ) 8:Nuh. 355. 8:1:2: Eq. 540, 802; Nub. 325, 340. 8:13 {^\^):Nuh. 351. 8 11 :Nuh. 347, 379, 388. 8 10 :Nub. 356, 380. 4,:10:Eq. 534, 1324. 4:11: Eq. 514, 515, 524, 531, 784. 799, 801 ; Nub. 368, 377. 4:12: Eq. 769. 4:18:Nuh. 361. 4,6:8 :Nuh. 324. 3 8 12 :Nuh. 367.

320. Anapaestic

tetrameters

are found

among the extant

fragments of the Old Comedy, as follows: Cratinus

5, 45, 53-5, 73, 126, 138-41, 165, 206, 220, 232, 233, 259, 306, 307,

309,
94,

310;
120,

Crates

17,

24;

Pherecrates
1, 2,

11,

12,

23-5, 46,

130,

183-6;

Teleclides

42-4;

Hermippus

Philonides 5, 15; Eupolis 14, 36, 52, 119, 191; Phrynichus 3, 34; Aristophanes 80-2, 139, 166, 2224, 253-5, 379, 395, 412, 413, 415, 416, 498, 535, 536, 678, 679, 680, 682, 683, 912; Plato 37, 109, 124, 153, 164, 208; Aristonymus 2,3; Ameipsias 9, 19; Callias 5, K

30, 45, 53, 54;

130

THE VEKSE OF GREEK COMEDY

321

20; Lysippus 4; Metagenes 2, 3, 7, 14, 16; Aristagoras 1; Nicophon 22; Philyllius 13 Frg. incert. 42, 44, 45.
;

THE HYPEKMETER
321. Eecitative

anapaestic

hypermetrical

periods

(280)

in

Aristophanes generally follow anapaestic tetrameters, just as the corresponding iambic (190) and trochaic (267) hypermetrical periods follow respectively iambic and trochaic tetrameters, and here also the connexion of the period with the preceding long
Cf. Eq. 546 ff., 823 ff., Vesp. sometimes very close. 522 ff., Lys. 531 ff. The largest use of ff., Av. anapaestic hypermetrical periods is found in debates,^ and the series of cola rendered continuously furnishes an appropriate

verses

is

357

ff.,

620

The anapaestic to the lively discussion that precedes. hypermetrical period constitutes also the third regular part of the parabasis,^ and from its rapid rendering was here named
close
TTvlyo'i

or jxaicpov.

See 668.

It follows tetrameters also in a


It

parode,^

syzygy,*

an exode,^ and a scene.^

appears in-

dependently, furthermore, in the prologue,^ in the exode,^ and in a long introduction to a debate,^ as well as at appropriate

In none of these instances is places elsewhere in the plays.^ The nearest approach to this use, so it distinctly embateric.

common
measure

in tragic parodes, occurs in an exode {Ban.


of the

1500-27).
a
livelier

The entrance
(245).

chorus

in

comedy demanded

322. The anapaestic hypermeter is composed of dimeters The monometer (276) is the inferior element, and monometers. On its probable origin see 613. It had but it is a true colon. its own modulation and gave the hypermeter variety, and is

comparable in this particular with the occasional trimeter found


in iambic (190)

But dimeters and trochaic (267) hypermeters. and monometers connected by synaphaea (44) were especially likely to be confused in transmission, and the danger of confusion was increased by the conscious attempt of scribes on the one
^ Eq 824-35 Nub. 1009-23, Vesp. 621-30'~ 719-24, Av. 523-38-611-25, Lys. 532-8-593-607, Futn. 1078-98, Ec. 689-709, Fl. 598-618. 2 Ach 659-64, Eq. 547-50, Vesp. 1051-9, Fax 765-74, Av. 723-36, Th.

Vesp. 358-64, without correspondent.

^
^
'

Pax 1320-8.

Fax

"
^"

879-84, a prayer. 82-101, 154-72, Th. 39-62. j^ggp^ 1482-95, Fan. 1500-27. Nub. 889-948.
Ves-p.

814-29.
3

Vesp.

736-42-749-59

(672),

Fax

mlb. 439-56.

974-1015, a prayer.

323

ANAPAESTIC VERSE
for

131

hand to save space, on the other to provide it comment. Not only monometers and dimeters but
trimeters

marginal

also apparent

and

tetrameters

are

found There

manuscripts of Aristophanes.

between cola in such


theless

a false

(jrixo<i,

hypermeters in the sometimes a small space Neverbut generally not.


in
is

the

authorities

on

which

any investigation

of

this

interesting question

must

rest,

the oldest manuscripts and the

metrical

scholia,

are

incidentally

to

furnish

found to be in practical agreement, and evidence of value in determining the

original constitution of these comic anapaestic hypermeters, which are numerous. Metrical scholia are extant on Ach. 659, This Eq. 824, Nub. 889, Pax 82, 154, 765, 974, 1320. commentary is unfortunately meagre, but in only two of the notes is there disagreement with the two oldest manuscripts, E and V. The commentary on Pax 974 makes 989^ the third

monometer, in

E
it

and

it

is

990.
is

On Nuh. 889

see 326.

In

the seven plays

contains,

in singular agreement with in general inferior.

when

it

differs, its

authority

is

Impossible

divisions, within a metre, occur in

both manuscripts, but oftener

in V, six instances in

761

metres, than in E, three instances

Both manuscripts, as has already been observed, may combine a monometer and dimeter or even two dimeters The apparent trimeter thus occurs in V into a single arl'xp'i. 24 times, in E 11 times; the tetrameter, 6 times in V, 3 times
in

923

metres.

in E.
into

and monometer sometimes remains in doubt. Often one manuscript corrects There are, however, only two instances of disagreethe other. ment between E and V that are essential. In Ban. 1089 ff. E makes 1097 the monometer, V 1089*; the remaining cola
or into dimeter

Whether the trimeter monometer and dimeter

in

these

cases

shall

be divided

Internal evidence demonstrates In PI. arrangement of these cola. 598 ff. E makes 599 a monometer, V 600^ 323. This remarkable agreement of authorities should not Modern editors do not agree in practice, be lightly regarded. in adopting and placing monometers, and the principles by which they are guided are not always obvious. They have
are dimeters in both manuscripts.

that

is

in

error in

its

apparently

introduced

order to avoid
ableness of this

elision at the

monometers into some hypermeters in end of a dimeter, but the reasonprocedure is called in question by the number

132

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY

324

of elided dimeters that constitute the initial cola in tetrameters.


Cf.

Nub. 319, 321, 323, 368, 426, 969, Vesp. 356, 694, 712,

Pax 759, Av. 599, 707, 710, Lys. 519, 550, Th. 813, Fmu. To these must 1026, Ec. 627, 684, PL 532, 533, 582, 591.
be

added
574.

initial

dimeters

ending

in

an elided

monosyllabic

enclitic as in
PI.

Nuh. 388, Vesp. 556, ^v. 500,i2aw. 1074, ^c. 631, Both these forms of elision are found at the end of

cola in anapaestic hypermeters in

454^ /^vfivrp, 891 a, 926^ e\ Vesp. 629 h\ 1057 iTOLTje', Pax ^1 <t\ 994"^ a-rcofivWo/iee', Av. 618^ Editors have Ban. 1078 eVr', Ec. 697^ ava>9\ "Afji/xQ)v, eliminated some of these by shift in division of cola, but the majority of them cannot be relieved except by violent changes.
K\e'7rTov6\ Nuh.
It has already been observed (315) that diaeresis fails in relatively Few words likewise are few recitative anapaestic tetrameters. Vesp. divided at the end of the colon in recitative hypermeters 752 ay^rij)L-(TTO<i, Av. 611 ov-xh 732 yeXw-ra. The first of
:

% 828

or

or in both, as follows

these

is

not to be eliminated by any device.


Vesp.

Progressive words

occur at the end of cola in

1488

Kal,

Pax 979

al,

Av.
in

619

eV.

324. Nearly

one

half

of

the

anapaestic

hypermeters

Aristophanes consist of an odd number of metres.


scripts generally place

The manufinal

the odd

monometer just before the

paroemiac of the hypermeter, as in Eq. 549, Vesp. 723, 883, Av. 537, 735, Lys. 534, 537, 606, Pan. 1097, Ec. 708. 325. The principle is demonstrable, if the authority of the two
oldest manuscripts
is

accepted, that no change of speaker can occur

within a colon in anapaestic hypermeters in Greek comedy, unless the change irregularly occurs within a single metre, of which
there are only four instances in Aristophanes, JVub.
Th.

893^ 906^
which

45^ 45^

The proof

of

this
is

interesting

principle,

often necessitates monometers,


recitative hypermeters

found in the manner in which

composed in dialogue are written in the two oldest manuscripts. There are eleven of these hypermeters, and the principle is applied in all but one of them with surprisThus PL 598-618 is composed of 36 metres ing consistency. which might be divided into 18 dimeters, if the principle were In fact it is written in E in 21 cola, 15 dimeters not operative.
1

The

fact

is

familiar that the elided syllable

is

placed in the

MSS.

at the

beginning of the following colon.

326
6

ANAPAESTIC VEKSE

133

and

Pax 974monometers (599, 603, 605, 607, 609, 617). is composed of two hypermeters (974-92, 993-1015). The former is divided in EV into 16 dimeters and 3 monometers (975, 984, 990) the latter, which was recited by a single speaker, Thus also Th. 39-62 has 10 monometers (45^ into 23 dimeters.

1015

45^ 48^ 48^ 50^ 50^

Sl-^,

51^ 57^ 57^); Fax 82-101 has

one monometer (91), recorded as the tenth colon in the metrical scholium; Vesp. 1482-95 has six (1485, 1489^ 1489^ 1491, 1493^ 1493^); Vesp. 749<'-59 has two^ (749, 753). Only

two corrections are required in ten hypermetrical periods comvvv In Vesp. 1482 tf., Kara aavrov opa. yap iv apdpoL<i, at the end, is a dimeter in both E and V, whereas under the principle it should be a monometer and the beginning The scribe's error is probably due to of a following dimeter. In Tli. 3 9 ff. the general occurrence of parateleutic monometers.
posed in dialogue.

the scribe in excess of zeal has written 45'^

yXavKov

^ofi/Sd^, as

two cola, although the change of speaker occurs within a metre. The following monometer (45^^) is written correctly. 326. J^uh. 889 ff., the longest hypermeter in Aristophanes, furnishes unexpected confirmation of the principle under disHeliodorus records that this hypermeter contains 74 cussion.
cola.

See the metrical


single

scholium.

There

is

internal

evidence

that the original source of


are

45

There was thus written. speaking parts in the hypermeter, some short, others

and

long,

assigned

to

three

different

speakers.

This computation

reckons the monometer 893^ as a single part (325).

This colon

and 906* are the av^uyiac ov reXeiac mentioned by Heliodorus. The division of the hypermeter in V into cola establishes 17 additional dimeters and monometers witJii/i these speakers' parts

890; 892; 901^ 902^ 905; 907; 918; 919; 921; 922; 923; 924; 931; 935^ 935^ 936^ 938; 947; 948." A
hypermeter, however, as extended as this promises to be, would have required an amount of space in writing which no scribe, much less his corrector,' could have viewed with equanimity.
'

We

find, therefore,

the scribes of
familiar

and E, or

their predecessors,

resorting

to

the

palaeographical

device

of

grouping

cola in single

aruxot.

ing occurs twice in

Thus a tetrametrical groupV, three times in E (e.g. 945, 946 as a


See 322.

^ 749^, iu) fMoi fiOL, is an anaphonema. Fourteen in R. whieh makes 938, 939^ a trimeter and 947, 948 a tetrameter.

134
single
(TTi')(^os:)
;

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


a trimetrical
o-Tt%o<?);^

326
(e.g.

nine

times in V, ten in

E
of

897, 898^ as a

a dimetrical,

by which words
line,

two

speakers in the dialogue are joined in a single

ten times in

RV

(e.g. in 910), just as two speakers' parts may constitute an apparent trimeter (e.g. in 895^, 896). These dimetrical cases,

therefore, of apparent exception to the principle that the speaker

must not change within the

colon, quite certainly result in to

this

long hypermeter from the desire

economize space.

If the

monometers and dimeters thus combined, that are not already separated by the principle of change of speaker and by the
divisions

established

in

V, are restored as separate

cola,

ten

dimeters (894^

895^ 897^ 898^ 917; 928; 937; 941^ 942^ 942^ 943^ 943^ 944; 945 946) and two monometers
;

(927;

936^)^ are added to the 45 and 17 cola previously

determined.
Heliodorus,

The total furnishes the 74 42 dimeters and 32 monometers,


Kuh. 889-948.

cola

recorded

by

Brunck.

At.

X'^P^'-

8^^'ph Set^oi/ cravTov

Tol(TL

^earais, Katirep Opa(Tvs wv.


XPi?C'^'5,

'AS.

OTTOL

TToXv yap iJ.aX.X6v

o"'

ev roi<; iroXXoicTi

Aeywv uttoXw.
5 wv.

RV RV RV RV

Ai.

aTToAets (Tv;
Ai.
o-e

ris wv;
t^'ttwv y'

889 890 891 892 [893*


{

'AS. Xoyos.

RV RV
10

'AS.

dAAa
Tov

vtKW,
KpeLTTO) (^acTKOvr' elvai.

J
|

SdS^ 894*
894'', 895*^

i/JLOv

At.

Ti (TO(f)ov TTOtwv;

895''

'AS. yvufxas Kaivas e^evpt'cTKwi'.


At.

RV RV RV

}
C

896
897*
897'',

TavTa yap dvOei


Sia TOVTOva-l rovs dvoTi]TOvs.

898*

*A8. ovK,

dXXa
o-e

cro({>ovs.

T
(

898''

At. aTToAw

KaKws.
15

899*

'AS.
At.

etTre

rt TTOtoiv

(899''

Tci

StK-ata

Xeywv.

'AS. aAA' dvaTpkxpdi

avr' avTiXeyuiV
cf>r]fxl

ovSe
At.

yap
yap

efvai Trdvv
(ftys ;

St/c?;v.

RV \ 900* RV 900'', 901* RV 901'', 902*


(

ovK elvat
<f)epe

902''

'AS.

ttov 'cttlv

20
meters)

RV

(903*

1 V, but not R, has trimetrical grouping four times, tetrametrical once, in

makes

in R. since this manuscript 938, 939!i a trimeter and 947,

PL
^

.598

If.

Thirteen dimeters (and two mono-

948 a tetrameter. The aggregate of cola in R is also 74 (45 -H4 -t- 15).

326
Ai.

ANAPAESTIC VERSE

135

136

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY

327

330

ANAPAESTIC VEKSE

137

shifted.

How

are

Vesp.

752

, ^z;.

rendered otherwise than respectively as ^ ^


v^
I

611, 612 and 732 f. to be ^ ^^


|

v^

and
I

w[v.

^ ^

and
Cf.

^ ^

^^_^^_ ^1^-^^1484
f.,

^ ^

for

This prin1488, 148 9^ P/. 606 f. ciple serves to explain some divisions in E and V that at first seem odd. These manuscripts divide Nub. 920^-924, o-u Be 7' ev etc., a series of cola which begins with a change of speaker, into the last half of a dimeter, a dimeter, a dimeter, a monometer and a dimeter, where the natviral division would seem to be into four
'trimeters' Vesp.
dimeters.

The

close

connexion

of

923
Cf.

with

the

following

dimeter

may

explain the division.

Mib. 934-8, which in

EV

are dimeter, monometer, dimeter, trimeter,

and the beginning

of a trimeter, the equivalent of five dimeters.

The parts

of the

complete trimeter (936^ 937) are closely connected and the point of division of its double cadence may have shifted to
TralSevaLv.

328.

The dimeter and paroemiac


differ in metrical

do not essentially
329.

in the recitative hypermeter form from the acatalectic and


ff.).

catalectic dimeters that

compose the tetrameter (307


times,

The paroemiac occurs 38

30 times

as the final

colon of a systematic period that consists of a single hypermeter,

and eight times (F((x 992, Lys. 535, 602, Th. 42, Ban. 1088, 1505, 1514, 1523) to mark the close of a hypermeter within the systematic period. Cf. Schol. Fax 974-1015, which consists of two hypermeters {irepiohoi). The dactyl occurs once
{Vesp.

884), as the

first

simple foot of a paroemiac.


is

Caesura
Cf.

of the metres of the paroemiac

neglected 14 times.

Ach.

664, Eci 550, 835, Vesp. 759, 1059, Pax 172, 774, 1328, Av. It is 736, Lys. 538, Ban. 1098, 1505, 1523, Ec. 709. Cf. precluded by a progressive or recessive word seven times. Vesp. 630, 742, Pax 992, Av. 538, Lys. 535, 602, Th. 829.
See 315.
330. The proceleusmatic is found but once {Nut. 916), in a monometer of which the reading is doubtful. The collocation of dactyl and anapaest occurs 3 times {Pax 169, Th. 822, Ban.

1525).

In each case the combination constitutes the

first

metre
is

of an acatalectic dimeter.

The prevailing

foot in this dimeter

the spondee, and spondaic dimeters are

common.

The purely

anapaestic dimeter, likewise, occurs occasionally {Vesp. 757, Av.

138

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY

331

The dactyl occurs 85 times in the first place, 535, Lys. 533). 6 in the second {Yes'p. 1055, 1490, Pax 82, 154, 1010, Ec. 690), 81 in the third, and 8 in the fourth {Ves'p. 624, 1054,

Fax 994, 1009, Th. 819, Ban. 1517, 1525, Ec. number of dactyls in the fourth place is unusually
following
colon, five

690).

The

large (308).

Three of these are followed by a dactyl at the beginning of the

by a spondee.

The

dactylic

dimeter

is

found but once {Ec. 690) in a recitative hypermeter, according This dimeter is a singular exception to to the division in E. The See 271. a rule that holds elsewhere in Aristophanes.
acatalectic dimeter neglects caesura of its metres

16 times in 380
^Drogressive

dimeters; in
recessive

14 others
Caesura

it

is

precluded by a

or

word.

is

barred, therefore, on
first

the

average,
it is

once in 12-7 dimeters.


forbidden in one in 6*3.

In the

half of the tetrameter

See 315,

first note.

331. Three acatalectic dimeters end within a word (323). This division corresponds to neglect of diaeresis in the tetrameter. No acatalectic dimeter ends in a short (' variable ') vowel, and hiatus occurs only once, and here it is accompanied by change of

speaker {Nul. 892).


332. It happens that hypermeters have been quoted from The Cf. Hermippus 46, 47. few poets of the Old Comedy. poets of the Middle Comedy furnish more considerable remains 132, 133, 172; Cf. Antiphaues form of verse. of this Anaxandrides 41 (71 cola); Eubulus 63; Ephippus 5, 12;

Anaxilas

18; Epicrates 11; Alexis 162; Mnesimachus 4. The fragments of Anaxandrides and Mnesimachus rival in length Niib. 889 ff., the longest hypermeter in Aristophanes. A single hypermeter of Menander is extant, 312.

CHAPTER V
DACTYLIC VEESE
333. Cultivated

men

in the

West have always been


;

familiar

with the poems of Homer, and the heroic line naturally overshadows all other forms of dactylic verse but Greek poets were

would be as erroneous hexameter in determining the forms of melic dactylic verse as from the set verse of the dialogue of the drama in formulating melic iambic metres. In dactylic, as in iambic, trochaic and anapaestic verse, the fundamental colon in melic poetry, as it appears in comedy and elsewhere, is a dimeter composed of two metres that consist each of two simple feet
singing long before Homer's time, and
to
it

proceed from the

'

'

(12,13):
TTarpos dir' 'Q,Keavov /Sapvax^o^
v\l/r]Xwv 6p(i)V
Kopv(fia.<i
776

^^ ^v^ KopaKas /^aStet /xerayuwvtos / ei's ecrrt rt riovS' cti'/zw? ; eiTr' w irdrep ^^
dactylic

^^ vy^ v^ -^

^^ ^^ ^^ v^ Kuh. 278 ^^ ^<^ ^^ Pax 117


times.

f.

1.

dimeter
is

consists

of

sixteen

primary

All

dactylic verse

in descending rhythm.

334.
of the
(354).

thesis in

The dactyl assumes proceleusmatic form, by resolution - ^ ^, in Av. 1752 (588) and HccL 1168 ff. It never has anapaestic form by resolution of the
'

'

thesis in

See 11. 335. The dimeter by suppression of the


.

arsis

of its

final

dactyl becomes catalectic


prjfiara Kal Trapair pierp-aT

tTTwv

<^

^^

^^

Ran. 882

The

catalectic dimeter is rare.

336.

The melic

acatalectic dimeter differs


139

from the corre-

140

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY

33V

sponding anapaestic colon (275) in frequently ending within a word. The two metres that constitute this dimeter are almost
invariably joined in this manner.
trimeter was not employed as a colon, composed of true dactyls in normal isomeric rhythm (9, i.) would have exceeded the limit of length allowed diplasic compound feet (22), but the monometer was thus used, 337.
dactylic
since a trimeter

The

in combination with dimeters.

On

the probable origin of this

use of the monometer as a colon see 613.


338. Dactylic tripodies (26) occasionally occur in Aristophanes
o[x/3po(fi6poL

d'

afjia

/SpovTai,^

ats ooe vvv x^oi'ct (rciet

-^

~^

^^ .^

Av. 1750

f.

Cf Av. 1749, 1752


These

(588), Nuh.

286

309, 287

= 310
cola

(344).
(35),

seeming

tripodies

are

true

brachycatalectic

and, like the corresponding anapaestic tripodies (277), have the mensuration of dimeters. Pentapodies apparently occur in Ban.

816

= 820 = 824 = 828

(346).

Each

of these lines is

probably

a dicolic subordinate period consisting of a


brachycatalectic
occasionally
iVM&.

dimeter.

The
the

monometer and a penthemimer (36) is also

found,

with

275 = 298 (Z^4:), Av. 750 (498), 1344^ (592).

mensuration of a dimeter. Cf. = 782 (4:10), Ban. 674 = 706

339. Protraction (31) does not occur in the dactylic verse

For an apparent exception see 365. does not eschew the melic dactylic hypermeter, made familiar to the audience in the theatre by tragic poets. Aristophanes, indeed, introduces a hypermeter of nineteen metres into one of his most beautiful lyrics. Nub. 275 ff. (344), but generally the series is short and does not exceed the length allowed a subordinate period. The commonest subordinate period in melic dactylic verse is the acatalectic trimeter composed of dimeter and monometer. The latter invariably assumes the The close of this period is sometimes duly form - ^ ^ marked by hiatus or the variable syllable (43)
340.

of comedy.

Comedy

'

'

TTOV Setvbv

ept^pe/Atras X'^'^^v ev6oOev e^ei


TrapLSrj
dy'jyovro'S

rjVLK

av o^vXaXov

oSovra. Ran.

814

f.

On

the significance of the conjunction of vowel sounds here see Lys. 479 and
(303).

the

comment

343

DACTYLIC VERSE
818
Cf.

141

But these indications are frequently


corresponding to those quoted {Ran.
See 775.

lacking, as in the periods


f.

= 822

f.

= 826
ff.

f.).

The trimeter
in
stichic
ff.

is

the melic period exclusively used in

comedy

(50)

composition.

Pax 119

(345),

Ban. 1528

(348).
:

Its constitution is

strongly influenced by

the heroic line

the two cola are

commonly

joined in the middle

of a word, in disregard of the original composition of the period,


fifth half-foot (360 combination of subordinate periods, hypermeters intermediate periods to form systematic periods see 720 ff.

and a word almost always ends with the

ff.).

On

the

antl

341. The heroic line, 'hexameter,' with exception of a single


verse (365),
is

the only form of dactylic verse used by Aristophanes

in recitative rendering.

See 356

f.

342.
or

A
in

dactylic lyric

may
ff.

close

with a subordinate period


the
catalectic

colon

another rhythm, such as

trochaic
ff.

dimeter, as in Ban.
(347),

814

(346), the ithyphallic.

the Pherecratean, Av.

1754
period

ff.

(588),

or,

Ban. 875 with shift

to

275 ff. (344). Consometimes a part of a systematic period composed in a different rhythm. In parodies and monodies such a period probably kept its true isomeric time, in order to point contrast in rhythms, as in Th. 1050, 1052 f. (374), Ban. 1338 ff. (592), Av. 250 fi: (595), and perhaps in the simulated duo in Tli. 126 ff. (429). On the other hand, cola composed exclusively of dactyls were probably sung in triple time when constituent parts of simplified logaoedic odes (392 fi".).
descending rhythm, the paroemiac, Nul.
is

versely, a dactylic subordinate

Such series of logaoedic dactyls (389) are occasionally found combined with periods in other rhythms. These will be noted
as they occur.

343.
arsis

The dactyl has the same pleasing balance


it

of thesis

and

that characterizes the anapaest, and


it

is

this equality of

from the trochee (cf. 284). Aristides the quickening effect of short syllables in isomeric rhythms, and the truth of his observation is admirably illustrated in Niib. 275 ff. (344), in which in strophe and antistrophe the ratio of spondees to dactyls is only one to seven in the complete metres. The lilt of the song is remarkable. In the dactylic lyrics of Aristophanes in general dactyls greatly preponderate, less than one quarter of the simple feet being spondees, whereas in his recitative hexameters the two
parts that distinguishes

(97

M.,

59.

23

ff.

J.)

notes

'

'

'

142
sorts of feet
skilful

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


are practically equal (357
of
f.)-

344

On

Aristophanes's
of

perversion

the

hexameter to the uses

comedy

see 356.

Melic Dactylic Vekse


344.

Nub.

275-90 = 298-313
Strophe.

(Parode).

'H^.a' akvaoi Nec^eAat,

338, 800

(ant.),

802

-^-^
-^

dp6wfj.ev (f)avpal Spocrepav (fivcnv

2-^

^^

-^

278

280

_ _ _ _ ^^ .^ '^Keavov fiapva)(^o? 794 Trarpos 5 ^^ c^ vxpijXwv opeuiv Kopv(f)ds 7rt ^^ ^^ SevSpoKOjUovs, iva TTjXecfiaveL'i o-kotticis d.<j>opd)p.e6a 800 (ant.) ^ ^ ^^ ^^ KapTCOvs T dpSofxevav 6' lepdv \d6va Kal TTorafiCiv ^adkwv KeXaSt^/xara 800 (ant.) ;j^ >^
evdyqTov
cItt'

-^
.^

-^

^^

_^_^

^^o

_^^_^^

Ko.l

TTOVTOV KeXdSovTa f3apv/3popov

792, 800

(ant.)

10-^-^

^^ .^ - ^ - ^ - ^ 19-*^^' aKa/xarov creAayetTat 338, 795 2-*^ ,^ ^^ 338 287 p.app.apkai(TLV kv ai5yats. ^^ ^^ ^^ ^ dAA' a7^oc^elc^d/^va^ ve<^os 6ix/3piov 15 -^ ^^ ^^ ^^4 795 dOavdras I8eas eTTiBw/xiOa
285
ofifJ-a

yap aWepo?

290

TijAeo-KOTTw o/x/xart yatav.

342, 792

(aut.),

800 -

-^-

w.

- -

2^

Antistrophe.
'H/-t. /S'

irapdevoi
iXd(iijX.v

6fj.(3po(f}6poL,

Xnrapdv \66va ITaAAaSos

ei'avSpov

yav
6\p6jx(.vai

301

KeKpoTTOS

TroXvrjpaTOV

ov cre/jas dpprjTwv lepwv, tVa

/xvaroSoKos So/AOS
fv TeAerats dyt'ais dvaSetKvi;Tai,

305

ovpavioLS re ^eots ^wp'i)p.aTa,

vuoi

6'

v\l/p(f)LS

Kol dydXfxaTa,

Kal 77p6(ToSoL fiaKdp(DV lepcoTarat,

eiVrec^avot re ^etuv

dvcrlai

daXiai

re,

310

TravToSaTratcrtv ev iopafi,
'qpl

eTTfpxop-hoi B/30/xia X"P'?)

346

DACTYLIC VERSE
evKiXdSojv T xopwv
e'/oe^tcr/iaTa,

143

Kal [xovcra /SaprfSpo/xo? avkwv. 300 x^^^- Princeps


:

^s x^^^-

310

iTavTo5aTra'L(jiv

Princeps

iravToSa-rvoLs

Monostrophic dyad. A = abcde, 2-19-2-4 2, pericopic pentad: dactylic penthemimer, brachycatalectic hypermeter of nineteen metres, brachycatalectic dimeter, tetrameter, paroemiac. Both See 772, 777. aemot Ne^eAat (275) and Trapdevot ofi/SpocfiopoL (298) are used in address, and the long pause in singing that followed was most
appropriate
(338).

345.

Fax 114-23
w
irdrfp dp' eVv/nos ye
-IJKei,

(Prologue).

DUO
Ila.

w
lus
et's

Trdrep

43

^v^

115

Sw/iao-tv r]fiTepois (f>dTts


(TV jxer

opvidoiv tt/doAittwv

fxe

KOpaKas ^aStct [xerapnovLOS


ecTL Ti Twv8
t

>^ ^^

v^ w^
v^

^^2^
2^
2^'

>^

^^

v^
w^./

^^ ^^
^^

^ ^ ^^

118
T/3.

eTVfiws
/xe.

t7r'

Trarep,

___,.^

Tt

c^iAets
ecrrt,

So^dcrai

KOpai, to

8'

er/j-vfiov

dydop-ai

vfxiVj

800 800
43
10

120

7}vtK'

av aiTi^rjr
8'

dprov diTxpaKas

Trav /x KaAoucrat,

v8ov

dpyvpiov
Trdfnrav.

fir]8i

y Trdvv
i^v
8'

fyo)

ev Trpa^as
dipct

eX^w

aAti',

800

e^er'

ev

..^ v^ 5^ v^ >^ ^^ v^ -~ 3 -^ __ --^ v^ 3^ ^^ ^^ ^ ^ 3^ ^-^ s^ 3


wv..

123 KoXXvpav pydXi]v Kal kovSvXqv


oi/zov

15

^^
:

^^
3

w^^

cV

ai'T^.

116 we Ed.

i/j.i

(114-18, 119-23). A = aaab, 2 2 2 5, periodic tetrad a dimeter as proode that anticipates the melody of the two dimeters that follow and a pentameter as epode. See 747. B is a stichic period composed of five acatalectic trimeters. See 778. See the metrical scholium on Pax 114 If. Heliodorus's analysis includes only the first four cola, which he regards as a period, ignoring the close of the fourth colon. If he had analyzed 118-23, he would doubtless have designated them all as e-iKoi Note his phraseology in Schol. Eq. 1067.
Non-antistrophic.
:

A = AB

346.

Ban. 814-17

= 818-21 = 822-5 = 826-9


(Stasimon
Strophe
I.).

I.

'H/i. a'

rj

TTOu

Seivbv epcftpep^Tas xo^o*'


$a.,

cvSo^ev

794 43

-^

3^^

>^

^^"

^-

144

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


rjVCK

347

815

av o^i'AaAov

Trapi^rj

dq-

yovTOS oSovra

816 dvTiTiX^ov Tore


8rj

338
212, 342

fiavias viro Setvv]?

817

ofifxaTa (npofti^cr^raL.

^^ ^^ >^ ^^ - ^

^^ ^ 3^

-^

-^ ^^ 3- ^ - ^ ^

2*^^

Strophe 11.
'

H/x.

fi'

ecTTai 8'

lTnrok6(fi(DV re

Aoyojv KopvQaioXa

veiKrj

819 (TXtvSaAa/xwv re Tvapa^ovia crpCKevpaTa r


cfiWTos

epyuiv,

dixvvop.vov (ppevoreKTOVOs dvSpos


lTnrofidp.ova.

821

p-qp-aO'

Strophe III.
'

Hyu,.

<f)pi^as

8'

avTOKop-ov Ao^ias Xacriavxeva. ^(aLTav,


T/crei

823

8e^vbv kirurKVVLOV ^vvdyuiV fSpvywpevos

pqpara
825

yop<j)07rayrj TTtva/cr/oov d~ocnrojv

yT^yevet ^vo-rj/xaTt

,S'^?-op;ic

/F.

'

H/A. /3' cV^ev

8r)

o-TO/xarou/sybs cttwi' /SacravicrTpLa Ato-(^7/

827

yAwcrcr' dvcAio-o-o/xevr; (^Bovepovs Ktvovcra ^^'^ti'ovs


pn'ipara 8aiopevrj

KaraAeTrToAoyvycrei

829

TrAeu/xovcoy 7roAt)v ttovov.

The
aabc,

3 3 3-2,

= four strophes constitute a monostrophic tetrad (701). two dactylic trimeters and a brachyepodic tetrad
:

catalectic trimeter,
shift of

rhythm

in the last colon

with a trochaic dimeter as epode. is noteworthy.


lian.

See

742.

The

347.
Xo.
(5

875-84
^weras
ets

(Scene

II.).

Albs evvea apOevoL dyval


MoScrat, AeTrroAoyoi'S
at

790, 800
(ppevas

w^

<^ ^^

876


5^

^^
-^

^^

KaOopdre
e/oiv

877 dv8pC}v yvw/xoTVTTwv, orav


o^vfx.ip'ip.voi'i

^^ -^^

w^

v^

-^
3

^^

-^

878

eA^tocrt cnpefiXolcn -iraXaia-paa-iv

790

^^

^v-

dvTtAoyoGv'Tes,

879 eXder

eiroxp6p.vaL 8vvap.iv

SeivoTciTOiv cTTopaTOiv TToplcraa-OaL

p-qpara kol TapairpLcrpaT

cttwv.

883 vvv yap dywv cro^tas


pel Trpbs cpyov
V/S?/.

6 /xeyas x*^"

203,
883
6

^^ ^ ^ ^^ ^^ 10 w^ >^ --.>^-^ v^ v^ 342

- >^ w ^.^ ^~. 4*^ w^ _ _ 4C


.

2*^'*

Hermann

doe

349
Non-antistrophic.

DACTYLIC VERSE

146

5 3

3,

proodic triad

879-84). A probably = ab'b, a pentameter as proode to two trimeters. See


pericopic triad
catalectic dactylic dimeter, tetrameter compounded of a dactylic See 771. Compare the final colon of the
:

A = ab(875-8,

738, 776.

B=

abc, 2 4 4,

catalectic dactylic tetrameter,

dimeter and an ithyphallie. preceding lyric.


348.
Xo.

Ban. 1528-33 (Exode).

; ;

146
350.
follows

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


The
the
in
fatal

350

cadence

is

that part of the heroic line that

penthemimeral
Aeschylus, Kvpio^;

caesura
elfit

-------

>^
,

for

ex-

ample,

This is with the paroemiac, and had a ring doubly familiar to the Aristophanes ransacked the plays of Aeschylus for audience.
avhpcov {Ran. 1276).

Kpdro^ atatov identical in form and movement


dpoelv oBiov

periods with this close that had odd beginnings.


variety of form of the
first

part of the period, the greater


It

be the monotony of the recurring cadence.

The greater the would was not without

malicious pleasure that he hit upon two lines from Aeschylus's Myrmidons (Fucji. 1264 f.) for the beginning of his travesty.

The form of the first The line is apparently


Cf.

of these

still

bothers modern metricians.

a combination of an iambic

with the close of the heroic verse:


Mail.

^-^
f.),

penthemimer , - --^
.

1264, 1284
f.

f.

= Agam. 108
TreXdOea

1291
dpcoydv,

f.

Cf.

also

Agam.

115

This was followed in


ir)

the Myrmidons by the

famous model

kottov

ov

eV

cadence follows the exclamation It], which, derisive in the rendering Euripides gave it.
351.
El'.

we may be

where the sure, was

^6lwt'

'AxcXXev,
tr)

rl

ttot'
oil

avSpoSatKTOv
TreAa^ets
ctt'

aKOi'wv

1265
''Epfidv
/xiv

KOTTOi'

dpojydv
Xifivav.

TTpoyovov
Irj

rto/xev

ytvos

ot

irepl
Itt'

KOTTOV

ov

TTiXdOei?

dpoiydv
rovTio.
ival.

At.
El'.

8vo

vol

KOTTd)

Ala-^vXe

kvSktt'

'A;!(aia)i/

'Arpews TroXvKoipave pdvdavk pov


t'/)

1271
Ai.
El'.

KOTTOV

ov

TreXdOeis
crot

ctt'

dpwydv
outos.

T/DtTos

(icrxvXi

kottos

eij(^a/xiTe

jxeXicro-ovopoL 8o/aov 'ApreixiSos TTeAas oiyetv.


a]

KOTTOV

ov TreXdOeis

ctt'

dpayydv

KvpLO'i

eifii

Opoeiv
")

oStov
KOTTOV

Kparos
OV

ato-toi/
Itt'

dvSpiov.

1277

TTeAa^is

dpwydv

354

DACTYLIC VERSE

147

352. In

further

proof of his

contention, Euripides

quotes

another batch of verses, which he says are citharodic.


also the

These

comic poet gathered indiscriminately from different plays of Aeschylus but all alike, Euripides insists, whether aulodic
;

or citharodic, have the

same monotonous cadence.


IV.).
i)/3as,

Ran. 1284-95 (Scene


1284 1286 1289
1291
oTTCus

'A^atwi/ %iBpovov K/jaros, 'EA,Aa8os

S^i'yya 8v<Ta^epia.v TrpvTavtv kvvo.


(Tvv

Tre/ATret,

Sopl Kal

\pl TrpaKTopt dovptos opvts,

Kvpeiv TTapacr^wv irayuats kvctIv depoc^otVots,

353.
seriously.

Nobody in the audience, So much cannot be said


rhythm
is

of course, took

this jesting

of all

modern commentators.
least,

Aeschylus was not specially amenable to this particular criticism.

The

roll of dactylic

not heard, at

in

his

extant

plays,

which contain few choral dactylics,"^ no recitative hexameters, and no dactylic catenae such as are found in Euripides, Sophocles, and Aristophanes himself. It was the familiarity of
the

audience

with

the

Agamemnon
1163-81
the

that

gave

the

criticism

particular point.

354.

Uccl.

(Exode).

Aristophanes

closes

Ecdesiazusae

with

spectacular
in

dance

by

specialists.

He came upon

this

invention
is

the

Vespae (494).
'H/x. a'
(5

In the later play the performance


Sij,

elaborated.

oipa
(f)iX.aL

<c5>

yvvaiKes,

eiVre/D

IxeWofxev to \pijp.a 8pav,

^ v^ ^ ^
^^

1165
^

CTTt

TO SetTTVov

-UTravaKtveti'.

v/ ^ w 4*^ ^^w

Verse 1294, which has no pertinence to the matter in hand as regards either meaning or rhythm, is probably interpolated. See the scholiast. ^ They are found almost exclusively in the parode of the Agamemno-n (104159), from which Aristophanes secured

three of the nine verses here quoted, Mutilated anapaestic systems and dismembered dactylic octapodies must not be forced into service to furnish examples of the cadence over which the poet here makes merry.


148

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


Kp-qTLKMS OVV
Kttt

355

TW

TTOOe
y8'

vy
v^

CPU

Kivei.

'H/M.

Toijro Opw.

v-zv-/* ^ 2

[Here follows the dance of the second half-chorus.]


'Hyx.

/cat

<(ru> rao-Se

vvv Xayapas

206

v.^

1168

<Ta)(a XP^'"^ o/otrov t'7rayetv> TOtV a-K^X'uTKOlV TOV pvO/XOV.

wv^w

w
334
10 ^^
wv^

>>^vy v^s^ wv^6


1

Tax** ya/D eVeio-i

v^

[Here follows the dance of the

girls.]

Ao7ra8oT/i.a)(oo-eAa)(oyaAeo-

38

.^^^^^>^w^^.^

1170

KpaVlQXLXpaVoSpLfJLVTrOTpilXIJ.aTO-

^^
15
^~ ^^ v^ ^^ ^^ ^ ^
wv., wv..

^ ^^

(riA<^io77apao/xeA(,TOKaTaKexi'/^ei'0-

KLyKXTriK0(r(TV(J30(fiaTT0Tpl(Trpa-

v.^>^.:/v^

v^^^.^..-^

XeKTpvovoTTTOKecfiaWLOKiyKXoTre-

^^

1174

XetoXayioo(TipaLof3acf)r]TpayavoTTTepi'ytov*
cri'

Se

ranT

aKpoacrape-

vos Tttxv Kai Tttxews XafSe rpvfSXiov


iTa KOVLO-at XafSwv

206
ttou.

wv^ .^ v^ ^^ ^^ ^ .^ ^ ^ 16 ^ 2
^/>^

1177 XcklOov,
'H/7..

I'v'

eTTtSeiTTvr/s"

203 20-^v^v^v-/

_._2
-v^
2

^' dA,Aa XaifxaTTOva-i


a'tpe(T6'

avo),

tat
ei'ot

evat.
eijat,

1180

SetTTvr^o-o/xev,

erai,

W?

771

VLKYj

cvai,

uat,

crai,

tvat.

1167^ rdxa xopeias 6paop i-TrdTeti' 1172 -KiyKXetri-refxaxoffffeXaxo1173 -o7rro/ce0a\Xto-KoiravKoPrinceps followed strictly been has in R Meineke -oTrreyKecpaWLO: The lining of 1167 restored by a line above. The colon that obviously is lacking in 1167 f. is here colon. Cf. missing the that, of course, purports no more than to give the sense of The parts are here ascribed to the half-choruses as in R Th. 956.

1163

iD

Ed.

1167 <rv Ed. Dindorf 1169 -Tefiaxo<r\axo- Princeps


-Kotro-i^^o-

Kiister:

-Kii'KXe-iri.-

ft',

355. After the address to the judges, delivered by the first leader in recitative trochaic tetrameters (1154-1162), the first half-chorus sings briefly in trochaic rhythm and at the close

exhorts the second half-chorus to dance KprjTiKw'i ovv rw irohe The second half-chorus accordingly dances Kot (TV KLvec.
:

to the accompaniment of an auletic melody in rhythm {KpvTL/cm)} The music was purely instrumental On the conclusion of this moveand the dance hyporchematic. ment the first half-chorus bids Blepyrus bring forward the dancing

(rovTo Bpw),
trochaic

girls
1

who
'

are
'

with him.

He

is
i.

an important figure on the


15, col.
ii.

of Aristoxemis, -v^-v^. See Grenfell and Hunt's Oxyr. Papijri,

The

cretic

7.

26.

20

f.

J.

and Schol. Heph.

See also Aristid. 39 M., 302. 18 fi.

357
close

DACTYLIC VERSE
of the of the
is

149

scene to the

play, but has


fie{paKe<;
(of.

nothing to say after


special

1150.^

The dance

feature of the exode, and

1138) is the accompanied by the singing

of the

remarkable compound in dactylic metre that shows our poet's The dance probably began one rioting invention at its best.
foot before the singing (1169).

The dactyls
is

in seven instances

are resolved (334).

Trochaic metre
first

resumed in 1176.
last four cola

The

metrical form of the

and of the
the
last

cannot
the

now

be determined with approach to certainty.


probably joined
in

The

first

half-chorus

singing

four

cola

as

whole

company

retired from the orchestra.

Non-Melic Dactylic Verse


the hexameter
356. Aristophanes uses the hexameter in mock-oracles - and in mock-heroics/ appropriating the " stateliest and weightiest of
' '

verses " (Aristot. Poet. xxiv. 5) to the uses of comedy.


this

But

in

he was simply the imitator of Homer,

who was

not only

preeminent as a poet in the serious style, but was also the first to outline the forms of comedy by dramatizing the ridiculous Aristophanes mingles trimeters with his (Aristot. Poet. iv. 9). heroic lines, for example in Av. 959-91, just as iambic verses were mingled with hexameters in the Mai^gites (Heph. 60. 2 f., 65. 10 f.), although in Aristotle's judgment these two styles
are
as

different

as

possible

(Aristot.

Rhet.

in.

viii.

4).

But

Aristophanes out-Homers Homer.

He
1

takes the final step, and


jSTothing could illustrate

with keen appreciation of the incongruity of form and content


uses the heroic line in ordinary dialogue
better our poet's delicate perception of the metrical resources of

the comic

art.

Cf Eq. 1014-97, Pax 1265-1304.

For com-

binations of trimeters with hexameters in other comic poets see

Cratinus 199, Plato 173, Antiphanes 194, 196, Eubulus 107. 357. There are 142 recitative hexameters in the extant plays of Aristophanes. The dactyls number 428, on the
average 3 '01 in one hexameter:
1

The
'

close of this play is discussed,


'

Pax 1063-1114, Av.

from

Editor's

point of view, in the Stage in Aristophanes, 168-70. 2 Eq. 1015-20, 197-201, 1030-4, 1051-60, 1067-9, 1080-95 1037-40,

another

967-8, 971-3, 975, 977-9, 983-5, 987-8, Lys. 770-6. ^ p^^y. 1270-83, 1286-7, 1292-3, 130001.

150
Hexam. 142

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


w"-"
428
23
i.

Total.

358

ii.

iii.

iv.

v.

vi.

+ 55

17

+ 42

+ 83

29

+ 36

30

+ 112

100

+ 328

The 100 dactyls contained each


as follows
i.

in one

word are distributed

Trisyllables

Overlap forward Overlap back Overlap both ways


.

Total in one word

.23

17
in

29
or

30

100
or

The

328

dactyls contained each

two
:

three words

parts of words are distributed as follows


i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

v.

Total.

In three words, In two, divided In two, divided

- v^ - w - ^
1 1

v.
|

v^
I

27

32
5

.^

.21

15 29 39

4 26
6

22 59 31

53 173 102

361

DACTYLIC VERSE

151

or trochaic.

two pauses, in fact, may come in this foot, the penthemimeral Another occurs after the thesis of the fourth foot, the hephthemimeral, and another between the fourth and fifth These pauses are clearly defined by the feet, bucolic diaeresis. anonymous writer in Studemund's Anecdota (215. 25 fif.)
of
Sia(f)opa<i
rjixLixeprj

Se

e^et

T6(Taapa<;

rj

to/jli]

e^drjfiifjiepi]

re koI irevO/3ovKo\iK7]v.
7r6Ba<i

Kal

rpirov
fiev

rpo^alov
to/jLtj

Kal
i]Ti<i

reTcipryjv
(JLera

e(f)9rjfjbi/jbep7]ii

KaXelrat
e'^^ei

rpet<i

Kal

avWa^rjv
rjri<;

reketov

to

voTjfia.

TrevdrjfML/xepr]!;

8e

icmv
jwrjfxa.

fiera
8e

Bvo

TroSa?

Kal
icrrcv

a-vWa/Syjv
t)

riXetov

e;^et

ro

rplro<i

rpoyalo^;

e^ovaa rov iroha


he
inrdp'^ei

tov Tpirov
/BovkoXiktj

eh
rj

rpo-^alov auvaTToXrjyovTa.
e'X^ovaa

rerdprrj

to

vorjfia

et?

TeTapTov iroha

irdvTw^ iiTrapTc^ofievov
irotrjfiaTa

TavTrj
ft)?

Be TTj TOfifj Traz/re? ol to,

^ovKoXiKa

<ypd-^avTe<;

eVl
?;

TO

TrXetcTTOv

'^(^priad/jLevoi

(^aivovTat'

o6ev

Kal

ttjv

KXrjcnv
rjyopiav

TOfMri

Tavrr]}' eSe^aTO, diro TOiV ^prjaa/juevcov Tr}v Trpocrfi'.

Xa/Sovaa. See also Aristid. 51 f. M., 33. 18 J. The penthemimeral caesura is sometimes called masculine, the trochaic feminmc. - ^ - ^ -|^-^ - -^ 361. Penthemimeral caesura, is possible 90 times, 22 times alone, 27 combined with hephthemimeral caesura, 30 with bucolic diaeresis, 11 with both. These 9 instances include six in which a short progressive monosyllable follows the thesis and precludes the supposition that the Cf. Eq. 1018, 1058, Pax 1109, 1279, Lys. caesura is trochaic.
^

772,
is

774.

Trochaic

caesura,

-^-^

_^|^_;^ __

50 times, 16 times alone, 8 times combined with hephthemimeral caesura, 18 times with bucolic diaeresis, and 8 with both. These 50 instances include 11 in which a monosyllabic or an ehded dissyllabic enclitic or recessive fiev, Be, ydp, Ai constitutes the first syllable of the dissyllabic arsis and
possible

precludes the supposition that the caesura


Eq. 199, 200, 1020, 1037, 1051,

is

penthemimeral.

Cf.

Pax 1070, 1087, 1096, 1099,

-^-|=^ Hephthemimeral caesura, 54 times, only once alone, in Eq. 1033. Its other occurrences have just been noted. Verses are excluded from the count in which the thesis of the fourth foot is the whole or the final syllable of a progressive word (Eq. 1016, 1018, 1031, 1032, 1034"^ 1088, 1094, Pax 1072, 1084, 1102, 1109, 1110, 1283, 1300) or is followed by an enclitic (Eq. 1056,
1274,
1276.
,

-^-^

-^

is

possible

152

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY

362

Bucolic diaeresis, which divides the verse 1083, Pax 1076*'). is dimeter and monometer, possible 68 times, only once alone, in Pax 1111, where the Its other occurrences enclitic precludes penthemimeral caesura. Verses are excluded in which the fiftli have just been noted. simple foot is preceded by a progressive word {Eq. 1086, Pax 1082, 1086, 1092, 1114, 1211, Av. 973) or begins with an
into

-^-^ -^-^|-^

enclitic or Se (^j.

1095, Po,^ 1097, 1101).

362. Every recitative hexameter has at least one of these four pauses, since the verse is too long to be rendered as a
single
diplasic

colon

(22).
;

Certain

of

the

four

pauses

are

and hephthemimeral cannot both occur in the same verse, nor the trochaic and This is hephthemimeral, nor the hephthemimeral and bucolic. When due in each case to the contiguity of the two pauses.
exclusive of one another
the penthemimeral

both are possible, by word-endings, one pause excludes the other. No hexameter, therefore, has normally more than two pauses.

When

penthemimeral or trochaic caesura

occurs in the same

verse with bucolic diaeresis, the pause at the diaeresis the chief pause or secondary, or, as often happens, it
left

may may

be
be

unobserved.
363. According to the following analysis, the penthemimeral the chief pause 76 times, the trochaic (T) 40, the heph-

(P)

is

The analysis themimeral (H) 10, and bucolic diaeresis (B) 16. When two pauses occur indicates all the pauses that are possible.
in the

same

verse, opinions will differ as to their relative weight.

(P) Eq. 1031, 1034, 1053, -1^-=^ 1054, 1084, 1088, 1094, 1095, Pax 1072, 1077, 1079, 1080, 1084, 1101, 1102, 1109, 1110, 1293, 1300, ^i\ 984, (PH) Pq. 1038, 1068, 1086, 1093, Pax Lys. 114:, 11&. 1066, 1071, 1081, 1086, 1094, 1100, 1103, 1107, 1114,

-^-^

____:

1270, 1277, Av. 971, 972, 988, Zys. 11B. -|__c^j-.^- (PB) Eq. 197, 1018, 1030, 1052, 1060, 1081, 1082, 1083, 1087, 1090, 1091, 1092, Pax 1069, 1073, 1074, 1083, 1098, 1105, 1108, 1275, 1278, (PHB) Eq. 1017, 1019, 1279, Av. 975, 979, 987, Lys. 772. 1058, Pax 1076, 1095, 1112. 1113, 1271, 1272. The bucolic pause probably should be left unobserved in some of

-^-^

these verses.

_^_^ _^i_^

-_--:(T)^2.

1016, 1020, 1051,

366

DACTYLIC VEESE

153

1056, 1059, Pax 1067, 1078, 1087, 1090, 1091, 1097, 1273, 1276, 1283, 1301, Lys. 771. (TH) i:q. 1037, 1055, Pax 1075, 1106, 1281, 1287, At. 967. _ ^1^ _^|___ _ (TB) Eq. 198, 199, 1032, 1057, 1069, 1080, Pao^ 1076^ 1085, 1088, 1274, Av. 968. (THB) Eq. 200, Pax 1064, 1070, 1093, 1099, ^Iv. 977. The bucolic pause probably should be left unobserved in some

-^-^

of these verses.

_^_^ ___|^ ___

^jj^

^^

-LQ33^

^YLV)

Eq.

1040, 1089, Pax 1065,

1082, 1089, 1092, Av.


(B)
Pa.a^

973, 985.

(HT) Av. 983.

_^_^ -__^j-_- _ -^-^ _|__^|____.


:

Pax 1063.

_^|^_^|____. (BT) ^^. 1039, Pa.^ 1096, 1286, 1292, Av. 978, Z3/S. 770, 775. (BHT) Pax 1280, 1282. 364. In a few verses certain other well-defined pauses occur, sometimes accompanied by change of speaker, as a triemimeral in combination with the penthemimeral or trochaic in Eq. 1037, 1051, 1088, Pax 1066. Cf. also Pax 1110, 1275, where the
pause
falls

_^_^

(BP) (BPH) Eq. 1015, P5c 1068.

1111.
201,

1067,

1085,

after the first arsis,

and the unusual

close

of

Pax

1270.
365. Aristophanes has the elegiac distich, composed of an
acatalectic

and a protracted

catalectic hexameter, but once, in

verses quoted from Archilochus {fray. 6 B.)


tt(77rt8i

\i\v

2aiwv

Tis dyaAAerai,

1)1/

Trapa

ddf/.vio
f.

evTo? uixiofxqTov KaXXtTrov ovk e6e\o)v.

Pax 1298

The
Kpivct)

')(^p6vo<i

Kv6<;

(31)

of

the

second

verse
:

was

probably
iyo)

represented

by

a pause.
Trj<;

Cf Antiphanes 149
'Tyieia^;
irlveiv

tovtov

^leravLTrrpiha

^wporepw

-^pfo/jievov

olvo'^Ofp.

366. Hexameters are found among the comic fragments, but they are quoted chiefly from poets of the Old Comedy. Cf. Cratinus 6-8, 67, 87, 128, 129, 142, 143, 153, 154, 171.

207-9,

235-7,

260,

Pherecrates

152, 153,

313-17, 458, 459; Crates 30; 190; Teleclides 45; Hermippus 63

154

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY

366

(23 verses), 82; Eupolis 235, 289, 360; Aristophanes 9, 29, 84, 257, 693, 694, 914; Plato 3; Metagenes 4, 17, 18; Aristagoras 2; Theopompus 30; Anaxandrides 50; Eubulus
Alexis Cratinus iunior 8; (cf. 35, 139); 28, 108 Menander 443 Frg. incert. 51, 52. Diphilus 126
; ;

22;

CHAPTER

VI

lAMBO-TEOCHAIC VEESE
367. Aristophanes occasionally combines iambic and trochaic

subordinate
shift

periods

as

constituent

elements of an ode.

The

from ascending to descending rhythm (29), or the reverse, Thus, in the parode of produces the desired effect of variety.
the Lysistrata, the purely iambic strophe and antistrophe

(256-

65

= 271-80)

that the half-chorus of elderly

men

sing as they

strophe

enter the orchestra (94) are followed by a strophe and an anti(370) composed, in order, of three iambic and five

trochaic subordinate periods, of

which the

last is

an ephymnium.

Vespae (371) Philocleou's drunken song begins with an intermediate period that consists

Likewise in the third episode of the


of eleven trochaic metres,
tion of three spoken

and

this

is

followed, after an interrup-

by a second intermediate period See that is composed of eight iambic and six trochaic metres. These are simple but effective modes also Av. 628 ff. (372).
trimeters,

of composition.

368. Euripides

was the

first

to

give

iambo-trochaic verse

a highly developed form.

He

uses

it,

in his later tragedies, in

monodies to express grief and passion in situations where the Its form in Euripides older tragedy employs the dochmius. was affected by the music to which it was set the metres are seldom irrational, and the trochaic cola abound in resolutions. 369. Two lyrics of Aristophanes illustrate the artistic development of this verse, an elaborate parody in the Thesmophoriazusac of a monody in the Andromeda (374) and the Song The latter is composed in of the Frogs in the Banae (373).
:

the

comic poet's own manner, but pays Euripides the tribute


155

of imitation.

156 370.

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


Zy5.

370

286-95 = 296-305
Strophe.

(Parode).

Xo. Vep.

aXX
TO

avTO yap

[xol

rrjs

oSov

XoLTTOV 0"Tt \WplOV


TT/Obs

^ ^
.

__vj

^_^_4
'

TToXlV to

<TL[x6v,

Ot

(T0v8')]V

\(j)

XWTTWS TTOT

e^a/xTTpeiVo/xev

v^

^ w

290
291 ws

ToijT'

avei)

Kavdi^Xtov.

43

5- w

^ ^ ^ ^ - ^ ^
v^

ww4^

w ^ w ^ w ^

e/iou
(5/y.ov

ye rw ^vAw tov
i^LTTUiKaTOV
f3a^i(rrkov,
(jiva-YjTeov,

^
w ^

v^

4^"^
2*^^'

292 aA/V

o/x(us

Ka6 TO TTvp

2^^

294
295

fx-j fi

airocrjica-Olv XdOrj Trpo? 10


rrj? 68ov.

Ty reXevry
(fiv

w
.

4CV

(f>v

lov lov TOV Kairvov.

_^_.
^'

_^_,_3

Antistrophe.
Xo. Tep.
COS

Seivov

wva^ 'HpotKAets

ir/JOO-Treo-cSj'

ck t/}s x^''''P^^

298 iknrep
301 ou yap

kvojv XvTxiocra TdxftdaXfxti) SctKvet*


tttj/)

Kaa-Tiv ye A'^/nviov to
<ai'> tto^'

tovto

ttuo-j^

py\avfj.

S8' oSa^ 'i^pvKi. Ta? Avy/xas e/xou.


ttoAiv

(TTreuSe Trpocrdev
/cat
r)

et's

/SorjOeL ttj
aiJTjy

^ew.
i)

ttot'

fxaXXov

vvv w Aax>?? apq^ojxev

305 ^U ^U
301
oi)

tov lOV TOU


:

KaTTVOU.

7dp Sv Brunck

ovdk -yap

304

-^

ttot'

Bothe

ei'

ttot'

B (704) = ab (286-90, 291-5). A = a'b'a, Monostrophic dyad. two protracted acatalectic iambic tetrameters 4 3 4, mesodic triad B = abbac, 4 2 2 4 3, See 739, 776. with an iambic trimeter as mesode. epodic pentad a palinodic tetrad composed of a trochaic tetrameter, two trochaic dimeters and a second trochaic tetrameter with an
:

ephymnium

consisting
is

of

This See 756. Aristophanes.

the

a catalectic trochaic trimeter as epode. only antistrophic iambo- trochaic ode in

371.
<l*i.

Vesp.
Tra.pe')(
'

1326-40

(Episode IL).

cive^e

KXavxreTai tis tcuv ovrio-dev

1328

eVaKoAou^owTcov
ofov,
et
jxr]

ifMor
ifxas

^
5

'ppqcreO',

1330 1331

(3

TTOvi^poi,

ravryl ry

5a8i (ftpvKTOvs (TKivdcrw.

^ w ^

^-5*^ ^ ^ v^ 6^^

373

lAMBO-TROCHAIC VERSE
Three Trimeters
Ir]

157

'ZvfjL.

^t.

Uv, Ka\ovjJLi'ot.
urd'

43

^ w

v^

v^

2"

1336 apxala y vfiwv apd y


0)5

ovS' ttK-oi'wv avkxpixai


LaijSoL,

w w
^ ^ lOw^w w ^

>^v^

StKWv;
TaSe
[X

alfSoi.
kij/iovs.

__._o
^ w

apk(TKLa.77L(TL
;
;

fSdWe

1340

OVK

TTOV '(TTtV
CK/ToSwi'.

l)XLa(TT1]S

_^__ _^_gC
a=
ab,

Non-antistrophic.
pericopic dyad
:

(1326-31, 1335-41). trochaic pentameter and hexameter.


:

A = ab

5 6,

abe, 2 6 6, pericopic triad

See 770. B= iambic dimeter, iambic hexameter, trochaic


is

hexameter. See 771. The pause that completes colon 1 1 looks about him in drunken bewilderment.
372.
Xo.
e7ravxii](Ta';

intentional.

Philocleon

Av.
Se

628-35
73

(Debate).

ToTs croTs Aoyots

V.-. ^ ^ ^^ ^ w v^
.

- ^ ^
^^

629

e7rri7rei\i]a-a

Kal Karw/xoo-a,

._^_
^^

.-^-3
^ ^ ^
'
3'^'

qv

(TV Trap' epe

depevos 6p6(^po-

va? Aoyovs 8iKaio<s aSoAos


oo-tos eTrl

deovs %S,

5^^w^-^>vy

ipol <f>povwv

^wwSa,
rdpa

pi]

TToXvu \p6vov Oeovs eVt


a-KiJTTTpa
rplxpeLv.

^ ^ w v^ _ ^ _
.

^.^^v^ ^ 6'^ ^ ^ w w g*^ ^


633
6,
iV;s

631

f.

SiKaios dSoXos ocnos

Bergk

SiKaiovs ddSXovs ocriovs

Brunck

Tots

epodic tetrad two protracted iambic trimeters and a trochaic hexameter, with an iambic hexameter as epode. See 743, 776.
:

Non-antistrophic.

probably

= a'abc,

3 3 6

373.
Ba.

Ban. 209-68 (Prologue).

/SpeKSKeKe^ kou.^ koo.^,

210 (SpeKeKeKe^ Kod^ Kod^.


Xipvala KprjvQv TiKva
^I'vavAoi' vpvoiv /Soolv

^^

^vw w ^ ^^ w w v^
v./

^
.

2^

_^_2^
^ _ ^ _ ww
.

(jidey^wped',

evyqpvv

kp.dv

71

aotSav, Kod^ Kod^,

73

^_^_
.

215

i^v

dp(f)l

Nt'o-7yiov
ei*

Aios Aiwvvcrov

^_^_._^_
475
10

AipvaLCTLV la^i'](Tapiv,

217

i)i'ix

KpanrakoKiDpos

ToTs lepoi(Ti Xvr/joto-t

ww^ v^wl4^ vy^ v^v.^- v/^ v^w w4

158
Xwpet KaT

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


^fjiov

373

re/xevos

Aawv

o'xAos.

481 220 (3pKeKeKe^ Koa^ Kod^.


Ai.
e-yo)

--ww^v^v.-^
15

y dAyetv apxofiai Tov oppov w Koa^ ivoa^


8e
8'
tcrcos

Ba.
At.

l3pKKeK^ Koa^ Kod^.


vfiiv
oijSei'

^ ^ w w w v^ ^^^

^
v^

/xeAci.

^
'^

Ba.
Ai.

f3pKeKeKk^ Koa^ Kod^.

^
rj

dAA' l^oAoto-^' auTw Kod^.


ovZkv ydp
kcTT

^ ^

k^

w w w 2 w ^ 2

^
^ ^
i

227
Ba.

dXX

Kod^. 20

eiKOTWs
ju,

TToAAa y yap eWep^av


<t>

Trpdrriov,

evkvpot. re jMoi-crat

207
230
232

w^^-- -v^-..

Kat KepofBdras Ildv 6 KaXap.6(i>doyya Trai^ojV

Trpoo-eTrirepTreraL 8'

6 ^opp.iKTds 'AttoAAwi',

ev/ca SovaKOS,

ov iiTroAi'ptov
rp^cfuo.

eVvSpov V Xifivats

25^^v^>^w v^^^v^v^ w 15 ^^w

At.

235 /3peKKKe^ Kod^ Kod^. lyw 8e (fiXvKTaivas y

e'x^

XW
Ba.
Ai.

TrpWKTOS iSUi

TTttAat,

^^-w -^-2 ^ >^ __^ ^_v^_


v-'

KOT arrtV iyKvxpas


/3pKeKeK^ Kod^ Kod^.

epei

/xev

30

w
.^^
v^

v^

dAA'

S)

^tAwSov yevos
Ba. p.dXXoi'

Trava-acrOe.
cfidy^6p.ecr9' ,

ovv

Sq ttot

u-

242

-//Atots

1'

afxepauTiV

r]Xdficr6a 5td KVireipov

Ka6 ^Aeo), -x^aLpovres mStjs

245

TToAvKoAvjLijSotcrt /AeAecriv,

^ Atos (^euyovres

ofxfipov

fvuSpov ev Pvdoi xopdav

aioAav ((fidey^dixecrda

249
At.

Trofj,cjioXvyo-n-a(f)Xdcrp.aa-iv

/JpcKe/ceKe^
TO-uTt Trap

Kod^ Kod^.
v/awv Xafx/Bdvo).
Tretcro/xea^a.
8'

^ v^ 4 _ ^ _ ^^ 35 w ^ w -^ ^ .^ ^ ^ ^ ^w v^ v^ ^ ^y w ^ -w AO ^ ^ - ^ ^ ^ v^s^w v^^lS -^v>-x^ -v^-2*^


^

--

251
Ba.
At.

w-2
w w ^ ^ w 2 ^ ^
v^

8etvd

rdpa

45 w ^
^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^v^ v^
^

oeti'orepa
et

eywy

eXavvojv

255
Ba.
At.

(>iappay'r](Top.ai.

fipf.Ki.KK(.^

Kod^ Kod^.
p.oi

olfiwler-

ov ydp

p,eAet.

43

Ba.

dAAd

firjv

KKpa^6[xe(Tdd

50-w-w -v^-w


374
OTToaov
rj

lAMBO-TROCHAIC YEESE
cf)dpv^
Sl'

159

av

t'j/xwv

-^

260
At.

)(^av8dvrj

ly^uepas

^ ^ w v^
v^

_^__

w
v^

6^ 2^

/3pKKeK^ Koa^ Kod^.


TOVTio

w^

yap ov
i^ynas

viK7^(rTe, 0"V

__^_ __^^2'
[>o

v^

Ba.
At.

ov8e

fx-t]v

avTWS.
y'
e/xe

oi'Se

p)i^

i'/xts

oi'SeTTore"

KeKpd^ojxaL yap
5t'

Kav 8ey

rj/xipas,

266 ws av

v/xcuf

CTrtK/aaTTjo-w

tw

koci^,

/?/3eKKeK^

Koa^ Koa^.
Trai'creiv

60
tto^'

^ ^^ ^ ^^ ^ w w w ^~ v^ w

_^__

^ w w

-i*^^

v^ v^^^ w 2*^
l*^

v^

268 e/xeXXov dpa

r/xas

tov Koa^.

0^3

215 Atwj'woi' Hermann Aiowcroi' Cobet /xe 5g RV, /xe 5e?; A


: :

243

-/jXafxeada Princeiis

rjXdixeda

265

Non-antistrophic.
relations of

It

is

hazardous

to

attempt to determine

melody in so singular a composition as this, yet certain If we assume that the correspondences seem to be unmistakable. an imitation rendering of fSpeKeKCKs^ Kod^ Kod^ was always the same and that this phrase is not to be taken into account of frogs' croaking

in correlating the melody, the lyric naturally falls into five intermediate periods, abode (209-20"', 221-35, 236-51," 252-62, 263-S), arranged

iambic hyperSee B = abac, 42 4 15, epodic tetrad: two iambic tetrameters that 771. enclose an iambic dimeter, with a trochaic hypermeter of fifteen See 748. C = abed, 6 4 18 2, pericopic tetrad metres as epode. iambic hexameter, iambic tetrameter, trochaic hypermeter of eighteen D = abac, 6 2 6 2, epodic tetrad See 772. metres, iambic dimeter. two trochaic hexameters that enclose an iambic dimeter, with an E = aabc, 4 4 3 3, epodic tetrad See 748. iambic dimeter as epode. two trochaic tetrameters and an iambic trimeter, with an iambic trimeter, See 743. that was probably rendered Avith the speaking voice, as epode.
as a pericopic pentad.
abc,
3,

A=

14 4

pericopic triad

meter

of fourteen metres, enoplic tetrameter, prosodiac trimeter.

374. In the following lyric Aristophanes parodies a famous

scene in

the

Andromeda
Tlicsm.

of Euripides.

See the

scholiast

on

1015

ff.

1015-55
73
71
Kal
;

(Episode
.

II.).

Mv.

^^<j>iXai.

TrapdkvoL <^tA.at,"

1016

TTWS av eTreXdoLfj-L

^ ^ ^

^_^_
. ^ ^ ^ 6''^ _ ^ _
.

TOV ^KvdrfV Xadoip-L


"kAt'cis;
ere
(S

irpos atSovs
di'-pois,

v^

-^
.

_
cLs

rdv ev

KaTdvivcrov, eacrov "

71 1021
T>)v

5^-w- -w^- ^-^,

yvvaiKa

p.'

(XBelv.

_ ^ _

^ _ _

yc

160

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


" avotKTOs OS
//.'

374

e8r](T

tov

TToXvTTOVMTaTOV
fxokis Se

f3pOT())V."

ypatav aTroc^uywv
10

1025

a-airpav airoiXofiriv o/xcos*

oSe

yap

6 Ski'^i^s <f>vXa^

v^ \^ \^ 2 w >/v^w v^ v^ v^ ^ ^ ^^ v^ vy 4 v^ \^ v^ 2 v/>/v^ w
v^

TraAat <f>e(rTm oAobv a<f>iXov


eKpe/xacrev

Kopa^L

Selirvov.

" op^s
Vcfi'

ov xopola-iv ov8'
rjXiKWV vavtB<uv
ixovcr',

1031

Kt^ixov ecTTrjK

dXX'

ev TTVKVOLS 8e(rfJiol<TLV
Ki^ret (3opa

TreTrXey/xivy]

TXavKiTr] TvpoKup^ai.

1034

yafxrjX'na
7rata)v^

piv ov ^vv
oe

y^w^^v^ >^w vy \^ v^4 ^ ^ ^ 15v^ ^^ v^ w _ ^ _ _ ^ _ v^ v/ ejxv^ w ^ 12 _ ^ _ ,^ w v^2 20


800 ^^^^
. . . .

w-^
v^

decrpLK^
p,

v^

v^

v^z

yoacTPe
(is

w y watKS.

OS,

piXea pev Trkirovda pkXiw TttA-as eyw raAas,

1039 "

aTTO Se cruyyovtuv

aAA'

25

avop.a TrdOea," <f)WTa XiTop.e-

\^2 ^^ ^ v^ v^v^ w v^ v^ v^ _ >^ ^ v^ _ ^^v^s^^ v^>^\^


v--
v^
. .

vav TToXvSaKpvTOV 'Ai8a yoov (f)Xiyov(rav,

aiat,

atai,
dTTi^vp-qa-i.

1043

OS OS

e'/i,'

tt/doItov

_ _ w^w

v^

_ _ ^
.

v-/

e/A

KpoKoev To8'

ivk^vQ-ev,

771

8 TOtO-8e ToS'

dv(.TrpipeV

1046

t/)bv,
Lbi

ev^a ywaiKes.

511

poi p-oipas areyKTe Saipiav.

1048 w KarapaTos lyw,


Tts
e/ibi'

477

30^^wv-. ^v^->^ s^w-v-- ^wv^ v^l5 .^v^ ^ ^ ^2 ^ ^ ^ -.^v^- vyv^-2


.

ovK

iTTOxJ/eTai

Trddos dpkyapTov

35^v^-v^ -v^-v^v^^-v^
cTTi

KaKwv

Trapova-LO.

1050

et^e

/x.e

Trvpcfiopos

aWepos

dcrrrip

^^

sj

-^

342
Tov (3dpl3apov e^oXeo-etev. 281 ov yap eV ddavdrav 4>X6ya Xevcrcreiv
-^

^__--2
--^

v^

2^^

795
1053
ecTTtv epol
(f)t,Xov,

^__-_
4
. . .

ws eKpepd(r6ip',

40-^--- -^
_ _ _ ^ _
.

XaipoTpi^r' dxn]
Sai/iovo^r

aioAav

1055

vcKVO-iv erl Tropeiav.

203

^^

v^ -v.

_ ^ _ ^ _ _ _ 6*^
. .

374
1016
^irdXdoiiui

lAMBO-TROCHAIC VERSE
Brunck
:
:

161
:

rpbi

1028
&X\'

1042 1047 dreyKTe Zanetti

1017 Xddoifn Bninck XA^oi/lli 1019 aidoOs ae ra.v Seidler TrpocraLOovcraat. ras 1027 erpearCos i\Ieineke e<p^a-Tr]K' iKpifxacrev Meiiieke eKp^/uaae 1031 Kijuiv Hermann \f/rj(pov K-rj/xby 1039 dvo/jia Scaliger dWctj' &vo/j.a 1041 <pX4yov<rav Musgrave (pevyovaaf aial alai Dindoif ai al at ai e i 1044 KpoKdev r65' Bergk KpoKbevr'
dTre\0oi/j.i
: : :

dveriKre

The metrical form indicates but few repetitions This constant shift of melody and the introduction of periods in other rhythms, especially in the last part of the lyric, are well adapted to express Andromeda's agitation and anguish. The song falls into six intermediate periods, abcdef (1016-21, 1022-8, 1029-36, 1037-46, 1047-9, 1050-5), arranged as a pericopic hexad. A = ab, 6 7, pericopic dyad iambic hexameter and heptameter. See 770. B = abcbd, 2 2 4 2 4, epodic pentad an iambic dimeter and two trochaic dimeters that enclose an iambic tetrameter, with a trochaic tetrameter as epode. See 762. c = abb + 12 2 2 ( + 2), proodic an iambic dodecameter as proode to two iambic triad with refrain dimeters with refrain. See 738, 774. D = abc, 4 15 2, pericopic triad iambic tetrameter, trochaic hypermeter of fifteen metres, Pherecratcan. E = abc, 3 2 5, pericopic triad protracted catalectic iambic See 771. trimeter, enoplic dimeter, trochaic pentameter. See 771. F = abed, 2 2 4 6, pericopic tetrad dactylic dimeter, paroemiac, dactylic tetrameter, heavily protracted trochaic hexameter. See 772. The lyric is tragic not only in sentiment but also in form. Few of its metres, either iambic or trochaic, are irrational, and many of its cola are protracted. In the first particular it differs remarkably from the song that precedes it (373). See 129.
Non-antistrophic.
(777),

of

melody

'

'

'

'

CHAPTER

VII

LOGAOEDIC VERSE
375.

trimeters are regular in structure.

Iambic, anapaestic, trochaic and dactylic dimeters and The quantity of the arsis of
is

the simple foot in each of these

strictly defined,

and admits no
fixed

variation except irrationality in


places.

iambs

and

trochees in

which Greek metricians designated as logaoedic^ belongs to an earlier stage of the development of Logaoedic dimeters and trimeters, as they primitive forms. occur in Greek poetry, are marked by extreme variability of the

The

verse

arsis of the

simple
or
it

foot.

This arsis

may be

short or long, or

two
itself

shorts,

may

be omitted.

colon thus constituted

if it is in ascending rhythm (29), to combine within iambs and anapaests or, if it is in descending rhythm, The apparent mixture of feet in these trochees and dactyls. clauses is, in fact, simply a trace of the primitive variability of the arsis that prevailed in Ionian rhythm before the development

seems,

'

'

of

purely

trochaic

iambic and anapaestic cola and the corresponding See 600-614, and in particular and dactylic forms.

603-610, 613.
376. The arses of the simple feet that constitute dimeters in ascending rhythm were originally unregulated in Ionian poetry or or - or ^ The arsis might be The m,etre, therefore, might assume nine forms, disomitted.

0-0-0-0-.
The term

v./

v./

regarding for the


1
(

moment
')

the omission of the arsis


defined 8 ff.
:

'prose- poetic

is

as follows in
Srt 6

SchoL Heph.

130.

ScLKTvXos doiSoh /xdWov ivLTT]oetos, o 5^ Tpoxo.1o% Xoyoypdipois, XoyaoidiKbp KaXdrai to fxirpov, doidiKoi' fiev did tov

nh

Logaoedic verse is briefly tov Tpoxa-lov. treated both by Hephaestion (28. 9 ff., 24. 1 ff.) and by Aristides (34. 5 ff., 33. Neither was in position to 30 ff. ). appreciate its historical importance.

ddKTvXov,

i-jreidT]

fSpvdpLos, XoyiKoi' 5i 5td

162

379

LOGAOEDIC VERSE
,

163
,

111.
,

v^

vii.

w v^ ^ v^ w ^^
,

IV.

viii.

Some

of these are identical with metres that were later specially

(i., iv.) and anapaestic rhythm and poets of the fifth century doubtless felt them to be iambic and anapaestic, whatever their connexion. One of them, however, is very rare in logaoedic rhythm in comedy, another was avoided as although in form anapaestic (ii.) It was the two that remain, v^ v^ - w - (vi.) arrhythmical (v.). and ^ - ^ ^ - (vii.), that gave logaoedic verse in ascending rhythm its distinctive character, and these may with propriety be spoken of as logaoedic metres.' 377. The primitive Ionian dimeter by acephalization became

appropriated by iambic rhythm


(ii., iii., viii., ix.),

'

(608), or

when given

full

length

-o-o-o-o

and these were the sources of dimetrical cola in descending rhythm. The metre in descending rhythm, by a logaoedic development similar to that described above, might also assume
(610),

nine forms
i.

-^

w
w
,

ii.

iii.
,

V.

vi.

^y

vy

vii.

ww v^w,iv. v^ ^ ^ ^ viii. ^ ^
,

ix.

w
be

v^

Two
(ii.,

of these were
iii.,

felt

to

trochaic

(i.,

iv.),

four dactylic
in as

viii.,

ix.).

One

of

them,

however,
;

heavy a measure (ii.) arrhythmical (v.). The remaining forms


as

comedy

too

was rejected another was avoided


(vi.,

vii.)

are

the

distinctively

'

logaoedic metres

'

of descending rhythm.

378. The development of these metres in the primitive dimeter and trimeter produced logaoedic cola. These consist, in ascending rhythm, of logaoedic metres combined with logaoedic, iambic or anapaestic 7netres and of iambic with anapaestic in
;

descending rhythm, of logaoedic combined with logaoedic, trochaic


dactylic metres and trochaic with dactylic. The order of arrangement of metres was not prescribed, but certain preferences are manifest. Notwithstanding this limitation, the metrical form of logaoedic cola is extremely varied. Illustrations from Aristophanes follow. Cola marked with the star are found in

or

parodies.

379. Logaoedic Cola in Ascending Pihythm

164
Ta
S'

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


apiarO' ocrais Trpocrv^KCi

379

Th.

355 560 592

_-

^ -

^ _ ^ - - * ^ v^ ^ ^

7rpo(TXov(r'

ervxov

e/xavrr}?

Ban. 1346''

^- ^^
^^
f.

tjs

"E-dprav

v[j.vL(Dixei

Lys.

1305 413

^e\6[i(T9a Koi diMv yevos


XiTop-icrOa TtttcrS'
lir

ev^ats Th. 312

411
irarkpiav KaKip',
ot

5^-v^-^--

TaaSe

rots

Av. 541

TToOo? OS

/x

StaKvaiVas

STOiiJiOS

o8' ecrriv

409 957 415 aivavTa Spav Nub. 807


e'xct
jEc.

__^___^__^_--^f.

562
a-v B'

w Atos

SiTTv'povs

avexo^'-

v.->^-^ ^ w .^ ^-^
10^^^--
1361
f.

(Ta

Aa/XTTciSas o^vToiTas
Trapd<f)r]vov els

xepoiv

^^

s^

'EKara

TXvk-i]S Ran.

592
(f)peT(D

^-^Cf.

..-V.-*

KciXadov ra^^' Tts TrrepoiV Av. 1325

406
Trapd-eiiTre to

_-___-^n.
iloS

Xip6jj.aKTpov Ar. /rar/.

502

7rda-a5 S' tSeas l^^^racrei/


t

T/i.

436''414
T7i.

^- -

w^ w

Kai irpoTepov ttot

ctd/kow

1157
15

387
(jiikov,

^- ^-

dXM
5'

ev Tu

(Tu

fiovXojj.aL Ec.

963

415
dKX(.-i]'i

^
^-..-

_-v.-

^a

o-TToAas

cirei'

xirwvos Av. 944

vojidSecrcri

yap

ev

v^^.w585, 75 -Ku^ais aAarai SrpdTwv ^v. 941


585

w-w*
.-v^-*

^-^943

v^-wf.

^a^ewv

lepwi'

opwvvfjLe,

80s

e/i.ti'

-ep Av. 927

585
OS {>(^avToSov7poi' ecr^os
oi'

^-^-v.-^^..^^-*
>^

irkivaraL Av.

585
dyaOov
Sevp'
Troptcras,

20^-^^- v^-v^J.r.

tovto kolvov

e'crrai

459

409
Si

v^-^- .-v.1271

^ - -

Wl
Kol

8vp\

w Kvvayi
cTTi

Trapaeve Lys.

412
eTTi/S-qOi.

.6/i.as

.-^_

v^-v^^

'iXd'

repxpiv dotSas

498
SoAepov
/X6V

_-^-^-^- .-^-

iian.

675

di

Kara. irdvTa

81)

rpoTroi'

383
7r<f)VKev

LOGAOEDIC VERSE
avOpuTTOs'

165 451
f.

av

B'

ofxwi Aeye yuot Av,

409
380.

25^-w---^->^:

The following
is

limitations are worthy of note

i.

The

iambic metre
'

practically excluded from the first place in the

colon, but is preferred in the second

and

logaoedic metres,' ^ ^

y^

iii.

is

preferred to ^ -\^ ^ -.

latter never ends a colon,

If
v./

colon, they are grouped together, iv. Eesolution of the thesis is allowed in iambs, v. Protraction of iambs is allowed, but but not in anapaests,

or

in the

same metre with

two or ^ - ) occur in a

Of the two The more anapaests ( ^ v^ third,


ii.

not of anapaests.
form,
v^
,

vi.

Catalexis in these cola assumes iambic

- ^ to the complete exclusion of logaoedic or anapaestic catalexis, ^ ^ - - from ^ ^^ - ^ - or v^w 381. The last two examples in 379 are brachycatalectic trimeters and had the mensuration of trimeters. See 26, 35. ^ ^ - ^ - and ^^ - ^ ^ - sometimes 382. The metres appear sporadically in melic iambic verse. See 70, 185. They
,
.

are here simply traces of primitive formation that lasted into

the classical period. The logaoedic anapaest (389) remained an important constituent element of the spoken trimeter and melodramatic tetrameter and hypermeter. See 113, 177, 193.
383. Logaoedic Cola in Descending
ovBl SeivoTepov AeyoucrTys Th.
TTTflpots

Ehythm
^

435 414

v./ v^

KpeKOVTiS

LaK)(^ov

'AttoAAw Av. 772

410 1149 Of. 1155, .-ic. 930 w -^ - ^ ^ 387, 585 387 ^^ v^ ^^ Kj Q(T[J.0<f)6pU> TToXvTTOTvia Th. 1156 TrdvTa S' e^acrrao-e (fipevl TruKVws re Tit. 437 414 5 - ^ - .^ ^ V. - w rj TToAti' I'jp.erepav e'x^' Of. 1137, 1?/?. 1288, 1290 ^^'- H'iO
TTOTViat,

_^______

dXcros S vfieTepov

TJi.

387, 408

_
Cf. 1154

_ ^ _ -

IlaAAaSa

t>)i'

c^iAd^opov ipol Th. 1136

387
irapdevov a^vya Kovpi-jV Th. 1139

^-_ _^

387
Kol TToXvMvvpe 6y]po(})6ve

Aa-

Of. Lys. isoi

412
Tovs XP^o^'^^'-^os epvos Th. 320
f.

__-__._ ^-w^-"
^
.

Cf. 1142, 1147

411, 387 10

166
Brjfi6<;

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


TOi
ere

384

KaAet yvvatfioi

Th.

s^

_ ^ _

1145 f. Cf. 1141, 1148 _ ^ _ ^ _ 387 v^ Kvpa-avLOis w Mvaiiova Lys. 1248 412 _ _ rat 8e Ko/xai creiovrat Lys. 1312 413 -i^Xderov, vvv a(jiLKe(r6ov Th. 1159
Kwi"
exovcra 8e
/jloXols

^ ^
v^

387
Kvirpi Tb
IX

15

965

-^_v^

f.

eK[xacvL<i

eirl

ravrrj

Ec.

'415
Movcra ToSe Sw/aov Sex^rai Av. 937 585
A'^Aoi' OS e^ets tepav 77i.

^w-- -^- w^ ^ ^- ^
*
-^

316

411

OS /^era fxaivdcrt ^a.K\LOS ofifxaa-t

SaUrau Lys. 1283


poTvas Vesp.

408
dvTperj/eis ert

_________^_
1234
f.

rav

ttoAii'*

8'

e';(eTai

Cf. 1232

f.

dAt/zeSov

TT poXiTTOiv

p.v\uv IxOvoevTa Th. 323

411

^v^-^-^^

AWepa
ov
Bi]

a-epvoTarov jiiodpip-pova iravroyv Nub. 570

558
dvSpdcriv ov Oepirov eicropdv Th.

_
1150
f.

__._
-^^-^

387,586
d
6'
v7ro)p6(f)LOL

-^-^
^
Av. 939
../>./v/

-^-

Kara

yoji'tas

Ban. 1313

586
592, 589
25

_^-____^_*
Cf. T/i. 994

SepKopevov, /xeyaAous ovv^^as e^ovra; Ban. 1337

^^^

^ *

KXycrov w ^pvcrd^poi'e rdi' rpoptpdv Kpvepdv Av. 950

585
Ti

_^___^_^___*
f.

Se TCtt ^pevt /;ia^e IlivSapetov eVos

585
vuv
Si)

^^

^ ^
jEc.

^ww* - -

Sei o" TTUKViyv (ftpeva koi

^tA(xro<^ov eyetpetv

571

501
384.

^ ~^-^ ^^
worthy of note
is
:

The following
is

limitations are
first

i.

The

trochaic metre

avoided in the

place in the colon and also


preferred in the last
it
v-.

in the second place in the trimeter, but

place of both dimeter and trimeter, where


lectic.
ii.

generally

is

cata-

Of the two logaoedic


' ,

metres,'

v^

v^

is

preferred

to

- ^

yj
(

dactyls

- ^ but - v^ ^ or
,

it

never ends a colon,


in the
iv.

iii.

If

two or more
v..

same metre with v.

^ )

occur in
of the
is
is

colon,
is

they

are

grouped together.
trochees.

Eesolution

thesis

allowed in

Protraction

of trochees

allowed,

but not of dactyls.


vi.

The paeonic- trochaic metre

admitted,

Catalexis in these cola generally assumes trochaic

387

LOGAOEDIC VEESE

167

form, - ^ -, but logaoedic or dactylic catalexis occurs, - ^^ ^ ^ from v^v^ v^or v^^ 385. The hypercatalectic (36) dimeter (colon 24) was probably followed by a pause that made it the equivalent of a trimeter. - -^ ^ - ^ - ^ ^ some386. The metres - ^ - ^ ^ times occur in recitative trochaic tetrameters and hypermeters.
. ' '
,

These metres are here simply traces 250, 268. primitive formation that lasted into the classical period.
See 205,

of

Xo

387. Eelatively few logaoedic cola are found in Greek comedy. The following is the ode is composed of them exclusively.

nearest approach to this


Thes.

1136-59 (Stasimon
Strophe
I.

IL).

'H/^c.a'

ITaAAaSa

Ti)i'

<^tAo;(o/DOV e/xot
1'dju.os

Seupo KaXf.lv

ets

\op6v,

Trapdivov o.^vya Kovpr]V,

^^ ^^ ~^

.^

.^w
_
v^
.

2^
2*^^

v^

^
^^

2^

Antistrophe
'Kfx.
/3'
))

I.

TToXiv r]HTepav e^et


(fiavepov p-ovt]

.^
v--

1141 Kat KpaTos

K\rj6ov\6<; re KaAeTrat.

^^

^ w _ _
.

2^
2*^

2^

Strophe II.
Xo.
(fidvy^O'
(5

Tvpdvvovs
coa-irep

448

v^
^

\^

a-Tvyova'

eiKOS.

^
-^

1145

8t]jx6s

Tot

o-e

KaAet ywat-

Kiov
l/37JVJJV

exovcra 8e uot /xdAow


(f)L\eOpTOl'.

10
III
^^

w -^
.^w


Strophe

w ^^ 4p v^ 2

i^KCT

ev<^/30ves

t'Aaoi,

oTVtat,
1150 o?
Si)

aXa-os es vp-STepov,

800

v^ ^

s^ ^^

^ -^ >^

2^
2^^

dvdpd(TLV ov OepiTov eia-opdv

800
1152 opyia a-eavd Oeoa;
<fiaiVTOV

-^-^-^^-^-^-3"^
15

tva Xap.7rda-L

392
dflftpOTOV OlpLV.

s^ ^^

.-^

__ 4*^

Strojjhe

IV.

1155 yuoAerov

eA^cToi',

ai'To/iC^'

w -~

wv^
v^

^^^

2*^

Qe(TpO(l)6pO} TToAl'TTOTn'a,

^.^v^

168
t

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


Kol Trporepov iror
^ir-qKow

^^ k^

388

^~

1158

rjXOeTOVy vvv d4)iK(rdov


lKeTevo[J.v iv6d8'
ijfxiv.

20
^^
Kbp-qv

^^

^ ^
kj

2^
2

^
2^

1139

Koip-qv

Hermann:

1152

^eoiv

Meineke

6ealv

The stasimon constitutes an epodic pentad (1136-9 = 1140-2, A = aab, 2 2 2, epodic triad: See 716. 1143-7, 1148-54, 1155-9). two catalectic dimeters, with a protracted catalectic dimeter as epode. B = abe, 4 4 2, pericopic triad bacchiac tetrameter, cataSee 737.
:

lectic

logaoedic tetrameter, protracted catalectic logaoedic dimeter. See 771. C - aabc, 2 2 3 4, epodic tetrad two dimeters and a trimeter, = aabcd, 2 2 2 2 2, epodic See 743. with a tetrameter as epode.
:

pentad a tetrad composed of two dimeters in descending rhythm, a dimeter in ascending rhythm, and a protracted dimeter in descending See 759. rhythm, with a dimeter in ascending rhythm as epode. With the exception of the seventh, eighth, and fifteenth cola, the rhythm is probably exclusively logaoedic, though certain cola (5, 6, 9, 10, 11, 12) admit scansion as Glyconics and Pherecrateans (511). Their close connexion, however, with undoubted logaoedic cola makes it very unlikely that they are in Aeolic rhythm.
:

388. Since isomeric and diplasic simple feet (9 i., ii.) were combined in logaoedic verse within the same colon, anapaests with iambs and dactyls with trochees, their time must have been It was possible to effect this, at least approximately unified. assuming that the process was mathematically exact, either by increasing the value of the iambs and trochees from three primary times to four or by decreasing that of the anapaests and dactyls The connexion in which these cola from four times to three. were used by the Greek poets strongly indicates that the metres of which they were composed contained, if exact values must be predicated, six primary times rather than eight, and this opinion But the process by is now held by most modern metricians. which the time of the component anapaests and dactyls was
It reduced was probably neither exact nor uniformly the same. was a process of approximation rather than of equalization and cannot have differed essentially from the naode of reducing the

'

time of the irrational half of iambic and trochaic metres (15,


16).

The

theses

of the

component simple

feet

in

logaoedic

clauses remained constant, but the time of the two short syllables or of the one long syllable constituting the arsis was reduced.

The general rhythmical effect of this upon the colon as a whole was retardation, since the time of the two short syllables, or of

390

LOGAOEDIC VERSE
equivalent long syllable,

169

the

was

still

greater

than a single

primary time.
389.

Thus we come upon simple


'

feet in

may

conveniently be called

logaoedic anapaests

Greek poetry that and logaoedic


' '

dactyls/ namely anapaests and dactyls that are

not isomeric in
Entire

rhythm but approximately


that were rendered not in
cola

diplasic, or, to

use a modern phrase,

common

but in triple time.

may

be composed of such anapaests or dactyls in simplified

verse (392 ff.), and such anapaestic and dactylic cola occur elsewhere in heterometric combinations of cola in which the

simple feet are probably


It is

all

approximately in diplasic rhythm.


in

now

impossible, of course, to determine whether the poet in

his

music gave the anapaests and dactyls

some

of these
it

combinations their normal isomeric rhythm or reduced

to

approximately diplasic rhythm.


aftects the

This uncertainty, furthermore,


logaoedic
time,

determination of the length of these cola, since a series


' '

of six dactyls, for example, if these are in

is

trimeter, but if the dactyls are isomeric the series constitutes a

dimeter and a monometer. The logaoedic anapaest See 337. and dactyl are more commonly designated as cyclic,' a misleading name supposed to have behind it the authority of Dionysius. See the next two paragraphs.
'

390. Voss {Zeitmessung, 187

ff.)

in logaoedic verse have the value of four times


.

concludes that the diplasic feet and that the ratio of

the long to the short syllable is 3:1 (J J*). Such feet, of course, do not admit isomeric measiu-ement, as do the anapaest and dactyl with which they are here closely associated. Apel {Metril:^, i. 121 f.) reduces the time of the first two syllables of the dactyl, so that the
is 1^ ^ 1 (J J*) instead of 2 1 1. Apel's diplasic valuation (1| + | 1) of the 'cyclic dactyl is strongly supported by Bellerraann (Hymnen, 58 ff.) and has been generally
.
'

relation of the parts of this foot


:

Bockh (Find. Op. i. ii. 107) assumes reduction of the time of each syllable of the dactyl, with the division l-f- ^- -? ( = 3). Westphal (System der antiken Bhythmik, 181) at first proposed 1^ + 1 as a substitute for Apel's division, but he confessed that practically there was little difference. This preserved Apel's diplasic ratio of 2 1 between the first two syllables and the last syllable of the dactyl. Finally, following the suggestion of Caesar {Grundzdge der Rhythmih, 151 ff), Westphal {Allj. Mdrik^, 365 ff.), maintaining that according to Aristoxenus every long syllable in melic verse has t\vice the value of a short, and that the Xoyos ttoSikos of the dactyl is unchangeable, assumes for melic verse a Sa/v-rAos Tpi(Ti][ios with
accepted.
: :

170
dactylic division

THE VEESE OF GREEK COMEDY


: .

391

This valuation, like Bockh's, aifects the 1 1 | f time-length of each syllable of the dactyl its long and shorts were sung more rapidly than the long and short of the trochee. Thus, if we assume a value of twelve units for each simple foot, the timerelation of the syllables in the Alcaic dimeter, - ^ ^ - y^ ^ -v^-^y, This view is adopted by Gleditsch {Mefrik ^, is 6 3 3, 6 3 3, 8 4, 8 4. Kossbach finally concludes {Spec. 176) and Masqueray {Traiti, 327).
;

Metrik^, 11) that it is better not to attempt to determine ratios of value with arithmetical precision, but to be content with the view

and dactyl approximate iamb This variety of opinion sufficiently indicates the difficulty of the problem.
of ancient rhythmicians that anapaest
in value.

and trochee

391. It should be observed,

however,

that

the

modes of

equalization proposed by Apel, Bockh, and Westphal (390) all

assume a reduction of the time of the


authority for this
xvii.,
is

thesis of

the dactyl.

The

108

f.

E.),
'

Dionysius of Halicarnassus (De comp. verb. who, quoting a verse from Homer {Od. ix.
{oKoyof;'),

39), states that

the rhythmicians' held that the long syllable of

the dactyl was irrational


long.

being shorter than the normal


(See Aristox.

This

is

a very different aXojia from that of Aristoxenus.


syllable
is

His

irrational

always in the

arsis.

No explanation of the reduction of the time' M., 20 W.) of the anapaest and dactyl in logaoedic cola is admissible that is
292
not consistent with the explanation of the reduction of the time
of the irrational half of iambic

and trochaic metres.

But Apel
of this

and Westphal

(16) leave the theses of the irrational iambic

trochaic metre intact.

Bockh saw the inconsistency


upon the
rationality

and and

parted company with Aristoxenus in both processes.


(Metric,

173

f) rightly insists

say the inviolability


cola {Metric,

Goodell

one might

of

the thesis.

He

rhythmizes logaoedic

on the assumption that two impulses acted One impulse in a certain degree of opposition to each other. was to rhythmize the syllables of dactyls and spondees in even
ff.)

240

time and the syllables of trochees in triple time.

The other

impulse, which was secondary, was to carry the equalizing process

through the entire colon by making the

feet themselves equal.

His doctrine
passage

is

clearly

conceived

and

stated,

and the whole

(240-244) should be

consulted.

394

LOGAOEDIC VERSE
Simplified Logaoedic Verse

171

392. Logaoedic verse freely combines iambs

trochees and dactyls within the same colon.

and anapaests or The effect of this

combination, even under the limitations that were gradually Simplificaimposed (380, 384), is marked irregularity of form. tion of this complex verse was secured by introducing into the ode cola that were wholly iambic or anapaestic or wholly A form of verse was thus unconsciously trochaic or dactylic. developed by the poets of which the movement is distinctly more regular than that produced by a continuous series of towards rhythmical regularity, Inclination logaoedic cola.
furthermore,
logaoedic

gradually

led

to

the
of

reduction
this

of

the
is

purely
seen
in

element.

The

result
is

process
his

Aristophanes,
that does

although

there

none

of

simplified

odes

not contain some purely logaoedic constituent.

In

the main, however, they consist, in ascending rhythm, of iambic and anapaestic, in descending rhythm, of trochaic and dactylic
cola, either

combined in subordinate periods or constituting each


although

by

itself

such a period.
primitive

elements,
essential,

rhythmically

This shifting combination of different more regular, preserves the


of

characteristic

purely

logaoedic

verse,

variability of the arses of simple feet.


as

These elements show,

would be expected, considerable freedom of form, and the


is lively.

verse

393.

The prevailing iambic colon (62


(409),

ff.)

is

the dimeter, but

trimeters occur.

Certain apparent tripodies with spondaic close

(-^), Av. 457^


correspondence.

1314

(406), Lys.

1309, 1311
is

(413),

by Cf Av. 1314 = 1317. The colon v^ - ^ - ^ The apparent pentapody also in Lys. 1302 does not occur. Cf. Av. 547 (413) is to be regarded as a protracted trimeter.
are protracted catalectic dimeters.

This fact

established

= 459

(409).

See 68.

eq^ual in

number.

Rational and irrational metres are about Eesolution of the thesis of the simple foot

and protraction are normal. 394. The prevailing anapaestic colon (270 ff.) is the acatalectic dimeter, and this generally consists wholly of anapaests. The proceleusmatic (271) never occurs, the dactyl only once, and The retarding effect, therefore, of the the spondee infrequently.
spondaic cola in Lys.

1313

f.

(413)

is

marked.

Cf. Eccl.

964

172
(415),

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


Thesm.

395
the

433

(414).

An

occasional

trimeter occurs,

approximate equivalent in this rhythm, if measured in primary A penthemimeral form also, times, of an iambic trimeter (389). is found in such relations as to preclude doubt v^ w - ^ ^ as to its constitution, although its rhythmical length, whether
,

that of a dimeter or of a catalectic tripody,

is

not certain.

Cf.

These may be true Av. 455, 458 (409), 1318, 1319 (406). catalectic tripodies, but probably they had the mensuration of dimeters, secured by a pause in the singing of unusual length.
Cf. the

395. Trochaic cola (197

use of the brachycatalectic dimeter (277). ff.) outnumber every other sort of

colon in this verse


prevailing phrase
is

and show unusual variety of form.


the
dimeter, but
a

The

the trimeter

is

not rare.

The ithyphallic (203) The penthemimer also


(408), a
lively

often closes

long

subordinate period.

occasionally occurs (203).


is

Eesolutiou of
Li/s.

the thesis of the simple foot

freely
is

admitted in

1279

ff.

hyporcheme, and

found also in other odes.

Eational metres preponderate and protraction is common. Spondaic trochaic metres (209) occur in unusual number in the first Spartan hyporcheme in the exode of the Lysistrata, 1247 ff. The paeonic-trochaic metre (223 ff.) generally has the" (412).

The which is sometimes resolved {^ ^^ ^ - ). form normal paeonic-trochaic metre {-^^'^) is found only in resolved form (^ w v^--^^), with one exception in a logaoedic
V-.
,

dimeter, Th.
396.

dactylic colon (333 ff.) is the acatalectic dimeter composed of four dactyls or of three dactyls and a The spondee, with two exceptions in acatalectic trispondee.

316 (411). The prevailing

meters, Thesm. 324,


in the colon.

328

f.

(411), is found only in the last place


is

This trimeter

the approximate equivalent of a

penthemimer is found as the final colon in a hexameter, Av. 751 (410), in such relation (note the
trochaic trimeter (389).

antistrophe)
colon.

that

it

cannot be

This penthemimer

may

connected with the following be a true catalectic tripody, but

probably

it had the mensuration of a dimeter, like the correCompare the use of sponding anapaestic penthemimer (394). A catalectic pentathe brachycatalectic dactylic dimeter (338).

pody (hypercatalectic dimeter) occurs also in this same ode {Av. This is probably to be regarded as a 742) between bird-notes.
shortened trimeter.

401
397.

LOGAOEDIC VERSE

173

On

logaoedic cola see 379, 383.

398. Hephaesfion ^ ascribes the invention of verse of this description to Archilochus, which is only another way of saying that it was primitive, and the form found in Ar. frag. 437, which consists of a dactylic dimeter and an ithyphallic, was called by Roman metricians versus Archilochius by distinction
'
' :

7)1'

yap

av8f)

olSlkov (rv Slmkij^^

ai'Ti/iaprvpora-L.

399. The modern


is
'

name by which
is

dactylo-trochaic,'

which

this verse is generally designated too limited in signification and is histori-

Hephaestion, in the chapter cited (xv.), discusses and quotes seven different styles of episynthetic verse. See Hephaestion The most of these are prosodiac or enoplic 50. 18; 157. 7 tf. periods (475 ff).
cally misleading.
'
'

many of the odes in this form of verse hyporchematic would alone warrant the assumption that the time of the constituent cola was at least It is hardly possible that it shifted, approximately unified.
400.

The

fact that

in

Aristophanes are

in

dancing,

within the
lively

limits

of a period, or indeed at short

intervals

within
is

the strophe.

Since the tone of these hypor-

and the movement rapid, it is probable that the controlling time was that of the iambic and trochaic
chematic odes
series,^ so

that the process of the unification of cola of apparently

rhythms was the same as that which operated witliin logaoedic cola, which, it must be remembered remain one of the constituents of this simplified verse. See 388 f. Confirmation of the supposition that the time was approximately uniform is found in apparently irregular correspondences between strophe and antistrophe and between two equivalent subordinate periods in some of these odes, an anapaest or dactyl answering to an iamb or trochee. Cf Av. 1313 = 1325 (406). Similarly in Av. 740 = 772 (410) a logaoedic dimeter of the form - ^y - ^ ^ _ ^ ^ finds its correspondent in a trochaic dimeter. Cf.
different

Ar. 451
401.

= 452
The

(409).

cola

that

constitute

be in rhythmical agreement.
anapaestic and trochaic cola
single period does not occur.
^

a subordinate period must The combination, for example, of or of dactylic and iambic within a

Heph.
Plut.

Cf.

47. 6 ; 49. 25 ff. ; 27. 7 ft". Mils. 28 (1140 F) 'Apx'Xoxos

irpocre^eDpe /cat rrjv

et's

toi'S

oi^x ofioyeveh

pvO/xovs
2

hraaiv. See Rossbach, Spec. Metrik^, 374

f.

174
402.

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


The
in

402

structure

of

the

strophe

is

generally

complex.

Periods

other

rhythms are rarely admitted.

See

Thesm.

327^

(411).

403.

in ascending

Compare the following examples and descending rhythm

of subordinate periods

irarkpuiv KaK-qv, ot racrSe rots rifxas Trpoyovinv irapaSovTCDV

__^_

^_|
epwres
e/xas

__ _
TroAews.^
Qo.ttoi'

^r. 541f.
(^kpuv KeXevu)
f.

Karexo^'ct

S'

^-^_ _-__|
ij^qcjios

v.-

^ v.-

^v. 1316

AauTTwra, rov ov fSporiZv

hvvarai (f^Xeyvpa Seirrvov </)iAwv aTTiipynv

v^-^-l^-^^Aewa
Tov
'A/auK-Aats
crtui'

Crat. 57,
avacrcrav,

cf.

58
t

Kai

\aXKLOiKOV
8i)

Tvv8apt8as

dyacnos, rot

Trap Ei'/jcorai' iJ/LdSSovTi,

^_
vouidSecra-L

^ -

- ^

Lys.

1299

fF.

yap

eV ^L/ci'^ais

dAarat Sr/aaTwr, 6s v<f)ai'To86vaTov

(t6os

ov

TreTrarat

.^_^_ ^-^- ._v^_j__o^- ^-.^ayi' S.7rep

V.

^v. 94 Iff.
ttoAi!? o

rws

KciTrpws

OdyovTa<i oho rov oSovra


Li/s.

_'^_^ -v.,-^]-^-^ -^-.

1255

f.

yaip^Ti. -dires oVoi 7ToXvf3o)rov -n-oi'Ttav Scptc/jov

-_-^
'Ho-u^ias
(Tvpjxiyrj

->.^
rr/s

|-^-w -.dyai'o^poros
t]1'

Crat.

211
Ki'Trpts
f.

Trepi

e7rot7;cr
v^

^coi

__-^ -__^|-^-^
fioriv ojiov

ij/s-

1289

Trrepots KpeKovre'S

taK^ov 'AttoAAoj

-^-v..
irrdvra
8'

-^-.^1-..-^ ____^v.
<^pevt

771f.
dw/Gpev
cu

e/?dcrTCMre

ttwkvws

iroiKtAovs

Aoyons

_ ^
404.

w ode

T/iesm.

437

ff.

simplified
or

may be composed
rhythm.
ff.

continuously in

ascending

in

descending

Cf.

Av.

451

ff.

(409),

1313
odes

ff.

(406),

and Lys. 1279


it

(408).

Or, as in the other

analyzed below,
405.

may

shift

the

rhythm from time

to

time, sometimes within narrow limits.

as the

'

versus Archilochius
<f>peL

This verse might be used continuously Kara in the following


'

arl'^ov,

avTop-drr] 8e

riOvfxaXXov koI cr^aKov Trpos avrw


voiTraicriv
8'

darfidpayov KVTta-ov re'

dvdepLKOs

ivr)/3a'

Kol (jiXofLov d(p6ovov wcTTC TTapelvai. Tract tois aypor(rtv.

Crat.

325

This fragment was probably part of a stichic melic period (778).

407
406.

LOGAOEDIC VERSE
Av.

175

1313-34

(Stasimon L).

Strophe (1313-22).
'H/i-.

Ta\v
Ti'xy

St)

TroXvdvopa rdvSe ttoXlv 400, 795 <^

1314
IleL.

K-aAet rts drdpcjTrojv.


[Jiovov
Trpoa-eirj.

393
TroAfcus. 5

w ^
^^

w^ v^

^^
.

Ct _ 4^
2^

^
-^

^
-^

*H/i. a' KaT\ov(TL 8'


ITet.

e/DtoTs

e/xas

^ttTTov

<f)peiv

KeXevo).

w
.^ .^

*H/x. a' Tt

ya/D ovk evt

Tavry
;

KaXhv dvSpl

/leTOLKelv

394 394

^^^

^^

^^ w 4^^^ ^2-^ 2-^


^^
v?

1320 2o^6a Ilo^os


TO TC
T'/}s

'Kfj-Ppocria Xd/Jires

^-^
w^ 10 ^
^^

^_.^
,^
v^

ayavoc^pofos'Ho-i'X'as 792

6*^^

iv-qp.pov irpocrwirov.

Mcsode (1323-4).
Ilet.
to?

/?AaKtKWS Sta/vorets*

oi3

Odrrov tyKOu/jcnis

Antistrophe (132534).
'Hfx. fS'
Tlei.
(jteperoj

KdXadov raxv

Tis

Tmpwv,

<jv

8'

avOi^ i^opfxa

TVTTTwv ye tovtov b}8L

'H/x.

^' Travu yap ^paSi's


crv'

ecTTt Tts wcTTrep o vos.

lift.

Mav?)?

yap eVri

8etAo?.

'H/i. ^'

Se Tot TTTepd Trpwrov

1331 Stages TaSc Kocr^y,


Ta T
fJLOVCTL)^

O/AOU TCI
oTTcos

T pLaVTlKa.

Kttl

TO.

^ttAciTTl',

eTTCtTtt

S'

<f)povifj.ws

irpbs avSp'
:

opwv
1328

TTTeptxxr !,<;.
^(rrt tis

1313

Stj

Porsou

5' di/

1326 a5^tf Brunck

aCrts

Bentley

constitutes a mesodic triad, ABA. See 718. A= 1318-22). A - aba, 4 2 4, mesodic triad: two See 739. B = aab, 2- 2- 6, tetrameters with a dimeter as mesode. tAvo anapaestic penthemimers Avith a hexameter as epodic triad See 737. B is probably a melic iambic tetrameter. See 805. epode. This is the only ode in simplified logaoedic rhythm in Aristophanes composed solely of iambic and anapaestic cola, and even in this there is logaoedic correspondence in the first colon of the antistrophe.

The stasimon
(1313-17,
:

AB

407.

With

the tetrameters and


in
Crat.

hexameter

in

this

ode

cf.

238. 3, which follows, probably, an iambic subordinate period, of which the second metre is logaoedic
the tetrameter
:

dyav6(f)poves i)8vX6yio

cro(f)ta

Pporwv epicrcroKdAAets

Cf. also Crat.

239.

176
408.

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


Lys.

408

1279-94

(Exode).

Hyporcheme.
Xo. 'K9. Tpoa-aye ^opov, eiraye Xapira?,

395
eVi Se Kct/Vecrov "Apre/xtv,

^^^^^^^'^
^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^w^'v^
v^

v^

v^

4^"^

1281

-1 8e SiSviJLOV
v(f>pov,
7rt

ay e^opov

'Irytov

y^

v^-^

3^'^

1282

Se Nucrtov,

^
5

^^

v^

v^

2*^^

OS /uera /xatvcwrt BaK;i(tos opfiaai Saterat,

383 1285
Ata re
Tri'pt

(^Aeyo/ievov, eVt

re-^v^^v^v^

TTOTVtav

aAoxov oXjSiav
ovk iiriXjcrpocrLV

etra 8e Sat/zovas, ofs kTVip-upTva-L


Xprja-Ojied'

-_- ^ - ^ v^v^-^^ .^^^^^ v^ 4*^ ^^ ^ ^^ ^^


-

^ - -^

3^

383
'Hcri'Xtas Tre/stTT^sayavo^povoslO

1290

yv

e7roLi](T

6ea

Ki'tt/dis.

aAaAaAat
atpecrd'
0)5
7ri

Tranywi/*
tai,

802 206

civw

vcKYj

I'at,

-^-^ v^ -^ ^^ >^ v^v./ w _ _ ^^ ^v^


.

evot vot,

euat
:

iia6.

lo

w ^ ^^ ^ w ^ ^ _ yj

4^^^

<^
4*^^

4 2

Bd/cxos or BaKx^o's 1284 Bd/cx'os Burges dXaXai 1291 dXaXaXat Bergk Ij.eya\b(ppovoi have dXaXaXaJ, as the rhythm demands
:

Cf.

1289 a.yav6<ppovos Reisig! ^v. 1763 (588), where RVr

= ab (1279-86, 1287-94). A = abcba, Non-antistrophic. a tetrad composed of a tetrameter and 4 3 2 3 4, epodic pentad two trimeters that enclose a dimeter, with a tetrameter as epode See 763. B = aabcd, that repeats the opening strain of the pentad. a tetrad composed of two tetrameters, 4 4 4 2 3, epodic pentad a protracted tetrameter and a dimeter, with a trimeter as epode. The metrical form of 1291 ff. is doubtful. See 759.
: :

409.

Av.

451-9 = 539-47
Strojjhe.

(Debate).

'H/z. a

SoAepoi' jnev del

Kara Tvavra
400, 802
(TV

8i]

rpoirov

^-^- ^-wAeye
/xot.
;:,

V.W

3-^^

Tri(f)VKV

avOpwTTO^'

S'

0//OJS

381, 400

- ^ -

- -

^- ^4'-'

3-^

453 Tax 7P

Ti'XoiS au )(pr](TTov e^-

379
eiTTwv o T6 [xoi Trapopas,
i)

_-v.---w-^^
^.^

455 ovva/uv Ttva

fxii^io

394

^.^

^
^2-*^

410
456 TTapaXtLofxkvqv

LOGAOEDIC VERSE
vtt'
c'/xt/s

177
arv

^pevo's

dgwerov'

8e tovO'

^^ op^S' Aey' et's kowov. 393 458 6 yap av crv tv^j/s fiot 394 ^^ w^ 459 dya^ov TroptVa'?, toijto kolvuv eo-rut.
v--

m
2-'^

5CV

393

^-^-

.-v.- o--3

'H/x. /5'

TToXv

67)

TToAv

St^

^aXeTTCoTaToi'S Aoyovs

i]veyKa<s av6p(Dcf>

541

TrarepoiV
7r

kolkyji',

01

ws eSaKpycrd y kfidv rdcrSe ra? ri/xas Trpoyovwv 7rapa8ovTtov

543 544
546

e/xou

KareAiicrai'.

crv 5e /X06

Kara haijxova Kai <Tiva>

cri'v-VYiai'

dyaOi^v

^(cei? e/xot

crwTJ/p.
di'tt^ets
Tci

ya/3

eyw

croi
oIki'jctw.

veoTTia KafMavTov
544
Tt^'a

Bentley

547 rd Princeps

rd re

Monostrophic dyad.
:

A = ab

(451-4, 455-9).

A=

aab, 3- 3- 4,

epodic triad two brachycatalectic logaoedic trimeters, with a tetrameter as epode. See 737. B = abac, 2- 5 2- 3, epodic tetrad two anapaestic penthemimers that enclose a pentameter, with a logaoedic trimeter as epode. See 748.
:

410.

Av.

737-52 = 769-84
Strophe.

(Parabasis).

'Up., a

Movo"a

Ao>(|Ua6a,

_
395
vd-

^^

_ _

2-

TIO TtO Ttb TtOTty^,


TToiKtAj;,
p.6'
i^s

^~^^.^

s./v^v^

2^?
v^~
4

eyw

740

Tratcrt KOpvcftala-i

r kv dpe/at?,

^ ^ v^ 400 ^^c^^^ w.^


5>.~vy^'v^

TIO TIO TtO TtOTty^,


t^d/xVOS /xeAtas

v^^

2'^?

eVi ^vAAoko/xov,

396, 800

(ant.)

-^-^ ____w
^^

3.CT

no
745

TtO Ttb TtoTty^.

^
>^

^.

^^^

2*^?

St' e/i,7}s yevi'os

^ovO?)^ /xeAewi'
dvacjiaivio

404

Ilai'i

vopovs

lepot's

a-epvd T prjTpl \opevpaT opeia,

v^ =^ ^^ .^ w^ w^ s^ 10
.-^,

^>.-

TOTOTOTOTOTOTOTOTOTiy^,
ev^V
cjcTTre/Det

.-^^v^^^^

w^^

2^1

pkXiTra

749

<i>/Din'txo5

dp/3po(Tiwv pekean' d-

B6(TKTo Kap-ov del


(f>epwv

yXvKelav w8dv,

TtO TIO Ttb TtOTty^.

^ ^ v^ w <^ ^^ ^^ .^' 396, 802 - ^ - ^ ^ 6-^^' ^ 2^^ 15 c; w 404 .^ y^ ^- Kj ^^ K^ 2^


v,-

178

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


Antistrophe.
TOiaSe KVKVOlj
Tib TIO Tib TLOTiy^,

411

'HyLl. /3'

771

crvfj-iJiiyrj

fSorjv

ofxov Trrepots KpeKovres iaK\ov

^AttoAAw

773

Tib Tib Tib TioTiy^,

ox^w
Slot
S'

i(}i^6fj.V0i

Trap "E(3pov Trorajxov,

lib Tib Tib Tib TiOTty^,


aWepiov
v(f>o<s

rjXOe j3od,

111

TTTrj^e 3e TroiKiAa <f)vXd re d-qpCiV,

KVfxard t

ecr/Jecre

v^ve/ios aWprj,

779 TOTOTOTOTOTOTOTOTOTiy^
Tras
S'

iTTKTV7n]<T

"OAv/XTTOs,

eiAe

8e

ddp-fSos dvaKras,

'OAv/t-

TTiaSfS Se fiekos Xa/3iTes

Mowai
784

cTTwAdAv^av.

Ttb Tib Tib TiOTiy^.

748

liffTrepei

Reiske

ucnrep

i]

The monometer
dimeter.
in Nub.

in

737

= 769) probably had the value


penthemimer

of

Cf. the similar use of the dactylic

in address

275 (344). The metrical value of the bird-notes is as difficult to determine here as in 227 ff. Compare the similar case in Ban. 209 ff. Probably both syllables of Tib are short. The evidence of the manuoverwhelmingly for the reading Tib Tib Tib riorty^, even that which only once commits the vagary of reading Tib seven times*. Both this phrase and totototototototototlj^ may have had the value of a catalectic trochaic dimeter. There is no certain evidence elsewhere in the ode, in the metrical equivalence of subordinate periods, that any part of the melody was repeated. See the final note on Pmti. 209 ff. (373).
scripts is

of R,

411.
Xo.

Thesm.

312-30
^^

(Parode).

^ XiTOfiecrda TaicrS' eTT evy^ais 379 ^^ ^ v^ w>^ (f>avevTas kirL\aprjvai. ^^ .^ 315 Zeu p.iyaXii}vv[x.e \pv(roXvpa re A'^Aov OS e)(is updv, 383 5 ^ ^- ^ v^ w Kopa yAavKoX <TV Tray K par
Se^b/iecr^a koX deiov yevos
e's

^ ^ ^ 4^ ^ 2^ <^ ^2^ ^ 2^
y.^

KWTTi ^(pvcroXoyxe ttoAiv oiKovcra TrepLfxd-

X^JTOV,

eXOe Sevpo.

320

Ktti

TToXvwvvixe Orjpo(f>6ve
;)(pDa-0J7riSos epvos,

Aa-

rods
o-u

383

10

T TTOvTic (Te/xve nbo-fiSov

^ ^ ^ 7*^^ >^ ^^ ^ ^^ ' .^ ^ 4^^ >^ ^^ ^^ ^ 2*^^


323

dAi/xfSov TT/ooAiTTWv /xv^bv IxOvoivra

383 w. w - s^

3^^

412
oiVt/OoSovtjtov,

LOGAOEDIC VEESE
N?ypeos fU'aAtov re Kopai '^vjx-

179

389, 396
<^ai

-^
.

-^-^
_ 5C 2*^ wv^ 2
_
.

-^

"

t'

6pt7rXayKTOL
(j^opfjuy^
ctt'

327 ^pvaea t
taXi^yo-eiev

ev^al-i
S'

_ ^ _ 15 w v^ 416 v^w
'

328

rjixeTepais'

reAews

iKKXj](Tia.(rai/xtv

KOi^vw
^

389,396
330
320
eryevets -yvvatKes.
dTipotpdve

-^

(first

^ ^

5^'

on

IpPOi

(va\lov

R, which adds ttu?, probably a gloss 323 ixOvbevra von Wilamowitz ixOvbevr 329 'Ad-qvCiv Reisig: 'Adrjvaiuiv
:

rejected by Hermann) 325 eivaXiov Brunck


:

Non-antistrophic.
abcde,
4 2 2 2
7,

A = ABC

(312-19,
:

320-6,

327-30).

a=

iambic dimeter, dactylic dimeter, trochaic dimeter, trochaic heptameter. See 772. B = abed, 4 2 3 5, pericopic tetrad logaoedic tetrameter, paroemiac, logaoedic trimeter and a pentameter. See 772. c = abc, 2 2 6, pericopic triad: trochaic dimeter, ionic dimeter, pentameter. On the musical effect of pericopic grouping see 777. But See 771. the melody which closed the second intermediate period (b) may have been repeated at the close of the third (c).
:

pericopic

pentad

logaoedic

tetrameter,

412.

Lijs.

1247-72

(Exode).

J9''i/2)orche7ne.

Aa.

opixaov TOts
Kupcravtois
<S

395
Mva/xdva 383

Tav reav Mwav, a-is

1250

otSev d/ic tws t' 'Acravat(US,

^~ _ ^ _ w ^

_ _ w 4^ _ ^ _ ^ ' v^
. .

OKa TOt

p.ev

77

A/OTa/ZtTtO)

383
TrpWKpOOV (TVCLKeXoi
TTOTTO.

5-1-^ -^^ ^
v^

v^

S*^

KoiXa TWS Mv/SwS

~'

h'LKWV,

a.p.

S'

av Aewvi^aj

w w
6d-

1255 ayev

avrep

tws

KOLTrptJS

^
ttoAvs
0'

v^ 5^ w w"
.

yovras otw tov oSovra'

384, v., 802 10


uyU(^t rots
ttVO"i',

yevvas uc^pos 395


5' (Xyua

TToAi'S

Kar-

Twv cTKcAwv

i'ero.

1260

ryv

yup

twv8/3S ovk eAaacrcus

_._. _^_^ _._3C

-^ -^ ^>^ w v^ w ^ _>^__" _ ^ _ _ ^ ^ 10^^


>^
-^

>.,

Tus

ij/dfiixas

Tol Uepcrai.

15

dypoTepa (TrjpoKTovt /xoAe

--v^v^

3C

^w^^v^

180
Sevpo

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


Trapcrevi cria
TTOTTOtS CTTTOvSaS,

>

413

395 ^ _ _
.

^^

^^
.

1265 ws (Tvvexys ttoXvv


av
<jiLX.ca

a/xe

xpo^ov.

vvv

8'

ates euTropos

eiVj

802
1268
Taicrt avvd-qKaia-i,

20------
_
v^

^
V.
9*^"^

Kal tolv

^
_

alfxvXav dAwTreKwv Travcraifieda.

_^
.

1271

o)

8evp'

Wl

Sevp',

w Kwaye 379, 404 - : :

irapareve.

--

V.

- ^ ^

3^^'

1250 Ttis r' 'A(7a)'aiws Brunck 1248 Tots Kvptravlois Meineke tws Kvpaavius avelKeXoi. von Wilamowitz 1252 wpuKpoov Ahrens irpoKpoov Toi^s r' 'Aaavaiovi 1257 lii^'o-eo' von Wilamowitz 1253 rws Mt75ws Kiister toi)s MtjSous deiKeXoi.
:

(noting the scholiast


tCiv
i'ero

dvrl rov ijvdei)


:

^vtrei

Brunck
:

d<^p6s

i'ero

kclI Kara 1259 Karruiv Reisig 1262 dyporipa Dindorf dyporep "Apref/.!.
:
:

1267 1270

t'

Schiifer

5'

1268 ralai
:

<Tvver]Kat<n

von Wilamowitz

rala-iv

ffwOriKat^

Trav(7ai/xda

Thiersch

Travaalfxed'

A = abed, = AB (1247-59, 1260-72). Non-antistrophic. tetrameter, octameter, pentameter, deca4 8 5 10, pericopic tetrad a tetrad B = aabcd, 3 3 6 9 3, epodic pentad See 772. meter. composed of two trimeters, a hexameter, and a nonameter, with a
:
:

logaoedic

See 759, 777. trimeter as epode. See von Wilamowitz, TeoigeschicUe, 88 ff.
413.
Lys.

1297-1322
Hyporcheme.

(Exode).

Aa.

Tavyerov

aiir'

kpavvov eKknrwa

v^

v./

'^

Mwa

/xdAe

AaKatva

TrpiiTTOv aplv

38 -v> ^ - ^ .^ v^ w v^ KAewa Tov 'AfivKXais crtov Ktti XaAKiotKOV avacrcrav, Tvv8apc8as r dyao-tus,
1302
TOt
8-^

^--3^

7ra/3

Ei'/sajTav

ipLdBSovrL.

em /xdA' /A/?a, (L cm Kov(f>a TrdAAwv,


1305
u)S TO.

393 404

- - ^ -^- w w v^ ^ ^ v^ v^

- - ^ 1

- ^

8<=^

^irdprav
crttov

-u/AVito/xes,

XP' /JLeXovTi KOL TToSwV KTtVoS,

v^ \j
v^

2
2*^^
^^

v^

v^

4-^^
v^

1308 <ox'> are ttwAoi rat Kopai 393 Trap TOV Eij/owTav 1310
d/xTraSeovTt TTVKvd ttoSou'

lOw-w.

4^

_ ^

^
393
.

v^
.

vy

dyKOVtwai,

^ _

_ _

414
Tttt

LOGAOEDIC VERSE
8e KOfxai. (relovTai

181

1312

383
15

wv-

2*^

^Trep BttK^^ai/ OvpcraSSwav Kal TraiSSwav,

1314

ayrJTat

8'

Ai'j8a<i

Truh 404

dyva xopt^yos

evirpeTT-qs'

^ ^

^
k^

5^'

1316 dAA' dye


8e

KofJ-av

TrapafXTrvKiS-

X^Ph

'^oSocv T TrdS?/
8'

ww^v^

^
v^

4*^

a Tts eAa<^os, Kpdrov


TTOir)

d/xd

20 >^v^
^ ^ ^ ^

v^

4*^

x^pwcfieXi'iTav,
cridv

^ w

1320 Kal Tav

avrav Kparivfivrj.

^
4^
:

crrav X.aXKi0LK0V
:

'Aadvav aibv 1300 dvaa-crav Schol. 1299 cndv A'alckenaer afx-rrdWovTi 1310 d/j-nad^ovTi von Wilamowitz 1308 6x' ^'on Wilamowitz dyKovevovffa 1312 creioPTai. Richter aeiovr' or aeiovO' 1311 ajKOviivai Reisig irapanirvKiSdere 1319 xop'^0^^^''''*'' Hermann 1316 Trapa^TrrKiSSe Hermann 1321 i//t'r; Dindorf 1320 trtd;' Blaydes tna;/ 5' Xttypo^xXerav ov x<'P'^0fX^Ta' rdv Trd/jL/jLaxov
'A7r6XXw
: : : :

I'S/tij'j;

Non-antistrophic. A = abcd (1297-1302, 1303-7, 1308-15, (1316-22). A = aab, 3 3 8, epodic triad: two trimeters with an See 737. B - abbe, 1 2 2 4-, periodic tetrad octameter as epode. a hortatory dactylic monometer as proode, two dimeters, and a hypercatalectic trimeter as epode (36 f.). See 745, c = aabcd', a tetrad composed of two iambic tetra4 4 2 5 2, epodic pentad meters, a logaoedic dimeter, and a spondaic pentameter, with an acatalectic iambic dimeter as epode. See 759. d = a stichic period composed of three iambic tetrameters. See 778.
:
:
'

414.
Xo.

Thesm.

433-42
404 383

(Scene

I.).

oiVdJTTOTe ravTrjs I'jKova'a


>.~^

-^

v./

TroAuTrAoKcuTepas yvvaiKos

ovSe SeivoTepov AeyoiVi/s,

436
437

irdvTa

yap Aeyetv
ifSdcTTacre

8iKaia,

w w
5

<.~
v^

Trdcras 8' I8ea<i e^t^raa-ev,


Trdi'Ta
8'

379, 404

^^

w2^ w -^ ^ v^ v^6 ^ 2

(fjpevl

ttvkvuJs re

383, 404
TToiKiAovs Aoyovs dvrjvpev
ev 8u('r]Trifj.evovs'

440

oicTT'

dv

et

Aeyoi nap' avri^v

^ ^ w ^ ~ ^
10^~v^
v^

^^^ - ^ ^ ^^ ^ 6*^

_^__

EevoKAerys o K.apKLVov, 8oklv dv at'TOV,

442

ws

e'yoi/iai,

dcriv vfxlv
Aeyeiv,

v^ ^ ^ ^
iC

v^

S^

dvTiKpvs
436
Scaliger
:5eaj
:

fir]8iv

Suidas

eJSe'as

irapauTTjs

i^dcrraaev 437 i^daTaae Ed. 441 Hei'o/cX^Tjs Bentley SecoxX^s


:

440

Trap ainr)

'

182

THE VEESE OF GEEEK COMEDY


= AAB (433-6 = 437-9, 440-2). Non-antistrophic. b is an See 770. dimeter, hexameter.
See
773.

415

A=

ab, 2 6,

pericopic dyad:

indivisible

nonameter.

415.

Ecd.

952-9 = 960-7 (Episode


Strophe.

IL).

Neavts.

v^ 2 _ ^ _ ^ ^ v^ ^ ^ ^ i eXde Kal ^vvevvos 953 ^ 404 Trjv evffipovrjv owtDS etret, <^ ^^ TTavv yap <8etvos> tis epws pe Sovd 379 5^^ v^ ^ TwvSe Twv crwv (ioa-Tpv-)(wv. 955
Sfvpo 8^ Bevpo
(f)[\ov
^/J-ov,
S17,
.

Sevpo

fxoi

Trpocr-

395

^^

^_^_
^8

arorros 8' 'iyKeiral p.01 tis


irodos, OS /ie SiaKvatVas
Xe<-

^^

958 959

/i^es,

iKVovfiat

a,

"E/dws,

379 404

.^

v^^n

^
10

^
vy
v^

Kat V0L7](T0V TOvS' S eUl'^V


T17V
e/i.^v

iKka-Qai.

v^

w w _ _
.

2*^

Neavias.

Sev/ao

S7)

Sevpo

817,

KoX (TV
rr^v

p.OL

KaraSpapovaa

dvpav avot^ov
ct

_ ^ _ ^ v^
75

-^

v./

_ ^ v^ ^^

2
v^

962

ri]vK,

Se ya^,

KaraTreo-wv KU(Top.aL.

__^_

^..^_

.-v.-

<f)i\ov,

dXX

ev

Tw

o-oj

/3ovXop.aL

379
KoA.7rco

5^
ri]S

--..(rrj^ TrvyTJs.

TrXrjKTL^ecrOac

p^ra

.965
Ki'/Tpt Tt
/x'

8^

iKpaiveis i raurj;

383
fiWes,
Kttt

w^w-- -^--2
w ^
v-

iKVovpiai

(J,

"Epws,
Is

^^

Troirjcrov
ip.r]v

ttjvS'

evv^v
10

967

T^v
953

iKkaBai.

^-^

^
v.-

^vvevvo'i

Bothe

^vvevv6%

{xol

954 5nvbz Dindorf

The strophe and antistrophe

constitute the fourth

dyad

in

E = aba (952-3 See 717. proodic combination of eleven strophes. = 958-9, 954-7). A = ab, 24, pericopic dyad: trochaic dimeter octameter, and tetrameter. See 770. B = ab, 8 2, pericopic dyad The cola composing the octameter in the strophe See 770. dimeter.
:

are iambic dimeter, anapaestic dimeter, iambic dimeter and paroemiac ; in the antistrophe iambic trimeter, logaoedic dimeter and catalectic The octameter is followed in each case by a anapaestic trimeter.

i<

415

LOGAOEDIC VERSE
is

183

logaoedic dimeter, but this


in descending

in ascending

rhythm

in the strophe,

rhythm

in the antistrophe.

The
in

variation of the

strophe
51.

See

melody of the mesodic intermediate period and antistrophe is intentional and is found elsewhere. Eeisig {Coniedanea, 323) would find the explanation of the

metrical discrepancies in the

young man's

state of

mind

CHAPTER

VIII

MINOE IONIC VEESE^


416. The fundamental colon of ionic verse in Greek
is

comedy
9
ii.)

the dimeter, which consists of two minor ionic feet (8


Trdrtp,
7]v

iv.,

(Tov ri ^erjOw

^ ^

-^

Vesp.

292

An

composed of two simple feet or metres (13), normally consists of twelve primary times and eight syllables. All minor ionic verse is in ascending rhythm.
ionic dimeter,

417. Aristophanes occasionally uses the trimeter. normally consists of twelve syllables and eighteen times
fj-a

This-

At"

ot'

rapa

poejxxptji

ere

to Aoittov

^ ^
\apiT(j)v TrAetcTTOV )(^ov(Tav p-epos

^ ^
uyvav

^ ^ ^ ^

-^

Vesp.

299

^ ^

v^w

Rmi. 334

f.

The monometer does not normally occur. 418. The ')(^p6vo^ kv6<; (32) of ionic verse is the second half of the thesis of the foot, a diseme time (32), and an ionic colon, by its suppression in the last metre, becomes catalectic (33, 34)
aTTO

yap TOvSe

p.e

tov p.Lcrdapiov

^ ^
is

^ ^
allowed in
at

wv^
the

Vesp.

300

419. Interchange
fifth

of length

fourth and

places of two contiguous metres, so that a short syllable


first

occurs at the end of the


the second

and a long
^

the beginning of

pa

At",

el

Kpkp.ai(rdk

y vp,d%

^^

\j

Vesp.

298
further

^ Major ionic verse does not occur in Greek comedy. 'Ionic,' therefore, in

this book,

when used without


'minor ionic'

definition, siguifies

184

425
This
partial

MINOK IONIC VERSE

185

derangement of the rhythm is called anaclasis See Schol. Heph. 148. 5 ff., 19 ff. anaclastic metres may correspond in 420. Normal and strophe and antistrophe
{avdK\a(TL<i).
ocriovi ts
(f)Xoyl

^tao-wTas=

y^

(^eyycTai 8e Xeificjv
is

^ ^ ^ ^

^ ^ ^ Kan. 327 = 344

421. Anaclasis

sometimes partial
is

and

derangement

of

rhythm occurs only

in the second metre, but in this

case either

the anaclastic or the normal form

found in the corresponding

strophe or antistrophe
TTokvKapTTOV
/JLCV

Ttvd(r(T(x)V

=
PMn. 328

yovv TraAAerat yepovrwu

= 345

upav oo-tois /ii'O-rats \opeLav = oa eSoi' \opoTroiov p.aKap 'i]f3av


Ran. 336

= 353

422. The initial long syllable of this


(

'

irrational

'

ionic metre

simply trace of an irrational syllable in the metre This See 615 ff. that probably was its source (^ - ^ -).
)

- ^

is

original

metre

{^ - ^ - ) seems
ff.

also
(

to

be
)

the

source,

by

acephalization, of

the singular metre

- ^ -

with which the


of

hypermeter in Ban. 326


423.

(427) begins.

The structure
is

of the

two ionic

lyrics

regular form
ff.)

found in Aristophanes
states

hypermetrical.

Hephaestion (38. 6

most notable subordinate period is the catalectic tetrameter, and quotes a line in illustration from the comic poet Phrynichus
that

the

6'

dvdyKa

'crd'

lepevcnv Kadapeveiv <f>pd(TOixev

^ ^
Cf.

v-zv^

^ ^

wv^ Phryn.

frag.

70

Eupol. 192.
424.

A protracted metre of the form


:

^ ^ -

(32)

is

occasion-

ally

found at the beginning of a colon


iroBl

rdv aKoXacrrov

^tAoTratV/iova -ipidv

^ ^ <^ ^

^ ^ Ean. 332 ^ ^
to lack vigour

f.

425. Ionic

rhythm was thought


his

and

nobility.

Dionysius

in

rapid

characterization
vi dicendi,
xliii.,

of

the

style

of

Demosthenes (De admir.

1093

E.) says

that

;;

186

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


orator's

426
f^^^

one finds in the


TOi/?

speeclies

tmv
kol

pvO/jbcov

TroWaxv
aTravLoo^

avSp(oSec<;
Toij^

kol

d^ico/xaTiKov<;

evyevei';,

8e

TTOv

vTTop'^rjfiaTiKov^

re
J.)

koL

Iq)vikov<;

koL

Si,aKXcofjL6vov<;.

Aristides (37 M., 24.


to ionic

20

f.

even applies the epithet 'vulgar'


e</)'

rhythm

laiviKo<;

he Zta to tov pvdfiov (^opTCKov,

Compare the use of this word in Aristotle's Politics (v. v. 9, 1340 b), where the terms ^opriKO'i and ekev6epLo<i are descriptive of the movement of contrasted
KaX 01 "Iwye?
iK(i)/j.(pB'>]6r](Tav.

rhythms.
the

Aristides's

suggested
soft
it

inference

of the

character

of

rhythm from the


it

and effeminate habits


its

of the people

who used
writers,

and gave

name

is

often repeated
ionics.

by

later

but especially with reference to major

See the

passages quoted by

Amsel

in his dissertation

De

vi atque indole

rhythmorum, 101
426.

ff.

Vesp.

291-302 = 303-16
Strophe.

(Parode).

Ua.
292
Ko/5.

WeX-qa-eis ri /xot ovv


Trdrep,
tjv

<3

800

v-'w

crov tl ScTy^ai
TraiSiov.
aAA.' el-

Trdvv y'
7re,

Tt /SovXcL fxe TTpiaa-Bai


oTfiai 8e or kpilv d- b
Trat.

295
Yla.

KaXov ;

(TTpaydXovs SriTrovdev w

pd At dXX
TTca

tcr^aSas

iraTr-

wv^ ^ ^ v^w ^ \y ^ ^ v^^

^ ^ wv^

^ \j \j ^ ^ ^ \j
\j

v^vy

TyStov

ydp.

Kop. a.

ovk dv

421

v^v^-^-v^-vpels.

pd
Ila.

Ai",

el

Kpepaia-dk y

419

v^^-v.-^-ere

pd
d/To

At"

ov rdpa

t poire pil/io

tu Aoittov.

10^^
Kop. a

^ ^

v^v..-^^

21''

yap TovBe pe tov picrOapiov

^ _
301 TpiTOV avTov
(f>tTa

3C

e'x^tv

a A- 424
Kilyxj/ov

^./

v^

v^

v^

8et

Kttt

^vXa

^ ^

^ ^ ^

i^

<e

,> crv

8e crvKd

atVets

78

^^^
i]v prj

^ - -

Antistrophe.
Tla.

dye vvv & Trdrep


TO

^LKaCTTi'lpiOV dp-)^0}V
(jivrj-

305

Kadicry vvv, tto^cv


(Toped'

dpurrov

e)(^eis

eX-

427
TTiSa

MINOR IONIC VERSE


^pi]<T~i']V

187

Tiva vuJv

';')

iropov
K.op. j3'

"EAAas Lepov
(^(v,

aTraTrai
fia At"

310
Ha.
Kop.
(3'
I'v'

ovK eywye vwv

oi8'

oTTodev y SetTTVOv ecrraL.


T6
p.

8yJT

(L

/xcAea

{J.yJTp

eriKTes

ifJLol

TTpdyiMaTa (36crKLv Trapexyj.


(L

dv6vi]Tov dp'

av-

XaKiov a'

e?xoi'

dyaXfia.

316

-rapa

I'wi'

o-TCva^eiv.
e Hermann Hermann &pa
:

ipx^v or

302 297 irainria Bentley Trania 314 d.p' w ^i'\d/ct6;' ff' (bpxoiv
:

304 Hpx^v Dindorf


a'

6v\dKi6v y

ionic

B (716) = abed, 21 3 4 2, pericopic tetrad: Monostrophic dyad. hypermeter of twenty-one metres (twenty in the antistrophe), See 772. trimeter, tetrameter, catalectic iambic dimeter. With ludicrous effect, Aristophanes See the scholiast on 308. changes the order of Pindar's phrase, "EAAas r-opov tepov, leaves the colon incomplete intentionally, and reduces the following dimeter to See 51. an exclamatory monometer. The omission of I e in thejast colon of the strophe is probably due
to accident.

Editors

who

reject

in

both strophe and antistrophe


p,

do not agree
vwi' a-rei'd^ecv.

in their analysis of the clause crh Se crvKa

al-ds

Trdpa

and but any other form of catalexis See also Luthmer, is, very doubtful. in minor ionic cola De choriamho et ionico, 81, and Schroder's extended discussion of the in his Forarheiten, 97 ff., and his final conclusion colon ^ ^ - ^
Rossbach
( v^

(S/J^c.

Metrik^, 328) assumes


),

anaclasis

shortened catalexis

^ - v^ than ^ ^ -

in his Arisiaphanis Cantico., 13.

427.

Han. 323-36

= 340-53
w - ^
1^'

(Parode).

Straphe.
'Up., a

"laKX

w
iv expats

448

~oXvTijJ.y]T

Iv^aSe vai(DV,

^v^
"laK)l

v./^
v^


2^

^^v^

&

"laK'^e,

448

v^

v^

326 eXdl t6v6' dvd Aetpwva xopeva-ojv 422


ocTLOVs t? Oiarrwras,

-^-^^--^^- o

v^

420
421

5v^^ c;w

TToXvKapTrov

pel'

rivdcrcrdiv

^^_-_^-_
v^v./

Trepi

Kparl ctm /Bpvovra


dpacrel o'

330

a-T(fiavov fivproiV,

iyKaraKpovojv

188

THE VERSE OF GEEEK COMEDY


332 334
TToSt

428

Tolv

OLKoXaa-Tov
Tt/Aav,

<^iXo7ral(T[x.ova

\0

^ ^ ^ ^

y^

yj

^ ^

xapLTwv

irXeta-rov e'l^oDcrav /xepos ayvdv.

lepav oaiots /^vcTTats

)(^optav,

22

Antistwphe.
'H/x,. /3'

eyctpe
(fiXoyias Aa/x7raoas ev X^P^'' Tivacro-wv

"IcKX

<3

"Ia/<xe,

343 vvKTepov
<f>Xoyl

reXerijs (jnoar(f)6pos adT-qp.

(^eyyerat 8e XeLfiiov

yovv TraAAerat ye/oovrcov


07700-660 vrat

Se

Awas
li'tavTOi'S

347

xpovcovs T

cTwv TraAatojv

349
351

Upas
(TV

inro rip.as.
cfieyytxiv
ctt

Se XapirdSi
e'^ay

Trpof3d87]v

dvOjjpbv e'Aeiov

SajreSov \opo7rotov jxaKap yj^av.

323 7ro\vTl/j.7}T' Reisig Tro\vTL/j.^Tois 331 dpaael Princeps ^dpiret or ^I'-po-w 333 4>i\oTrai(rfiova van Herwerden ti/jlclv Princeps tl/jltju (piXoTralynova 335 ayvdv Kaibel d7ra;' or 471/7;;/ 336 fj.vffTan Princeps iJ.vcrTai.ai. 341 xpo-^ Hermann xep<^' Ti'tp 7;k 350 <piyywv Bothe <p\iyu3v, which would be a reversion to primitive form (428, iv. and would involve a lengthening before mute and liquid that is not found elsewhere in the melic verse of Aristophanes. See 790 flf.
:

Monostrophic dyad. B (704) = abed, 13 2 22, pericopic tetrad, bacchiac monometer, ionic trimeter, bacchiac dimeter, ionic hypermeter
of

twenty-two metres.

See

772.

'free' ionics
428. In course of time minor ionic

variety

of

form.
is

An
modern

example

of this
ff.,

rhythm developed great licentious manner of


a parody that ridicules

composition

found in Thesm. 101


(' ')

This exhibits, in addition to the forms found in the severer type of composition,

the effeminate

tragic poet Agathon.

metres of the following constitution


i.

By

resolution

ofv^w

(419 ff.) as the first metre of the dimeter (9, 12, 13), and as the second (6, 8, 12, 13, 17, 18, 23) without the ordinary restriction (421).
iii.

and ^ ^ (3, 20, 22). ii. The form - v. - -

-^

^^-

(cola 11,

14, 21)

By

resolution of the foregoing


(15).

-^---(7,

and -

^^^

10, 19, 25)

429
iv.

MINOR IONIC VERSE


By
interior anaclasis of the forms

189
:

^ _ ^ _ (16) and what was probably the


V.

^ of

(20).

This

^ ^ and - v^ was a reversion

to

original form.

See 422.

By

resolution

the anaclastic form ^

- ^ -

^ - ^

(16).
vi.

The
is

protracted

(20).

It will be

form w ^ (424) within the colon observed that resolution of only normally long

syllables

allowed.

This

is

the ground of objection to the read-

-v^ ing Xeye vvv (or vlv) euTrto-rty? he rov/xov (^ ^ ^ ) adopted by some editors in Thesm. 105, not the correption of
vvv, which occurs in tragedy and might therefore be used in parody of a tragic writer.

429.

Tlusm.

101-129

(Prologue).

SIMULATED DUO ^ 'Ay. lepav 'xOov'tai'i Seww ^d/xevaL AayLXTraSa Kovpai ^ ^ ^vv (Xevdepta irarpLw^ 8t ^opiva-acrOe fSodv. 5^^ Xo. Tt'vt 8aLfi6vu)V o Kw/xos ^ ^ Aeye vvv' tticttco^ 81 Tovfiov 105 ^^ ^ 8aifiovas e^et arefSicrai.
v.-

v^

v^

^ ^ w w >^

^ ^

^ ~ s^ ^ 6*^
^./

ww

8^

'Ay.

aye vvv 6\j3i^e Moucra


T^/Ducrewv

pvropa ro^wv

_^__ ^^__
10 ^w^^ wv^
^^ s^

^w

^oljSov, OS iSpiVaro

X^P"5

110
Xo.

yvaAa Si^ovvTiSi
4>ot/3',

ya.

^^

X^^P^ KaAXto-rais dotSats


(V evfiova-ourt TifxaL<;
wpocfiepioi'.

_^__
^
^
^^

^ ^ ^ ^

S'^

yepas lephv
'Ay.

-^

v^^

6^

rdv T

ev opea-t 8pvoy6voL(TLV

15

wv.^---

ww

115
Xo.

Kopav deicrar "Aprefxiv dyporepav.


iofxai K\rj^ov<ja (rp.vhv

118
'Ay.

yovov ok/Si^ova-a Aarovs


"ApTifJLLV direLpoXexrj.
-'

^ - ^ ^ ^ ^ -^ ^ -^

^-^_
^ ^ ^ ^ 6^

s^^-S^

Aaroj re Kpovp-aTd

'AcrtdSos ttoSI

121
Xo.

Trapdpvdp.' evpvdpLa

^pvycwv 792

Siavevjuara Xa/JtTwv.
a-e/SofxaL

Aarw

dvaa-Q-av

^ ^ v^v^ ^ ^

^^

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 7 ^

Kidapiv T jxarep' v/xvoiv

w^

-w
^ ^ ^
(f^

125

dpa-evL ftoa

86kljiov.

25 ^w^-

190
'Ay.
TO.

THE VEESE OF GEEEK COMEDY


<f)dos

429

eWvTO
wv

Sai/^ovtot?
St'

342

ojXfxaxTiv

afierepas re
X^P'*'

ai(/)ViSt-

OV

OTTOS,

^^w ^^^

^^

^^ ^^
^-^

^^
.^

2^

^^

dvaKx' ayaAAe ^ot/3ov.

78
30

w-w
- - ^

^
v^

2^

129 X"'P' oA^ie

Trat

Aarovs.
570, 511
:

2'=

xop^^a-aadai 103 xop^^'<^'^<^^^ Bentley iXeve^pg. 102 iXevdepig. Hermann 106 ^x Suidas ^x^'S 107 6X/3ife 105 TTLffTcos von Wilaiuowitz euTritrTwy 115 delffar' 114 opi/oYivoio-i^ von Wilamowitz 5puo76;'0((n Bentley: oirXi^e <pu)S 126 ^dos Fritzsche doKifiqi ddcravT 125 56klixov Schol. Kiister 128 ^oi^ov Dindorf ^oZ/Sov n^aa
:
:

In 109 the augment


(790).

is

omitted, as often in tragedy, and

is

short

Aristophanes, as if in apology for the extreme licence he has allowed himself in metrical forms, has given the lyric as a whole a It is a non-antistrophic singularly simple and attractive structure. systematic period, composed of four intermediate periods, AABC, A = ab, 8 6, pericopic dyad octaarranged as an epodic tetrad. b = abcb, 5 6 7 6, proodic tetrad a See 770. meter, hexameter. pentameter as proode to two hexameters that enclose a heptameter. dactylic catalectic C = abed, 2 3 2 2, pericopic tetrad See 750. dimeter, dactylic trimeter, catalectic iambic dimeter, acephalous
: : :

Glyconic.

See

772.

Our poet has allowed himself the following correspondences of. ,v?w^-, ^ ^ - - ,^ ^ metres in paired subordinate periods
:

See von Wilamowitz,

Isyllos,

155

If.

CHAPTER

IX

PAEONIC VEESE
430. The fimdameutal colon of paeonic verse is the dimeter, which consists of a combination of two simple feet, two paeons or their equivalent, two cretics or a paeon and a cretic (8 iii.,

iii.)

[xiap Kal l38eXvp

Trpoa-TaTet prjTopwv

Savorara tou depovs


ou;( Ojoas creLopievov
;

^ ^^ ^ ^ ^^ v^

v^ Eq. 303 ^ Eq. 325 w Pax 1134 w Ach. 344


wv./
^-^^

The

last

combination

is

the least common, but the

it is

legitimate.

measure of ten primary times, the simple foot or metre (13) being hemiolic. Paeonic verse is in descending rhythm.
431.

paeonic

dimeter has

432.

The paeonic trimeter


PocTKopeOa Tzapdkvia

consists of three

simple feet or
:

metres, and has the measure of fifteen primary times


rjpivd T

w KUTaXafSp',
(0

^^
^

- ^ - ^

- ^

Av.

1099

KidapaoiSoraTe

- ^
'i)koXov6ovv S'ar'AAco T/oe^wv

^ -w^
- ^ -

Eupol. frag. 293


Ach. 214

_^_
crov

- ^ ere

y'

oLKOvawpev

aTroXer

kuto.

_^_ -^_ -^^


(OS

Ach.

294
675

f.

epe XafSova-a tuv SrjpoTqv

The trimeter
is rare.

^^

- ^ -

- ^ -

Ach.

433. Trimeters sometimes occur in pairs in the analyses of Heliodorus where a triple dimetrical division would be expected, and
191

192
is

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY

434

of

His text thus sometimes avoided dimeters adopted in this book. the form ^ ^ ^, but these are legitimate. See Ach. 665 ff. (453) and the metrical scholium. Heliodorus also classifies the

tetrameter as a colon, where dimetrical division is imperative, since the tetrameter would be an isomeric compound foot and would exceed the allowed limit (22 f.), but this usage is probably mere licence of speech, just as he calls the trochaic tetrameter also a colon. Furthermore, it should be observed that Heliodorus does not use the terms St'/Aer/jov and rpijxeTpov to designate the dimeter and trimeter, but invariably Sippvdfiov and rptppvOpov, since he does not, as Hephaestion does, include paeons among the principal metra 'metra prototypa.' Paeons, in fact, occur See Hense, Heliodoreische Untersuchungen, 11 9 fF. only in melic composition.

434. The monometer does not occur.


in Ach.
note.

The apparent instance


See the critical

971 (456)

is

probably not authentic.

435.

hemiolic
metrical
dicolic.

The pentameter might occur as a colon, since it is a compound foot (24), but Heliodorus rejects it. See the scholium on Ach. 284 ff. (452) in which 294 f. is called

No

longer colon than the trirrhythmon

is

recognized by

Heliodorus in his analysis of any of the paeonic odes of Aristophanes.


436. Eesolution
cretic

of the long

syllable

of

the

thesis

of the

form of the paeonic metre rarely occurs.


ff.)

Hephaestion

(41. 7
V

notes this licence in a period in the


8'

Hushandmen
Ar. frag. Ill

dyop^

av TrXaravov

-^

y.^

^^

ev 8La<f>vTeva-oiJLv

^ ^^ ^

Cf.

Av. 246 (595).


437.

A
:

single

catalectic

paeonic

period

occurs

in

Greek

comedy

)(eT

Aet/xwva t

epo-

w^

v^

^^

VTa MapaOwvoi
Cf.

^
See 34.

^J^'

Av. 246 t
all

Heph. 42. 15
438.

ff.

With

this

exception,

sub-

ordinate periods in Aristophanes close with a cretic.

long syllable does not admit protraction in paeonic

verse.

See 32.

439. Dimeters and trimeters are not used independently as

subordinate periods.
verse
is

The
is

favourite subordinate period in paeonic

the

tetrameter,
its

composed of two

dimeters,

but

in

Aristophanes

use

almost restricted to stichic formations,

442
in

PAEONIC VERSE
Ach.

193
ff.

as

976

ff.

(456),

Vesp.

1275

(457).

With one

exception (Ach. 984) the tetrameter in Aristophanes consists of


three paeons and a cretic.

The same form occurs

also in Eupol.

Aristophanes uses the penta160, Ar. frciff. 110, 333, 507. meter, hexameter and octameter freely. These may consist
solely of cretics, as in Ach.

214

f.

(449), Uq.

322

(451), once,

in an octameter, solely of paeonics, except the last metre (Ach.

216

ff.).

Generally, however, there

is

great variety of arrange-

ment, but the principle holds that cretics are placed at the
beginning and close of the subordinate period, paeons within
it.

It seems reasonable to conclude that fragments which are quoted from the comic poets as tetrameters but have not the

of the tetrameter (- ^^ -^ - ^ ^ - ^^ ^ _^_^ were parts of hexameters, octameters or hypermeters. Of. Phryn. 57, Aristoph. /m^. 334, 699. See also Eubul. 112. Theopompus, on the authority of Hephaestion (42. 8 ff.), affected a pentameter composed of four paeons and a cretic, the

regular form

see above)

'

Theopompeum
TravT

'

ayada

8rj

yeyovev avSpda-LV

efxrjs

aTrh

crworma? Theopomp. 38

freely. Aristophanes has employed the dodecameter six times in the plays now extant and a hypermeter of eighteen metres twice. Hypermeters show

440.

Paeonic verse admits hypermeters

great variety of form through free mingling of paeons and cretics.


441. On the combination of subordinate periods, hypermeters and intermediate periods to form systematic periods, see 720 ff. 442. Paeonic rhythm has special affinity for trochaic rhythm. It is combined, in the paeonic and occasionally in other odes of Aristophanes, also with iambic, anapaestic and dactylic rhythms. Cf Ar. frag. 506, in which a paeonic series appears to be introduced by a melic anapaestic trimeter
aAt?
d(f>xn-j'S

fxoi,

271 yap ra Xnrapa KaTTTWv.

^.~^^^

Traparera/zat

.^-^

^^..^

d/\/\a (jiepeO' rj-rdnov


t)

KaTTptSiov veov

KoAAoTTa Ttv'
irXevpbv
(nrX.rjvd
n")

el

Se

/X7y,
i)

yXwTTav
i]

vrjaTLV,

SeA^ttKOS

OTTOjpLVlj^

rjTpiaiav cfiepeTe oevpo fJ-e'd

_^_
10

Ko\kdfS(DV X^'-^P^^''

^ ^^ w ^^ ^ .^ _ ^ _ w ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ _ _ ^ _ _ ^ _ v^ ^^ ^ .^ ^ ^ v^ 17

^^

194
Cf. also

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY

443

paeonic series of which only the beginning


Tous
/jtev

Anax. 12, in which an enoplic pentameter introduces a is quoted


opetovo/xot's v-

[xwv

TTOtija-et 8eX(f)aKa<s

rjXijSaTovi,

475 483 ^

ww

Tovs Se Trdvdrjpas, aX-

Xovs dypuxrras Xvkovs


<r5>

XeovTas

....

v^ w v^

v^w v^v^ ^ ^

v-v^

5*^

of the nine associated rhythms.

In the celebrated monody in Av. 227 ff. (595) paeonic is one See also Ban. 1359 ff. (592). 443. Correspondence between paeon and cretic ( - v^ ^^ and

v^

is

allowed in strophe and antistrophe and in two correit is

sponding subordinate periods, but

not common.

444. In the tetrameter and in the longer subordinate periods

The and hypermeters cola are frequently joined within a word. principle that the close of a cretic must coincide with the end of a word does not hold in comedy. Cratinus, in a 445. Heliodorus names this verse paeonic. well-known verse of the Trophonius {frag. 222), calls it cretic. On the probable relation of the cretic See Heph. 40. 8 ff. On paeonic-trochaic rhythm see 223 ff. to the paean see 620. 446. Paeonic rhythm is not found in the last five plays of Aristophanes, except in a single subordinate period in a parody It is spirited, and was {Pmti. 1359 f., 592), nor in the Clouds.
regarded as especially adapted to the
Aristides (98 M., 60. 1
ft".

movement
:

of a lively dance.

J.) implies that

hemiolic rhythms are


roi?
S'

even

livelier

and quicker than

trochaic

iv

rjfiLokca)

Xoyo) Oecopov/xevoci ivdovaiaa-rtKcorepoL'i elvai

<TVfjbl3/3r]Kv.
'

He

evidently applies the epithet in the sense


ing') in which Aristotle uses
in his classification of melodies
it
:

('

passionate,'
vii.

inspir-

in his Politics (v.

1341^)

ra

fiev rjOifcd,

to,

Be TrpaKTiKu,

ra

8'

evdovaiaaTLKa.

Aristophanes has the rhythm chiefly in


a lively young

the Acharnians and Uquites, plays written in the heyday of his

youth,

when he was himself

man

about town.

In the parode of the Acharnians (204 ff., 449; 284 ff., 452) it in the is used to express the rising excitement of the chorus
;

parode of the Equites (303

450; 322 ff., 451), in passionate Emotion is expressed in the second denunciation of Cleon. stasimon of the Acharnians (971 ff., 456), but the tone is milder. The language in which the Muse is invoked at the beginning
ff.,

449

PAEONIC VERSE
(665
ff.,

195

of the parabasis of the Acharnians

453)

is

significant:

Bevpo M.ova iXde (pXeyvpa Trupo? e^ovcra

fievo<; vtovo<; ^A.'yapviicri

Compare

also the phraseology at the close of the strophe.


is

The

sentiment in the antistrophe


ing plays the scene
is is

bitter complaint.

In the follow-

often domestic

quite appropriate to

comedy that

odes lively sentiments should


dinner.

and the tone lighter. It some of these paeonic be inspired by the prospect of
in

Bacchiac Khythm
447.

The bacehius (8

iii.,

iii.)

is

hemiolic
it is

foot
little

and
used

belongs in the same class with the paeon, but


in

Greek poetry and hardly


f.)
:

at all in

comedy.

Cf.

Hephaestion
el

(43. 1

TO Se ^a/c^etaKov airdvtov icmv, ware


iirl

Kal irov

TTore ifiTrecroL

j3pa-^v euplaKeadai.

448.

Two

bacchiac dimeters in correspondence appropriately


the

open

the

parode of

Ranae (316

f.)

with

invocation

of

lacchus
"laK^
"laKx'
cS

"IttK^e

v^

v^

v^

^ ^

w "IaK\e
its

^
this

^ ^

The

foot

derived

name from

begins with a monometer (427).

use. The following ode For other dimeters see NvJj.

708

(289), Vesp.

317

single tetrameter is

(577), Ran. 325 (427), 1346 (592). found in Th. 1144 (387):
(3

^dvqd'

Tvpavvoxs

crruyoiicr'

locnrep

etKO?.

Lykics in Paeonic
449.

Ehythm
(Parode).

Ach.

204-18 = 219-33
StrojjJie.

Kop. a

196

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


(ftpovBo'i.
o'lfiot

450

TaAa?

TWV
211 ovK av

T(OV
kir

TWV
^(xyjs

efJLWV

ye Vo(fyepojv

Tr)TO<i,

OT

eyoj

dvdpuKWV
Se

cf)OpTLOV
Tpe-^oiv,

214 rjKoXovdovv ^avXXo>


<f)avXix)S

av 6
e-

216

(nrov8o<ji6pos ovtos vtt


fjLOv

Tore StwKo/xcvos

i^<f>vyev ov8'
(jipw<s

av e\a-

av

OLTreTrXt^aTO.

^ ~^ ^ ^^ _ w 15 w -^ 51 v^ ;^ v^ ..^ w ^^ 20 w =^
10
v^

w w ^ -^ ^ _
v^

-^
.^>^

6^

w
^^
v^

^
5^

^ ^
^^

.^
c;

8^

Kop.(3' vvv 8'

eTTCtST)

crreppov

i/Sv/

tov/mov avTii<vr]juov

220 Kat
/i.7jSe

TraAatoj AaKpaTei8rj to CTKeAos fSapvveTai,

ot';s(CTat.
7re/D

StWKTeos Se*

ji^

yap

ey^^avoi ttotc

yepovras ovra? iK<jivywv


ZeiJ Trarep Kai

A\apvea^.
av^erac twv ep-wv X'^P"^^''
avTeyUTrayw

'H/x. ^' ocTTts

w
TTO/D

^eot TOto-6V x6potcriv icTTretVaTO,

226 229

otb-i

e/xou 7roAe/;tos ix^o8oTros


tt/div

Koi'K

dv'/^cro)

av crxoivos

aTJTOtcrtv

231 ovs

oSvv7;/)bs eTTtKWTTOS, iVa p^Trore Trarwcriv eVt rots e/uias d/;i;reXoi;s.


:

220 AaKpareldrj Bentley

AaKparidri

221

iyxo-voi.

Brunck

eyxdvy

A is a stichic Monostrophic dyad. (204-7, 208-18). B = aabc, period composed of four trochaic tetrameters. See 778. 6 6 5 8, epodic tetrad two hexameters and a pentameter, with an octameter in the strophe, but heptameter in the antistrophe (51), as
:

A = AB

epode.

See 743. See the metrical scholium on Ach. 204 and the comment in 728. Heliodorus is here followed in regarding 204-8 = 219-22 as melic.
450.

Uq.

303-13 = 382-90 (Debate


StropJie
I.

L).

^Hfi. a'

fXLape Kal /SSeXvpe

KpoLKTa Tov arov dpaa-ovs

305

Trdcra /xev yrj


Traara 8'

TrAea,

eKKXi](ria

Kal reXrj Kal ypacfial Kal 8iKaa-T-qpt


S>

51
r}-

(ant.

(3op/3opOTdpa^i, Kal

310

rr]v ttoXlv aivacrav


p-Civ

dvaTTvpl3aKOj'5i'ip.(ov

Ko/3. a' ocTTis

Tcts

'AO/jvas
(3o(Jjv

212

iKKeKuxfiioKas

^ -^^ v^ <^ ^ ^^ ^ w -^ w v^ w v^ 5 ^ vy ^ w ^ v.^ v^ ^ ^^ v^ 18^ ^ 10 v^ ^ ^^ w

^^./

451
313
Kairo

PAEON IC VERSE
twv TreTpwv avw^ev
<p6povs dvvvocTKOTrwv.

197

v^

Toi's

_^_^ _^_4
I.

Antistrophe
'H/x. /3' v/v

apa TTvpos <y> erepa


dep/JLorepa Kal

X.6ywv

V TToAei Twi' dfat-

385

Kat TO Trpayfx

yv ap' ov (f)avXov

wS',

uAA'
ixr]8v

7ri6^t

Kat (TTpof^ei,
Trotci.
p.kcro<s.

oAtyoi'

388
Kop.
13'

vvv yap ;(Tai

ws eav
ai'Toi/

vvi'i

fxaXd^ys

ry Trpo(r(3oXy,

390 5eiA6v

evpjorets*

eyw

701/3

Tors TpoTTovs
304 KpaKTa Dobree
eKKKil)<}rt)Kas
:

iTTicrrapLai.

xai

or KKKiJj(pevKas

KpaKra or /cat KeKpaKra 382 7' Princeps om.


:

312 KKeK6<piOKas Reiske

First

dyad (AA)

of
:

au antistrophic pericope.

See

705.

A = abb,

a paeonic hypermeter of eighteen metres in proodic triad the strophe, seventeen in the antistrophe, as proode to two trochaic See 738. tetrameters. See the metrical scholia on Eq. 303 ff. and 382 ff. and notes.

18 4

4,

451.

Eq.

322-32 = 397-406 (Debate


Strophe II.

I.).

'H/A.

a apa

Srjr

ovk

(xtt

dp-

Xrjs eSv^Aovs dvai-

324 326 y
'

Seiav

iJTrep

{xovrj

TTpocTTaTel pyjTopMV
(TV

TTKTTevwv d/xeAyets
t/
V /

212

Ttuv ^ei'cov TOi;s KapTTip-ovs

327 TrpwTOS o5v

o S' 'IttttoSci/xou

XeijSeTaL ^coj/xevos.

^ ^ ^ v^ ^ v^ w v^ 8 w w K^ tCV _^ _ _^^_4 w c; v^ w w ^^4

328 dAA'

k^dvi]

yap

dvijp 'drepos

oAi'
389, 342

-^-^ -^-^

crov fXiapioTepos,

iocrre

lie

;)^aiptv,

330
331 332

OS

ere

irava-ei

Kal TrdpeKTi.,

212
78,
51,

877A0S co-Tiv auTo^ei-,


Trai'OvpyLif.

re Kal dpacret

506
511

KOI KofiaXiKevp-acriv.

198

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


Antistrophe II.

452

'H/A. fi' 0)5

Se

TT/DO?

TTav

di/atSei'eTat

kov

[j.e6t(TTijcrL

rov

xpoj/zaros

tou

TrapeCTTTJKOTO'i.

400
402 404 405

ci

cre

yui)

/xtcrw,

yevoijm)V iv l\.paTLVOV KwStov


rrpocraSeiV
fAopcri/xov

Kat
(5

SiBacTKoiiJLTjV

TpaywSta.

Trepi ttcivt'

Itti Tracrt

Tt Trpayyaacri 8wpo8oK:otcr6v

eV

avOecriv t'^wv,

ei'^e

<f)avko)s bxnrip i]vpes

eK^aAots
"-irii'e

t)v ivO^criv.
ctti

aa-aifJLi

yap tot av ^ovov,


325
pTjTdptxJv

ttu''
rdij'

<TVfi(fiopai'i."

Bentley

prjTopaiv

B = ab See 705. Second dyad (BB) of an antistrophic pericope. A = abb, 8 4 4, proodic triad: a paeonic octa(322-27, 328-32). B = abc, 4 4 4, See 738. meter as proode to two trochaic tetrameters.
Aeolic dactylic tetrameter, trochaic tetrameter, triad diiambic tetrameter in the strophe, diiambo-Glyconic tetrameter in See also 732. See 771. the antistrophe. See the metrical scholium on Eq. 322 f. The Glyconic dimeter in the last colon of the antistrophe is a
pericopic
:

quotation from Simonides (frag.

Bergk *).
(Parode
II.).

452.

Ach.

284-302

= 335-46

LYRICAL DUO
Strophe.
At.
'^Upa.KXet'i Ti]V

Tovrt Tt

0"Ti

212

)(^VTpav crvvrpLifere.

w ^ ^

w ^ ^

vy

4^^

Kop. a

ere

/i.ev

ovv KaraXevcrofxev & pLapa KetpaAiy.

277
At.
di'Tt

^-^- _-^- ^_

3-^^

TTOtas at'rtas w;

^^apvediv yepaiTaTOi

212 5

Kop. a TOUT

ep(i}T<^<s ;

dvatKttt

o'Xi'i'TOS

ct

fSSeXvpos

289
291
At.

<5

TrpoSoTtt T7}s TraTptSos,

oo"Tts rjp.(av yxovos


o-!ria-dp.vos

eha

Svi'a-

o-at irpos

e/M

dirol3XeTriv.
d-

dvTi

8'

Siv

ka-TViia-djii-jv

KOV(TaT,

dAA'

dK0U0"aTC.
;

w v^ v^ 4 w w v^ ^ x^ ^ ^^ ^ .^ w ^ ^^ 10 ^ -^ w ^^ ^ ;^ v^ ^ 12^ w w 212 v^ w ^ ^^^4^

w
v./

Kop. u' o-ou y

aKovawpev

dTroAer

KaTa

ere

Xwo-o/xev Tots Allots.

15

At.

p.7]8ap.ws Trplv

av y dKovcrr]T dAA' dvdcrxecr^' dyyadoL


dvacr^ijcrofxai
"

212 w

c;

Kop. a

ot'K

^ _ ^ _

^ b^ ^ ^ 4^ _ ^ _
v./

452

PAEONIC VEESE
yMTjSe
(US

199

298 299

Aeye

/xot

(rv

Xoyov
20
i-

[J,iJi.icrr]Kai

(re

KAe-

wvos Ti fiaXXov, bv

yw

KaTaTefxiii)

ttoO' 'Itt-

Trercrt

KaTTVjxaTa.

k^ ::^ w v^ v^ s^ w
>_/

v^ v^ ^ ^^ w v^ v^ ^^ ^ ^

12^

At.

ws uTTOKTei'w,

KeKpa)(^d'

e-

yw yap
Se

oi'k

axovcro/xat.

Kop./5' arroAets ap' opyAiKa tov<fiLXavdpaKea


;

At.

ov5' e/xou AeyovTos

I'/xets

dpTiwi ijKovcraTe.
Kop.fS'

dAAa yap vGf Aey,


o"ot

et

SoKEt,

Toi'

re

AaKert
</>tAo'j,

339

8atjU,ovtov

aur&v o
(rova-rl

Tw
340
At.
COS

rpoTTii)

ToSe TO XapiuSiov

ov TrpoSuxroi ttotL
Toi'5

Xi9ov<; vvv [lot x.ajxa^e.

irpMTOV e^epda-are.

Kop.

(3'

ovTOiL

(TO!,

-xaixai,

Koi a-v Kard-

OoV
At.
CtAA'

TTttAtV
OTTOJS

TO

^l<f)0<i.

pi) 'v

TOIS rpLp<J)(TlV

eyKdOy^VTac irov Xidoi.

Kop.fS' kKcrk(rL(TTaL
OL'x

)(afxd('
o-etd/Ai'ov
;

opas

345

346
Hamaker
:

aAAa pvy p,ot Trpoffiaanv, dAAa Karddov to ySeAos, ws oSe ye o-cto-Tos dpa
Try

crTpo(f)yj
K,,

yiyvcTat.
oi}/c

293 dKoyo-ar'

ovk iVar'
cri,''

lare A,

oiy/c

iVre re or
:

r'

or 7' cet.

294 dKoijauixev Elmsley (R) or hv cet. 298


'iTTTrero-t

aKOvcrofiev

296 df y
:

Y~ (Bentley)
5?;
cri)

7' av

TAE,

7'

Hermann
rj\i.Ka

and

TTore (for ttot'

dpa rbv

301 Trot?' or av cet. rocs or ro'iai, imreva-i, 6' ijXixa or is) in other MSS. 336 dp' o/mrjXiKa Reisig Spa 341 Xi^ons vvv jxoi. Bentley : vvv ixoi \ldovs
/txot

Hermann

<ry /xoi

R,

Tolaiv 'nrirevcriv ttot'

e's

ErE, with variants

apparent hiatus in 285 = 336 see Lys. 479 (303) and note. The strophe and antistrophe constitute the dyad BB of a proodic See 717. B = aa (284-92, 293-302). See 728. A = abac, triad.

On

4 3 (5) 4 12, epodic tetrad: two trochaic tetrameters that enclose an anapaestic pentapody (77) in the first half of the strophe and a paeonic pentameter in the second half, with a paeonic dodecameter as epode.

See

748.

See the metrical scholia on Ach. 284

ff.,

with the note, and on 335

ff.

200
453.

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


Ach.

453

665-75 = 692-702
Strophe.
kXOe (pXeyv-

(Parabasis).

'H/i. a' Seupo

Mow
TTi'pbs
'

pa

exovcra fxevos

eVrovos

A\apviKy].

667 oiov e^ dvOpaKwi'


TTpLVLViDV <fi\paXoS d-

VT^Aar

epedL^ojxevos
piTTiSi,

ovpia

670
671

?)vtV

cii'

iiravdpaKiSes

wcrt 7rapaKt/ivai, ot

6e GaCTiav dva/cv-

Kwcrt XLirapafXTrvKa,

672

ot

Se /AciTTwcriv,
TO)

ov-

crofSapov iX$i /xeAos

cVtovov dypoLKorepov
o)?
/xe

v^ w ^^ y^ ^^ v^ 5 v^ ^ .^ K^ w <^ w ^>^ 10 ^.^ ^ v^ w w ^~ ^ >^

^ ^^ w ^^ ^ ^ Q^
v^

^^

v^^^
v^

Kj

^
v^

8^

v^ ^>^

v^

4^

w^^"
^ w w
_<
^-.-.

4^
~

v-^

v^

Xa/Sova-a rov S^yiorqv.

15

^^v^

_,^^

_^_9

Antistrophe.
'H/i,.

^' raura

ttcus

etKora, yk-

povT

dwoXecraL ttoXiov
irepl

dvSpa

KXixpv^pav,

694 TToAAa 87) ^v/xTTOV-)]aavra Kai dep/xov


Spwra
Sr)

dirol-

ixop^ajxevov dvSptKov

Kal ttoXvv,
]\Iapa;

697

dvSp'

dyadov ovra
Trepl

OwuL

TrjV ttoXlv
/xev

698

elra

MapaddvL

or

t'jfxev

eSiwKopev,

699 I'W 8 VTt' dvSpoJV TTOVI]pMV cr(fi68pa SnoKOfJiedu, Kara TrpoaaXtcrKOfieda.

702

Trpos rdSe

rt's

dvre/jet

Mapxptas
:

Monostrophic dyad. A = abccd, 6 8 4 4 9, proodic pentad a hexameter as proode to a periodic tetrad composed of an octameter, two tetrameters, and a nonameter. See 753. See the metrical scholium on Ach. 665 ff. See also 433.
454.
Paa; 1 1 2 7-3 9

115

9-7 1 (Parabasis
78,

II.).

Strophe.
'Hyti. a' ij8op,ai

yjSofiai

38

Kpdvovs aTrrjXXayfiivos

rvpov re Kal

Kpofj-fxinov.

^ v^ ^ ^
c;

^ v^ _ _ ^ _

455

PAEONIC VERSE
ov yap ^tXi^Sw
[xd)(^ai<;,
r>

201

1130

uAAa
Kwv

Trpbs TTVp
fier

SuXkrai-

dvSpwv

pwv Twv

(fiiXwv,

KKeas

^t'Awi' ttTT ai' y Savorara rov depovs


KTrTrppvL(rp.h'a,

1135

10

KavOpaKi^wv TOVp(.(Siv6ov
T7/V T
cf)r]yoif

212

ep.Trvpevo}V,

w v^ w
v^

v^

v^

w ^
^ w w

;(a/xa

ti)i'

Qp(].TTav

kvvwv

1139

TTys

yt'vaiKos Aov/xevr;?.

gc _^_v _^_^ _^_2^

w -^ w w ^ ^

12^

w v^ ^

'H/i.. /?' vyi'tV

ai'

S'

dx^''""^
I'^Si't'

1160

aSi^

Toi'

vofJLOV,

Siaa-KOTTWV ij8op.at

ras

Avj/Livtas

d/xTreAoDS,
vj-

1163

et

7r7ratvouo-tv
8rj

TO yap ^^tv
(fivcret'

TTpco-

ov

tov t

^tj-

Aryx

opwi' otSdi'ovr

1166

eW

oTTorav

ij

TreTrwi',

Kdirkyw Xo-p-a (l>rif^, " &pai ^lAat," Koi


ka-Q'na

Tov dvp.ov rpi/Soiv KVKWp.aL'

1170

Kara yiyvop-ai

Tragi's

Ti]ViKavra rov 6(poi>s.


1135
d'

Hermann

iKTreTrpLafieva or iKTreiruffneva tKireirpefii'iafi^i'a Bergk 1165 otSd^'oi'r' Bentley : : V^/ca 5' &v or rivW Slv
:

1159
oldaivovr'

r]vlK

hv

1170

yiyvo/xai

Brunck

ylvoiiai.

= abed, 8 12 6 2, pericopic tetrad iambic Monostrophic dyad. octameter, paeonic dodecameter, trochaic hexameter, trochaic dimeter.
:

See

772.
ft'.

Heliodorus analyzes See the metrical scholium on Pao: 1127 cola 5-8 into two trimeters and a dimeter in the strophe (1131-3), but into trimeter, dimeter, trimeter in the antistrophe (1163-5). See
433.

455.

.^v.

1058-71 = 1088-1101
Strojjhe.

(Parabasis

II.).

'H/i.

i]8-i]

'

pol Tw TvavTo-Tu.

281

2^

KoX avTapxa. dvrjTol TrdvTfs

^^

1060

$v(rov(r

evKTatats ez'^ats.
oTrrei'dJ,

irdaav pkv yap ydv

202
crw^co

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


S'

456

ei'^aAets Kaprrois
yei'i'av

4^
2*^

KTLV(jjv 7ra/i</)i'Awv
di]p(t)v,

a TrdvT

kv

yaia

____
10

___2*^
w
w^"

1065
1066 1067

K KaXvKos ai'^avo/xI'ov

yevi'cri

7ra/x<^ayois
e(j6i//xeva

SevSpecri t

Kapirov diro/Soa-KeraL'
KTet'vw S'
ot

v^ v^ v^ ^

..^

^^ ^^ .^

_ ^ _ v^ _ ^ _

K^TTOVS

e7;a)8ets

281
4

(f)dipov(TLV

XvfJLai^ exOLO-raiq-

1069

epTrerot

re Kat SctKera <7ra;'^'> oaairep


{'tt'

1070

ecTTiv
1'

/j,a5

Trrepvyos

(^ovais oAAnrat.

^ ^^ w.^ ^v^ 15 ^^^ w-^" -^ ^


T''

'Hyu., /5'

evSaifxov cfivXov irT-qvwi'

1089 oio)V(ov, 06 ^etyttwvos /xtv )(Aati'as oi'k a/xTricrxi'oi'i'Taf 1091 ouS' au dep/xT] irvtyovs rj/JLas olktIs rv/Aauyiys ddXirei, 1093 aAA' dvOrjpiJjv Xetp.h)vwv
(fivXXcov

<T>

ev KoATTOts vatw,

1095 1097 1099

riviK

dv 6

dea-n-ea-ios

o^v

p.eXo'? d-xeras

6dX~e(ri fiea-i^pPpivoh iqAtofxavi]^ (Sod.

x^ifxa^d)
I'lpivd

6'

tv

KOiXois dvTpoLS
TrapOevia

vvix(jiais

oi'/Det'ats

^v}jLTrai^(DV

'

/SocTKoixeOa

XevKorpocf^a

p-vpra

XaptTWV re

Kr^Trer'yuara.

1060 ei^xat'y Bentley evxo.1aL[v) ot 1064 & Dobree 1065 Dobree 7ro\v<pdyoLS 1066 icprjixiva Dobree ecpe^dfievoi or ((pe^o/uava (pdelpovcTLv Bentley Sd/cera <jr6.vd'y Sd/ce^' (pdeipovai 1069 Dissen t' Bentley 1095 6^i> /iAos Brunck o^v^eXrjs, o^vfieXTjs, or ^^uo/aeXrjs
: : : :
:

TraiJ.(j)Ayoi.s

1068 1094 1096

riktofiavrj^ Sllid.

vcprfKLOfiav-qs

R,

i/<j!)'

r/Xitjj

fiaveis

V
:

A = abbaa, 1065-71). epodic pentad in anapaestic rhjthm a palinodic tetrad composed of a paroemiac, two tetrameters and a second paroemiac, with
Monostrophic
2,

dyad.

A = AB

(1058-64,

2 4 4 2

a third paroemiac as epode that repeats the melody of the first and fourth periods. See 757. B = abc, 8 4 7, pericopic triad paeonic See octameter, acatalectic anapaestic tetrameter, paeonic heptameter.
:

771.

The contrast in form of the anapaestic and paeonic lines marked as possible. Cf. the spondaic anapaests in I^an. 372 ff.
456.

is

as

(301).

Ach.

971-985 = 986-999 (Stasimon


Strophe
I.

II.).

'Hyu..

efSes

irdara ttoXl

tov (ppovipov

dvSpa Tov

VTrp<TO<fiov,

973 oV

'iyei

cnreia-dpevo? ipTropiKa
Scep.TroXdi',

Xpyjpara

y^ w -^ w v^ ^^^

^ ~^ 5^' w ^ -^ ^ 5
'c;

v^^^

v^v^

"

456

PAEONIC VERSE
/xev

203
5

974 wv ra

iu olklu
TO.
5'

^pi'l(TLjia,

ai'

TTpiTTei

^Xiapa

Karea-Oiiti:

w w

<^ -~'
^/.^

w
v-/

^^

>^

Strophe II.
K.op.

avTop-ara Travr

dyada
10

TwSe ye Tropi^erai.

977

oi'SeTTOT

iyio IIoAe/xov

otKaS' uTToSe^o/xat,

978
979

oi'Se

Trap

ep-ot

ttotc

tov

'ApyuoStov acrerat
^(;yKaTaK-Aivets,

on

ira-

pOLVlKOS dvijp

((fiV.,

15
I-

980
981

ocTTis

cTTt

TTttVT

dyd6'

>(ovTas 7rtKW/Aacras
I'jpydcraTO iravra

KUKa
20

KdverpeTre Ku^eyei

982 Kdp.dx^To Kul TrpoaeTL


TToAAo, TvpoKaXovpAvov

983

"TTtve KardKeLcro Xa/Se


TvyvSe <^iXori](TLa.v

w ^^^ ^ ..^ v^ -^ ^ ^ ^ w v^ w ^ w s^ v^ w^^ ^ .^^ v^ ^^ w ^^ y^ ^^ ^ .^ ^


<.

^ v^ ^ ^ w v^

>

^ -

-.

VH

-.^^

984 Ta5

x^P'^'^^s iyTTTe ttoAu


t<o 7rv/3i,
fSua.

^
25

>^

yuaAAov ev

985 e^exet

^'

i^/twi/

tov

212

ofl'OV

EK TaJV U/XTTfAcul'.

v^ =^ - ^^ ^

w
^^ v^

>^w

^^

^ ^
v^ v^

^^

^ ^^ ^ ^ <^^
v^
v^

4:

4^"

_ ^ _ ^ ^
4.

Antistrophe
'H/j,. fi'

I.
S?)

eirrepwrai r

ctti

to SetTrvov a/xa Kai p.eydXa

(fjpovei,
riJiv

Tov (3lov

S'

e^ifiaXe Setypia KjdSey rd Trrepd Trpo

Ovpwv.

988 w

Kvn-jOi8t rrj

KaXrj Kal XdpiCTL rats (fiiXats ^vvTpo(f> AtaXXayyj,

Antistrophe II.
Kop.
(S'

COS

KttAov
ai'

e'xoL'cra

tu TrpoawTTOi/ ap
Tis

eAav^aves'.

991

7rw

yu.e

Kat

ere

"Epws ^wayctyoc XafSuv,


e^wv
(rrecfiavov
/xe

ioa-n-ep
i)

6 yiypap,p.evos
I'o-ws

dvOkpiov.
cri';

-dvv yepovTLOV
ere

vevo/xtKas
y'
tti'

dAAa
995

Aa/3wv

r/aia

Sokw

eVc irpotrf^aXdv
p.aKp6i',

n-yawra /xV dv d/iTrcAtSos

opxov iXd(r at

elra Trapd Toi^Se vea jjio(rxtSia crvKtSoiv,

Koi TO TpiTov
/cat
TTC/Dt

i}/xe/DtSos

opx*^*'?

" yepwv oSi,


1'

TO X<i)pLOV
cr

fX^tSttS
utt'

UTTttV

KVkAoj,

999

wo"T

dAetc^eo-^at

avTwv

nci/xe

Tats

vor/xryi'tats.

'

204
971
flSes

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


w Suidas
: :

457
979 987

eldes

etSej

u).

Compare the
Elmsley
:

antistrophe
Ka.viTpa.Tre

irapoLviKbi

Elmsley

irapoLvios

981

Kavirpewe

deTyfia rdSe

Brunck

dely/xara or Sdy/xa,

The ode is an antistrophic pericope, AB = AB. See 705. A probably = aa'b, 5 5 6, epodic triad two pentameters, with a hexameter
:

as epode. in

See

737,

775

f.

is

a stichic period of ten tetrameters

but nine in the antistrophe, of which nine in the strophe and eight in the antistrophe are paeonic and one trochaic. See 778. See also 51. See the metrical scholium on Ach. 971 ff. Heliodorus rightly denies that this is an epirrhematic syzygy, such as Ach. 665-718
the strophe,
(453),

and gives
VS23.

his reasons.

457.

1265-74, 1275-83
Strophe

= 1284-91
^ <^ w ^ ^ ^ ^
v^

(Stasimon L).

I.

'H/x. a

TToAAaKts

Si)

'8o^'

ifjLavT(p

212

Sextos TTiffiVKkvaL koI


CTKaios oiiS7rw;roTe

^^ ^ ^ 6*^^
v.^

1267 aAA' 'A/xDVtas 1268


1269
otiTOS,

SeAAou
Kp(i}/3v\(i>v

_^__
v^ ^
v^ yj

fxaXXov ovK Twv


6V y uvtI

4*^

kyu) ttot

elSov
Setrret-

fMi'^Xov

Kal pod<i

_^__ _^__
^ ^^ ^ v> v^

^ ^

TTVovvTa
I'lj

/Jiera

Aewydpow
yap
ets

yap

yTrep 'AvTi^wi'-

8*^

1271 dAAa

irpecrfSiixDy

^dpcraXov mx^t',

10-^
1272 1274
LT
CK-et

-v.^

^ - ^
5^^

/XOJ'OS

fXOVOl'i

\^

TOis XlevccTTaicrt ^vi'rjv rots

GerraAwv, avrhs

TrevecTTijS

_^

_^__ _^__ _ _^__


^
w
6*^'^
v./

v^

wv eXdrrwu ovSevos.

Strophe II.
K-op. a'

fiaKapt
(lis

Arro/xd'es
fj.aKapi^ofjiv

51

15

>^^^

ere

^
<^

>.~

1276

TraiSas i(fiVTV(ra'i

on
(ficXov

.^

XeipoTexvLKwroLTOVi

w
v^

^^
^^ ^^ ^^

1277 Trpwra

fih'

a/racrt

dv'Spa T cro(f)(HTaTox',

20

^
y^

1278

TOi'

KtOapaoiSoraroi',

w X"P'5 </)eo-7reTO 1279 Tov S' vTroKpiTy]v erepov dpyaAeov ws cro(f)ov

v^

^^
^^
w^

^
v./

v^^v^ w ^ ^^ <^ ^^ \j vy ^.~ y^ ^ v^ >^ v^


^.J
v./

A^

4^^

457
1280
eiT
'

PAEONIC VERSE
ApicfipdSrjv ttoXv tl

205
n^

25

6vfJLOcro(fiiKioTaTov,

1281 ovTivd

ttot'

cofiocre

fia-

Oovra Trapa

fxi^Sivhs
(f)V(ro^

1282 a\X 1283

diro

croc^Tys

v^ kj w ^ ^

-^
^^^

-^^

^^

avTOfxarov kKfiadeli'
yX(j}TTOTroiilv els to. rropi'^V
elcrtovd'

30

212

Kd(TTOT.

v^ -^ ^ ^ ^

w .^" w o 4^
-^

~^
i^

_^_^
^
\^

^ ^ ^ ^.^ w

4^'

4^^

'Ufi./3'*

*******
Antistroiilie I.

Antistro2)hc II.
Kop.fS'
1(71

Ttre? o"

ji
/x'

iXeyov ui KaTa8u]XXdyrjv,
{'TreTapttTTev eTTLKetp^evos

tjPLKa
Ktti
p.e

KXeuiV

KttKicra? eKi'to-e*

k^^' or

aTreSet/aopyv,

ovKTos eyeAwv /zeya Kexpaydra ^ew/xevot,


oi'Sei'

ap'

e/ioi!

jxkXov,

octov Se /xovov eiSevac

(TK(ap.p.dTLOV

eiTTore

n
r\

QXi/36p.evos eK/3uXw.

1290 Tavra

KartSiov vtto ti y.iKphv eVt^7yKtcra


X'^P'^^
"^V^'

e^ra vvv e^i]irdTij(Tev

dp-ireXov.
:

1282

(piKxeos

Bentley

cpvaeus

1286 Kadaas Briel

KaKiarats

This ode, like the preceding, is an antistrophic pericope, but = the correspondent to the first systematic period is now lost = abcda, 6 4 8 5 6, pericopic pentad, but with See 705.
:

AB

<A>B.

reversion in the last subordinate period to the melody of the first trochaic hexameter, tetrameter, octameter, pentameter, hexameter. B is a stichic period of nine tetrameters in the strophe See 772.
(eight in the antistrophe), eight paeonic (seven in the antistrophe),

and one

Heliodorus, influenced Fesj). 1265 ff. by the parabatic quality of 1265-74, inconsistently regards this ode as an epirrhematic syzygy. It is not, however, in the strophe and antistrophe, but in the epirrhemata of the true epirrhematic syzygy found Furtherin the parabasis (668), that the chorus addresses the audience.

trochaic. See 778. See the metrical scholium on

more, the reason given in the metrical note on Jch. 971 ff. for denying that the stichic periods BB are there epirrhemata, namely that they are not in the proper trochaic rhythm, is equally applicable here. the first systematic period (1265-74) of the pericope In R and Some See the metrical scholium. eleven o-Tt'xot. is arranged in modern editors have followed this arrangement in part, and introduced an iambic cadence in some verses, but the rhythm is uninterruptedly

trochaic.

CHAPTER X
DOCHMIAC VEESE
458.
called dochmius, of

The fundamental form in dochmiac verse is a which the metrical constitution is ^


358).
its

phrase,

^ -,
source

as t/ ovv ov \eyL^ {Ach.

Various opinions have been

expressed both in ancient and in modern times as to

and rhythm (624


459.

f.).

Two

assumptions

seem

to

be warranted

by variant

forms of this fundamental phrase.


are theses admitting resolution
TToAe/tos atperat
:

First, that the long syllables

ra-xa 8e {j^erafiaXovcr
o Ti ttot'
to

(TX^rXie

(cf.

Av. 427-9)

^ -^ ^^ ^ ^^.^ ^ ^ ^-^ y^ ^^
>^

Av. 1188
Th.

723

Ach. 360

ov epefSos eTKTO

^^^^

v^

>^ Av. 1193

Secondly, that both the short syllables are arses which admit
irrationality.

This manifestation

may

be combined with resolution

of theses
Tts ravrrj

vepav
dvocTLOvs
v^

w Av. 1195
^^
~.^

Ae^ets T

Th.

720
700*

^vv aSiKots epyois

-^

Th. 716^
TIi.

w
ets

IIoTVtat Moi/Dai
TTjv ejxrjv

fjLTjKeTt

Se

SoAov

eK-aAecre

^^ .^ ^ .^^^ kj .^

Av. 1264 Av. 333^*


arsis,

460. Aristophanes rarely irrationalizes the second

and in

general he employs relatively few of the thirty-two forms (Seidler,

De
and
'

versibus dochmiacis,
resolution.^

55

f.)

made
^
By
206

He

prefers

possible by irrationalization ^ -, has strong inclination


v^
,

The

mental

phrase

irrational forms of the fundav^ are (2) (1) w

(3) v^
</iesc.?,

(4)

resolution of

each of these four

464
^^

DOCHMIAC VERSE

207

towards
equally,

^-

y^

- and also

v^

- ^ -

and

inclines

to

which he employs about ^^^.^v^,^. Other forms are


,

occasional and rare.

461.

On

the

primary times and

assumptions stated, the dochmius has eight v^ is octaseme, ^ - = ^ ^ ^. This

^^
ff.

was the opinion held

anciently.^

On
its

the relation of the dochmius


see

to the primitive dimeter

and on

name

623

462. Tor convenience the dochmius will be regarded in this

book as a metre, and the dimeter and monometer as cola. The dochmius admits neither catalexis nor protraction. 463. In comedy the metrical form of the dochmiac metres
in the strophe

may
(467).

AcL 358
(once),

ff.

be exactly repeated in the antistrophe, as in In Vesp. 729 ff. (469) and Av. 1188 ff.

v^ (once), x^ ^ ^ and w ^ v^ - v^ - (four times). Greater freedom of correspondence is found in Ach. 489 ff. (468) and Th. 667 ff. (472). In Aves 327 (473) Aristophanes intentionally changes the rhythm in strophe and antistrophe. The chorus sings in dochmiac rhythm in the strophe (333-335), in paeonic in the antistrophe (34951). Each rhythm is singularly appropriate

(465) only simple variations occur, ^

^^

fif.

to

the

sentiment expressed.
is

Similar

intentional

variation
f.

of

melody
Pow;

found elsewhere.
cola.
'

See

AcJi.

492 f.~568

(468) and

950-955-1033-38

(583).

In the

latter, diiambic

correspond

with aeolic

these cases by

The attempt to secure metrical equivalence in emendation and other devices " is unnecessary
'

and unconvincing. See 51. 464. The monometer occasioually occurs singly in comedy, inserted between other rhythms or at the close of a strophe. Of. lYub. 1166^ 1167^ (474), Vesp. 733^ 735^ (469), 873 (470). Elsewhere two, three, four, five, seven, eight metres are joined, but in comedy no dochmiac subordinate period immediately
follows

another, without interposition of a period in different rhythm, except possibly in Ach. 566 (468) and Aristoph. frag. The dimeter and monometer may be assumed in all the 697.
ff'.

may

theoretically assume seven other metrically equivalent forms. See Gleditsch, Metrik'\ 188, for a convenient

summary.
1

See the authorities cited in Kiihne,


tradiderint vetercs.

De dochmio quid
-

Zielinski, for example {Gliederung, 331), regards both the strophe and the antistrophe of the lyric in the Arcs

(327 if.) as anapaestic, and the paeons (349-51) as 'cyclic,' i.e. metrical equivalents of anapaests. Kock {Die VogeP, 265) regards 333-5 as partly anapaestic, 349-51 as paeonic. partly paeonic ; Schroder {Aristoph. Cant. 32, 99) regards these verses as trochaic in both strophe and antistrophe {^^^ and w^v^w =

w ^).

208

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


lyrics

465

dochmiac

of

comedy without

resort

to

word-division.

Generally also the

first of

the two metres composing the dimeter

is neglected in Ach. 358 (467), 489, 495, 569 (468), Nuh. 1163 (474), Vesp. 744 (469), Av. 310, and 1266, 1268 (465), Thesm. 724 (472), Plut. 640.

ends with a word, but this

465.

Aves 1188-95

= 1262-8
StroijJie.

(Syzygy

II.).

'H/x.a' TToXefMos atperai, TroXejxos ov

(f>aTo<s

^^

-^

>^>^

v^

1190

TTpos

/i,e

Kol 6eovs.

dWa

(f>vXaTTe ttus

1192
1194

depa

TrepLvetfiskov,

ov epe/So^ cTeKCTO,

/X7^

ere

Xadrj dewv rts ravry Trepwv.

_
Antistro2:>he}

__

^ _

- _ _ ^ -

8d^'

'H^.yS' aTroKeK/Xv/Ka/xev Sboyeveis 8eov<;

1264
1266

ixr]KTi rrjv
/xrySe

ifiy^v

^tairepdv ttoXiv,

<ye> Ttv' upoOvTov dva. SdireSov TC

1268

~2/Se

fipoTwv

deoicrt

Trkp^ireiv

Kairvov.

1266 7e Blaydes

octameter.

Monostrophic dyad. See 773.


466.

The period

consists of a single

dochmiac

The

dochmius

is

frequently

associated

with

other

rhythms

in comedy, especially with iambic, as in the four odes

that follow.
467.

Ach.

358-65 = 385-92 (Syzygy


Stroplte.

L).

'H/x. a'

Tt

ovv ov Aeyets
eiri^ijvov

vy

e^eveyKwv Ovpa('

360
362

o Tt TTOT

a-y^irXie to ywe-ya tout'

e^eis

irdvv

yap

e/xe

ye ttoOos o ri

cf^povei';

e^et.

^^_^_ w^antistrophes in this section that contain a dochmiac subordinate period which exceeds the tetrameter in length are printed in cola,
1

^ o 7d

For convenience,

all

in the style of hypermetrical systematic periods, and thus precisely repeat the form of their strophes,

468 364
uXX.'
{jiTip

DOCHMIAC VERSE
avTos
rrjv 8cki]V
Siw/Dtcrw,

209

78 6eU Sevpo TOiVi^vyvor iyx^lpeo

5__^_ -_^_ ^_^-3


Aeyeti'.

Antistrophe.
'H/JL./3' Tt

ravTa crTp^f^u
TiXva^ei.<i

re koL Tropicus rpLfid^ ;

387

Xajil 8' kp-ov y' eveKa Trap' 'lp(jjvvp,ov (TKOToSaarvTrvKVOTpiXoi


etr'

389 391

nv' "AtSos kwt/v,


1,Lcrv(f>ov,

e^avotye fMrj^o-vas
(TKrjxpLV

rots

ws
390
Ti;''

dywv outos
ttj;/

ot5k
0,70;^

eiVSe^eTat.

Brunck

392

Porson

d7wi'

Monostrophic dyad. heptameter as proode to two Heliodorus divides See the metrical scholium on Ach. 358 fF. the heptameter into five cola, but his arrangement necessitates wordFurthermore, he does not include the melic trimeters in division. It is to be noted that nevertheless he separates them from the ode. the following trimeters, regarding them as a distich.
:

A = abb,

a dochmiac 7 3 3, proodic triad melic iambic trimeters. See 738.

468.

Ach.

489-96 = 566-71 (Syzygy


StropJie.

II.).

Kop.a

Ti Spda-ei?

ti ^Tycret?

<aAX'>

Lcrdi

vvv

dva6O";^WT0S

lov

O"t0r/pou5

dvy'jp,

492

ocTTis Trapacrx^v

ry

^__^_ ^__^_4d voXet tov avx^va _-\,___^-^_^^3^ 78


rdvavTt'a.
eld vvv,

aTracrt

/xeAAets

eh Aeyeiv

494

avTjp ov rpepec to wpdyfj.'.

Trei8i]Trep

auTos aipel, Aeye.

Antistrophe}
Kop.
13'
I'w

Adfiax' w fSXeirwv

do-Tpo.7ru?,

The antistrophe

is

printed in cola, in order to facilitate comparison with the

strophe.

210
567

THE VEESE OF GREEK COMEDY


/SorjOrjcrov

469

w yopyoXocfia

^ai-et's,

51
eire rts ecrTt ra^iapy^os

^__^_
r)

^^6dv
17

51

___^_ ^_^_ ^_^_


/Sorjdy^a-dru)

crrpaT-qyos

1(1

570 reixoi^axas "^^P,


Tis dvvcras,

5___^_
/i.cros.
:

^_

lyw yap exop-at

489 d\X' Hermann 494 dj-v/p Dindorf dvr]p lu 566 w Hermann 569 The period consists of a dochmius and an iambic dimeter joined within a word, and this was its constitution in the text of Heliodorus. See the metrical scholium on 566 ff. Elmsley reduced the dimeter to a dochmius by reading ra^iapxos rts fj, omitting (TTpaTTjyb^ 7) 570 TeLxo/ni.dxa.s Dobree reix^fidxas
:

Monostrophic dyad. A in the strophe = abba, 4 3 3 4, palinodic tetrad a dochmiac tetrameter as proode, two iambic trimeters, and a second dochmiac tetrameter as epode. See 746. If the received text of 569 is what Aristophanes wrote, the structure of the antistrophe was intentionally varied, as in Av. 327 ff. (463), and became abc, a pericopic triad a dochmiac hexameter, a period that consists of a dochmius and an iambic dimeter joined within a word, a dochmiac tetrameter. See 771. Even in this case, the last period (570 f.), in imitation of the strophe, may have repeated the melody with which the first (566 ff.) began, and the variation may have extended merely to the third and fourth cola. If 569 was, as Elmsley supposed, a dochmiac dimeter, A in the antistrophe = aa, 6 6, a dyad of the monostrophic type two dochmiac hexameters in correspondence. See 767. See the metrical scholia on Ach. 489 ff., 566 ff. Heliodorus makes the strophe a mesodic triad, aba, grouping the two melic trimeters as a single distichic period. The lack of complete metrical agreement between strophe and antistrophe probably led him to give, contrary to
:
: :

his regular practice (701), a separate analysis of the antistrophe.


his text,

In

571 consisted
Vesp.

of

two

'cola,'

the antistrophe being octacolic.

469.

729-35 = 743-9
Strophe.

(Debate).

'Up. a

mOov
pi'qS

TTidov Aoyoicrt, p^qS'

uffipwv yei'rj

730

drevTys

78 dyav dTepdpwv
KrjSepwv

^ t'

J^

^ - ^ v^^w

^ - ^ -

dvrjp.

2d

iW

w<f)Xev poi

i)

^vyyevijs

78
^rvat Tis ocTTis Toiavr' (vovOerei.

^-^_ w_^_ w_^_3


^ ^

._^_

^_^i-:3V

^470
733
o-ot

DOCHMIAC VERSE
Se

211
-

vvv Tis 6ewv


fx<f)av'r]'S

38

- ^ w

- ^ -

Trapwv

734 ^yXXafx/Sdvei Tov 735


(TV

Trpdyfiaro'i,

78

Kal SrjXos (cttlv ev ttolwv


Se TrapMV Sexov.

^^

^ Til v^ ^ ~ ^ ^ ^ i v^ id

Aniisfro2)he.
'H1X./3' vvovdeTi]Kev

avrbv
'

ei's

ra TrpdyfxaO'

ois

tot'

i-TrefjiaiviT

eyvwKC ya/s dpTtws

745 Xoyi^Tai 747 vuv 748 Kai


8'

r'

CKCtva irdvd' ap.apTt.a'i

a (rov KeXevovTOS ovk iTreidero.


i'o-cos

Totcrt

crois

Aoyots TTiideraL
(Tw<]ipovi

pkvToi

/JLeOiirTds

ets

to Aoittov

toi'

rpoirov

iri06pLv6^ re croi.

749

wido/jLevos

Bruuck

7rid6/xvos

a probably = (729-32, 733-5). two iambic trimeters that enclose a aba'c, 3 2 3 3, epodic tetrad dochmiac dimeter, with a protracted iambic trimeter as epode. See B = abcb, 2 14 1, proodic tetrad an acephalous protracted 748, 776. iambic dimeter as proode to two dochmiac monometers that enclose an acatalectic iambic tetrameter. See 750.
Monostrophic dyad.
:

A = AB

470.

Vesp.

868-74 = 885-90
Strophe.

(Scene).

Kop. a'

V<f)rjiJb[a

[xlv

TTpoira

vvv VTrapy^erw.

78 w
<l>ot/3'

^_^_^_^_^_^c;3
dyady rvyrf

"AttoXXov

Ili'^t'

err

70

^-^-'-^v.^xr-wb

870

TO Trpdyp.
efiTTpocrdev

o fir^xai'drai

ovtos twv dvpwv

aTracriv rjp.lv dp/iocrat

Trav(rap.ivoLS TrXdviov,

^ ^ v^ 5*^ ^ i=i_^_ ^ ^ <^ 4 <^ %^ Id

874 lyu

Ilatdv.

Invocation.

Antisirophe.
Kop.fS' ^vvV)(^6pea-6a <.TavTdy
ctol

Kairf^iSopev
et'VOL

veauTLV dp^ats eVe/ca twi' TrpoAeAeyyuevcov.

yap
dvi]p

l<Tp,ev

e^ ov

888 Tov Sypov i](r66pea-dd 890 Twv ye vewTepwv.


885
TCLvrd

crov <}>tAoi'VTas u)S oi'Sets

Reisig

ri<x$i)ne(76a

886 ^^e/ca Reisig eiVe/ca 890 7 veuripuv Schol. yevvaiorepuv


:
:

888

-^adbp-iada.

Cobet

212

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


The strophe and
antistrophe constitute the dyad

471

BB

of the proodic

triad inserted

tetrad

See

772.

in the scene. B = abcd, 3 5 4 1, pericopic See 717. iambic trimeter, pentameter, tetrameter, dochmiac nionometer. The melic trimeter in 886, with anapaest in the fifth place,
(70).

shows logaoedic form


471.

as

The dochmius has affinity also for anapaestic rhythm, exemplified in the two odes that follow.
472.
Thes.

667-86 = 707-25
Strophe.

(Syzygy).

K.op.

i^v

yap

[xe

^o-Oj]

Spdcras dvocria,

281,271
Saxrei re SiKrjv Kal irphs

^-^^^ ^^ ^^

^^

x:;

tovtw
r

Tois (xAAois ecTTaL aTra(Tiv

800
'ipycov

6^^

670 Tvapd^etyp

vfSpeuis dSiKCDV

a^ewv re rpoTnov

(fyrjo-^i

S'

dvai
.^

re Oeovs (fiavepws, Set^et r

^)8rj

674

Tracriv

dv6pu)iT0L<i a-efSl^eLv

212

Satynovas j8iKaiu)S r

c^ w v^ w
^
'^X^''-

^^

4*^^

_^_i^

e^cTTOvrast ocria
fiy]8op.ii'ov<;

/cat

vo/xi/xa

w v^ c?v^v^ woo

TTOtetv

o tl

KaAw?

678

Kctv prj TToiwcri

ravra, rotaS'

tcTTai*

78

^ - ^ 8pwv

^ - ^ -

^ - -

3^'

avTwv oVav

Xij(f>6y

Tts <.0VKed'> oo-ia

680

<t]>

fiaviais ^Aeywx',
fet

v^ w ^^ v^
rt Spwjyt

3c;

Xva-cnj TrapaKOTTOS,

TcdcTLV

ep.(fiav->]<;

opdv

e-

212

15

_-_^_ v.^ _^_^


v^ ^^

3d

orat ywat^t Kot /SpoTOicnv,

^ ^
v^
>./^

w v^4
===

684

oTt

Tci

Trapdvopa rd r
Oeo'i

^^

dvocritt

J dirortveTai wapaxpij/xd re TtVerat.t

Ko/3. ^' Tl

av

oiii'

i7rot

7r/3os

ravrd
;

ris,

ore

TOtavra Trotwv
pevToi ye

o8'

dvat-

crxvvTt
l\.op. 13'

Mv.

KOtiTrco

TreTrav/ji.ai.

dkX

ovv

iJKCi?

y odev

Ji']Kls

<f)avXw<;

aTroSpas ov\ Ae^ets ofov


Xijif/ei

Spoicras SteSt^'j ^pyov,

8k KaKOV.

473
fx-rf

DOCHMIAC VERSE
ykvono
av
fj,7j8a/iws,

213

TOVTO [xevTOi Mv. Kop.P'ris o?v crot,

aTrev'XO/iat.

Tt's

o-i'/A/xaxos

Oewv

a$ava.Twv

eXdoi
;

^vv

dSiKOis epyois

Mv.
Ko/o.
/3'

fiaTrju

XaXtlre
OTj
//ttt

'

Tvyv S' deth

e'yw

ovk d^rycrw.

aAA'

Tw

rax ov xaipwv laws


avocrtovs <7r> a^eots kpyots'
cr

ivvf^puts Aoyovs Xe^etS t

722

</cal>

yap dvTa[Xi\p6pcr6d
8e /xtra/^a Ao Ctr'
:

Sicnrep

cikos avrt TwvSe.

723 Tctxa
667
/if

ctti

kukov ere/aoTpoTTOV tVexei T^X^:

Meineke

679 oi'/c^^' 669 ^crrat airaffLV Bothe S.ira<nf 'icTai. (it) yvva.i.^1 Bninck 683 icrai Reisig ^^(TTif 680 ^ von Velsen 719 ^kust Suidaa 710 T^xets 7' /Jporols ^poTolfftv Enger yvvai^lv 721 ^tt' Enger 720 X^^ets t' Fritzsche re X^|s ewjipiaeLS vvj3pieh Reisig 725 eV^x" Bergk eV^x" '''^ 723 5^ Fritzsche 5^ <Te 722 Kai Hermann

Bergk

A = ab (667-78, 679-85). A = aabcd, Monostrophic dyad. a tetrad composed of two anapaestic 6 6 4 4 3, epodic pentad hexameters, a trochaic tetrameter, and a dochmiac tetrameter, Avith B = abcb, 3 3 4 3, See 759. a catalectic iambic trimeter as epode. an iambic trimeter as proode to two dochmiac proodic tetrad
:
:

See 750. trimeters that enclose a trochaic tetrameter. This analysis assumes that the strophe and antistrophe were
originally
certain.

in

close
51.

correspondence,

but

this

fact

is

by no means

See

473.

Aves 327-35

= 343-51
Stroj^he.

(Parode).

^Hfx.a

ea ea.

Exclamation.

328 TTpoSeSopeS'

dvoo-ia t

eirudofxev,

os

yap

281, 271
^t'Aos v]v 6p.6Tpo<fid 0'
'qp.lv

^^^^
=^

^^

4-

330

Vp.TO TreSta Trap'


TTapifSi]

i)plv,

277 -^ ^-^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^

2-

piv Oea-povs dp\aLOVS,


S'

TTapejSrj

opKovs opvidwv,
cKtiAecre irapefSuXe

5^^
r
kpX rrapd

333 eh

Se

SoAov

yevos

dvocrtoi', oTrep ^(>t

eyever

epoL

-^ -^

^^^^^

^^

TToAe/itov -pdcf)ij.

-^^^ ^

5d

v/>^>.~^

A^itistrophe.
'H/A.
/?' 10)
t'w,

Exclamation.
'iiriO

iTray

iTTLfftepe

iroXepiov oppdv

^^^^^v.^^
.^

^^ ^^
42-

345

KJioviav,

Trrkpvyd re iravTo.

.^^^ _ _

7ri/3aA Trepi T
(US

KVKXwcraf
dp<f)(o

^^^^^^^^
5

Set Tw8'
Ktti

olpw^etv

____ ___

Souvat pvyx^i'

<l>op(idv.

214

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


51,

474

349 ovT yap opos a-Kupiv ovTC ve^os aWepiov

442

350
351

ovT ttoXlov TreAayos


lo-Tiv o Tt

Se^eTac
/xe.

TwS' a7ro<^vydvTe
334
e/xol

10

v^ ^^ ^ v^ w

-^
^^.

^^
-^
:

^
v^

^^ ^^

^ -^ ^ w v^

10^

Blaydes

7r' efiol

345

iravrq.

Reisig

iravra

Hiatus in 345, 346

is

only apparent.

Cf. Lys.

479

(303)

and the

comment. Monostrophic dyad.

A = abed,
:

4-2-4

5 in the strophe,

4-2-4 10

in the antistrophe, pericopic tetrad

brachycatalectic anapaestic tetra-

meter, brachycatalectic anapaestic dimeter, anapaestic tetrameter, and in the strophe a dochmiac pentameter, in the antistrophe a paeonic

dodecameter.

See

772, 463.

474.
2t.
ftoda-ofiac

JVuh.

1154-69 (Episode
78

II.).

rapa rav VTreprovov

w-w- .-w^ - ^ .

,.-..^ - ^ ^ 6^

1155

fioav.

loj

KAaer SyfioXotTTarai

- ^ -

avToi re koI Ta.p\aia Kai tokoc


ovSev yap av

tok<jdv

fie

(fiXavpov epydcraiO' en,

otos efxol rpe<^eTai


ToicrS'
ev\

475

Sw/xacrt Trats,
Xdp,Tr(ov,
croiTi^p

w ^ ^ ^
v./

V-'

v^ ^ w -^ ^ 2^

v./

yj

2*^'

1160

dfi<f)y]Ket

yAwrry
efJL6<i,

281

2*^

TrpofBoXos

8o//.ot?,

e^dpoh

f3Xd/3r],

78

^^^^ KaKwv
cos
ifie.

--W- --.^_3
^-

1163 Avcravias

irarptixav fxeydXuyv

ov KaAecrov rpe^wv ev8odev


10

^-

.^

1
1
v^

v^

v^

4d^'

1165 & TeKVOV


e^eXS'

S)

rat,

281, 276

-^ -

oiK(j)v,

ate (Tov Trarpos.

2w.
2t.
2o).

o8'

eKctvos dv7jp,
(^I'Aos.

281, 276
15
titdv.

w ^tAos w
aTTt^t
10)

Xa/3o}v TOV

78

2t.
1155

iw,

TeKVOV,

lu).

212
:

_ _ _ _ -^ v^ v^ ..^ - ^^ - v^ v^ .^^ v^ -^ ^^

id^

1
-^
v./

Id^'

<^

w
v./

2^^'
2*^

S)

'/SoXoo-rdra:

ivSoBev Tpix'^v

^^

o^oKoffTaraL Princeps 1168 woi'Dindorf: woj/


I'w.

1164 rpex'^v ivSodev Princeps


croi;

The systematic period ends with

The following

lov

lov is

an

474

DOCHMIAC VERSE

215

anaphonema, and in the text of Heliodorus was separated from the ode by the 8iTrk-7j. See Schol. Nub. 1170 ff. Non-antistrophic. A = ABC (1154-60, llGl-6, 1167-70). A = a protracted iambic hexameter as abccd, 6 6 2 2 2, proodic pentad proode to a periodic tetrad composed of an iambic hexameter, two This intermediate enoplic dimeters and a paroemiac. See 752. period possibly may be aabbc. See 754. B = abcde, 3 4 1 1 1, iambic trimeter, dochmiac teti'ameter, anapaestic pericopic pentad monometer, anapaestic monometer, dochmiac monometer. See 772. anapaestic monometei', dochmiac G = abed, 112 2, pericopic tetrad See 772 monometer, catalectic iambic dimeter, trochaic dimeter. The first two intermediate periods constitute a monody (593), and show appropriate variety of rhythm.
:

'

'

CHAPTER

XI
^

PEOSODIAC-ENOPLIC VEESE

475. The fundamental cola of prosodiac-enoplie verse are the two dimeters from which it receives its name, the prosodiac, TTpoaoSiaKO';, ^-^v^ -v^^-, and the enoplius, iv67r\io<;, - ^ ^ - ^ ^ - ^, which are respectively in ascending and descending rhythm. Each normally contains twelve primary times and eight syllables, but the first syllable of the prosodiac and the last syllable of the enoplius may be short instead of

long
(ras aTTTOyuevos

Ww
)]v

^aperpas

clva

6e o-e

yovarwv KapKiVos iXdwv


Trpbs
eyio ttot

dpd ye tovt ap'

^ ^ -^ ^ w w^ v^v^ Eq. 1272 = 1298 ^ y^ ^ ^ Pax 782 w^^- ^ ^ y^ Nub. 465


ff.,

On
643
ff.

the constitution and probable origin of these cola, see 630

476. The prosodiac does not admit catalexis, but a hypercatalectic (488) prosodiac dimeter occurs
KOLvrj

yap eV evrvx^aiaLV

^^

^ ^

y^

Eccl.

573

477.

By

catalexis the enoplius loses its final syllable


eTncrrafjievriv

(f>povTi8'

,^

^ ^ _

Eccl.

572

Cola occur in association with these dimeters that when joined with the prosodiac have the form of an iambic dimeter, when joined with the enoplius that of a trochaic dimeter. In both these associated cola, which in comedy do not admit resolu478.
Since the prosodiac-enoplie odes in
quoted, where necessary, from Bacchylides

Aristophanes are too few to illustrate all the forms, occasional cola will be

and Pindar,
216

483

PROSODIAC-ENOPLIC VERSE
the component metre
:

217

tion,

is

generally, but

by no means always,

irrational (650)
<Tol

yap
5e

TaB' l^

-PX^)'=

/^^'^'

Koi Td)l dv

f3ovf3o)viipy]

\opbv
TO

fii]

(Tcfivpov

'xy Mdpcrt/xos yepovTos oitos

^ ~ ^ ^ ^ - ^ ^

v^w" Pax 781 v^ w" Fesp. 277 ^ Pax 803 ^ Vesp. 276

479. Catalexis in these dimeters assumes the regular iambic


(

and trochaic

- ^ -

forms
-^

Kal ydcrTpKTOv (reavrov


lj.r)8iv

ets

AvartcTTpaTOV

ci/iiAe

rais eVt/JSats

ka-dUi KAewvv/AOS

^ ^ w w w - w - w ^^ >^ v^ ^

Vesp.

1529
/rajr.

Eq. 1267
Crat.

323

^5. 1293

480. Protraction
form.

may

occur in cola of iambic and trochaic


is

The ithyphallic (203)


TOV
<f)ik0V

common

'

XO/3VO-OV

^ ^

y^^ PttX

111

Also a hypercatalectic (488) dimeter in iambic form


depfxav
8'

eVi Trvkwv

diXkav

^ -

^ - ^ :

^ Bacch.

x.

22 K.

481.

Two

prosodiac trimeters occur

MoKTciv yXvKvSwpov dyaXp-a, twv y vvv

^ ^
dvSpwv T
oaiTttS Kal

_^^_ ^_^_
- _ ^ ^
catalexis,

Bacch.

V.

BaXlas paKapwv

_ _ ^ _
482. Neither of these admits

- ^ ^ but

Pax 119 t

both

may

be

hypercatalectic
dXX' wydd' dvtCTTacro prjO
oi'TW creavTov

^ ^
Tov
TTttts

_^^_
re Ilocretoav

^ -

Vesp.

286
Oi. viii.

Aarors evpvpeSwv

^_
483.

^ ^
:

_^^_

Find.

32

Two

enoplic trimeters occur

duTifSoXij fxerd rwv -aiSwv xopevcraL

_^^_ ^^
^

'

Pax 783
574

f.

epXerat yAcurr?;? -a'ota

oAitvjv

_^
1

-WW- WW
This was called (Heph. 50. 18 ff.).
'

AVcZ.

This was called

'

iambelegus (Heph.
'

encomiologicum

'

51. 3tf.).

::

: :

218

THE VEESE OF GREEK COMEDY


484. These trimeters both admit catalexis

484

Atayd^a KaTejSav, rav Trovrcav

- ^ ^ "Y/3pis, a ttXovtov Suva/xtV re Oows

^ ^

-v^v^v^

Find.

01. vii.

13

^
485. Trimetrical
cola
occur,

v^v>
in

Bacch. XV. 59

association

with

the

two

prosodiac and two enoplic trimeters, which in ascending rhythm

have the form of an iambic trimeter and in descending rhythm


of a trochaic trimeter
:

eXOovra

Koa-fxyjcTaL

deoS/xarov ttoAii'

^
Ilv^wi't 8t^
jxr]

w^_
w
^ ^

Bacch.

xii.

KaKWi

Trev(r6aL

^_
I'crropis

_e;2.

1273
44

Kovpai Slw^lttttoc "Api/os

w
Trav^aATys
e/JLals

v./

v^

Baccli. ix.

evecrra^iv <fipao-iv

-^

^ ^

Bacch.

xiii.

229
the

486. Similar in formation are two tetrameters that

fulfil

function of cola in the composition of strophes.

The

first is

prosodiac
pi(Tuos yo.p aXXoii

dAAo? ipypaa-LV

dvOpU)Trocs

jXvkvs
i.

v^v^

-.^v^-

v^-

Find.

Isth.

47

This does not admit catalexis.


is

The second

of these tetrameters

enoplic
i>

fiev

aljxapdai irapa Sai/xovos dvdpdnroLS dpicTTOv

^
The
catalectic

form

^w
is

v^v^

v^

Bacch. xiv.

commoner

eyyoi'wv yevcravro, Kal v\ptirvXov Tpoias eoos

w
487.

v^v^y

wv^

v^/vy

Bacch.

ix.

46

Compare the

final colon of the

hexameter in the follow-

ing fragment of Pherecrates (2)


Aoucra/zfvot Se Trpo Xap7rpd<;
r\pipa<;

ev

Tol-i

(rTe(f)avwpa(Tiv,

ol

8'

ev

tw

fivpi^

AaAeire

Trepl a-icrvfxfSpLwv

Koa-/>iocravSaAwi' re

489

PROSODIAC-ENOPLIC VERSE

219

On
633
ff.,

and trochaic form, of the


643
ff.

the probable origin and formation of the dimeters of iambic six trimeters and of the two tetrameters, see

488.

The

hypercatalectic

syllable

generally

results

in

Ionian verse from regressive reduction of an acatalectic colon.

The

process

of

reduction
'

is

applied

in

successive

stages

eatalexis, brachycatalexis,

hypercatalexis.'

Thus an
a

acatalectic
catalectic
'

dimeter
dimeter,
catalectic

in

Ionian

verse

becomes
dimeter

successively
(tripody),
;

a
'

brachycatalectic

and a

hyper-

monometer (penthemimer)
'

an acatalectic trimeter

becomes a
pody), a
'

catalectic trimeter, a brachycatalectic trimeter (penta-

catalectic syllables in prosodiac verse arose


if,

as

Hypersome in this manner, seems probable, the iambic penthemimer is the constituent
hypercatalectic
dimeter.

See 33, 35, 36, 37.

element of prosodiac cola in iambic form (638), others through the conversion of an original paroemiac into a prosodiac (631).^
See 642.
489.

However

derived, they were probably all rhythmized

in a similar manner.

See 37.
is

Prosodiac -enoplic verse

regular

and simple.

The

twelve cola in ascending and descending rhythm that are illustrated

above
1.

3.
4. 5.

^-^w -_^^ ^_^_ -_^_

-ww_^^_ -_^_ -_^^ _^^_ M_^_ -_^_

9.

-w^-^-^

v^w-^

10.
11.

12.

- ^ - ^ - ^ - ^ - ^ - ^ - ^ ^ -

-^w-

^ ^

^ ^ ^ ^

^ ^ ^ ^

- ^ - ^

with their catalectic and hypercatalectic forms, are the elements from which respectively prosodiac and enoplic subordinate periods
are constructed.

These cola

may

themselves serve as periods or

they

may

be combined into tetrameters, pentameters, hexameters,

heptameters and octameters,


1

Onhypercatalexisinhighlydeveloped

Aeolic verse, see the editor's Origin and Form of Aeolic Verse, 300, with the

notes. For Schroder's final treatment of the hypercatalectic syllable, see his

Vorarbeiten, 93

fi".

220

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


490. Thus, by combination, in Aristophanes
:

490

aTpo/SeL,

Trapd/3aive kvkX(x> Kal ydo-rpta-ov cnavTov

(1+2) ^ - ^ ^
"Hpav
d^ia
(1
a-Yj

_^^_!
fiera crou

^ -

Ves2).

1529
241

re ol 'Acnraa-Lav tikti l^aTaTrvyocrvvr)

1)

__^^ _^^_|__^^

- ^ ^ ^ ^ -I

Crat.

(fipevl

crvfiftovXevcrofJi.evov';

(7

+ 7) -v^..cfiaperpas

^^--\-^^p,ij

Nub. 474

f.

era? aTTTOfievo?

VIvOwvl 8ia

KaKws

Trevecr^at

(1+5)
qv
(7

--^w -^^-1-'-.,- --^_ ^fierd

-2-1272
Pax-

f.

8e (re

KapKivos ekdwv avrt/BoXy


v^
v^

twv

TratStov

xopeva-ai

+ 9) + 8)
(7

^ ^
I

_ ^ ^ _

^ ^

_ ^

782

ff.

Kol 8te^'jry]X

^'^oOiv Trore (^ai'Aws io-QUi KAewvi'/xos

(10
KOL

-v^--

-^^- ^^__|-^_^
,

v^

^2, 1292f.

fX.OVO'i

OVK dv eTTiWiT

6.XX OTTOT aVTl/SoXoit]

TtS, KClTtO KVTTTOiV ttV

OVTW

+ 7 + 8)
Oewv
re

-^v^-

^^-^\-^^- w
Vesp.

^ ^
ff.

|_^
p.aKdpiiiV'

278

K/\.LOVcra

yd/xovs avSpwv re

Satras

kol

6aXia%

qo\

yap
(1

rdS'

+4+

2)

--V.W

-^^_j__^_ --^^ _^^_[


^_
Pax 778 fF. Xoyov eXOelv Tvpdyfxara Kavrt-ypae^as
ttoXXldv TaAavTtov

e^ ^PXV'^ /AcAet

^_

fSovAo/xevoVi dvaKOivovadat re Kal eis

(7

+ 9)

-v^w- .^^__j_^^_
v^w -w eipTjfieva ~w irporepov

^^__|_^^_
Nuh. 470
ff.

p-'i'jre

oeSpafieva

firJT

p-Laovcri

yap

rjv

rd TraAaia

noXXaKLS

OeoJvTaL

^ ^ _ ^
I

_ ^ _ ^

in

c. 578

ff.

491.
is

great variety of combinations of these twelve cola

found in lyric poetry and the drama. Variants of these cola There are but two in Aristophanes. Variants arose, under poetic impulse to secure special rhythmical effect,
are very rare.

by slightly altering the form of a particular colon, commonly by the change of a single metre. For the two instances of variation in Aristophanes, v^ ^ ^ ^ corresponding with _ ^ _ _ ^ _ _ ( Vesp. 276 = 283), and - w .. - ^ v. - with _ ^ ^ _ _ ^ _ (Vesp. 274 = 282), see 825 and 826 f., where
.

this subject is treated at length (812 ff.). The combination of subordinate periods in ascending prosodiac rhythm with periods

in
^

descending

enoplic

rhythm has

its
ff. ).

exact parallel
Cf.

in

the

Thib was called 'choerileum' (Schol. Kub. 457

Antiphanes 174.

2, 5, 6.

493

PROSODIAC-ENOPLIC VERSE
])eriods in
flf.)

221

ascending and descending rhythm and simplified logaoedic (392 ff.) verse. 492. Periods in other rhythms are sometimes combined with prosodiac and enoplic periods in the same ode. A notable example is found in Pax 785 ff. (497), where the regular series is broken, at the beginning of the second intermediate period, by a protracted Aeolic hexameter, followed by two dactylic dimeters Similarly in Ban. 674 ff. tliat enclose an anapaestic tetrameter. (498), the first intermediate period begins and the second intermediate period both begins and ends with simplified logaoedic cola. The first intermediate period in Nuh. 457 ff. (500) is in Eccl. 571 ff. (501) begins with a logaoedic the same rhythm. The first and last subordinate periods in Fesjx 273 ff. trimeter. (499) are in minor ionic rhythm. Single prosodiac and enoplic subordinate periods occasionally occur also in odes composed mainly in other rhythms.

union of subordinate

in iambo-trochaic (367

493.

Eq.

1264-73 =

290-9

(Parabasis XL).

Strophe.
'HyU.

a Tl KaAAlOV
(Tiv
t) 7)

dp)(^OjJiVOL-

KaTaTTavofxei'oiCTLV

488

doav

iTTTrcov
et's

iXaTrjpas det^etr

[XTjSev
fJLrjSi

Avaio-TpaTov,

O v^ ^ ^
Ax'-

v^w wv^

v^w v^^
v^
v^

_^^_ ^^__
5*^^

5-*^

QovjJiavTiv tov dveortoi' av

Treiv Koi<Tij

KapSia ; 795
<^tA'

(am.)

^ _ ^

\y \^ _ ^ _

f,''

1270 Kal yap ovros w


vy,

"AttoAAoi' <dely

Trei-

daXepoti

SaK/Jt'oiS

(ras d7rTO/xevo5
Ilti^aivt 8ia

cfiaperpas
firj

wv^ ^w
10

^ ^

5^

v^v^

^
5^

KaKws wevecrdai.

^ -

Antistrophe.
'H/i.
f3' ))

oAActKis

evwxLatari. (f>povTLa-i crvyyeyev7//zat,

1292 Kal Su^i'jTi^x oTToOev ttotc <^avAws icrdUi KAewn'/xo-j. 1294 cfiacrl </J.evy yap avTov epeTrrofxevov to. twv ixovTUiv dvepoiv 1296 ovK dv i^eXOelv dirh t^s (TLirvrjs' tovs 8' avTi/SoXeiv dv ofxias' 1298 " t^' w dva tt/oos yovdrtov, e^eXOe Kal o-uyyvw^t rjy Tpa-rre^y."
1270 ouTos Dindorf: oirroa-l 1294 <jji.h> Bentley or (v dia or ofius
<det>

dW

1273 5t^ Dindorf 1296 av 6fj.w$ Bergk &v


:

Hermann:
d/xoion or

ev

5i<f.

dvonoius

222

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


Monostrophic dyad.

494

A = abbcd, 5-5555,

periodic tetrad composed of a hypercatalectic

epodic pentad a prosodiac tetrameter,


:

two enoplic pentameters, and an enoplic pentameter


with a prosodiac pentameter as epode. See 751. See the metrical scholium on j&j. 1264 fF. The ode opens with parody of verses from prosodia {frag. 89 S.) quoted by the scholiast:
Tt
1]

of different form,

one

of

Pindar's

KaAAiov apyoixkvoidLV
pa9v^(t)v6v re

!]

KaTaTravofjAi/ouTLV

Aarw

Kat doav Linroyv eXdreipav aetcrat

Aristophanes has omitted Pindar's third colon as inappropriate, brought forward his fourth with felicitous changes, and added with comic effect the unexpected clausula fjn^Sev Is Ava-ia-rparov. The scholiast says that the antistrophe begins with a parody of verses quoted from Euripides.
494.
Vesp.

1518-22 = 1523-7; 1528-37


Strophe.
re-

(Exode).

'HyU.

a ay' w pieyaXayvvfia

792

v^

^w
'^

1519

Kva Tov daXaa-CTLOLo,


TTT^Sare irapa

\pdp.a6ov

Kal dlv

dAos drpvyeroi-

1522

KaplSwv dSeA^ot.
Antist7^02?he.

5o

ww w^
v_/

v^^ ~ ^ v^ 4*^^' ^ ^^ ww ' 6*^ ^

'H/x.

P' ra)(yv 7r68a KVK-Aocro^eiTe, Kal to ^pwix^iov


Tts,

1525 eKAaKTicrccTW

ottws iSdi'Tes ai'w tr/ceAos w^wo-lv ol

dearai.

Epode.
Xo.
(TTpo/Sei,

Ttapdfiatve kvkXo)

ko-I

ydtrrpKrov creavTov,

1530 pLTTTe (TKeAos ovpdviov ^ep-fSiKes kyy^vkcrOuiv. 1532 Kaurbs ydp o ttoi/to/xcSwv ava^ irarrjp Trpocrepirei 1534 ^(rdels Itti roicrtv eavrov Tratcri rots rpiop^^ois.
dAA' e^dyeT,
rjpa^
ra;;^!'"

et

ti ^tAetr'

6p\ovp,^vot,

6vpa^e

touto ydyo
ocTTts

ot'Seis ttcu

Trdpos SeSpaKev,

1537

d^X'3^'/"'^''05

aTTT^AXa^ei' )(^opov Tpvy(o8wv.

1519
ei/ Kt;/fX<fj

^aXatrcrtoto

aoj3eiTe {aTpo^elre

Dindorf V)
:

^aXacrcrtoi;

1523 7r65a

KiJA-XocroiSerTe

Dindorf

7r65'

RV
an epodic
triad,

The ode
4
6,
is

constitutes

AAB.

See

716,

A = ab,

prosodiac tetrameter and hexameter. See 770. a stichic period composed of seven prosodiac tetrameters. See
pericopic
:

dyad

778.

;;

497
495.

PEOSODIAC-ENOPLIC VERSE
The

223

tetrameter that constitutes the epode of the pre-

ceding ode was in favour with the comic poets.

Compare

T?Js r^fxerepas (roffyias


v8aLfjioi''

Kptri^s aptcrre TrdvTtov

TtKT
8'

<j

firjTrjp

iKpiwv

\po(fir]aris.

Crat.

323
30

TovTOKTi

OTrtcTdev

trw hi<f}pov (jiepwp AvKovpyos


Crat.

e'^wv KaXda-ipiv.

viro^vyiois dAootaai'T' v9v<; eKTroLrjcrai.

Pher. 65

Seo-TTora,

Kal rdSe vvv aKOVcrov dv Xeyoi aoi.


kv6v,

Eupol. 236

Xdyvvov exw
Cf. also

w ypav, BvXaKov

Se fxecrrov.

Diph. 12

Eupol. 139.

496.

pentameter

with

corresponding,

but

trimetrical,

latalectic iambic

close occurs, as

we have

already seen, in the

Equites

(1272
f.).

f.

= 1298
also

f.).

Compare
fragment

the

hexameter,
the

with
ff.

dimetrical iambic close, in the strophe just above (Vesp.

1520

= 1525
Sophocles,

Note

the

of

quoted
of

composed
dimeter

in parody in Av. 1337 ff., two iambelegi (481, n.) and a catalectic iambic

Oenomaus of an octameter

* * yVOLfxav aiero?
yAai'Kas
1337
<et

vxpLireTas,

~]^
^ ^

^^

w diMoraOeiip' virep drpvykrov


eir'

olS/xa

Xifj.va'i.

^ ^ w
:

ww
-^

7ap> yevoiixav

(?)

Ed.

1338

afiiroTadeiriv Blaj'des

av woTaOd-qv

497.

Pax 775-96

= 797-818
Strophe.

(Parabasis

I.).

'H/t. a'

Movo-a

(TV

pXv iroXeixovs
fxeT

cxtt-

wa-afievrj

ifxov

777 Tov

(f>iXov xo/o^^o'ov,

480

^ ^ ww ^ ^
^ ^

^^v^

o
4*^

v^w

2^^

778 KXcLOva-a dewv

re yd/xovs

ww

- ^ ^ -

dvSpoJv T Salras Kal daXia^ /taKcipcoV

481
781
Tjv

n. 5

croi

yap rdS'

^ "PX'*?^ fteAet.

Se ere

KapKcVos eXOiov

^ ^ ^ ^ ^

^ ^

^^7"

w^
V.W ^

dvTL/SoXfj juera tcov TratScuv xopevaai^

483
785
fiyjO'

n.

VTrdKovi

[xrjT' e'A-

513, 516

- ^ ^ ^ ^

-^

dys crvveptdos

ai'TOts,

10

wv^
v^


6*^^

dAAd

I'o/At^e

TravTas

v^

w o

224

THE VEKSE OF GREEK COMEDY


opTvya'i oiKoyevets yuAtaux^va'j

498

389, 800

(ant.)

-^ -^ -^-^2
_ ^^_,^_ w^ ^^ ^^^c
lA/TiSas

op)(i]crTas vavi'o<f)Vts (T(fivpd8u)V

791

aTTOKViO-fiaTa /;i7y^avoSt(^as.
i(f>acr)^'

793 Kal yap

6 Trarrjp o Trap'

795 ecx^ TO 8pap.a yaXrjv


ecrirepas aTrdy^ac.

tT]S

k^

v^

^ w

v^v^

4^

Aiitistrophe.
'Hyit. ft'

TOtaSe \p-q
(ro<fiov

XaptTwv
TrotrjTi^v

Sa^ktofiaTa

KaAAtKO/iwv

799 Tov

800

vfiviLV,

OTttv 7}ptva

/lev

4>a)V7/

x^'^'^'*^^'

H'^H'^^^
/x?)

KeAa8v;,
'x??

-jfppov

Se

Mopcrt/i-os

804 /xr^oe MeAav^to?, ov 8i] TttKporaTrjv oira yi]pv(ravTO<; i^kouo"', 807 rjVLKa Twv rpaywSwv tov ^opov e?xov d8eA<})0S re Kat auros, a/x</)Oj 810 Fopydves 6\po(f>dy oi fSaTiSoa-KOTroi
"ApTTviai, ypaocrof^at fiiapol Tpayopdcrxa^ot IxOvoXvfJiai-

815

3v

KaTaxpep-^o-pLivy] yxeya Kat TrAaru


^vp-irat^e ttjv

817 Moucra ^ea per' ipov


785 inrdKove Bentley
:

opT7]V.
:

vTraKoicrj's

808 d5eX^6s Bekker

dSeX^os

Monostrophic
4 2 7
5,

dyad.
:

A = ab
enoplic

(775-84,
tetrameter,

785-96).
ithy phallic,

a=

abed,.

pericopic tetrad

heptameter, enoplic pentameter. See 772. b = abcbd, epodic pentad a protracted choriambo-iambic hexameter and two dactylic dimeters that enclose an anapaestic tetrameter, with an enoplic tetrameter as epode. See 762. See the metrical scholium on Pax 775 fF. The strophe and antistrophe open with parody of verses from the Orestia of Stesichorus {frag. 35, 36, 37). See the scholiast, who quotes the lines parodied in the antistrophe.
:

prosodiac 6 2 4 2 4,

498.

Ban. 674-85

= 706-17
Strophe.

(Parabasis).

'H^.

a'

Mowa
iTTLfirjOi

^opwv lepQv
396, 800
Kal
eX.6'
(ant.)

^-^

2-'=

e-l repifiv dotSas e/tds,


(ant.)

379, 800, 795 676 TOV TToAiJV o^opkvq AaWV O^AoV, OV (TOcfiiai
pvpiai KdOy]VTai,

^-^- ^ -^_^^_ ^^_i=i


5

- ^ -

v^v^ v^ v^

^ _

yj
.

A^ m 2*^^

678

<jiiXoTip.6TepaL KAeoi^wvTos,

^' ov

394

^--^-^-^-2

499
81]

PROSODIAC-ENOPLIC VERSE
x^*'^^*'"'"

225

a/x(^iAuAois

680

Setvov 7rt/3pe/xeTat

792
TreraAoi'"

QprjKia
7rt

\i.Xi8ioi'

v^v^ - w v^ ^ ^

v^

w^^
w .

2'-'

2-^^

l3dpf3apov

e^ofxivi]

394, 800 (ant.)lOw-

-.

^-^W9 aoAet-

683

KeAaSet

8'

iu<XavTov dj]86viov
ya'OJi'Tui.

vo/xov,

Tat,

Kuv

LiraL

393 ^

T''

Antistroplie.

ySi'ov

dvepos

1)

T/)07rov ocrrts

eV

olfxiol^eTai,

708 OU

TToAt'l/

OVS' 6 7TL6l]KO<i 0VT05 O VVV t'rOxAcol',

KAetyev?;? o jxiKpos,

710

o TTOV^pdraTOS jSaXavevs ottoctol

KparovcTL KVKy]cnrecf)pov

ipevSoXLTpov Koi'tas
Kat KtyLtcoAta?
yi;?,

714

vpoi'ov evStarpti/'et

'Swi'

Se

raS'

ot'K

ipr/viKos

ecr^',

iVa ^y^TTore

Kd-o8v8i] fxedviav avev ^vXov


714
t'oi:'

/SaSi^oiV.

0^

Bentley

eiSws 5e or eZStis re

(674-7, 678-85). A = abed, 2-3 4 2, dactylic penthemimer, logaoedic trimeter, enoplic pericopic tetrad B = abcde, 2 2 2 2 7, pericopic See 772. tetrameter, ithyphallic'! pentad anapaestic dimeter in logaoedic time (389), prosodiac dimeter, See 772, enoplic dimeter, ithyphallic, simplified logaoedic heptameter.

Monostrophic dyad.
:

A = ab

777.

499.

r^sp.

273-80 = 281-9
Strophe.

(Parode).

'H/jI. a'

TL

-or

ov irpo Ovpun'

(fiaiver'

dp'

i)fj.iv

417, 424

wv.-.

V.W-wv^ ^ ^
5
'2!^

^ ^ - -~

274
275

o yepwi' ov8' vTraKovet


jj-uiv

aTToAcuAeKC ras

^ ^ 491 w v^
(ant.)

^^^ ^w ^ o4" TW CTKOTO) TOV SctKTuAoV TTOV, 5 v^ ^ v^ 491 ^ v^ 276 tV' tcpXeyp-rivev avTov v^ w v^ TO a-cfivpoi' ykpovTOS ovtos, ^ _v.,_^6'^ Kal Tax' ttv ftovftiavLuyq 277 v^^ ^w pjv TToAu Spt/avTUTOs y w - ^ 4-<^ 488 10 278 7> rdv Trap i)p.lv, v../^ n^v^ ^ Kttt /XOVOS Ol'K dv CI^Ct',
efJLf3d8as,i) TTpocreKOxp' ev

802

Ty

226

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


dXX'
TtS,

500

279

ottot'

avTifSoXoi-rj
OLV

KaTO) KVTTTWV
i/'ets"

OVTIO

-^ ^ ^
^ ^

w^
~ ^
6

280 "At^ov

lAeyev.

^^^-2^

Antistrophe.
'H/x.
f3'

Ta^a
(OS

8'

av

Siot

tov x^'t'^'' avOpomov, os

>)/ias

SieSi'er'

282 l^aTraTwv Kai Aeywv


c^iAa^Tyvaios
lyi'

Kai rav Sa/AW Trpwros KaretTroi,


efTTl ytt/O

Sta TOUT oSw7/^lS tT tCTWS KerTttl TTX'/aeTTWV.

TOtOUTOS

286 aAA'
ecrOu

wytt^' dvtcrTao-o
[xy]S'

/.it/S'

oi5tw creaDTOv

dyavaKTei.

kolI

yap

dvrjp

Tra)(^v<s

r/Kt

twv TrpoSovTwv
Op^i/crys'

TttTTt

289 ov

oTTWs eyx^''"/''^'^*

281

x^^^'-i'O''

Hermann

x^f'^"'oi'

The strophe and antistrophe


pentad,

constitute the first

AABBC.

See

716.
:

A = ab

dyad in an epodic (273-7^ 277^-80). A = abed,

5 2 4

6,

pericopic tetrad

ionic pentameter, enoplic dimeter, enoplic

See 772. b = abc, tetrameter, enoplic hexameter in trochaic form. 4- 6 2, pericopic triad hypercatalectic prosodiac trimeter, enoplic
:

See 771, 777. hexameter, ionic dimeter. The ode begins and ends with a minor ionic movement. The Verse entire ode that follows (291-316) is in minor ionic rhythm. 290, viray & Trai I'Traye, is apparently a comical addition of the second It has the metrical form of the final colon of the ode. coryphaeus.
500.

Mih.

457-75

(Parode).

Lyrical Trio.
Kop. a
X-qp-a p.ev

Trdpecm TwSe y' ovk droXpov

395 458
dAA' eroLpov,
lardi
8'

ws

- ^ - ^ - ^ - ^ ^ ^ w 5*^

_^_^

ravra paOwv

Trap'

epov KAeos ovpavo-

396 460
2t.
p.y]K<i

-^^-^ -^-^ w w
w
epov
4

ev fSpoTOLCTLV c^ets.
;

Ti Trela-opaL

Kop. a

tov Trdvra xpovov per

481

n.

5v^-.^ ^

wv^

-ww-

463
2t.

^V^AwTOTttTOV /3lOV dv6pa>7r(jiV

^w
^
k^

v^w
^7-*^

8td^ts.
dp'

apd ye tout
oxpopai
;

eyw
/3'

ttot
loa-re

^ ^ ^

Kop.

ye (xov rroX-

800
Aous
eiTL

- ^ ^ Kad/jcrdai,

^ wv^ -v^
7

Talcri Ovpais del

483, 802

10

-^w-

501

PKOSODIAC-ENOPLIC VERSE
ISovXofiivovs dvaKOLVova-dai.

227

470

\^

ww

re koi els Xoyov eXdelu

472

IT

pay [xara KuvTtypac/xis ttoAAwv -aAdi'Twi'

483
474 a^6a
o-tj

-^w- WW-- -W--7


15

cjipei'l

crvfilSovcroij.

Xevcroixevois /xera

ww w w

ww
w w
4^'

copic

(457-GO, 461-75). A = ab, 5 4, perirhythm pentameter, tetrameter. a hyperb probably = ab'b'c, 7-7 7 4, periodic tetrad See 770. catalectic prosodiac hexameter as proode, two enoplic heptameters, and a choerileum (490 n.) as epode. See 745, 776. See the metrical scholium on Nuh. 457 if.
Non-antistrophic.

A = AB

dyad

in

simplified logaoedic

501.
'Hu. a
vvv
5i)

cd.
Sec
ere

571-80
Kal

(Debate).

ttvkvijv (f^peva

(jaXocrocj^oi'

383
<f)povTL8'
TrL(TTafxei'y]V

_-_-_^w--3
3-*^

iyeipeiv

573

Taicrt,

<^iAato-tv d[j.vvLV.

KOiVTQ

yap

Itv

evTV\[ai(Tiv

ww ww 2*^ 2 ww ww 488 ww ww w

574 575

'ipyerai yAwTXi;? k-lvoia -irokiTqv

SrjfjLOv

eTrayXaiovcra

790

St]-

ww ww

w5
5"

IxvpiauTtv wcfieXiauri fSiov

XoV
Kaipos

B'

OTl TTCp
Setrat

Sl'l'ttTai*

WW WW
nvos
e^-

<8e>,

yap

ri a-o(f)ov

481
evp7][J.aros
rj

n.
10

WW -WW-'

ttoAis rjiMMV.

2*^ w w w w jJ-rJTe BeSpafieva fxn'^r' et ww ww p.ipr^fieva ino irporepov ww ww w dova-i yap riv to. TraAatu 580 8^ 15 w w TToAAaKts ^ecovrat.

578 dAAa

Trepaive fiovov

ww ww ww
ww

6-*^

'

576 577X0?

5'

]\Ieineke

dr]\ovv

<5e>

Hermann

577

rt

Princeps

tol or rol

ye

The antistrophe of the monostrophic dyad is lacking (673). A A = abb, 3 2 2, proodic triad: a logaoedic (571-3, 574-7, 578-80). b - abT^c, See 738. trimeter as proode to two enoplic dimeters. 3-5 5 6-, periodic tetrad a hypercatalectic prosodiac dimeter as proode, two enoplic pentameters and a hypercatalectic prosodiac c = ab, 2 8, pericopic dyad: See 745, 776. pentameter as epode. See 770. enoplic dimeter and octameter.
:

= ABC

228
502.

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


With
the
last

502

subordinate

period

cf.
:

the

enoplic

hexameter ending with an ithyphallic in Crat. 240


(TTacris

Se

Kal

TTpta-fivyivris X.p6vos dAAiyXotcri //.tyevre ixkyurrov tcktTOV

rvpavvov

ov

8rj

K<f)aX-i]yepirav Qeol

KaXovcriv

503.

Modern

writers on Greek metric are not agreed as to

the origin and constitution of the cola that compose prosodiacenoplic verse.
theorists

See 812

ff.

Furthermore,

all

ancient metrical

are

not in agreement with one another,

nor

is

the

individual ancient metrician always in agreement with himself.

The views

of Heliodorus,

who

analyzes three of the foregoing

metrical scholia on

See the Hub. 457 ff. In these analyses, he consistently regards the elements ^ - ^ - and
odes, are of peculiar interest
to

students of comedy.

Fax 775 K,
'

Hq.

1264

ff.,

as
is

x^
'

- ^ not
,

as

'

epitrites

(see

Heph. 12.16
iambic

ionics,'

but respectively as iambic and trochaic.


basis
(for

iambic

- -

v^

-),

and 1 3 f.) nor His phraseology penthemimer, iambic


f.

hephthemiraer, iambic dimeter, iambic trimeter;


(for

trochaic basis

v./

- ^

),

ithyphallic,

trochaic

hephthemimer,

trochaic

dimeter, trochaic trimeter.


504. He does not name the enoplius, but calls the combination v^^ v-'v^ haKTvXiKov TpiiTOVv et? BcauWa^lav (Fax 782 and 783, Eq. 1265) or SaKrvXcKou KTpiTrouv ei<?> rpo'X^alov

(JVub.

465).

He

does recognize, however, the prosodiac,

repeatedly designating the combination

name.
Again,

Thus
ireLvrj,

dTrcoa-a/jiivi] /xer
rj

oScaKrj evS6Kdar]/j,o<;

(cf.

^-wv^-wv^- by this (Fax 776) is Trep/oSo? irpoathe antistrophe, v. 798) S(o8eKd(r7)p.o<i.


i/jiov

6aK.pol<i

BaKpvoc?

{Eq.

1271)

is

irpoaoScaKov

BwSeKaa-rjfMov.

He

gives a single indication, of doubtful meaning,

as to the constitution of the prosodiac.


fxer

ijMOv

{Nuh.

Bco8Kd(Tr]p,o<;.

(Nub.
tion

468)

is

Thus t6v nrdvra y^povov 462) is dvairaia-TiKr] TrpoaoSiaKr) rrepioSo'i Again, more simply, ttoWoix; eVt ratai dvpac<i dvairatcmKov TrpocroBcaKov BfoBeKdcrrj/jLov. Does
at

anapaestic attached to 'prosodiac' here signify the differentiathat Hephaestion perspicuously states
flf.),

unusual

length

(630

or does

it

mean

that Heliodorus regarded the prosodiac

)^

505
a real
fact

PROSODIAC-ENOPLIC VERSE
anapaestic (logaoedic)
is

229
of fixed
is

;is

tripody, but

form

The
that

perhaps

indeterminable,
these

but

it

to

be

noted
is

his

analysis of

prosodiac
his

and
of

enoplic

periods

evidently

controlled

by
to

theory

davvdprrjTa,

which
xv.).
ff.,

llephaestiou
Til us

seems

have
the

adopted
first
'

from

Heliodorus divides
enoplic

period
dactylic

in

him (chap. Fax 775


'

catalectic
]irosodiac.

tetrameter, into
f.,

penthemimer

and

So also in Eq. 1270

a catalectic enoplic pentameter,


of trochaic basis, 'dactylic

ihe period consists,

by

his analysis,

penthemimer' and
periods
'

is

Thus the true nature of these obscured, whether we regard them as enoplic or as
prosodiac.^
'

dactylo-epitritic
is

(812

ff.)-

he

obsessed by his theory.


f.,

These analyses reveal how heavily Thus again he states that UnK
re

470

^ovkoixevov; dvaicoivovcrOai

kuI

e?

Xoyov iXOeiv, a
'

tetrametric combination of enoplic dimeters, consists of


'
'

dactylic

He calls this penthemimer and anapaestic hephthemimer.' an eVo?, and so far as number and arrangement of long and short syllables are concerned, it is no doubt identical with one
form of the heroic
505.
as
line.^

for regarding the prosodiac and enoplius dodecaseme isomeric dimeters, in which each short syllable has the value of one primary time and each long syllable that

The reasons

of two, are

stated elsewhere in
f.

this

book.

See, in

particular,

630

ff.,

647

The probable

origin of these

two dimeters and

their

consequent syllabic identity with fixed forms of the anapaestic and dactylic tripody must not be forgotten in weighing the
significance of the phraseology used
scholia.

by Heliodorus
arise

in the metrical

Confusion

would be

likely to

at

once on the

loss of the music.


1 The prosodiac is briefly designated simply as dvairatcrTiKdv in the commentary on Eq. 1272 and Ahtb. 475. - Note also his analysis of Nub. 472 f., an enoplic trimeter; 474 f., achoerileum;

Fax 779

an iambelegus 783 f., an f., encoraiologicum 795 f., an enoplic tetrameter. - See Blass, Bacchijlidis Carmina ^ xxxv. f. Goodell, Metric, 196 f.
; ; ;

CHAPTER

XII

AEOLIC VEESE^
506.

The fundamental colon


in

in

Aeolic verse

is

poly-

schematist dimeter of eight syllables, in


are
practically unregulated
is

which the quantities


metre, but the second

the

first
:

metre

always a choriamb (19 f.) (i.) o o o o - ^ v^ Closely related with this dimeter are four others due to the further choriambization of the primitive dimeter o o - ^ (ii.)
:

V two

v^

called Glyconic, in

which the quantities of the


(iii.)

first

syllables

remain
close

unregulated;

-^^- ^-^-,
choriamb
the

called

choriambo-iambic, which
;

begins

with a

and

has

Glyconic
;

(iv.)

and (v.) - ^ - ^ the ditrochaic dimeter. These are all normal Aeolic dimeters, but the last is rare in comedy. For their relation to one another and to the primitive
dimeter
^

^ - ^ _ ^ _ ^

^ - ^ -^

diiambic

dimeter, as developed in Aeolic poetry, see 651

ff.,

657

flf.

507. Aristophanes employs nine of the sixteen possible forms

(651) of the polyschematist dimeter


KUiTOL TToAAot TUVT
eTTadoV

511
508.

AEOLIC VERSE

231
ff.)

By

catalexis
o

(Hepli.
o

29.

the

polyschematist

dimeter becomes
notably in

o o

- w ^

(34).

This catalexis appears

the Eupolidean, a tetrameter in favour with the comic poets, which consists of an acatalectic and a catalectic polyschematist dimeter
(3

deiijfxevot
vi)

KanpCi

irpos ii/xa? iXevdipois


fj..

raXrjdi]

tov Atdvucrov Tov ^Kdpeif/avTu.

- ^ - ^ The forms

-WW-

xj

-w^

Nub. 518

f.

of the first metre in the polyschematist dimeter


(see

which

by Aristophanes are 7 and 9 Aeolic verse; 1, 6, 8, 10 in the Eupolidean.


are preferred

507) in melic

509.

By
is

brachycatalexis

polyschematist

cola

end in
:

but this

uncommon.
w

Compare the following tetrameter


Av. 1724

fjLaKapLCTTov (TV yap-ov Ty8e iroXei y)'jp.as


f.

-WW- -WW- -WW510.


to

The Aeolic dimeter was originally severely restricted eight syllables, but later, under Ionian influence, it admitted
f.).

resolution of long syllables in certain forms (506,

some freedom (659

Eesolution occurs
first

schematist dimeter, but only in the


VTTO

iv., v.) with even in the polymetre

T yepOVTlOl'

oXkdpMV
TTpoTepoiv

wv^w

ww
ww

LlJS. .325

aAAo. TToXep-ov Koi /xavicuv


^wvTcs TOT
eVt

<^w ww
ww^

Lys.

342
f.

Twv

Nub. 1029

probably felt, although unconsciously, that the metre which underlay each of these resolved polyschematist metres was diiambic, the forms numbered 12 and 7 above. Under Ionian influence even an anapaest (cf. 70) might appear at the beginning of the first metre
Aristophanes
original
ttoXlovx^ eras ecrxov 'dSpas
Cf.

<^

ww

Lys.

345

EccL 940 (567), Vesp. 1461 (548). 511. Aristophanes is fond of the Glyconic, of which the

catalectic

form

(oo-w
rjp.epas

w-i=i)is

called Plierecratean

XopSov KtyKXof3a.~av pvOjiov


i^SwTTOV

w
w w w w w w

^aos
SeVp'

0-Tai TOio-t Trapoi'crt


TOtO-t
rjv

Kal

U.(f)LKVOVIXiVOli,

KA,ewv

a7ro/V>/Tat.

w w w w w

w w w w

A.v'\s,t.

frag.

140

Eq.

9736

: :

'

232

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


first

512

The
four
v^ y^

two

syllables of the Glyconic here

possible

forms.

Aristophanes uses

v^

assume two of the very rarely and


in

only in parody, in which he allows also spondaic close of

the

Glyconic

(oo-v^

),

found

Sophocles

and

Euripides.

He

never admits the anapaest into the Glyconic,

except in parody, as in Han.

1322

(586).
is

512. Eesolution of a long syllable


first

allowed in one of the


syllables

two places of the Glyconic, the unregulated


Ti TTore Trpayfia yev/^crerat
;

w^v^

v.^

^^

Ran. 1251

Here the underlying metre was probably felt to be ditrochaic, - v^ - vy, since Aristophanes rarely begins the Glyconic with the antispast, v^ ^ Compare the unusual resolution in froff. 141
.

Trpea-jSvra,

Trorepa c^tAets

-^

This resolution, which occurs in Pindar,


in

is found in Aristophanes parody in conjunction with spondaic close as in Aves 910,

91-4 (585).

513.

The choriambo- iambic and diiambic dimeters

occur

frequently in comedy in both their acatalectic and their catalectic

forms
ws
fJ.v

dirAo)

Aoyo),

KaKws

i^oXicretev 6 Zei's

TpOTTOV TttAatva Kvrjo-ias

ywatKas dvOpaKiveiv

^ y^ ^ ^^ kj ^ ^ kj
is

w
^^

v^

Ach. 1152
Eccl.
f.

^ ^
kj

Lys.

919 340

diiambic penthemimer
(562).

(36)

found

in

Nub.

702

806,

704 = 808

514. Irrational metres are freely allowed in diiambic dimeters

and sometimes even as the second metre in choriambo-iambic


dimeters
KovSev rraprjXOev, coar

eywy

w
^ v^v^

v^

^
v^

Tou Trpay/xacrtv xpwTt^eTaL


XaAKO/cpdrcov

tWwv

ktvttos
is

v^

637 516 Eq. 552


Ves}).

Ntib.

515. Eesolution also

common

in the first metre of diiambic

dimeters
ov ex
eTTiSoipL reu^tSos
ere

kvkX.10 Se Trepl

KLcrcros

v^^^v^ ^ ^ ^ -^ ^

kj

Ach.
Th.

1156
999

{^

518
IxaLvofievos'

AEOLIC VERSE
6 Se XtOov fSaXeiv
/3ovAoyLlVOS V CTKOTO) Xd/3oL

233

770 Act

TcAea Se Svypo

.^^v^ w ^ -^ ^ v^ w w w ^- v^

^c/l.
77t.

1168 353

f.

of

Diiambic cola may even have logaoedic form, under the influence iambic cola in Ionian rhythm (70), as in Ach. 849 (582),

Fax
in cola

94.8 (583).

516. Protraction (tovt])


cola
:

is

not

common and

is

found chiefly

of diiambic form, but sometimes in

choriambo-iambic

oKcAAof Kara

fj.eX-

^ _
.

Aovres Aa/Jetv avTOv kvojv


apTrdaacra cf^evyoi
>)vLKa

Twv rpaycoSwv

^ _ ^ _ <y ^
are

_ ^ _ w
jich.
.

^ ^

1159

f.

Pax 807

517. Ditrochaic

dimeters

rare

in the Aeolic verse of

comedy, but when they occur they admit the irrational metre, resolution and protraction, as in Ionian rhythm
/xYj

(fiOoveo

Taioriv veatcri,
e/x7r(^i'Ke

TO Tpvcfiepov yap
iKirka-OL

=
w ^
EccL 900
f.

crov

to Tprjpia

TO T IttikXlvtpov aTrofSdXoi'i

_^_^ ^v^-o
518. Trimetrical cola are

= 906

f.

much
:

less

common than

dimetrical,

but they occur in


(iii.)

all five

forms

(i.)

polyschematist,

(ii.)

Glyconic,

choriambo-iambic,

(iv.)

diiambic, (v.) ditrochaic (rarely), and

are due to the

dimeter.
tion,

same choriambizing influence which produced the Compare the corresponding dimeters (506). In illustranote the examples quoted from various poets in 654, and

also the following


(i.)

xdO' iTipov vvKTepwov yevoiTo

_^^_ _^^_
^aaTtocrtv apafiaivova-l Te toi'S

Ach. 1163

_ ^ ^ _
Kar
opea vvp.^dv eparols ev
{'/tvois

_ ^ ^ _ v^ v^

- ^ ^ ^ - -

r/i.

357

^
(ii.)

^w

n. 992

xaip'

<5

)(^pv<T6Kepws jSe/SdKTa kY^Xcdv

Udv, HeXaa-yiKov "Apyos Ipftanvtav

_-_^

^ - ^ ^

^ ^

Crat.

321

WpaV OVK

UTToAeiS OvS' dT7oXrj\pL

Eccl.

923

'

234

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


first of

519
(cf.

The

these,

quoted from Cratinus,

is

the Phalaecean
the
catalectic

Vesp.

1226,

1227,

1248);

the

second,

lesser

Asclepiadean.
(iii.)

ecTTt

SiKaiov,

el

8rifMOKpaTov[ji.9a

- ^ ^ )}

^
e\i<i

v^

^_^_

Eccl.

945

E^ecrov jxaKaipa Tray^pvcrov

- ^ ^ (iv.)

^ - ^ -

_^^_
^ -

Nub. 598
Ach. 1158

(Ti^ovcra

TrdpaXos

ctti

rpaTre^rj Kecp-einj

^
yap
(v.)
fjLOi,

^
8'

^^^ ^

lirjTTip

ctAAr; /Se/BijKe

._
kolttI

._
w ypav

Eccl.

913
903

Tots

{Ji.rjXois

eTravdei'

crv

-v^

_^_. -^

Eccl.

On
655

the relation
ff.

of

all

these cola to the primitive trimeter, see

519. Aeolic trimeters in comedy, except ditrochaic, generally assume iambic, rarely choriambic, catalexis. They admit the resolutions, irrational metres, protraction, and the irregularities found in parody, that are allowed in dimeters. For example, Aristophanes uses in Av. 908 (585), in parody, an acephalous ^ ^ which (38) polyschematist trimeter, ^ - -^ ends in Glyconic form with spondaic close (511), where normally - ^ - ^ ^_^_. In the following he would have colon (909) the same trimeter is brachycatalectic. 520. Correspondence is allowed between certain forms of the unregulated metre in polyschematist cola
,

-^-^

vvv 8k

Toi/

e/c

Oi'}fjLiTepov

=
^ ^ =
^ ^
7rotr;T7yv

ovTrtx>7rod'

ovTO) KaOapojs

_^^_
=

Vesp.

526

= 631

Aoyoicrt Kal (fipovTccri Kal

ws

rjSv <Tov Totcrt

Aoyots

wv^ Nub. 951 = 1026

Tov ^vyypaff^Q rov fxekewv

KaO' eVepov vvKTepcvvv yevoiro

_-^_ _^^_
v^^^
v^

^
Vesp.

^c/i.

1151

1163

cfivtrecos,

y]v

e'x^'

''''''

o.e.L

=
^ ^
forms
1458

Tb

yap

Keivo<s

avTtAeywv
different

1470

521. The

allowed

of

the

Glyconic

may

correspond
V TO) Siiy/XaTi T(OV SlKWV

=
^ ^

ovTos ov Swarat /xadelv

^_^_

Eq. 979

= 995

528
KctAet
Ta/ioi

AEOLIC VERSE
'Op9aynpav, ojtws
TTaiyviati]V S'

235

=
v7

p)i'

w v^
forms of

^cc^.

916 = 922

522.

The normal and

irrational
:

the choriambo-

iambic dimeter
XakKOKpOTOiV

may

correspond
KTVTTO'i

lTnr(x)V

rys lepwrdry]^

77a[o"aiv

wv./

^ ^

Eq. 552

= 582

523.

Normal, irrational and resolved metres


:

may

correspond

in diiambic cola
Seoixevov,
i)

8'

w-Trfpei'-i]

/SovX.OfJLiVO'i

kv (TKOTM

XdfSoi,

^v^v^ ^ v^
^ ^

Acli.

1157

1169

rrpos Trjv i/xrjv dvdyKi]i'


peXi]iia, KvTrpi8o<s epvo<i
{j

^
v^

Ecd. 969

= 973

peya

tl /xerarecreiTat

=
^

6 Trais o <S>i/\oKAewvos

v^ ^^^

T'esjj. 1

454

= 1466

524. The choriambo- iambic dimeter may correspond as a whole with the polyschematist, Glyconic, or diiambic dimeter
yvpvacTiov Aeyetv re
Sei

=
^ ^
w v^
Vesj).

ot'Sevb? rjKovcrapev ov\Sk

527

= 632

Kara tov veaviav opa? yap ws rovSe XeycLV.


fiTj

oj?

Se

Trdvr'

einXijXvdev

= ^ ^
wv^ ^ ^ w

KOvSev TraprjXdei', wctt' eyojy'


va-repoTTOis /3or]d(o

^ ^ w w w

Vesp.

532

f.

= 636

f.

=
Lys.

yvvaiKas uvdpaKevew

326 = 340

525.

The same correspondences

are allowed in

two equivalent

subordinate periods.
526. Single Aeolic subordinate periods may be combined in the same systematic period with most of the rhythms of Ionian
verse, often with

marked

effect since

the contrast of rhythms

is

impressive.
527. Aeolic verse developed

many

tetrameters of fixed form


(506).

by uniting two

of the five dimeters

named above

Some

had vogue and received particular names in antiquity, and some came to be used, like iambic and trochaic These tetrameters are nearly all tetrameters, in recitative verse.
of these tetrameters
catalectic.

528.

Thus

(i.)

the Eupolidean, already cited (508), of which the

236
general scheme

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


is

529

oooo

^ ^

oooo

k^

Com-

pare the Parabasis of the Mches (518-62).

The forms
the order
V.

of
(9),

of the first metre in these forty-five verses, arranged in frequency of occurrence, are (16 times), ^ - - ^ (1), with four (8), - V. - ^ (7),
:
:

^ (2), doubtful cases forms of the third metre are


:

^ ^ ^ - ^
(12),

(l),

_ - _ _ (i). The - ^ - ^ (11), - ^


with three
doubtful
list
(1).

(10),

(5),

V.

(3),

(1),

cases:

- ^ - ^

(1),

- ^

(1),

Compare the

of forms in 651.

529. This

Resolution

is

verse was much affected by the comic poets. admitted in the second dimeter of the tetrameter

as well as the first


fji'

y^ixdiv

(TVKov TLS

lSyj

8ta )(^p6vov veov TTore,


TO)

TW(fiOaXf^b)

TOVTM

_^^_ ^^_^ -WW


;

7reptlx6.TTOjJ.eV

TWV TTacSiwv
Pher. 132

For other examples of the Eupolidean cf. Crat. 74, 98, 318; Pherec. 29, 47, 64, 122, 191 Eupol. 78, 120; Aristoph. 54, 55; Plat. 92, 169; Alexis 206, 237; Frg. incert. 53, 54, 55, 56, 1330. 530. The epionicum (ii.) likewise consists of two polyschematist
dimeters,

the

first
ff.)

acephalous

(38),

the

second

acatalectic (Heph. 57.


ci)

11

KaAXicrTTj TToAt Traawv ocras


iv8a[p.(v TrpoTepov t'

KAewv

icfiopu,
ea-t]

ws

ycrda,

vvr 8e yaaAAov

-WW- -w-w -WWCf. also

Eupol. 290

531.

Eupol 291, 292. The Priapean (iii.)


19
ff.)

consists of

two Glyconics, the second

catalectic (Heph. 33.

ov8' At^wvt'S' pv9p6)(^p(i)V ia-dUiv

(.tl

TpiyXqv,

ovSe Tpvyovo?,

oi'Se

Seivov

<j)vrjv

p.eXavovpov

-^-w w-w- -w-w


See also Crat. 320.
532. The greater Asclepiadean eKKaiheKaavWa^ov (Heph. 34. 11

Crat.

221

(iv.),

called

also

SaircpLKov

ff),

likewise consists of two

but the first dimeter abandons Glyconic close, developing an antispast as the second metre, as in the lesser Asclepiadean (518, ii.), and is thus closely linked with the
Glyconics,

::

537
dimeter.

AEOLIC VERSE
Aristophanes
has
joined
the

237

following

Phalaecean
ff.

with this in parodying Alcaeus {frag. 84) in Av. 1410


opvide'i TLVS
o'lS'

ovSev

e;\;ovre>;
:

TrrepoiroLKiXoi,

Tai'vcr iTTTepe TrotKiAa

xeXiSoc

Ct Aves 1415
For
a

also

and
of

Vesp.

1238 (Asclepiadean
trimeters,

in a scolium).

discussion

Asclepiadean

tetrameters

and

longer periods, see the Editor's Origin and

Form

of Aeolic Verse,

304

ff.

533.

An

meter

(v.)

acatalectic and a catalectic choriambo-iambic were also combined (Heph. 30. 11 ff.)
oi?>a fxlv

di-

apx^alov Tt 8puiv koi'^i X^XrjO' i/xavTOV

_^^_
This tetrameter
(frag.

_^^_

Arist. frag.

30

the Flatterers of Eupolis is used by line in Compare also 159) in a quotation of sixteen verses.

Eupol. 38, 361.


534. Different

dimeters

might

be combined, as
:

(vi.)

the

polyschematist dimeter and the Pherecratean


ev
Xeifj.(J)VL

X(jiro(f)6pco,

KVTreLpov re Spoo'ojS?/

_^^_

Plier.

109. 2

535. The polyschematist and the choriambo-iambic dimeter - ^ ^ were combined under the fundamental scheme - ^ w - v^ The first metre assumes various forms, but two of these tetrameters got vogue. Eirst (vii.)

oooo

Xiyvvv SoKO)
wa-irep irvpos

fioL

KaOopav koI KaTrvbv

S>

yvvaiKC?

Kao/xevov

<nrev(rTeov ecrrt Oolttov

^_
536.

- ^ ^ also (viii.)
ifxal

- ^ ^ -

Lys. 319,

320

Compare
ei

yap

Trava-aiJuvo)

yov

7roAe/xoi'

ykvoiTO

- ^ ^ -

- ^ ^ -

- ^ ^ -

Arist. frag. 109. 2

Eor acatalectic examples of


537.

this tetrameter see Pher. 29 and 122. The polyschematist and the diiambic dimeter were
(ix.)
rrj-i

combined, as

^>^Aw ye

evTv^i'a? tov Trpko'fivv ot [X~i<rTij

^ -

- ^ ^

^ -

Vesp.

1450

f.

238
538.

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY

538

The Glyconic was combined with the choriambo-iambic


w
^
TrpecrfSvTa iroT^pa cfuXels ras SpvTrereli tratpas
(TV Tots VTTOTrapOevovs

dimeter, as (x.)

aX/xaSas ws lAaas
v^

^
539.

v^^w

v^v^

Arist frag. 141

The choriambo-iambic dimeter and Pherecratean were


(xi.)

combined, as
w

/xaAa>^as /xer e^epwv dvaTTvewv

8'

vuKivdov
Pher. 131.
1

- ^ ^ -

^ - ^ -

v^^-vy

v^

540. The combination of the choriambo-iambic dimeter with a catalectic polyschematist dimeter, of which the first metre was usually - ^ - ^, gave the celebrated tetrameter named (xii.)

Cratineum (Heph. 54. 11


Ei!ie
KL(rcro)(alT'

ff.)

after Cratinus
X'-^P'

ava^

'^^^^^^x'

'^K<f)avTi8rj<;,

TrdvTa ^opT^Ta, Travra toXjii^to. rwSe tu> X^PV^ TrXrjv Htvtoi) vd/uotcrt Kal Ixotvtwvos w 'K.dpov.

-wv^Cf. also Crat.

^ - ^ -

- ^ - ^

- ^ 9,

Crat.

324

327, and (text uncertain)

41, 146, 210.

For

Eupol. 37 see Heph. 54. 19

K
some of the foregoing tetrameters
'

541. It seems probable that

may have been


are often

used in continuous passages as

verses

'

rendered

in recitative, as the anapaestic tetrameter

and trochaic tetrameter

in Aristophanes, especially in the parabasis. example, very strong presumption that the series of sixteen (668) tetrameters in Eupol. 159 (533) constituted the

employed
for

There

is,

example

epirrhema or antepirrhema of a parabasis. The only certain in Aristophanes of Aeolic tetrameters rendered in recitative is found in the parabasis of the JVuhes (528), where
Eupolideans are thus used.

hypermeters

may have been

It is also possible that Aeolic used in the pnigos, in the manner


Cf.

of the anapaestic hypermeter in the parabasis. quoted in 549, and note Bergk's surmise.

Pher.

96

542. Pentameters, hexameters, heptameters, octameters and

hypermeters are formed by the union of dimeters and trimeters


of the

same or

different orders.

543.

Erom

the

foregoing

elements

systematic

periods

of

simple or varied form are composed, according as they consist of a single sort of colon or of different elemental cola.

545
544.

AEOLIC VERSE

239

strophe

may

consist solely of a single sort of colon,

as in the

two odes that follow

E^.

973-6 = 977-80 = 981-4 = 985-8 = 989-92 = 993-6


(Stasimon
I.)

Stroi^lie I.
"H/x.

7'j3to-TOV

</>aos

rj[ipas

ecrrat TOicrt

Trapowi Kat

975

Totcrt

Sevp' a^iKVOv/xa-ois,
aTroXrjTUi.

yv KXewv

^ ^ o ^

- ^ ^^ v^ w

^_^_ ^_^_
v^

w ^ S

Strophe II.
'H/x. /3' KaiTOL -peo-jSi'Tepm'

tlvmv

oiojv

dpyaXewTaTUiV iy

tco

oeiypaTL twv

Strophe
'H/x. a'

III
TroAet
/xeyas, oi'k

ws

d p)

'ykvS' ovros eV

t//

av

i]aT7;i/

o-Kei'?/

5i'o

)(jir](riiJ.(D,

SoiSi'^ orSe Topvvip

Strophe IV.
'H^. /3'dAAa Kut To5' eycuye ^arfia^w Tiys vofiova-ias avrov' (pacrl yap auTov 01 iraiSes ot ^vve<f)OiTiov,

Strophe V.
'Ku.
a' TTiv AwptcTTi
ji6vi]v
0.V

apfioTTecrOai

Oajxa

t7)i'

Xvpav,

aXXrjv 8

ouK eOeXeiv fiaOelv K'Jra tuv Kidapt(n^]v

Strophe VI.
'H/X./5' opytcr^evr' aTrayetv K-eXercu', ws apfxoviav o Trais ouTOS
oi'

SiVarat

[xaOelv r\v

/xi)

AcupoSoKicrTt.

975
Scaliger

ToTfft
:

5e?p'

dcpiKvovfxevoLS

Bentley

roiffiv

a.<f>iKvoviiivoicTLV

981 'yived'

yivoid'

The six strophes constitute a monostrophic hexad (701). The period consists of a single octameter composed of three Glyconics and See 773. a Pherecratean. See the metrical schohum on Eq. 973 ff.
545.
Xo.
Tt TTOTC

Ban. 1251-60 (Episode XL).


-payp.a yen^o-erat;

^v^ ^
^ .^ ^ ^ ^ w

w-v^^^

(fipovTL^iiv

yap eywy'

e;^co,

v^

TtV apa

fj.e/j.\j/iv

kirolcreL
St)

dvSpt Tw TToXr TrAetcTTa

w w ^^

240
1255

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


Kal KaXXicTTa
a-avTt
davjxa^di
jxkXr]
ttoii^-

546

Twv

fJ.i-XP'-

vvvl.
oirr)

5 v^ ^ ^
>^

^
v^

-^

6'"'

yap eywy'
ttotc

531

/xe/i;/'Tat

tovtov

Tov BaK^^etov avaKxa,

1260

Kttt

8e8oLX
1256

iVep aurov.
Meineke
(
:

10

^ ^ _ _ _ ^ v^ ^
^t) outuv

^ w w - v^
,^

4*"*^'

^_,

2*^^

v^

2^

iJ-ixp'- '''"''

ert yOc (yOf

+ ), 6 6 4 (+2 2), epodic triad, with refrain, in Glyconic rhythm two hexameters with a tetrameter as epode, the strophe closing with two Pherecrateans that repeat the melody of the final colon of the tetrameter. See 737 and 774.
Non-antistrophic.
:

A = aab

546. In the following all but two cola are Glyconic

Ai:

676-84

(Parabasis).

Commation.
Kop. a w
ft)

c^tAr;,

S>

^ovd-i'j,

509, 800

<l>iXraTov opvewv

38
tmv
efxoJv

TravTwv, ^vvvo/xe
vfxvwv,

- ^ ^ ^ ^
v^

2-^

^vvTpo<f)

avySot,

w w w

v^
v^


6*^

680

'^]X9es i)Xdis
)]?)vv

i!i<i>6'q^,

509
cfiepovcr'

- ^ - w

2-^
"

(f)d6yyov ip-ol

dXX w
avAbv

KaXXifSoav KpkKovcr'
<^6kyp.a(riv
'I'lpivois

apxpv Twv
Non-antistrophic.

avairaLcrTiDV.

___^ ^_^_ _ __^ ^_^_ ___^ ^__8*-^


epodic tetrad
748.
:

^w v^

A = abac,
ff,,

2- 6 2- 8,

two brachy-

catalectic polyschematist dimeters that enclose a Glyconic hexameter,

with a Glyconic octameter as epode.

See

On

the commation see 293

298.

547.

The Pherecratean was sometimes used continuously


:

in

a series of short verses


avSpes
irpocrxj^Te.

tov vovv

v^

\j

f^ivprjfxaTi.

Katv(f),

<TVfJiTrTVKTOL<i

dvaTTaicTTOis

_ _ _ ^ ^^ _ _ v^ ^ _ _

Plier.

79

Of.

Crates 33, Eupol. 162.

548. The continuous use of the polyschematist dimeter in an entire systematic period, in the manner of the Glyconic, was avoided in melic verse, probably because of the irregularity of

form of

its

first
is

Aristophanes

metre. The nearest approach to this use in found in the following ode

'

549
Vesp.

AEOLIC VERSE

241
II.).

1450-61 = 1462-73 (Stasimon


Strophe.

'H/x. a' (ijXQ

ye

tt}?

evTv^ia^i
OL /XCTeCTTT/

537

^
^ _

TOV TTpea/Sw

v^^ ^ _ M 4CV

^i]pCjv rpoTTcav Kal /JiottJs"

^_^_ _^^_
^.^v./

eVepa 5c vvv avrt/xa^wv


^)

_,^^_

/Jieya

tl fieTaTreareiTai

5
^ ^
802
10
^i?

^c^>^
.^

1455 eVt TO

Tpvcj>wv Kal /xaXaKOV.

^_^ gcv ^^_


^^
v^v.^

Ta;(a 8' av larws ovk edekot.

^.^^
^^

Th yap diroa-TrjvaL x^^^"""^^


(f>va-e(^<s


14^^'

r)v

e'xot

T15 aei.

w^^ ^
^
o

_^^_
wv.^

KairoL TToAAot ravr'

aradov
510

1460

^vvovres yvcu/xais erepoiv


[xeTe/SaXXovro TOi'S rpoTrov?.

_^^_

v^

^^

Antistrophe.
Up.. fS' TToXXov 8' liraivov Trap
ip,ol

Kai Toicrtv v (ftpovovaiv


TvxijDV airetcriv Sia rr]V

1465

(fnXoTrarpLav Kal (rocfiiav


6 irats 6 ^tAo/cAewi/os.

ov8evl

yap

oiJtojs

ayavw
k^exvdrfv.

^lii'eyevo/XT^v
7^e/xav7y^'

ovSe rpoTTOts

oi'S'

1470

Tt
OTJ

yap

eKeivos avTtAeywi/
ryv,

KpeiTTWv

f3ovX6p.ei'OS

TOV

cjivcravra crep-voTepoLS
;

1473

KaraKoa-p^rjcrai Trpccy/xacrcv

1454 /jLeTairecreiTaL Bentley /xeTa-rreicreTai or (ae7a irelcreTai Tpvipuiu Dindorf eiri t6 pxxpav or iwLTpvcpbv or fVi t6 rpvcpov
: :

1455

eTri

to

Monostrophic dyad. A = abc, 4 6 14, pericopic triad tetrameter, hexameter, hypermeter of fourteen metres. See 771. The polyschematist dimeter here admits six different forms of the unregulated first metre in addition to those that are pentasyllabic
:

or hexasyllabic by resolution or irregularity (1461 = 1473). Only two cola are non-polyschematist, the catalectic diiambic dimeters ending the first two subordinate periods. With these compare the last colon, a catalectic polyschematist dimeter (508).

549.
fragfmeut

Compare

the

series

of

dimeters

in

the

following

242

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


* * * * TOiS Se KpLTals
TOis vvvl Kpivovat Xeyu),
jtiTJ

550

VtOpKeiV

I17]8'

dSlKWS
(fiiXiov

^
5

KpivcLV,

vrj

rhv

fivOov ts

ii/xas

eVepov

^epeKpdT7j<i Ae^t ttoAu toi'TOi;

^.^
^ ^

KaKriyopLCTTepov.

^ ^

w^
v^v^

v^w v^w

Pher. 96

v>w ^

As Bergk surmised, this may have been the close of the pnigos Cf. also a parabasis, to which it would be admirably adapted. Pher. 13 (two subordinate periods), 95, Eupol. 362 (a colon and the beginning of a second), Arist. frag. 11, 533.
of

550. The continuous use of the acatalectic chorianibo-iambic dimeter was likewise avoided in strophic composition, although it appears, like the Eupolidean, in a verse of fixed form (533) The catalectic dimeter, on the other which was used by line.

hand, occurs in a fragment of Aristophanes in a series of limited


extent
ovK erbs
Tracri

w ywatKCS
eKaa-Tod' avSpes'
e'/oya

w w

v^ \j

KaKolcriv rjfias

<f>XM(riv
Setvo,

yap

Spwcrai
vtt'

Xafi/SavofJiea-O'

avTwv

^ ^ w w _ ^ ^ _ v^^

^ y^ ^ w ^ ^ w v>

v.^

^ _
^

_
Arist. 10

Compare

also

OS xapiT(3iv [xev o^ei

^
v^ w v^

KaXXafSiSas 8e
crrjcrafiiSas

jSatveL,

8e X^t^*^

firjXa Se

y^pkixiTT eTai

...

Eupol. 163

The last colon seems to be an abnormal catalexis of the preceding Emendations have been catalectic dimeter and has given offence. proposed, but the form, since it is unique, is probably due to defective The sentiment quotation, as Hermann indicated (Elementa, 576). precludes the supposition that it is a dochmius.
551. Variety of effect was secured by the combination of cola
of different orders, as of cola in the following

polyschematist and choriambo-iambic

Nuh.

949-58 = 1024-33 (Debate


Strophe.

L).

'H/x.

vvv 8ei^Tov tw

ttio-vvu)

535

950

TOts TreptSe^LOUTi

^ ^ ^

^ ^ w v? 4^

"

653

AEOLIC VERSE
XoyOKTL Kol ^pOVTL(Tt Kul
yvw/iOTvVois
{JueptfJivaLi,

243

535

953 Aeywv

u/>ictvwv Trorepos

(jiavi]a-Tai

vvv yap airas

O v^ ^w v^ ^ w 4^^ Ow ^ v^v^ ww kd y^ ^^

IvddBi. KtvSi'Vos di/irat (ro(f)ias^

957

ijs

TTcpt

Tols e/iots ^t'Aots


p.kyLcrTO<;.

fO'Tii'

dywv

o^ ^v^ w w

_,^v^_
w w
>_/

_^^_

v:;

ll'-^

'

H/bi. /3'

w KaXXiTTX^pyov
(US
'>)8v

<TO(fiiav

1025

KAeivoTciTT^v eTracrKOjv,
crov TolcTL
eVecrTii'

Aoyots
a.v6o<;.
a/a

a-iocfipov

1028

eijSaiyuoves 6'

^crav
7rt

oi

^WVTeS TOT

TWV

TTporkpoiv'
fjLovcrav
)((ov

TTpos ovv TuS'

KOfJi^oTTpeTrrj

1032

Set ere

Aeyetv ri Katvov, ws

7]v8oKiixr]Kv avt'jp.

dfxdvwv woTepos Bergk oirdrepos avro^v oir&repos avToiv is a gloss on the original iroTepos

953

X^7c<;v

\e7w;/

d/uetVwc,

in

which

Monostrophic dyad. aab, 4 4 11, epodic triad: meters, with a hendecameter as epode. See 737.

A=

two

tetra-

552. Polyschematist dimeters are combined with Glyconics


in the following fragment
* *

TTcivTa

yap yv

fiear

dvSpwv Kal
S'

fxiLpaKtijiV
6fJ.d8(j}

____ _^^_
^

^ w ^v^
v^

TTlvdvTWV, O/AOU

yp^St' ^v ixeydXauTLV oi-

kj

^k^ ^~
w

vov )^aipovTa Aerao-Tais.

Philvl. 5

See also Arist. /ra^. 561.


553. In the following ode, series of choriambo- iambic dimeters and of Glyconics are linked by two trimeters

Hq.

551-64 = 581-94
Strophe.

(Parabasis

I.).

Hfx. a

("tttti

dva^ Iloo-etSov w
i'-Trcuv

_^v^_^_^_
ktvttos

XaAKOK/oo'Twi'

^^

^ ^ ~
^ - ^ -w w

Kal

xpp.TLcrixo<s

dvSdvet

802
Kal KvavefJijSoXoc

(ant.)

$oal

- ^ ^ ^w

244
555

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


iXLcrOoffiOpot,

554

rpL-qpeis,

fieLpaKLWV 6' ajLttAAa kap.Trpvvop.ev(DV iv app-acrLV

KoX (SapySaip-ovovifTwi',
Seu/a

^ ^ wv^ ^ ^ ^ ^
w

10*^ ^ ^ ^ ^ -^
-^

6*^^

eXO'

ets

X^poi'

Xpva-orptaLv

518,

ii.

v.--^

^ ^ w
^
-^

^ - ^ - o

z""

560

Sekcfiivoiv /xeSewv Sovvtctpare,

10

^
--/

.3<=^

Tepaca-Tie ttoi K/dovov

c; C7

^lAraT e/c Twv ciAAwv re ^ewv Kdrj^opp.iu)Vi re


'

vaiots Trpos TO 7rapecrT05.

'

v^ ^ ^ qCV v v7
v^
v./

Antistro'plu.
'H/x.

^"fi

TToAtovx^ IlaAAas,

w
TTOlt]-

T^s tepwraxT/s

aTra-

(TWV TToAc/XW re Kai


ral<i

8vvdp,iL

6'

vinpcfiepov-

585

crr^s

pe^eovcra ^w/aas, Xa/Sovcra Trjv


p.a)(^aL<i

Sev/o'

a.<piKov

iv

orpaTtais re Kai

rjp.Tepav

^vvipyov

NiK-qv,

i]

x^P'''^^^ eo-Ttv eraipa


ly/xwi'

590

Tois T

exdpoitri /xe^'
(fjavrjOi'

o-Tacria^'et.

vuv ovv Sevpo

Set

yap TOis dvSpdcri


a-Q

ToicrSe irdvi-

T^X^V

iropLcrai (re

Kr]v ecTrep irore

Kai vvv.

A = abccd, 10 6 3 3 8, proodic pentad: a Monostrophic dyad. decameter as proode to a periodic tetrad composed of a hexameter, two catalectic Asclepiadean trimeters, and an octameter as epode.
See
753.

See the metrical scholium on Eq. 551


554.

fF.

With

this

compare

the

following

series

of

live

tetrameters

w /xaAaxas

- ^ ^ .^ k^ v^w Kol peXiXioTivov AaAwv 533 w^ Kai pdSa Trpocra-ea-qpm, w (^lXmv pkv dp.dpaKOV 531 5 <^ w w irpocTKLvCdv Se creAtra,
p-ev

e^epwv

539

dvairvifDV 8' vdKivOov,

^^

^ w ^ ^ i^^ v^ v^
v^
4*^

v^

^ ^ ^ i^^

556
yeXCjv
8' iTTTTOo-eAtva

AEOLIC VERSE
Kal

245
y^ -^

531 531
10

^
4

Kocr/ioo-avSaAa fSaivwv,

(yX^i KaTTifSoa rpiTOV


Tratcjv,

ws I'o^os
series
is

1(7Tlv.

^ ^ ^ ^

^ ^ v^ v^ 4*^^

Pher. 131

555.

of

two

catalectic choriambo-iambic cola

and

a Pherecratean

found in Arist. frag. 695:


V t)8v6(rfxoi.<;

oo-Tis

cTTpio/JLaiTt.

iravvvxi^wv

TYjV

Se(ToLvav epetSets.

^ ^ ^ ^ ^

^ w ^ _ _

556. Diiambic and Glyconic cola are the chief constituents


of the following

Ecclesiaznsae

911-17 = 918-23
Strophe.

(Episode

II.).

Ne.

alai

t'l

ttote Trila-Ofiai


516
/}

v^^^

v^

ovx

i^KCi

fiovTalpos,

73,

912

[MOVYj 8'

avTov

AetTro/iat,

800 w

-^


w
v^7

yap
Ktti

fioi p-'JTrjp

aXXy
{xeTOi

f^efSijKi.

TaXA' ovSev

ravra 8d Aeyeiv
38,

518

-^^-^-^^ w
v^ v^

915

d\K
KaXet,

S)

fxaV iKerevofiaL,

'Opdayopav, ottws

w
ere.
ii.

w ^
10^^

<av> cravT^S Karovat', dvTi/?oAw

518,

^v.--w^-v^
w -~ ^ v^

Antistivphe.
Tp.
TjSr]

Tov a-' 'Iwvtas

T/DOTTOV

TaAaiva

kvtjo-i^s,

_ ^ _ ^ w
.

920

BoKLS 8e fiOL Kal Xdf3Sa kuto. toi'S Aecr/?toi'S.

uAA'

OTJK

av

TTod'

v<f)apTrd(Tai'i

Tafia, iraiyvia'

rrjv S'

eyni^v 5

^ ^ ^

v^

v^

w w

w/Dav ovK aTToAets ovB' aTroX-qifei.

916 'Opdaydpav Ed.


Scaliger
:

toc 'Opdaydpav

917

d)/

Hermann

921 i>ap7rd<rais

ixpapTrdaaio

The strophe and antistrophe constitute the second dyad in a In the strophe, See 717. proodic combination of eleven strophes. C = abc, 2 7 10, pericopic triad: catalectic polyschematist dimeter, In the antistrophe C = ab, See 771. Aeolic heptameter, decameter.

246
7 7,
770.

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


epodic dyad
:

557

diiambic heptameter, Glyconic heptameter. See Aristophanes simplifies the rhythm of the first half of the

antistrophe.

Peculiarities of See 51. exaggerated in this part of the strophe.

rhythm

are

intentionally

557. In
are

the following ode two subordinate periods that mainly ditrochaic end each with a catalectic choriambo-

iambic dimeter

Eccl

900-5 = 906-10 (Episode


StT02jhe.

II.).

Ne.

/XTj

(f)96veL

raicriv veaLcn,
kp.Trk<^vKi.

_^__ _^_^
-.^ -^

901

TO Tpv(f)pov yap
Tois aTraAoicri

p.rjpol'i

^^ ^ ^

^=^

^ ^

v^

6^

903

KaTTt rots /^r^Aots 7rav^et'

(tv

S'

w ypav,
5 -y^

TTapaXeXe^at KavTeTpiipaL

Tw

davoLTO)

p.X-i]fj.a.

^ ^ w ^ ^ v^ 7*"^

Antistrophe.
Yp.
(K~<roL crov to Tprjfia

907

TO T

kiTiKXiVTpov (iTro/BoiXois

l3ovXojxvrj (TTroSeicrOat,

909

KUTTl TtJs kAiVT^S 0</>6V ev-

51,

pots

Kal TrpocreAKiVato
<fiLXTJ(Tai.

517,

j3ovXofxeV7j

_ ^ _ K^ ^ ^w 507 ^ v^ 208 ^ ^
.

_ ^ _ ^
-^^

.^

'

6^

v./

^J y^ ^ ^ ^ ~ 6^
in a proodic

The strophe and antistrophe


:

constitute the

first

dyad

combination of eleven strophes. In the strophe B = ab, 6 7, See 717. pericopic dyad hexameter, heptameter. See 770. In the antistrophe two hexameters in correspond(51) B = aa, 6 6, monostrophic type ence. See 767.
:

558.

Still

greater variety in form and melody was secured


of three

by

combining cola
joins
series

different

orders in

the same strophe,

as in the following, in

which a simplified logaoedic pentameter two periods composed of choriambo-iambic cola with a of polyschematist and Glyconic dimeters.
Nub.

563-74 = 595-606
Strophe.

(Parabasis

I.).

'H/x.

vipifjLiSovTa /xev

dc(av

800

(ant.)

Zrjva Tvpavvov ets ;^o/)6v

^ ^ ^ ^

w w ^ ^

"

559

AEOLIC VERSE
pwra
rov re
fieyav kikAi/ctkw,

247

565

y^

6*^

//.eyacrdevrj

Tptaivijs rafiiav,

yvy-j

re Kal dA/xi'pa? daXacr-

800
cTTjs

r,

aypiov

fioxXevTi'ji',

- ^ w ^ ^

^ - ^ ^ 7*^''

Kol fieyaXiovvfJiov I'lfieTepov irarkp'

389
570 383
Toi'

AWepa. a-epvorarov PioOpeppova


^'

-^-^ -^ ^ -^-^-^-----5c
TrdvTO)\\

iTnrovwpav o?

uTrep-

Au/x7rpots ttKTtcrtv Karex^' 10


yi^s TreSov,
p.kya<i kv
deot<i

ev

6vrjT0ia-i

re Satyawv.

^v^ ^yw w w ^ ^ ^ w S^^


v^

'H/*. /3'

a/x(^t /xot
)/

avT

<l>06/5'

ava^ Ar)ki

KwOluv e^wv
e'xcis

{npiKepaTa irerpav,

598
601

'Ec^eo-ov

paKUipa Trdyxpvo'ov
6eu<;

ofKOV v

^ Kopat

(re

AvSwi' peydXws
i}

(rkfiova-iv,

7rixwp'os 'ijperepa
^'

alyi8os I'ptoxos ttoAiouxo? 'A^ava,

603

Ilapi'ao-o-tav

os Karex'^^' ireTpav crvv TrevKais creAayei

BaKXaiS

AeXcfiLcnv epirpeTrwv, KW/AacrTTjs Atdvt;cros.

A = abed, 6 7 5 8, pericopic tetrad Monostrophic dyad. choriambo- iambic hexameter and heptameter, simplified logaoedic See 772. pentameter, polyschematist-Glyconic octameter.
559.
in Aiiat. frag.
Yiiprjvr]

The same Aeolic dimeters 109 (aab, 4 4 8 ?)


(Ba6vXovT Kal

are

combined more
^ ^^ ^ ^ ^

intricately

538
536

^vydpLov fSoeLKov
t

yap

efiol

iravcrapevu)

ToG TToXepov yei/otTo


a-Kdij/ai

KdiroirXdaaL t koX

[>

Aovcra/zevw SieAKiVat

^ ^ ^ ^ i

w ^ ^
y^

ww
^ ^ ^

T^S Tpvyo^ dpTov Xiirapov


Kal pd(f)avov (fiayovri.

^ -^ ww
:

y^ v^4 -^ ^ ^ ^ ^ S
^-y

Compare the following


VTT

series of tetrameters
Of.

dvaSevSpdSojv ciTraAas
da-TraXdOov'; TraroiJvTes

535

.^^

V AetjUoivt X(DTO(f)OpO)

534

___^ _^^_
w w
^^

^ ^ ^
<,

^ ^ v^ vy4
4

KVTTftpov T Spoa-aiSr]

248

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


IWV

560

KdvdpVCTKOV /AaAaKWV T
XiifiaKa
Koi,

538

Tpi(f)vXXov.

v^ v^w

v^

v^

4^ Pher.

109

With

the

first of

these tetrameters compare Aiist. frag. 142.

560. Polyschematist,

Glyconic and diiambic

cola

may

be

combined
Thes.

352-71
75

(Parode).

Xo.

^vvV)(^6fxe6a

reAea

fxev

TToAei TeAca Se S^/^o)

^ >^ w <^w^
\j
\j

.^w^
^ i^ 2^^ w 2 w v^w

rdS' ivyp-ar

iKyevecrdaL,
6'crais
"

355
357

TO,

8'

dpia-Q'

TrpoaqKei
o

I'tKttv

Aeyoucrais

oTrdcrat

y^ 379 -^ ^ 5 v^
re Tors

I'qaTTarQxTiV Trapa/Saivovcri

opKovs Tovs vevopicrpkvovi

^
v^

^_^_
v^v^9" ^ ^ w v^
v^
v./

360
7]

KepBwv CLveK
ijyqfjiLcrpaTa
(rjTOva-'

irrl

/SXafSy,

Kai vopov
10

^
v^

dvTLpeduTTdvai
-

raTTOppl^Td T TOlCtV

___^^_^_
^
<^

X^pois Tois rjpeTepoLS Xiyovcr,

365

If}

M7y8oDS eTrayoncri t^s


t ouveK
7ri

___^ ^_^_
^ wv^ 12^

X^^po-S
acre/Joucr'

f3Xdj3y f, 14

dStKoucrt re rvyv TrdAtv

dAA' 389 v^-^-^-^-2


ioo-8'

(5

TrayKpares Zev raiJTa KvpwcreLas,

370

ly/Liiv

Oeov? Trapaa-rarelv

KaiTrep yvvac^lv ovcrais.

__^_ ^^_,_,_ __^_ ^__7C


357 i^airaTuiciv
:

354
oi/ve/c'

evy/JiaT eKyevecxBai

Dindorf

tiJyfxaTa yeviffdat

Hermann

364 X^70U(r' Suidas X^yovaiv 366 eij-e/c' Bentley : eVeK* a disturbing phrase derived from 360, that has displaced some such sentiment as /xvpia t aWa vvv, the second count in the third item of indictment, which should be double like the two that precede. The imprecation after 367 dae^ova' ddiKovffi TT)v 7r6Xtf is left to the imagination of the spectator Hermann affe^ovaiv dBtKovciv
(^airaruxn
^TTt

360
:

/3Xd/35

B = ab (352-60, 361-71). a = abbe, 4 2 2 9, a tetrameter as proode, two dimeters and a nonaB = abc, 12 2 7, pericopic triad: Glyconic meter as epode. See 745. See 771. dodecameter, anapaestic dimeter, diiambic heptameter.
Non-antistrophic.
:

periodic tetrad

561. The commonest combination in Aristophanes joins polyschematist with choriambo-iambic and diiambic cola, as in

the five odes that follow

ii

562

AEOLIC VERSE
Nul.

249

510-17

(Parabasis

I.).

Commation.
Ko/o.

uAA'

'iOi

yaipuiv Trjs uvopeias

281

ovvKa TavT}]S.
VTV)(ia yei'OiTO rav-

>^

533
792, 800

dpwTTW, OTl TrpOrjKWV


els

jSadv

Tvys

rfXiKias
cftvcTLV

5 ^v^
av-

515

v(j)TpoLS rrjv

Tov n-pdyp.aa-iv ^puiTi^eTai


KOL
cro(f)Lav

eTracTKei.
:

v^v^ w v^ ^ sj v^ ^ ^ ^ -^ 8
avrov
:

511 owera Brunck

elVe/ca

or

^;'6/ca

515

ai;ToO Dindorl'

3 4 8, pericopic triad See 771. trimeter, Aeolic tetrameter and octameter.

Non-antistrophic.

A = abc,

anapaestic

On

the commation see 293, 298.


Niih.

562.

700-6 = 804-13
Antistrophc.

(Syzygy).

'Hyu. f3'

ap' ala-Oavet Trkela-ra Sl'


fias

rj-

535

dyad' avTi'x' e^wv

ixovas

Oewv

ws
ecTTtv

513
diravTa.

- ^ ^ ^ ^ y^ ^^ 04 ^ ^y 2-'-

Tot/iOS o8'

Spdv

00-'

av KeXevrjs.
B'

379 513
iTrrjpfJievov

^-^-^-v.-2
5

(TV

avSpos eKTre7rXrjy/xVov
(f)avp{os

810

Kal

^ ^ w ^=^3 v^v^
6i'i'ao"at

y^

2-'-

^ w v> y.

yvoi's diroXdipeis 6

TrXi'icrTOV

51
raxfws"
(jiiXei

-wv^- -^..rot-

^ -

yap

7ra>5

rd

51
aij^'

^_^__-^-
^^

trepci

rpeTrecr^at.

51

10

v/

11

*S'^/'op7ie.

'H/i.a' <f)p6vTi^

8r)

Kal Siddpei iravra t/30 ov re aavTov

702

(TTpofSei TTVKVwcras.

Ta;(us
67r'

S',

oTttv CIS
7r7^Sa

diropov

Trea-rjs,

(xAAo

705

vorjfia

(f)pv6s,

vttvos S'

uTreo-TW

yAvKU^v/iOS

6fifiaru>v.

MonostropMc dyad.
strophe), epodic pentad
:

probably = abc'bd, 4 2-2 2-11 (4 in the

a tetrad composed of a tetrameter, and two penthemimers that enclose a logaoedic dimeter, with a See 762, hendecameter (tetrameter in the strophe) as epode.

diiambic

250

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


See the metrical scholium on Nuh. 804
563.
Lys.
fF.

563

321-34 = 335-49
Strophe.

(Parode).

Xo. Fu.

irkrov Trkrov I^ikoSikyj


TTpli'

c;

v^

^^_"

322

i/nreTTprjcrdai,

KaXvKTjv

v^-w- -v^^_ v^-w^ ^^ ^ ^^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ - ^ ^ -

/cat

KpiTvkXav

7repL(jiV(T'r]TW

509
VTTo

-M

7.CV

re vopwv apyaXkuyv

_^^_

325

VTTO re yepovTUiv

oXWpwv.

dXXa
327 vvv 328
Srj

^ofBovp-ai, ro^i..

fi^v

vcTTipoTrovs fSoTjOw;

x^^_
w

_^^_

^ ^

yap

eixTrXi](rap.kvi]

535
10

Tv/i/

vSpiav KVcf)aia

_ ^ ^ _

/toAts aTTo Kpi^vT^s inr'

oxXov

^^^v^

gC ^ v^^_ ^ _ m 4CV ^ ^

Kal dopx'fiov Koi Trardyov )(^VTpiov

330
SovXato-LV (JjCTTl^OpAvi]

5^

(TTcypaTiaL^ 6\ apraAews
dpafji,V7],

Taicriv kpal'i
/cao/^evais /3or)6w.

SrjfxoTLcriv

15

334

(ft'epovcr'

v8wp

^ _ ^ v/ w w ^ v^ ^^ w ^

Antistrophe. Xo. Tv.


i^Kovo'a
Ttts

ydp Txx^oykpovdvSpa'S cppeiv crreAcx^/

336
tS

(f>povTas u)(T7rep /JaAavevo-ovTas

TToAtV j-WS TpiTClAai'TOvt


Seti/oTar'

/Sct/JOS,

a;rtAoi;vTas eTrtov
;(p'^

340
341 as

(US

TTV/Di

Tols /xva-apas

yvvaiKos dvOpaKemiV
(5

dea

fx-q

ttot

eyw

TripTrpa/xevas

iSoip-i,

342 aAAa

TroXkfxov Kal jxavcwv

pv(Tapeva<s

'EAAaSa Kal
xpv(roX6(f)a

TToAiVas,

344

e^' oTcnrcp

TToXiovxe eras ecrxov eSpas.

Kal

ere

/caAw
et

(Tvp.p.a)(^ov

T/3tToye;/t',

rts eKt-

vas vTroTTipTrprja-LV dvijp,


(fikpetv

v8(x)p

jxeO'

vfiQv.
is

330

5oi5\at<riv

Dindorf:

5oi/\7;o-t;'

Lys. 277, 278 (94) and the note

338 The second 'dactyl' 347 et Reisig ijv


:

dubious.

Cf.

565

AEOLIC VERSE

251

strophe),

C (704) = abcde, 7-84510 (12 in antiMonostrophic dyad. brachycatalectic heptameter, octameter, pericopic pentad See tetrameter, pentameter, decameter (dodecameter in antistrophe).
:

772.

On

the pentameter

345, the colon lacking in the strophe of. Crat. 172.

(51),

see 510.

With

564.

Ecd.

968-71 = 972-5 (Episode


Strophe.

II.).

Neavts.

Kol Tavra fievTOL

fj.erpi.ui'i

537 535
5

w
^ ^ v^v^ ^ ^

-v^v^

969 970

Trpos Tr/v ifi-qv dvdyKr]y


dpr)ii.v'

i=i_^^ ^_i=i4

kcTTLV.

(TV

8e flOl,

_^^
w ^

^^ 2

cfiiXrarov

iKerevw,

^4

civot^ov da-ud^ov fx^' 8td

Toi

ere

TToi'oi'?

e\(j

Antistrophe.

Id

Neavtas.

c5

xpv(ro8ai8aXrov

e/xov

^leX^][xa,

KvTrptSo? epvos,

fieXiTTa Movo-7/s, XapiTuiv Qpkp.jia, Tpv<^7]s' TrpcxrwTrov,

975

avot^ov dxrird^ov
rot
ere

fxe'

Bid

ttovous ex^^-

The strophe and antistrophe constitute the fifth dyad in a proodic r = aabc, 4 4 2 1, epodic See 717. combination of eleven strophes. two tetrameters and a dimeter, with a dochmius as epode. tetrad The dochmius that closes the lyric is admirably adapted to See 742.
:

express the emotion of the singer, and connexion with iambics, elsewhere in

it

Aristophanes

occurs in just this form, in in passages of

Cf. Ach. intense feeling, in comic imitation or parody of tragedy. 744 (469), 873 1219, 1221 (599), A^ub. 1163, 1164 (474), Fesp. 730

= 890

(470).

565.

Ach.

1150-61 = 1162-73 (Stasimon


Strophe.

III.).

'H/z.a' 'Av'TLfj-axov rvv i^-aKaSos

y^

^^

^ ^
- ^ ^ w v^ 4*^ ^

Tov ^vyypa(f)ri rov /xeAewi'

TrotJ^rryv,

-^
(OS fiiv (xttAo)

^ -

^-^5^^

Aoyo),

KaK(.o<;
*

533 ^ ^

e^oXicreuv 6 Ztv?
OS y'
^fJ-^

^v./

TOV

TXi'jfioifa Atj-

wv--

WWw-^5^

II 55

voia yopnywv aTreXva-' dSenrvou.

-WW- -WWOV t'


fTTtSot/it
t)

Tv0l8oS
S'

cJ^^w^^

Seo/xevoi',

iotijij.V)j

w^^w

w w ^ ^

'

252
CTL^ovcra

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


TrdpaXos enl rpairk^ij KeL/xhi]

56G

OKcXXoi' kStu

fieX-

10

v^

1160

AovTos Aa/5etv avrov kvwv


apTrdfracra <f>vyoL.
,

_ ^ _

\^

w
^ _ m
6^^

'H/,1. /3'

TOVTO

jiiev

aiJTtj)

Kaiwv

4V,

k^^' eVepov vvKTe/3ivov ykvoiro.

1164 TjTTtaAwv yap 1166 etra Kard^eLe 1168 /zaivo/ievos o


1171
cTra^etev 8*

o'tKaS'

e^ iTTTracrias /JaSt^wv,

Tts aurov /xe^i'wv tvjs Ke(fiaXrjs 'O/jccttt/s


8e

XWov

jSaXeiv jSouAo/^tevos

ctkotw

XdfSoL tq

X^ipl TTeXedov apTiws Ke^fO'/^^i'oi'


e;)(^u)v

tov /xctp/iapov, Kaireid' d/xaprwv /SdXoL Kparlvov.

constitute the dyad BB of the proodic triad that forms the stasimon. See 717. B = abacd, 5 4 5 7 6, epodic pentad a tetrad composed of a pentameter, a tetrameter, a second pentameter and a heptameter, with a hexameter as epode.

The strophe and antistrophe


:

contrast in form, due to extreme resolution and between the last two subordinate periods is admirably adapted to heighten the comic effect of the sentiment. See the metrical scholium on Ach. 1143 fF.

See

761.

The

protraction,

566. Cola

of

four

orders

may

be

combined in the same


(Debate).

strophe
Vesp.

526-45 = 631-47
Strophe.

'HyLl. a'

VVV Se

TOl'

Ik $l]fJ.TipOV

yvfxvaariov Xkyeuv ti Set

Katvov, OTTOiS (f)avq(rL B8.

iveyKard)

fxoi

Sevpo rrjv

^ ^ w
w

Kia-TTjV Tts

ws Tax'tTTa.

530 drap
'H/x. a'
/xr)

<^avet ttoTos Tts wv,


;

^v TttuTa TrapaKeXevi] Kara tov veavtav


TovSe Aeyetv.
(TOL )tAyas

opas yap ws

eo"T

dywv

<vi;v>

10

535 Koi

Trepl

rujv ciTravTwv
/xt)

ct'Trep,

yevoiTO,
Kparrjcrai.

537 oStos ideXeL


BS.
Kttt
p.y)v
oar'

ww w ^ ^ v^
v^

v^v^ ^ ^ k^ ^ w v^ v^ vy ^ v^ v^ ^q^^ ^ ^^ w v^ wv-- <^ \^ v^v^


^^

^^


6^^

4*^^

4^^


6*^ 2*^

v./

v^

v? ^ ^
v^ v/

2^^ 2^^

av Xe^rj y' aTrAws

4^

ixv7jix6(rvva ypdipofxai 'yw.

15 c^v^ w
w
v.y

$t.

Tt

yap
jU,

(jidd'

vjieis,

oSt

^ w
v^
4*^

TO)

Aoyw

Kpar-jcry;

^ ^

^
'

567
a
OVKTl
7r/3eO-/?VT(ijV

AEOLIC VERSE
6)(\o<i
oLKaprj,

253
\^

H/X.

541

-^pTi'ja-LiJLos

k<TT
8'

ovS'

v-zv^ ^ ^

v^w

(TKioTTTO/xevot

iv Ta?5 oSots aTrdfrafi

544

6aXX.O(fi6poL KaXoi'iMed' , dvTwfio<rto}V


KeXvcf)-)].

533

v^w

v^w
Antistrophe.

^ ^

v^

4*^

'H/X. yS' OVTTWTTod'

OVTd) KadapW<i

632
4i.

ot'Sefb? rjKOVcrapLei/ ov8e

^wTws AeyovTOS.
dXX'
ipyjfxa'S

OVK,

we^' ov-

T(o p^SiUiS Tpvyt]crLV.

635

KaA.(3s

yap ySeiv

o)?

eyw

TaVTrj KpOLTUTTOS
'H/x. /3' (is Se ttcivt'

ClfJiL.

kTr(.X-i]Xv6ev

637

Koi5Sei'

TraprjXdev, mctt' eyuty'

rjv^avofiTjv aKOVCDV,
Kttv fJLaKapwv

StKa^eiv

ai'Tos t'So^ct VTjcrots,

641 ^8o/xevos AlyovTi.


S>t.

WS

8'
Tttt

OVTOS

^^StJ

(TKOpSlVattVTOV.

KOLO-TLV
lycij

OVK CV

BS.

1^

/xi]v

(re

rrjixepov

a-KVTrj j3XeTrei.v Trotiycrw.


'H/x. /3' 861

8e ere Travrotas TrAeKCtv


et's

aTTocfitv^iv

TraAa^a?,
Treirdvat
;)(aA7roi'

646

T7/V ya/3
/xi)

p)v opyrjv
/xo{!

Trpos

AeyovT6.
:

iv

536 y^voiro Ed. (7^1/01^' Bentley) yiuoLTo vvv MSS. 534 z/w Bentley 642 ws 5' Hirschig 544 KaXovfied' Person KaXolfxeO' Person hv iv
: :

543
:

ua-d'

Monostrophic dyad. A = AB (526-37, 538-45). A = abba ( + ), a hexameter as tetrad, with refrain ( + 222), palinodic proode, two tetrameters and a second hexameter as epode, with three In the strophe B = aabc, See 746 and 774. dimeters in refrain. two tetrameters and a heptameter, with a 4 4 7 4, epodic tetrad See 742. In the antistrophe B = aab, 4 4 9, tetrameter as epode. two tetrameters, with a nonameter as epode. See 737. epodic triad The close of the antistrophe is simplified. See 51.

6446

567.

scolium

( Ath.

The following ode has the metrical form xv. 695 a)

of a

famous

254

THE VEESE OF GREEK COMEDY


Eccl

568

938-41

= 942-5
Strophe.

(Episode IL).

Ne.

(.16'

e^rjv

irapa

T'fj

vea KaOevSeuv

Kal

fxrj

"Sei

Trporepov SiaaTroBrjcrai,
jcv

940

dvda-tjxov

rj

Trpe(r(3vTepav,

510 v^ v^
eX^vdepio.

^ ^
^ ^

ov yap dvao-XiTOV tovto y

_ ^ ^ _
Anfistrophe.
Tp.
ol[JL(x>^(MV

w w^3^'

dpa
TttTTt

vrj

Ai'a CTToSyjtrets,
kcrrlv.

ov yap

Xapi^evj^s raS'

Kara tov

vojxov
et

ravra

ttoiciv

945
939
/irj

eo-Ti
ix-qUv

SiKatov,

^r]p.0KpaT0vp.ida.
:

'Set

Elmsley

940 irpea^vr^pav Bothe

irpea^vTepov

The strophe and antistrophe


:

constitute

the

third

dyad

in

= aab'c, 3 3 2 3, See 717. proodic combination of eleven strophes. two Phalaeceans and a polyschematist dimeter with epodic tetrad
anapaestic opening, with a trimeter as epode.

See

742, 775.

568.

With

the last colon in the above compare the fragment

of the scolium in Vesp. *

1245
*

ff.

^pqixara Kal
Kdjxol fx^rd

(3lov

KXetrayopa re

GcTTaAwv.

569. Tvt'o closely related Aeolic tetrameters in


are illustrated in 535
f.

common

use
first

In the fundamental scheme the

metre
of

is

unregulated.

this

general form, with resolution in


it

Anacreon {frag. 24) uses a tetrameter the first metre, and


in Av.

Aristophanes appropriates
dvaireTofJiaL
8rj

1372

Trpos "OXvfMTTOv TTTepvyecrai Kov<^at^

Hephaestion (30, 6 ff.) is in doubt whether the resolved first Aristophanes, metre represents an iambic dipody or a choriamb.
with

much humour, makes

this

ambiguous resolution the under-

lying conceit of a song in which he travesties the extravagances


of the dithyrambic poet Cinesias, but as he proceeds he genially

enlarges the original ambiguity.

He

rings all possible changes

570

AEOLIC VERSE

255

on the tetrameter
practice

by means
among

they are
of

all

impossible according to his

own
the

of resolution

and contraction in the choriamb


equivalent
in
art,

and

by substitution

metres

length

to

choriamb.
dialogue

Furthermore,

with
In

showman's

he

introduces

these fancy tetrameters to break the stream of

the dithyrambist's 'melody.'

1394

f.

and

at the close of

the song the poet shifts to the acatalectic form of the original
tetrameter.

This had been


TTi'vetv
ctet

made

familiar by Pherecrates

Kal yme^rctv Ttplv dyopav TreTrXr^Bevai

^ Av.
(Cinesias sings)

_^^_ _^^_ ^_^_


1372-1400
8i]

pher. 29

(Episode IL).

1372

ff.

" dvaTTiTOfiai
TreTOfxai
8'

7rpo<;

"OXv/xtov TrTepvyecra-i

68ov aAAor'

eV aAAav

fxeXewv

Kov(fiai,s'"

(Interruption)

1376

f.

d.(f)6f3(ii

cf)pivl

(TijofxaTi

re veav

(f)eTra>v

(Welcome)
(Remonstrance)

1380

f.

opvis yevio-dai jSovXopai Xiyv(fj6oyyo^ ar^Swv.

('

Iambic

'

and antispastic variations)

1393

tf.

etSwAa

7reTLvu>v

atdepo8p6p.iDV oicuvtov ravao8eipMv

(Interruption)
Tov d\d8po-

fxov

uAd/jievos dfi'

dvep.o)v 7ri/otaicri j3air]v

(Interruption)

^ ^

(Major ionic variation)

(Anaclastic minor ionic variations)

1398

ff.

TOTc

fikv

voTiav ari\wv Tpos 686v, Tore

8'

av jSopea

o-w/xa TreAa^iov dXip-tvov

aWepo? avXaKa

Te/xi'iov.

Aristophanes himself never resolves either long of choriamb nor contracts its shorts not to mention the extravagant variations here introduced his audience would be quick to appreciate the skill with which he brought the resources of metric into the service of his art as a comic poet. 570. Catalexis is common in all forms of Aeolic verse, at
Since
the

" ~

256

THE VEESE OF GREEK COMEDY


Brachycatalexis
also
is

571

the close of a period.

found even in

Aristophanes (509), as in Av.


Zys.

676,
not

680

(546), in

1724
other

(588),
poets.

323

= 337

(563),

and

is

uncommon

Similar shortening of the beginning of a colon was effected by


or sometimes even two of the initial might be suppressed. Aristophanes makes frequent use of the acephalous Gly conic (^-^ ^ - ^ -) and of its catalectic form, the acephalous Pherecratean (^ - ^ ^ ). The latter is called also colon Eeizianum, a modern name.^ 571. In some odes Aristophanes employs these cola con-

acephalization (38).

One

syllables of the colon

tinuously, as in the following

Uq.

1111-20 = 1121-30 = 1131-40 = 1141-50


(Stasimon
Strophe
II.)
I.

'H/i.

a &

Arjfxe

Kak-qv y' e^eis ore ttcivtcs avcr'

w
800
(st. iii.)

1112

apxriv,

^^_^_~
^ ' o 8^^' ^ w

v^

dpomot SeSiWi
irep

uxt-

avSpa Tvpavvov.
ivirapaywyo'i
ei,

1115

a.\X'

^WTTcvo/xevos re x'^'"
peis Ka.^airaTwfXiVO'i,

^ ^ ^ ^ ~^ w 5 wv^ ^ ^
v^

^_^_"

irphs Tov T Aeyovr'

aet

800
K)(rji'a<;,

(St. iii),

802

o vovs 8e

aov

1120

Trapwv airo^p.d.

^ - ^ v^ v^ 10 o - v^

w - v^ ^ _ ^ _ w - ^ 12^^'

Strophe II.
\r).

Strophe III.
'Up.. /3' xovro)
e'l

voGs OVK evL rais. KOfiais


vfiSiV,

pkv av ev

ttoiois,

0T

/x'

ov
8'

(fypoveiv

croL

dkvoti;?
t/jottw,
to?

tVeor'
Aeyets,

vofii^er

eyo)

ko)v

ev

tw

Tavr' rjXiOid^o).

tovtw yrdw

TroXXrj,

1125 avTos re yap

-rjSop-at

1135

el

Tova8'
Tvep

7riT7ySes

w(r

l3p'vXXo)V TO Kad' y)p.pav,

Srip-oaiovi rpe(f>i^
ttvkvi,

KXeiTTOvrd re f^ovXopai
Tpi(piv eva
7rpo(rTaT>;v

kv

ry

Kad' orav
oxj/ov

pij croi Tv\rj

ov,

TouTov

S',

orav y irXewi,

tovtwv 6s av y

Tra^iis

1130
1

apas 7raTa^a.

1140
100.

dvcras eTrtSeiTrvets.

the various forms of this colon as they appear in Plautus, see Lindsay^ classification in his edition of the Captivi

On

See also Leo, Rhein. Mus. xl. 185 flf., Plant. Cant. 58 ff., Der saturnische Vers, 74 ff.

573

AEOLIC VERSE
Strophe IV.

257

auTois TreptepxofxaL
Toi'S
KOLfx'

oio[Xvovs <f>poveii'

e^airarvkkeLV.
CKacrTor' av-

1145 TijpM yap

Toi'S oi'Se

SoKwi' opai'
eVetT'

K AcTTTOvTas

dvay-

Ka{w

TTccAiv

e^epilv
/x,ou

arr' av KexAo^wcri

1150

K^jp-ov

KaraprjXm'.

dyad

See 701. A = ab, 8 12, pericopic Monostrophic tetrad, AAA A. See 770. an acephalous-Glyconic octameter and dodecameter. See the metrical scholium on Eq. 1 1 1 1 fF.
:

was regarded and ten or eleven primary times, and that two contiguous cola were joined as closely as But it is more likely, in view of the two normal Glyconics.
572. It
is

possible that the acephalous Glyconic

as a complete colon of seven syllables

relation of the acephalous Glyconic to other cola

(cf.

Av. 1*731

ff.

in 588 and Mib.

1345

and had the

full

was normally dodecaseme The time of the syllable time of the Glyconic.
f.

in 576), that

it

lacking at the beginning of the acephalous colon within the subordinate period

may then have been marked by


;

a pause,

if

the

previous colon ended with a word

two acephalous cola were joined in the middle of a word, the union must have been Thus the first subordinate period in effected by protraction. the foregoing ode in the first and second strophes respectively would be as follows, the instrumental accompaniment and the
but
if

dance continuing for the


1111
1121
ff.

full

time

- -

v./

w-w- ^--^
^ - ^ ^

^ ^

v./

^^ - -

v^

ff.

--W

- - ^

"A^.^

^ - ^ -

573. The value of the dimeter now under consideration ( - v^ lias been variously determined by ancient and modern ) Heliodorus consistently denominates this dimeter and metricians.

^ w

The metrical symbols

and

(33) designate respectively an eighth (1) and a quarter (r) pause." The tie {^)

here indicates the protraction of a long syllable to the value of a dotted quarter note or of a half note.

^ ,

258
its catalectic

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY

574

ionic

form respectively as hephthemimeral and hemiolic major See, for dimeters ( v-'v^ ^ and ^ ^ ). Hephaestion (35. 8 ff.) ignores example, the scholium on this ode. the hemiolic phrase, but follows Heliodorus in his classification of the longer colon (aS' "Apre/xis, w Kopai, quoted from Telesilla) as ionic. Rossbach denominates it " mixed first prosodiac " or " logaoedic

prosodiac" {Spec. Metrik^, 530, 563), and Westphal regards, it (Allg. Metrik^, 354)asanacatalectic monanapaestictripody: ^ - ^ ^ - -^ in accordance with the general logaoedic theory of all Aeolic verse If this dimeter is major ionic, it will that these scholars entertain. be noted that the second, catalectic metre has primitive trochaic form (615 ff.) ; but this is without parallel in poetry of the fifth century. Furthermore, major ionic verse is not foimd in Greek comedy, and the constant association of this dimeter with Glyconics and diiambic cola in Aristophanes, of which abundant illustrations follow, establishes a strong presumption that it is Aeolic, and a shortened form See von Wilamowitz, Isyllos, 143. of the Glyconic.
' '

574.
cola

With the now under

exception of the acatalectic and catalectic


consideration,

acephalous Aeolic

cola,

Aristophanes employs few and only in obvious imitation of primitive


Of,
in

popular forms or in parody.

parody, Av.

904, 908,
instance

909

(585), Ban.

1319

(586),

1347, 1350 (592).

An

of dissyllabic acephalization occurs in Th.

992

(589).

See the

Editor's Origin

and Form of Aeolic Verse. 575. Hermippus also used the acephalous
- w v^ ^ v^w ^ w ^ v^ ^ ^ 5^ ^ ^ w v^ v^ ^ kj k^ w
y_^

Glyconic

and

Pherecratean
Xatp
u)

SiaTToVrtov
Tt TTpaTTOfxev
aiTO (ru>[xaTos
;

(TT/aaTeu/Aa,
TO,

ixkv

y'

Trpos
KOfJLr)

oij/LV

e^ei KaAws,

T veaviKYJ re (ipa^iovoyv.

(r(f>pcyei

ycrdov

Toi/

"A/SvSov ws

v--

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^


Hermip. 58
Athenaeus

dvrjp yeyevqrai

Bergk emended the text of cola


(xii.

3,
|

4,

which

is

unintelligible in

524

f. )

to, fx^v irpbs 6xpiv /iaXa/cws

Ix^"*

"'"'^ ffwyaaros.

576. Acephalous Glyconics are often associated with diiambic


coia, as in

the ode that follows

'

Hephaestion quotes the same colon

earlier

in

his treatise

(14.

11

ff.)

as

'anapaestic'

577

AEOLIC VERSE
Nul. 1345-50

259

= 1391-6
Strophe.

(Debate

II.).

'H/t.

(Tov

epyov w Trpeo-^ura

(ftpovri^eiv

oirrj

1346
(1)5

TOi/

avSpa
et

K/DaTvycrets"
/w/y

^ ^
oi'k

v_/

ovTos,

T(o VeTTOi^ei',

av

7yi'

ovTws uKoXacrTos.
aAA.'
eo-^'

%^

^^

6'tw

OpaavveTai,'

SrjXov ye rdv-

1350

dpwTTOv

Vrt TO

A-;y/;ia.

^^

v^

5*^^

'H/x.

^'

of/xat'
t

ye twv vediTepMV
y'

tols

KapSia? irqSav o rt Ae^ei.

yap TOtaCra
8epp,a

oStos i^eipyacrp^evos

XaAwv

dvaTretcrfi,

1395 TO

twv yepairepuiv
'arl to
\7JfjLa

Xd/Soip-ev dv dAA' ov8' ipe/Sivdov.


to X^m'
fo''"'

1349 TCLvOpuTTov

Hermann
5 5
5,

Tdvdpuiwov

Monostrophic dyad. meters in correspondence.


577.

aaa,
768.

monostrophic

three penta-

See

Note the combination

of acephalous

and

full

dimeters

in the first intermediate period of the following ode

Vesp.

317-33

(Parode).

Monody.
^i.
(^t'Aoi,

T-qKop.ai pilv

447

f.

v^

rrdkai Sia Trys ott^s

318

vp.u)v

vTraKoviDV.
ei/i'

^ ^ ^
802 802
r-

dAAci yap oi'X oios t

^ ^
5

w w 4^ ^ 2^ ^
2^

319 aSeiv 320

Tt

Troi^crw
S'
i'tto

rrjpovpat

twvS

7ret
yu,^'

___^ ^_^_
^ v/v^ w

w^

jSovXopai ye irdAai
yxwv

eXdwv

eirt

tov? KaStTTOi'/yaat.

___^ ^_^_
802 281 802

O-KOVS KttKOV Tl
tlAA'
ry

^ ^
10

v-/

8*^

w ZeC peyafipovra
TTOirjaov KaTTVOv ^ttt<^V7ys

yx
7y

2^ ^ v^ ^. ^^

325

Upo^eviS-qu

i]

rov SeAAou

toutov tov \pevhap.dpa^vv.


ToA/zryo-ov

____
^~.

^^ v^6
^^

ava^

^^apifraa-Bal poL
i"j

vrdOos OLKTipas,

pe Kepavvu

lb -^

v.~

'

"

260

THE VEESE OF GREEK COMEDY


SiaTLvOaXew
(tttoSio-ov
/a'

578

raxews,

.^

^^ -^

330

KotTreiT
1?
i]

dveAwv

d7ro(/)vo->;cras
9pfj.i]V
i<f>

.^ ^^

.^

.^

o^dXfx-qv efxjSaXe
Sijra

ov

XWov

ju.

ttoli^o-qv

802

>^

v^
yj

14*'^

Tcts

XP^'P'^^^''

o.pi9iiov(ri.

20
:

^^

320 irdXat Brunck

TrdXat

Trdi'ii

The monody
See
716.

constitutes the epode of an epodic pentad

AABBC.
(

C = ab (317-23, 324-33).
:

a = abcde

),

2 4 2 2 8

2),

bacchiac dimeter, acephalous-Glyconic tetrameter, choriambo-iambic dimeter, acephalous Pherecratean, and See 772 and 774. Glyconic octameter, with refrain. B = ab, 6 14, hexameter, hypermeter of pericopic dyad in anapaestic rhythm
:

pericopic pentad, with refrain

fourteen metres.

See

771.

578.

distinct, as in the

The diiambic element was sometimes slight, and quite two odes that follow, which begin each with a

diiambic tetrameter.
Eccl.

289-99 = 300-10
Strophe.

(Parode).

*H|M.

)(^b}pw/Jiev

ei's

iKKXrjcriai'

>=i.

^
^
v^
v^

^_
^ ^ ^ ^
v^
v^ y^

(SvS/aes,

rjTreLXrjcre

yap

._^_
^ 5 ^ 10 o m _

i^

290
291

o Oea-fiodeTTjs,
firj

osdv

Trpio

irdvv tou Kve<f)ovs

7]Kr}

KKovifievos,

(TTepywv (TKopoSdXfiy

292

fSXeTTdiv

VTroTpifxp-a,

fir]

Swcreiv TO rpiMJioXov.

293 aXX 294


295

S)

XapiTi/xtSr;

^ ^ ^ ^
v^

^ w
\^

KoX ^[JLiKvOe Kal A/JttKTJS


iTTov KareTreiyajv,

v^
v^

(ravTip Trpo(Te\(MV ottw?

^ ^
\j

prjSev irapaxopBieis

wv

Set

(T

diroSel^af
15

296 oTTws 8e to crvpfioXov Aa^ovTes eVetTtt ttAjj-

297

o-i'oi

KaOeSov/xed', ws

w v^ v^ v^ v^ ^ ^ o v./^^
v^ v^ v^

^ ^ ^

dr x^LpoTov(ap.v

298 299

diravO' ovocr

dv 8ey
(piXas.
;

o
20

v^
v--

Tots ry/xeTcpas

KaiToi rl Aeyo)
yd/)
X/''?*'

cjiiXov?

v^
v^

^ w
v^

f'

ovo/id^etv.

_ _

v^

S^^

ww4^
^
v^

6^

^ _ ^

m
v/

gcv


8*^^

w
v^

c;

w w " v^ ^ 8^^

580

AEOLIC VERSE
Antistrophe.

261

'

H/i.

fi'

6pa

8'

OTTWS

ijjOrjcrofiev

jovaSe tous e^ acrTCws


p.v,

301

i/Kovras,

ocroi

irph

toi!

rjviK

eSei

XafBdv ikdovT
Ka^v/i'TO

ofioXov

/xouov,

AaAovvTcg

ev TOis o-Te<^ai'w/zacriv,

i-i'vt

8'

evo)(Xovcr'

ayav.

dXX
305
Tci

ov\i, 'Mvpo)Vi8ris St' ijpx^" ^ ycvvaSas, o^'Seis av tToXfia

T7JS

TToAews StotKCtv a/ayr/3iov cfi^pwv

dAA' 7]kv eKacrros


Kai

eV acTKiSiw <f}p(DV TTieiv a/itt t'

aprov

atiT<x)

8vo KpopLp-voi xat

T/3ts
I'vvi

av eAaas.
rt

Se

rpiuifioXov

^i-jtovctl

Xaj3dv,

orav

ir/oaTTwcrt

Kotvov

wcnrep Tn]Xo(j>opovvT(<i.
291
f.

ffT^pyojv ffKopoSaXfir; ^X^ttiov virdrpififxa


:

Porson

^X^ttuiv

VTr6Tpifj.fjLa

ariprfuiv

301 f. ^oet Xa/Setc 293 XapLTi/xidij Bentley ^ x<^P'- riixla iXOdfra Set Xa^etv or iXedvT' (or i\d6uTs or iXddvras) idei Xa^uv 307 aiTU) von Velsen aD R, oni. T
Kopo5d\iJ.r)

(\06vt'

Dawes

Monostrophic dyad.
;ihc,

A = abc
:

4 8

4,

pericopic triad

A= (289-92, 293-95, 296-99). diiambic tetrameter, acephalous-Glyconic


:

See 771. B = aa, 6 6, monostrophic two octameter and tetrameter. See 767. C = aa, acephalous-Glyconic hexameters in correspondence. two acephalous - Gly conic octametei's in corre8 8, monostrophic
:

spondence.

See

767.

579.

Ba7i.

448-53 = 454-9
Strophe.

(Parode).

'HjU.

-^lopwpev ts 7roAv/3/Do5oi'S

Aet/Awvav dv6epu)8eis,

450

TOl'

l]p.TpOV TpOTTOV

Tov KaAAixopwrarov
Trat^ovres, ov oXfiiat,
5

Moipai ^vvdyovatv.
Antistrophe.
'H/i.

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ >:^ ^ ^^ 4CV w w v^ v^ v^ v^ v^ ^ w v^ 8^^ v^ w


v:?

^'

/Liovots

yap

t)p.lv

-/yAto?

Kal (f>eyyo<; IXapov eo-Tiv,


re Siyyopev rpoirov rrepl tovs ^evovs koI

456

oo-oi

lUfivqfJLeO'

e-i'o-c^//

Tovs ISiwras.

Monostrophic dyad.

(704)

ab, 4

8,

pericopic

dyad

diiambic

tetrameter, acephalous-Glyconic octameter.

See

770.

580. Diiambic

cola

sometimes preponderate, so that in the

fusion of styles (659) the apparently Ionian element predominates.

The

unconscious

blending of Aeolic

and

Ionian rhythms

is

perfectly illustrated in such odes.

262

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


Pax 856-67 = 909-21 (Syzygy
Strophe.
III.).

581

'H/i.

v8ai[xovtKws y
(rf3vTr]S,
Ttt

o Trpe-

857
Tp.

ocra

3)8'

IBelv,

vvv rdSe Trpdrrei.


7ret8av vvfKftiov

802

(ant.)

Tt SrJT
II

opare XajXTrpov ovra


e'crei

'HjLt.

{i^AwTos

ye/Dwv,
wi/ TraXiv,

861
Tp.

aS^ts veos
/iV/D(j)

KaraAeiTTTOS.
Tt Svy^'

^ w v^ o w w w ^ - ^ v^ - ^^ 6*^^' ^ ^ ^ 5^ ^ ^ ^ 4*^^ w ^ ^ w v^ w v^ w c; 6*^^

oifxai.

orav ^vvwv
10

__^_ ^_^_
v^ ^ _ _ ^ _ w v^ v^ o w _ _ ^ _ o w

Twv TLrOioiv e^wfiai


'H/x.

4^

euSai/xovecrrepos <^ave6

802

(ant)

^_,^_
^ _
i^
4*-'^

Twv K.apKivov
Tp.

crTpo/3tX(ov.

o^Kovv SiKaiuis ;
ox-qfia

oams et's KavOdpov Vt^as


15

866 867

ecrwo-a

tous "EAA?;vas, wo-t

ev TO ts dyporcriv

avTOv?

aTravTttS ovTas d0-<^aAws

Ktvetv Te /cat Ka^ei^Setv.

m_^_ ^__4C

w w w w ^ _ ^^ g''^ ^ w

Antistrophe.
'^HfM. /3'
vy

XP^?^'''o?

dv7)p 7roAtT?;s etrTiv d-aa-tv oo-yis 0-Tt toiovtos.


ei/""^!.

Tp.
'Hp,.

OTttv

rpvydr, eia-eade ttoAXw p,aAAov oios


(TV

^'

Kttt

vuv

ye 8tjXos

t'

<jo)Ti]p

yap

diraa-iv dv6pw7rots yeyV7;(rai.

Tp.

(f>rj(Ti,s

CTretSav eKiriys oivov veov AcTrao-Tryv.

'Hp. ^'
Tp.

Kttt

ttAt^v

yc Twv ^ewv det


t'p,tv

ct'

rjyr](r6pe(rda TrpwTov.

7roAA(r)V

yap

d^ios Tpvyaios d^/xovevs eyw, Setvwv diraAAd^as


TTOvwv Tov Sr^p^ory^v o/xtAov,

921

Kttt

TOV yewpyiKov Aewj' '^Y-ep/SoXov re

iravcra<i.

a= (856-9 = 860-3, 864-7). acephalous -Glyconic hexameter, diiambic two diiambic B = aba, 4 8 4, mesodic triad tetrameter. See 770. dypouriv See 729. tetrameters with a diiambic octameter as mesode. avTovs in 866 is found only in cod. B, and may be due to the metrical recension of Triclinius. If dypois, the reading of the other MSS., is
Monostrophic dyad.
6
4,

A = AAB

ab,

pericopic

dyad

right,

B in the strophe is ab, 4 11. See 51. See the metrical scholium on Pax 856 ff.

or

581. The distinctively Aeolic element is sometimes merely one Odes two dimeters that break or close a diiambic movement.

,^

582

AEOLIC VERSE

263

thus composed are iambic rather than Aeolic.


at the

See the remark

beginning of the preceding paragraph.

Nnl. 1303-10

= 1311-20
Strophe.

(Stasimon

II.).

H/i.

olov rh irpayfiaTiav epav cftXavpoiv

yap

yepwv

o8'

ipa(r6el*i

1305

d7roo-T/)^o-at
Tct

fSovkerai
dSai/eto'aTO
*

^pTi]fj.ad'

1307 KOVK

0"^'

OTTCUS

OV TrfflipOV
o

Xi'jij/eTai

TL TrpayfM,

TOVTOV

TTOtV/Cret

TOV

(TOffiL-

51,

CTTTjv,

&u Travovpyeiv rjp^ar ,


Xaj3dv KaKov
ti.

^ ^ o 5 _ 73 ^- ^
.

^^

w ^ w
^ _ v^ v^ ^

aL(f)i'i]<5

^ 5^ ^ ^ v^o4^ ^ 4CV ^^ _ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 6*^^

Antistrophe.
Mfj.. (3'

oTfiai

yap avrov

avTi'x
ot

evpijcreiv

owep iraAat ttot

i^qrei

1313
1315

etvai

tov vlbv 8c6vov


too-Te

yvw/xas evavTta? Aeyeiv


ctTravras oTo-irep
Trap.Trovqp'
'

Totcriv StKttiots,

viKai/

av

^I'yyevT/rat,

Kav Aeyy

I'o-ws

8'

ib-ws fSovXu'jcreTaL

Ka.(fiWVov

avToy

eiVai.
ti

1307

Xrj-^eTai
:

ti

Hermann

X-q-^erai.

or rt

Xrixf/erai

1310 Xa^elv kukov

Hermann

t:

KaKov \apeiv

Monostrophic dyad. A = abbe, 5 4 4 6 (7 in the antistrophe), a pentameter as proode, two diiambic tetrameters, and a diiambic hexameter (heptameter in the antistrophe) as epode. See 745. See the metrical scholium on Nub. 1303
periodic tetrad
:

ft".

582.

Ach.

836-41 = 842-7 = 848-53 = 854-9


(Stasimon
Strophe
I.)

I.

'H/x. a'

evSaifJLOvel

avOpiHTzo^i.

ovk
>=i

w
^
;
(St. III.)

lyKovcru? oi irpofSatvei

w ^ ^ 4CY

837 TO Tvpayfia tov


K a prr (OCT Tat

/i/ovAei'/xaro?

515, 802

c;-"C- ;=^-v^i

yap

avi]p

i^y

838

Iv Tdyop(i KaOqixevos.

Kav

ela-nj

ns

KTrjcrtas

802

(st.

IV.)

264
-i]

THE VERSE OF GEEEK COMEDY


(TVKOcfidvTrj?

583

aAAos,

oi-

fX(i)(o)V

KaOe^CLTaL.

^ ^

^ ^ 8*^ ^

Strophe II.
H/A.

ovh'

aAAos

di'dpwTTcjv VTro^wvuiv ae Trrjfxavel tl,


<toi,

843

ovS' i^ofi6p^TaL Il/oeTrts t>)v evpvTrpwKTtav


ov8' oiCTTiet KAea)vr/x(p'

^Aaivav
cr

S'

e^^wv (fiavrjv 8Ut kou ^uvtv^iov


dvaTrXrjcrei.

'Yjrep^oAos Sikwv

Strophe
'H/i. a'

III
croi

ov8'

evTv\(j)v ev

rdyopa

irp6(Ti(Ti

jSaSi^oiv

849 Kyoartvos

act Ki.Kapfj.kvos fxoti^bv /xi^ fxa^aipa^

6 TTipnrovqpos 'Apre/xwv, 6 Ta^i'S

ayav

t>jv fiovcTLKyjv,

o^uiv

kukov

Ttov /xacr^^aAwv irarpos

Tpayacratof

Strophe IV.
'H/i.
/3'

ouS' av^ts

au

ere

crKioxfjiTaL

natVwv

6 7ra/A7rovr;pos
oveiSos,

856

AvcrtcTT/oaTos t
6 irepiaXovpyus

rdyopa XoXapyewv
kokois, ptydiv' re

rots

Kat Tretvwv aci


ixrjvos
d^'r;/)

irAeiv

tj

rpiaKovO' rj/xepas toG


836
Ti

eKaarov.
842
irr]iJ.avtV

ai'^pwiros
:

Brunck

avOpuiros

L. Dindorf

Tr-q/xavilTaL

850

837 dj'Tj/j Brunck Bentley o^o' 6


:

Monostrophic tetrad.

See

701.

A = aab,

8,

epodic triad

two tetrameters with an octameter

as epode.

See

737.

See the metrical scholium on Ach. 836.


is found in the following which the poet has employed anapaestic as well as diiambic and acephalous- Gly conic cola. The last intermediate period (c) illustrates in strophe and antistrophe the close relationship between diiambic and Glyconic forms in Aeolic verse.

583. Greater complexity of structure

ode, in

Fax 939-55 = 1023-38 (Syzygy


Strophe.
Ko/3. a
tos

IV.).

irdvO'
X'/

ocr'

dv deus BeXrj

51
erepu)

''"''X'?

KUTOpdol

^ ^ _ ^ _
.

^_^_
^ _ _
..
v^
4C

940 X^P^'

'*''

vow, 'inpov

S'

281, 389
TOVTuyv KaTO. Kaipbi'
ttTravTcI.

^=^

Tp.

d)S

Tavra SrjXd y

eaO',
8-q.

yap

/Jwjubs dvpafTi Ka\

- - oc -.^ ^ id ^

-_ 4*^ w w ^ ^^

584
OTCiycTe

AEOLIC VERSE

265

Kop. a

vw

v 6(ro) crofiapa 281,

379

deodiv Karkyii TroXep-ov peraTpoiros

946
T/o.

atipa,
is

vvv yap SaipiDV


pera/SifSd^eL.

(f>avepw'i

aya^a

10

^ ^^ -^ ^ ^ ^^ v^- -^ ^^ ^ 8 ^.^^^ w

TO Kavovv Trdpea-T

oAas

^X*^^

^^^

:^

Kal crrippa Kal pd^o-i^po-v,

949 Kal

TTvp ye touti,

KOvSev

i-

o-xet TrXrjv

to Trpo/Sarov

i//xas.

Ko|0. a' ot'Koi'V apiXXyicr(rdov ;

ws

15
802
OTt
(ant.)

951

17

Xalpis vp.ds
K^Ttt tout'

i'Sy,

TT/odo-eicriv

avXijo-wv o-kXt]V OtS'

TOS,

20

^ ^ ^ v^^ v^ ^ ^ ^ o ^
i=i vl?

^ ^ ^
'^

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ Y w w
;=i

<f>v(r(oi'Ti

Kal TTOvovpevio

^
^

955

TTpocrSwcreTe Si/ttov.

^ ^ ^

v..^

vy

v^

Ko/3. /?' o-e Toi

dvpaa-L

XPV p^vovra toIvvv


ctti

1024
Tp.

crxt^as Seupi riOevat rax^oiS t<x Te Trpoacfiopa Trdur'

Toi'Tots.

oiIkow Sokw
8'

a-OL
;

/iavTiKWS to ^pvyavov Tideo-dat

Kop. P' TTws

ovxi

Tt

yap
ov
(TV

(re

Tre^euy' oo-a XP') oro(^ov ; (jipoveh oTTocra xp^oSv ecTTiv tov <y>

avSpa

Tt S'

o-o<^v^

SoKipov ^pevl

TTO/Di/iO)

T ToXp^rj ;

Tp.

))

o"Xt{'a

yovi' evi-jppkvq tov 2TtA/3t8r/v Trie^et,


ol<Top.ai,

1032 Kat
Kop.
/?'
Ti's

Tijv T/3a7re^ttV

Kai 7rai8bs ov

Seryo-fi.

ovv av

oi'k

eTraivecreiev

dvSpa tolovtov,

octtls ttoXX'

dvarXas
;

ecwve

rr]v

lepdv ttoXlv

1037
1023
in cod.

wo-T

ot'Xt p^]
:

iravcrei

ttot'

mv

IprjXwTus ctTrao-iv.

dvpaa-i Schol.

dvpai.(jt.
:

1029

eo-Ttf

Hermann

eo-rt

^e Triclinius

1033 oiv tv Dindorf

hv ovv or hv

MonostropMc dyad. A = ABC (939-42, 943-9, 950-5). a in the two diiambic tetrameters with a strophe = aba, 4 4 4, mesodic triad A in the antiSee 739. logaoedic-anapaestic tetrameter as mesode. a b = abb, 8 4 4, proodic triad See 771. strophe = abc, 3 4 4. logaoedic-anapaestic octameter with diiambic close (colon 10) as proode See 738. c = ab, 8 4, pericopic dyad to two diiambic tetrameters. in the strophe a diiambic octameter and a tetrameter composed of a diiambic dimeter and an acephalous Pherecratean, but in the antistrophe
: :
:

acephalous Glyconics are substituted for diiambic dimeters in cola 1 6, The attempts to 'emend' the text of these cola in the 17, 18. See 51. antistrophe are neither necessary nor felicitous. See the metrical scholium on Pax 939 ff. with the notes.

584.
cola,

The following ode


is defective.

is

composed

solely of

acephalous

but the text

266

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


Fax 1329-55^
Strophe
T/3.

584

(Exode).

/.

(1329-32).
802

Sevp

S>

yvvai

ts

ayphv

- - ^ o - w ^ _ ^
^ _ ^ w ^ - ^ - 6^
2^

^wTTcos /uer' e/Aov Ka\y]


KaXu)<i /caraKetcret.

<CY[jir)V '^Yfxkvai

S>y.

2^

Strophe 11. (1333-5).


'H/x. a'

Stro2)he III.
Hfi. /3'
'H/x. a
"^Hyx. /?'

(1336-9).
;
;

rpts /JLaKap' w? SiKai-

T6
Tt

SpdcTOfiev avT'qv
SpdcrofJiev avT'qv

ws Taya^a vvv * * *
'YfiTjV '^YfxevaL
'Yfii]v 'Yfjievai'
(S,
S>.

exetS-St

Tpvyqa-Ofiev avT-qv,
rpvy-qa-ofxiv avTrjv.

'H/i. a'

Strophe IF. (1340-3).


'HyM.

Strophe V. (1344-7).
'H/x. a' oi/C7y(TTe

^'

dW
rov

dpajxevoi

(jtepo)-

yovv KaA.ws

[xiv 01

~poT T ay [JikvoL
oji'Spe^i.

ov Trpdy/Jiar' ^xovre'; dk-

vvfxcfiiov

Xd (TVKoXoyovvTes.
^YfXTjv 'Y/Aevat' 'YfiTjv '^Yfj.kvai
ai,
S).

'YyM7)v *Y/XVai' w,

'Yymryv 'Y/tevat'

(3.

^S^^rayie

7^/.

(1348-9).
/cai

Strophe

VII (1350-2).

'H^.

/?'

tot} /xev /xeya

Traxi'.

*
Ttj's

*
8'

*
-^Sv

oivov re Triyi ttoXvv.


5<-

TO crvKov.
&,
c3.>

*
w,
w.

<CYfjLrjv ^Y/xevai'

'H/x. a' Yfx,y]v '^Y/xevai'

'Y/xr^v 'Y/Ai'at'

'HjU. /?'

'YjU.ii)v'

'Y/icvat'

>S'^ro297ie

T///. (1353-5).
)(^aipeTe

Tp.

<L

yaip^r' dv^vvTrr](r6k [xoi


eSecrOe.

Spes,

Kav

TrXaKovvras
< Hfx.

'Yfxi^v

Yfxevai' w,
w.>

'H/z. /3' '^YfXTjV 'YjU,vat'

1341 vpoTerayixivoL Bentley

TrpocTTeTay/j.&OL

Cola had been lost from this ode even in the time of Heliodorus, and certain other cola in his text (1336-9) did not conform to the
All the strophes are printed in cola, in order to facilitate comparison.

ij

585

AEOLIC VEESE
his

267

scheme of structure. What this scheme was is easily gathered See the metrical scholium. commentary. The ode was monostrophic, originally perhaps an oKras fj-ouoEach strophe (except perhaps III.) contained five cola, two :rTpo(f)iKi]. an .K^atalectic and three catalectic, i.e. A = abb, 6 2 2, proodic triad ucephalous-Glyconic hexameter as proiide to two acephalous PhereProbably the pair of subordinate periods in all the strophes crateans. (except III.) consisted of the invocation Y/xryi/ 'Y/xevat' w repeated. Cf. 1340-3, 1344-7, of which the structure is intact. On this assumption the period in 1329-32 is easily restored, and in general the equivalence It will be observed that as they stand 1348 of parts is apparent. and 1351 end in a 'variable syllable.' This final syllable was doubtThe less lengthened by the opening of the following colon, now lost. The text third strophe (1336-9) now seems to be hopelessly corrupt. preserved in the MSS. still extant was the reading Heliodorus had In some texts, he says (Schol. 1336-9), the haple occurs before him. after each of the four catalectic dimeters, to indicate that they were taken alternately by the two half-choruses in other copies of the
"general

from

'

ra fxeTpa, i.e. because the Heliodorus metres failed to correspond to the general scheme. gives the text of these four cola, but expresses no opinion, at least in the commentary now extant and consistently with this says, on 134455, that he gives the text as transmitted (ws 8k (peperai, Kal evravOa There is an ea-Tiv), although the pentacolic structure breaks down. intimation in a scholium under the last line of the text in V ( Ypp ovtws 'HAtoSwpos) that he suggested the refrain should be 'Yfj-evai' &
text the dimeters are not given at
'
'

all

Sta

added

at the end.

It does

not follow from the lack of agreement in

1336-39 and the other strophes that Aristophanes With that suppleness of did not compose these cola as they stand. invention which characterizes him everywhere, he may have substituted
structure between

quadruple refrain of acephalous Pherecrateans for a period of normal form. See Enger, Ehein. Mus. ix. (1854), 580 f. Schrader, lihein. Mus. Westphal, Prolegomena, 20 fT. Schroder, Aristoph. xxi. (1866)", 93 ff. Zacher-Bachmann, Aristoph. Pax, 104 Cant. 29
this
; ; ;
;

fi",

585.

Av.

904-53 (Scene

III.).
eftect.

Aristophanes uses Aeolic rhythm in parody with excellent

His own practice is so conservative that when he allows himself the freedom found, for example, in Euripides, the contrast with his ordinary manner is glaring. This contrast is marked in the first part (904-914) of the scene in the Aves in which he
introduces the Beggar Poet as representative of the melic poets
in general, as Cinesias in a later scene in the play (569) represents
specially the dithyrambists.

268

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


508, 510, 574 rav v8aifiova kXtJctov m

585

904 ^cf)XoKOKKvyi,av

___^^_^_
-v.^-^-.-v^--5^
v^

^^

_ ^ _

2^

906

Movcra reais

ev vfj,v(av dotSats.

518

iii.,

519

908 910

ya> /yteAtyAwcrcrcav eTrewv

tets

519

w
v^

-_-

ciotSav Movo-dojv depdiriov


oTprjpos,

5195
512

^ w

^ v^

6-^

Kara rov

"0/y.?/pov.

w^
^
v^

v>2^

Two
913 Mouo-awv
oTprjpoL,

Trimeters.

OepoLTTOVTis

Kara rov

"Ojxrjpov.

512

v^

^ w

2^^^

w>^ w2^

There is here hardly a colon in which our poet does not do violence to his ordinary form. The fifth colon is brachycatalectic,
but
its last metre assumes, by a slight change in the words of the song, ordinary catalectic form in the seventh colon. On the clause Kara rov "Op-r^pov, which is wrongly omitted in some editions of the play, see the Editor's Scholia on the Aves, 174 (Schol. Av. 909).

The subordinate periods that


fourth, are in simplified logaoedic

follow, except the second

and

rhythm (392

ff.),

but logaoedic

cola predominate

924 dAAa
oiairep

Tis WKeta

Movadwv

(fidns

395, 206
iTnrwv dp,apv-

507 517

10

-WWww
^-

- w - ww - ^ - 4

- w w

3^^

yd, (TV Se " Trdrep KTicrrop AtVi/as

- w

927

(adiiov lepwv o/xcuvv/Ae," 36s ip.lv o tl irep

929 Tea /ce^aAd

6e\rjs

379 570
ip.lv

^-^- w-w^
w - w w w w - w -

w^^w-3

930

TTpOcfipUiV

86pV

TIV.

508, 510 Five Trimeters.

- w -

936 ToSe pev ovk deKovaa


TV 8k Tea
(jipevl

cftcXa
'

Mouora ToSe Swpov Sexerai

383 15^^-w ^^ w -^ 383 383


^^

^^

^^

2^ 2*^

pdOe Jliv8dpLov eVos

^^

- ^

w - w

3^'^

Tri'meter.

941 "

vopd8e(r(TL

yap

ev

^Kvdais dAdrat SxpaTcov,

379
943

os" v(fiavTo86vaTov eV^os "oi' eTrarai

379

^-^- w-w- .-w^__- w-w- w


"

6<^

586
" aKAer)? 8' efSa
"

AEOLIC VERSE
crTToAas avev
x'Twi'Os'.

269

945

" ^vves o rot Aeyw,"

379 395

20v^-^.-^^

^^^
2-

w -

v^

3^^

>^

Four

Trimeters.
"""^^

950

kAtjct-ov

xP'^'^^^P^^^

Tpofj.pav

Kpvepdv

383 952 vi(f)ofSoXa TreSiairokvTTopd r 393 395 953 i)XvOov dXaXdv.

- ^ ^^ -^ _ ^ -^ ^ -^ ^v^ww2^ - v^ -^ w - 2-^

__

3^

The scholiast on Av. 926, 941 ^ tells us that certain of these periods are parodies of one of Pindar's hyporchemes, and quotes them
^t'l/e?

o Toi Aeyoj,
6fJHovvfJ.e

-^
.^-^

^ad^wv Upwv

irdrep KTicrrop AtVva?


vouaSeo-o-t

yap

ev 2Ki'6^a65

aAarat crTpaTwr

o? a{xa^o(popr)Tov oiKov ov 7r77arai,


aK-Aer/s <S'>
e'ySa.

w v^ ^^ v/ ^^^2 2 w w ^ >^ w ^^ . v^ >^ ^^ ^^ ^ v^ - w - 1


^

v^

Cf. Schol. Find. Pi/th.

ii.

127,

iN^e//;.

vii.

1.

The hyporchemes

of Pindar,

if

one

may

judge from meagre extant

remains, were written in simplified logaoedic rhythm, with Aeolic Comvariations such as cola 10, 11, 13, 14 in Aristophanes's parody. pare the three imitations of hyporchemes at the close of the Lijsistrata. The intervening trimeters naturally mark the divisions of the There is no sure indication, poet's rhapsody into intermediate periods.
in the metrical correspondence of subordinate periods, of repetition of any part of the melody, which varied from period to period ^vith
lively effect.

586. Aristophanes's Aeolic

manner

in

parody

is

well illustrated

also in the following direct travesty of Euripides.

Ban. 1309-28 (Episode


In the
first

II.).

part of the scene in which these verses occur

Euripides charges Aeschylus with cribbing the dactylic cadence with which, as he alleges, the odes of Aeschylus uniformly end, Aeschylus weakly concedes See 349 ff. and adduces proof.
the

point

and

attempts

defence

{Ban.

1298

ff.),

but im-

mediately

and makes a savage counter-charge in kind. The source of his own inspiration was at least noble, but Euripides drew his from the bawdy-house, the carouse, the dance-hall and the wake
rallies
!

See the Editor's Scholin on the Aves, ad

loc.

'

270

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


The
song,
therefore,

586

that

Aeschylus
plays that

sings

in

illustration

of the villainous art of Euripides

must have been


in

largely

com-

posed
or

of

quotations

from

his

sentiment, form,

melody suggested sources familiar to the audience. These were strung together with only specious regard to grammatical connexion. Unfortunately only one quotation can now be with certainty, vv. 1317, 1318, borrowed from identified Euripides's Eledra 435 i. See the Scholiast on sources no
longer extant.

The metrical form

of the song

may

be submitted with some

confidence to the test of the comic poet's

own
is

practice.

With

the exception of a single colon (5) the


dXKVoves,
OaXdcra-qs

rhythm

Aeolic.

Alcrx-

ai."

Trap'

uei'aots

518
1310

i.,

519, 802

-^^-^^^-^--3""
^

Kvixaa-L o-Tpw/iuAAere,

508

Teyyov(rai voTtots Trrepoiv


pavLCTL

___^ ^_^_
..

v^

2^^'

XP^^

Spocri^ofievai

510
ai,'

^ ^
V.

- w ^ ^

4H

6'

vTru)p6(f)ioi

Kara ywvtas

383
ttieiAtcr(TeT

- w -

^-

v^

3-^

SaKxi'Aois (^aAayye?

518
1315 laroTova
Tn^via-jxaTa,

ii.

Av

508, 510

KepKiSos dot,8ov fj-eXeras,


tv'

^^ ^ -^v^

^ - ^ - w - w ^ ^ 2*^^ w^/ ^ _ ^ _v^ w

3^^

6 <^iAavAos CTraAAc SeX-

512
({As

^^

irpwpats KvavepLJSoXoi'i, 10

[xavreia Kal crTaStovs,

574

1320

oivdvOas ydvos dfXTreXov,


jSoT/Dvos

- ^ ^ ^ w

v^

-^

-^

v^

eXiKa

TT aver LIT ovov.

510
TTepifSaXX'
c5

TCKVOv aiAevas.

511
OpttS

TOV TToSa

TOl'TOl'

Opw.
15

^^^^ - ^ ^ ___^ w-^^ ^___


v^

Tt

Se

TovTov opas

opw.
511

^ ^ - ^

1325

TOtanTi ixkvTOi (tv ttoiwv 802


ToA/xas rdp-a p-kXtj ^eyeiv,
dva.

20

w-wv^v^ __^ ^_^_

w
w
^> v^

TO SwScKap.T^x^i'oi'

v^v^

v^

26^

Kvpi^VTjs /xeAoTTOtwv;

586

AEOLIC VERSE

271

sixth colon begins with a musical shake (of. Ban. 1348) on the syllable il-, introducing a Phalaecean (518 ii.). Our poet never

The

peculiar musical

himself forces a syllable to do double duty, in order to secure a effect such as this. Nowhere, except in parody (569), does he resolve either long syllable of a choriamb (colon 1), nor does he use polyschematist dimeters such asv^v^^--^ w^^-, with double resolution in the first metre (4, 13), or - -- ^ - - ^ (7), or

^
(cf.

- w
TToSa

^ ^

1322), or (15) ^
to 1323), or

v^ - (11), ^ nor Glyconics such as (14) -^ TovTov in 1323 with reference to the anapaest in w (cf, tovtov in 1324 with reference

^-v^-

w - w - (16). Presumably these are forms that he condemns, but some of them at least were employed by poets of good standing, and Aristophanes's metrical strictures are not to be taken too seriously. His audience would appreciate the humour with which he has Aeschylus, in his heat, make Dionysus by the very course of the dialogue responsible for a monstrous form of Glyconic (15) that doubtless all decent poets would have condemned. The most effective feature of this genial burlesque was doubtless the music to which it was sung. Of its quality we unfortunately have but a single intimation in the trilling roulade in 1314. The melody was doubtless continuous. There is no evidence of periodic
correspondence.

^ ^ - w

CHAPTER

XIII

COMPOSITE LYEICS
587.

Many

of the sougs that have

been treated singly in

the preceding sections in illustration of particular rhythms are parts of composite lyrics of several strophes, such as Vesp. 273-

333

(716),

Ban. 316-459 (704), and Ucd. 893-975 (717).


lyrics that follow will

588.

The two

serve as special illus-

trations of this form of composition.

Av.

1720-65
Strophe

(Exode).
I.

Xo.

avaye

Sie^^e

Trdpaye Trapeze irepLTrerea-Oe

1722 Tov fiaKapa

[jbaKapi
TTjs

avv Tvxa.

^^^^^

^ ^

-^

2^

(ftev

(f)ev

w/oas rov

1724 w jxaKapuTTov

crv ya.p.ov

KaWovs. 73 ^ ^ 509
5

--.---.-__._3
^ ^
i-^
v^
v^

rfjSe TToAet yrifxas.

Strophe II.
Kop. a p,ydX.ai p.eydXai Karexova-i ri'xat
^^

,^

^^_,^_

1727

yevos opvidcDV
Sia TovSc Tov dv8p
,

^^

aAA' vpevaiois
o')8al<i

^^^

Kal

vv[x<fiL8iot(xi
Ktti

Sex^crd'

-^ w^

^^

,^__
9*^

,^___

1730

auTov

rrjv BacrtAetav.

Strophe
'^Hfi.a

III
570, 572

"Upa
TOV

ttot' 'OXv/XTria
i]X.i(3dr(j}V

1732

Opovaiv

w O ^^
^ ^

dpxovTa

deois p.eyav

Mortal ^weKot/xtcrav
272

^ w v^ ^ _ ^ _ ^ ^^ o
\j

S^

588
1735
1/

COMPOSITE LYRICS
TotwS' vfievauo'
5

273

<CYfj.r)v

&

'Yjuevat'

d).>

^ ^

..

- ^ - -

2<^
2<^

Antistrophe III.

Ztjvos TTupoxos ya-iuiiv

1741 T^i

t'

ei'Oat/xoi'OS
(5
(3

"Hpas"
w,
w.

'YfJLTjv

'Y//,evat'

'Y/i^v

'Yjiievat

Strophe IV.

n.
1745

Ixdp'nv vfMVOii, k\6.pi]v wSats,

ayafiai 5e Aoycoi'.
Kttl

aye vvv auTOV

Ttts

^dovia'i KkycraTe /Spovras

Tcts

Tc TTvpwSeis Alos dcTTepoTTas


t'

Sctvoi/

apyi/ra KCpai'voi'.

10^

Stroph
Xo.

V.

/xeya
(5

x/^'^tr^o''

acrrcpoTr^s <^ao5,

1749

Atos auPpoTov eyxo?


S)

338

TTvpfjiopov,

^Oovtai jSapvax^i'i
0'

6lx(3po<f)6poL

ap,a fSpovTol

388
2-C

afs oSe

vw

x^oi'^ a-eUi,

1752

Sto,

ere

ra Travra Kparr^cra'i

334

Kttt

TTotpeSpov BacrtAeiav Ixet Atos.

-^2
511

'Y/XTjv

'Y/xevai' w.

2'^

>S'i{ro^7ie

F/.

Ilet.

eVecr^e vvv yap.oicrti'


<^{;Aa TTcivTa

w
75

1756

ctwvo/kov
TreSov Atbs

TTTepo^dp'

eTTi

Kat Aexos ya/Ai^Aioj/.

dpe^ov w fiaKaipa arqv

1760

X^'/"

'^''^'

rrTepQv ep-wv
ai-

\a(3ova-a (Tvy)(optvcrov
pojv Se Kov(f)iw
cr'

_ ^ _ ^ v^
.

eyw. 38,

._^_
802
-v^ v^

Xo.

dAaAaAat

it)

Traiwv,

^ _ v^ v^ v^
v^

^ _ ^

T7;veAAa KaXXiviKos,
Saipoviov VTreprare.
1734
^weKoi/j-iffav

&

10

w
(cf.

v^w8 ^ v^

._,^_
1736^ Dindort

w v^v^6
the antistrophe)

Bentley

^vveKOfiLcrav

The song

consists of a series of five

non^ntistrophic systematic

periods and a single dyad,

ABCCDEF

(1720-5, 1726-30, 1731-6 = T

274

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


:

589

See 717. A = abed, 3 2 3 4-, 1737-42, 1743-7, 1748-54, 1755-65). pericopic tetrad, with iambo-trochaic opening and Aeolic close trochaic
trimeter,

iambic

dimeter,

B is an indivisible anapaestic schematist tetrameter. See 773. is an indivisible anapaestic decameter. nonameter, as These are integral portions of the lyric that closes the play and are melic (283, 292). In CC, a monostrophic dyad, C = abb ( + ), 8 2 2 ( + 2), an acephalous-Grlyconic octameter as a proodic triad with refrain

iambic See 772.

trimeter,

brachycatalectic

poly-

proode to two Pherecrateans, with the


774.

final colon repeated. See 738, proodic hexad a brachycatalectic dactylic tetrameter anticipates the opening strain of the following periodic tetrad composed of a brachycatalectic dactylic tetrameter, two brachycatalectic dactylic dimeters, and a dactylic dimeter, to

E = aabbcd,

4- 4- 2- 2- 2

2,

which a Pherecratean
Finally
737.

hymeneal refrain. See 755. is added, the epodic triad in iambic rhythm two protracted See octameters with an acephalous protracted hexameter as epode.

F = aab,

8 8

6,

589.

Thesm.

947-1000 (Stasimon
Strophe
I.

I.).

Ko/3.

a aye vvv
vo/JLos

rjfieLS

7ratcra>/jiev

airep

283

(vdd8e

Ttticri

yvvai^lv,

948 orav opyta


wpats

(refjiva

deoiv Upai<s
direp koI

dve\^U)iJiv,

949 HavcTbyv
eis

a-efSerai,

Kal vqcrrevei,
/f

iroXXoLKLS avTolv

TWl/ otpiov

^^ v^ v^ >^ ^^ 5 v^ ^^
w~ ^^

^^

^^
^/<^

^^
v^

4*^^

-^^

4*^

Tas wpas ^vveTreyxop-evos


Odp.'

v.^

^^

8^'

952

TOiaura p.eXeiv

eaiiTw.

^-^

Strophe II.
Xo.
opfia X^P^i;

517, 209

KOv<f>a TTOcriv ay' els

kvkXov,
pvOp.ov

^ -^ ^
.

_ ^ ^^
.

2^

2^^

955 x^P^

a-vvuTTTe

X'^P'^i

^op^MS

519, 203

^^
^^
5

- ^

^^

- ^

-.-3^
^ - ^ -

VTTaye iraxra, fBaive KapTzaXip-oiv ttoSoiv

518
eTTio-KOTretv

i.,

655

f.

Se Travraxy
o/xfjia

- ^ ^ ^

- w - ^ w v^

958

KVKXov(rav

XPV XP^ KardcrTacnv.

Strophe III.
'Hyx.a'
a/i,a

i.

St

koX yevos 'OAn/iTrtW ^ewv

204

^w

589
961
fieXire

COMPOSITE LYEICS
koI yepaie
(jiiovrj

275

i=^w

iracra

yopop.av^i Tpoirio.

w w=^w
ii.
te/)<3

^ ^ v^ 7

Strophe III.
'H/;i. /i' il

Se Tis

TTpoaSoKa

KUKm

epeiv iv

yvvaiKa

p.'

ovcrav dvS/aa?,
cfipoveZ

OVK opdws

Strophe III. in.


Xo.

dAAa

xpr\v

lixnT(.p

epyov av Ti Kawov irpwrov cvkvkXov xo/)ttas


ev(f)va
(JT-ijcrai

/Saa-iv.

Strophe IV.
'H/x.

TTpo^aive

ttoo-I

toj/

evXvpav

o w>^

^ ^

970
972

p-iXTTOVcra

kol tt;v To^o(j>6pov

w
^
.^

^=^
^ ^ w
v^ v^

"Aprep-iv avacra-av uyvi'jv


X"-'^P'
oTTtt^'e
<^

^
^^

6^

(Kaepyi,
VLKi]V.

570
5

2^^
2^ 2^

Se

973 "Hpav re
yueAi/'W/Acv

tt/v

reXeiav
iri

uxnrep eiKos,
X^/'O'^''''^'

^ v^ ^ _ v^ _

^ w

2^^

975

v)

TTacri

rots

e/xTrai^et

re Kai

KXySas yapiov

(fivXdrreL.

v^

5^

Antistrophe IV.
'Hyii. /3'

'Ep/rljv

re

vo/xtov

avrop.ai

koI

ITava

Koi

Nv/Ac^as

(j)iXas

ctti-

yAaoa^

TrpodvpLOiS

980 Tais

qp^cTepaiCTi
ypp^i'C-i-'i-

\apkvTa

981 i^aipi

^Tj

Trpodvp.(x)'i

SnrXrjv X^P''^ XP^'^5.

983

7rato-a)/xv

tS

yDvatKes ola-ep

vd/xos,

j/Jjo-TeTJO/i-ev

Se

TravTws.

Strophe V.
Xo.

dAA'

ta TTciAA' didarpecf)'

evpv6p.(a ttoSl,

986 Topeut TTacrav <^8r)v 74 qyov 8e y' &8' avTos 988 (TV Kt(Tcro(j)6p BaKx^te Sea-TTOT iyw 8e K<i>p.0Li 70 989 (re ({aXoxopoia-i, p.kX\pui, 990 evt' (3 Atdvucre
'

w w
v^

w
. .

2^'

^^

v/

5^ ~~
v^^^^
- ^ - v^ v^w^ w w
ev u/xvoi?.
10
>^

B/ad/xie

Ktti

2/i,Aas Trat,

992 xopots TC/D7rd/u,vov 574 Kar opea vvp.<fiav eparols

6^ w 2*^ w w - w 2^^' 2^ w v^
v.^

518

i.

^ -

-WW-

w - -

5^

: :

276

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


-^^

589

994 Evtov Evtov iVi a.va^ope.v(3i. 383 995 diJ.(j>t 8e (Tol KTUTretTat
K-Ldaipaivios "i^X^j

-^

wv^
v^

w
Sda-KLa Kal vdwai

^ ^^ ^ ^ 2 w 2

.3

997

fJi.eXd[X(f)vXXd

oprj

TreTpwSets jSpefjLovTai.

518 509

ii.

^--^^--^^-^v^ -^
5-*^

15

999 kvkXw

6e Trept

ere

kkto-os

^ ^

v/ v^

cv7rTaAos e'AiKt 6dkkei.


:

^^

y^ .^^

2^^
2

952 fi4\iv Zanetti 948 deolv Meineke OeaTv 947^ raiai Brunck rah 955^ x^pa Ed. x"Pa 966 XPW Bothe 9o5^ xP' Dobree x'P' fiiWeiv 969'' evXiipav Trocrtc iroixl Reisig 969 968 ev(pvd Brunck eiKpvi) Xp?; 982 x^P'" Biset ijixeripais 980 i^ixeTepaiai Hermann eKvpav Kiister 989 <pi.\ox6poiai Bentley vqcyrevufiev 984 vriarevoixev Beutley XaipetJ' 992 TepTrofievov Bentley repirbpLei^os 990 eCt' (i.e. ei^te) Ed. eifiov (pi\ox6poi(nv dvaxopevuiu 996 994^ dvaxopet/w Ed. 994"* efJt' (i.e. eiim) Ed. ei/oZ
: : : : :

Kt^atpwi'tos Zanetti

KidapJivios

The song
triad

consists of three non-antistrophic systematic periods, a

and a dyad, ABCCCDDE (947-52, 953-8, 959-61 = 962-5 = A = aab, 4 4 8, See 717. 966-8, 969-76 = 977-84, 985-1000). epodic triad in anapaestic rhythm two tetrameters with an octameter The melody of the lively strophe B that follows, See 737. as epode. which was sung by the entire chorus, was probably continuous, abed, protracted ditrochaic 2 2 3 8, pericopic tetrad in Aeolic rhythm dimeter, ditrochaic dimeter, ditrochaic trimeter, polyschematist and It is possible that the melody was See 772. diiambic octameter.
: :

In the following The division into cola follows See 754. monostrophic triad, C was probably an indivisible trochaic heptameter. D = AB (969-72, 973-6). A = abb, 6 2 2, proodic triad: a See 773. See diiambic hexameter as proode to two acephalous Pherecrateans. 738. B = aab, 2 2 5, epodic triad in diiambic rhythm two catalectic E = ABC (985-9, See 737. dimeters with a pentameter as epode.
aabb'c.
:

rhythm

A = abcb, 3 2 6 2, proodic tetrad in diiambic a trimeter as proode to two catalectic dimeters that enclose B aabc, 2 2 5 3, epodic tetrad See 750. a protracted hexameter. two Pherecrateans and an acephalous Aeolic pentameter, with a c = aabaa, 2 2 5-22, epodic See 742. logaoedic trimeter as epode. pentad in Aeolic rhythm: a tetrad composed of two dimeters, a brachycatalectic pentameter and a third dimeter, with a final dimeter
990-4, 995-1000).
:

as epode that repeats the

melody

of the preceding period.

See

760.

CHAPTER XIV
MONODIES
590.
peculiar
Solos

manner

sung by actors abound in Euripides, but his in monodies was an innovation and was made
Generally, in Euripides,

the subject of Aristophanes's ridicule.

monodies lack strophic correspondence completely, no part of the melody being repeated, and display great variety of metrical form The music to which they were and frequent shift of rhythm. sung was doubtless of the most advanced character.-^ 591. In the Banae Aristophanes manufactures a monody in the Euripidean manner in comic illustration of his rival's art. In matter True to his model, he assigns the part to a woman.
' '

it is

incoherent, but nevertheless falls into five


serve
as

main

divisions
I.

that

the periodic

basis

of

musical composition.
brief invocation, in

The Vision by Night (1331-37).


rhythm that merges,

AeoHc

rhythm, introduces a description of the Dream, in anapaestic as horror grows, into dochmiacs followed by
II.

a catalectic logaoedic trimeter.

The

Purification (1338-41'').
is

single hypermeter,

mainly in dactylic rhythm,


is

closed

by a

Pherecratean, the invocation of Poseidon, that


metrically
Eealization

closely connected
III.

with
of

the

preceding

dimeter

(800).

Sudden

(1341^45). A paeonic-trochaic rhythm (to which the gloomy have danced a lively accompaniment !) is dactylic penthemimer and an iambic clausula.
the

Portent

hypermeter in Aeschylus may followed by a IV. The Narra-

tive

(1346-55) begins with

a bacchiac followed by a logaoedic

1 On the monodies of Euripides see Decharme's Eurijrides, in James Loeb's and in particular 366 IT. version, 353 and on his music Gevaert, Histoire de la
11'.,
;

On the music of musique, ii. 538 ff. Aristophanes see Gevaert, Histoire, ii. 553 ff.

277

278

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


are

592

dimeter and ends (colon 31) with a dochmius.


periods

The intervening composed successively in Aeolic, anapaestic and iambic rhythm. V. Passionate Appeals for Aid (1356-63) are made to the Cretans in paeonic-trochaic rhythm, to Artemis in paeonic, to Hecate in logaoedic, and the monody ends with a
' '

protracted catalectic iambic trimeter.

592.

Ban. 1331-63 (Episode

II.).

Monody sung hy
1331
(S

Aeschylus.

vuKTos KeAatvo^a^9
Ttva
/Mot

___^ _^^_2
281

6p(f)va,

SvcTTavov ovec-

-_______^-^

pov

7r/i7reis

^ dcfiavovs, 'AtSa
^V)(a.V

^^

TTpOTToXoV,

^^

a\pvxov e;^ovTa, [xeXaivas

1335 Nv/cTos
\pLV,

TratSa,

(f>piK(jL)8r]

Setvav

6-

fieXavoveKvei/xova, (f>6via (fiovta

-^^^
8e/3Kd/i,Vov,

^__^_4d
^
V.

/AeyaAovs ovvxo-S e'xovTa

383
1338 dXXd
JJ.OL

_-^

- ^

3^^

diJ.(f)iTroXoi

Xv)(vov dipare

342
1339
KaXiria-i

-^-^-^--^

w^

e/c

Trorapwv Spocrov apare,

10-^-^ -^ - ^
OipfXiTe S' v8(x)p,

1340
1341

0)9

dv delov ovupov dTroKXvcTM,

800
to)

-^

-^-^
_^_." _^_.
^^-w
^ _ ^
gcv

TTovTie SaifjLOV.
Klv'"

TOUT

tW

^WOt- 223

ff.

^ ^ w v^
v^v^-v^

KOI TttSe Tepa 6ed(TocrOe'

15

cf)pov8i^

Tov dAcKTpvoi/a

w-^-v^

yuou (TVvap7rd(ra(Ta

VX'VKy^.

- ^ - ^ --- -..-9'^ ^n^ >^ 2-^ 1345 w Mavta ^vXXafSe. - v^ ^ 2^' .. 1346 eyw 8' d TdXaiva 448 20 v^ v^ - w 2^^ TTpoark-^ovfT ^tv^ov ep.avTrj'i 379 v^ w^v^ v^- 2*"
Ni'/z^at
o/3ecro-t'yovot.

338

epyotcTL,

Xivov fxecrrov drpaKTOv

518

ii.,

570

- - ^

.^

- -

v^

^ - ^

a*^^

593 1348
ieiettetAicro-ovcra
Cf.

MONODIES
x^poiv
/VV

279

Ran. 1314 (586)

-.^w ^ ^ w y^ ^
kov-

K-AwcTTrypa Troiova-', o7rw5


KV(f)aio<;
<f}epov<r'

802
25

ts

ayopai/

oLTroSoifiai''

w ^ w'^ ^ 8^

1351

6 6'

di'tTTTur'

aveTTTar

es

aWkpa
^^^

281
(fiOTaTaLS TTTepvywv
ttK/Aats

^-^- _-__
v^

ejwot

S'

a^e'

X^" KareAtTre, SaKpva V.-W78

^_^..
Id

^^^_
"

SaKpvd T

ttTT

ofipLaTWV ejSakov

ijSaXov a rXapuDV.

1356 dAA' w

Kjo^Ts, "I-

464 223 ff,


ra
kk-

v^

v^
.
.

8as TCKva, TU TO^a <Te> Aaf36vTes eVa/xiVaTC,

w^-v^ v^<^.v^

KwAd T dyUTrdAAare
KkovpLeroL
T'ljv

35

oLKiav.

_ ^ _ _
KaXa 432

_ ^ _ v^^.v^ v^^^-w v^^-w _ ^ _ lo'^


.

1359 1360
1361

d/>ia

Se

AtKTi'vva Trais d

^w- -^ v^ ^^ ^^ v^ v^
v^

-^^ ^
8

rdi KvviaKas

)(^ov(r

kXdkrw

Sid hopnav 7ravTa)(rj,


(TV
8'
(3

Atos Siirvpovi dvexov-

379
era

40

- w -

_-^-"

Aa/A7raSas o^uraras

x^/'^o'^'

'EKCira

7rapd(/)';yvov

eis

FAvkj/s,

1363

oTTws dv eicreA^ovcra t^ojpdcroj.

1342 repa L. Dindorf


d

Srepa or r^para

1357 <Te> von Wilamowitz

1359

Keck

'Apre/xis

See Leo, Plant. Cant. 81


147, and Aristoph. Cant. 77
f.

ff

Schroder, Philologus, Ixiv.

(1905)

593. Aristophanes

arraigned

Euripides,

not

because

he

introduced monodies upon the stage, but because his monodies

were
Cf.

vile.

Aristophanes himself uses this form of composition.

ff. 1206 ff. (92). Generally his (90), Nnh. monodies are of a simple type, but eight years before the Eanae. was submitted to the judgment of the public he had brought upon the scene, as an appropriate part of the action of his play,

Ach.

263

; "

280

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY

594

its

an elaborate monody that must have charmed his audience by airy grace and sprightly fancy. His bird-song does not differ structurally in any marked way from the monody in the Ranac, and it employs quite as great a variety of rhythms and
shifts

them

as

frequently,

but

nevertheless

it

produces

the

general

impression
it

of greater

simplicity,

accompanied
parody.

was characterized,

of

and the music that course, by none of the

extravagances that must have contributed to the success of the

The Hoopoe's song falls naturally into periods the which is marked by a bird-call or, in one case, by the name of the bird invoked (227-37, 238-42, 243-49, 250-62). The rhythm of these bird-notes is as uncertain here as later in the play (410), In two instances quantities are doubtful, although the vowels in tlo and rpcoTo are probably all short but the very succession of short vowels in these and other cola perplexes conclusions. The possible melodic correspondence of the first and fourth cola may justify the assumption that the first was in dochmiac rhythm, which would be appropriate. The eighth and eleventh cola are also probably dochmiac. The only reasonable alternative is proceleusmatic anapaests which seem neither so likely nor so appropriate. Some editors assume similarly that the fourteenth and fifteenth cola constitute anapaestic pentapodies, which is improbable. They are here analyzed as a resolved
594.
close of

paeonic-trochaic tetrameter.
airy quality.

This seems to suit their light and

This tetrameter and the following paeonic-trochaic

pentameter prepare the way for the paeonic hypermeter with which the next period opens. The song closes with three paeonic-trochaic dimeters. It is to be noted that with one
exception, in the sixteenth colon just before the bird-call, the

iambic and trochaic metres are

all rational.

595.

Av.

227-62

(Parode).

Monody of
227
eTTOTTOTrol
ttottoI

the Hoopoe.

TroiroTroTrol

ttottoi,

liO

tU)

ITO)

ITO)

IT(I)

ITW,

v-*

y^

v^

3^

iTw Tis

S>8e

Twv

e/jLiav

o/xoTrrepcov

"

595

MONODIES
otroi

281

230

eva-TTOpovi dypoiKiov

yuas

^
vificrde,

^ -

v.-

2d

(f)vXa [xvpla

KpiOorpdywv

481
o-TTcp/i.oAdyoji'

5^-^- ^-w^ -^^-3


^v^
v^v^
2

re yev);

477

Taxi' TTiTopeva, p.aX6aKi]V levra yyjpvv,

234

vera t

tv dXoKi

6ap.d

464
S>8e

w^^v^^^ld
Xeirrov

(SwXov

dfj.(f>i.rLTTv(3i^e6'

'

rj^ofxeva.

(f)(x)V^

10

- ^ - ^ ^-^

-^-w

- ^ - ^

Tib Tih Tib TIO Tib Tib Tib TIO.

w^^v^^ w^--wv^3d
238
b'cra

6'

v/mCjv

Kara

k-qitovs tVt

kkktov

KActSecri
TCI

vofihv e^ei,

v^ w-^ ^v^ v^

id

T K-at" opea

ra t koti223ff.

V.V..

w
V.

^w..-^'

vorpdya rd t KOfxapoipdya,
15

^^v..
aoiSav

^ w...

V.

241

ai'i'o-aT

Trero/xeva Trpbs eyxav

242
243
oi'

T/DIOTO T/OIOTO TOTo/3pi^


6^'

v^w-'w v^w

-^
^^
v.-

eXeias Tap' avOgl'CTTO/XOVS

440
20

XQvaS
T

fjLTrt,8as

KaimO',
yrj<;

vera

v--

evSpoaovs

tottovs
6/00-

v^

w w w ^^
v--

't^T

Aei/AWVa T

VTa Mapa^wi/os,

436 437
511

w v^

V. v^

^"
12

^~

248

OpVLS 7 -TtpOTTOLKlXoS,

aTTayas uTTuyas.

25

. . - . . w 2

2^

250 wv T

~t Trdi/Tiot/ oI8/xa

daXd(T(rii]<s

<f)vXa fxer

dXKv6va-(TL TroTrjraL

Sevp

iVc

eiio-d/ievoi to,

vewTepa,

TTcivTa

yup ev^aSe

(^uA'

dBpoi^opiev

otwvwv Tavaooeipwi'.

30

_-

2^

255

I'jKeL

yap

tis Spcp-vs TrpicrfSvi

282
Katvbs
Kaivtav

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


yvix)iJ.rjv

596

_ _ _ _
kyy^i.tpr]Tri<i.

T epy(ov
els

aXK

Ir

Aoyovs

otTravra

Sevpo Sevpo Sevpo Sevpo.

35 w w
^^^w^^w

v^

v^4
2^

260 TOpOTOpOTOpOTOpOTi^
KiKKa/3av KLKKa/Bav

>^w
_ ^ _

_ ^ _
.^
tto

2^ 2^

TOpOTOpOTOpoXlXlXl^.
227 Ed.: Tro Trot Trot V, ^TTOTToi 7r67r6 eXOTOt TTO- TTO Tr6 TTO Tr6

^
tto

^-

^J

v^w
R,
f 7r6

tto

tto

ttoi

Trot

Trot

tto TTO

7r6

x6

tto

TTO'TTO'TrOl'

TTOTTO
TTO

TTOTTO

TTO^Ot

A,

fTTO TTOI- Tr6

TTO

Tr(5

TTOI- TrOTToT'

r,

Tr6

TTOi

ilTOirdt

WOirOWO WOlrOirOl
:

TTOirOi

TTOTTOTTOt

TTOTTOt

TTOTTot

251

TroTrJTai

Cobst
times

iroTarai

Topo 6 times + Tt| V, 7 times + T/7I A, 5 Topo 4 times + \i\i\i^ RA, 3 times + roXtXiXtf

+ Tt7| MVpaCB

U, eTTOTTOt 260 RFUH 262 Ed.


:
:

V VpoC,

roporo roporo XCKCKl^

596. It adds to the effectiveness of the monody in the Ranae to assume that no part of the melody was repeated, but that the singer passed from strain to strain, the music constantly changing, in exaggerated imitation of the licence of Euripides. There is,
(592)
'
'

indeed, no instance in this


(595)

monody
of

of exact metrical correspondence

In the monody in the Aves correspondence, based on practical identity of the metrical form of subordinate periods, and this comports with its greater simplicity. For example, the melody to which the first colon was sung may have been repeated in the fourth that of the second in the third ; of the seventh in the ninth ; and correspondences may have been introduced within the paeonic hypermeter (18-23) and the dactylic octameter (26-29), but this is
there
are
possibilities

between any two subordinate periods.

melodic

less likely.

that closes the exode of the Acharnians

Commentators on Aristophanes assume that the song is a lyrical duo. The poet undoubtedly affected this form of composition, but the closing song of the Acharnians lacks the distinguishing feature of the duo, intimate recognition by each singer of the presence of the other. Cf., for example, in this play 284 ff. (452) and 1008 ff. (83). In Ach. 1190 ff. Lamachus does not recognize the presence of Dicaeopolis, and his lament, if rendered continuously, with the
597.

burlesque echoes of Dicaeopolis omitted,

is

monody
in

that

in

tone

is

not

unlike

the

celebrated

Lamachus's apprehension, expressed in that Dicaeopolis see him and jibe at him as he is carried wounded to his house, furnishes the proper dramatic motive for the appearance of the rustic hero with the girls. It enhances the comic effect of the remainder of the lyric to assume that while Dicaeopolis,

monody 1196 f.,

the

Eanae.

may

599

MONODIES
is

283
present,

although half-seas-over, does recognize that Lamachus


the
latter

steadily

ignores

his

rival's

presence.

Lamachus

disappears from the scene, at 1226, before the close of the play.

Then

follows, in a stichic period (778), a

real trio of Dicaeopolis

and the leaders of the half-choruses, closed by a final strain sung by the chorus entire. 598. The poet's purpose in this play is to ridicule the party The closing scene of the in Athens that was clamouring for war.
play contrasts, in individual experience, the joys of peace
the horrors of war.
(!)

with

His echoing The scholiast on lines must have produced a great effect. 1190 says of Lamachus Oprjvoov iraparpaycpSei, and continues irapaTTjprjreov he on avTnidr](Ttv av6i<i 6 jjuev ra e'/c toO iroXe/jiov
:
:

Dicaeopolis caps Lamachus.

Setva airep eiradev, 6 Se airep e^ei iv

elprjvrj

j^apixoavva.

This
in of

contrast of sentiment

metrical

form.

marked by difference The metres used by Lamachus are those


is

appropriately

tragedy, the metres

used by Dicaeopolis
the
warrior's

tend to comic form,

lamentations with set 1205, 1208^ jxo^eph^ iy(o = 1208^ 1209^=1209^ 1217 = 1215, 1221 = 1219). Compare for metrical contrasts 1191-1197 (paratragedic ^ - only except
repeats

when he

purpose (1198

1190, 1206

11991202 (comic: v^ five times, one suppressed arsis), and 1210 with 1211, 1212 with 1213, 1214 with 1216, 1218 with 1220. See 129. In 12241225 Dicaeopolis adopts tragic metrical form but not sentiment on his own account. "When the lyric dialogue passes at 1227 to Dicaeopolis and the Chorus, the metrical form
once, three suppressed arses) with

is

comic.

The

effect of this variation

was probably increased by


Invariable

burlesque

variations of

of the

melody.

agreement in
those
of

length, therefore,

the periods of Dicaeopolis with

Lamachus was not demanded, and commentators who would restore verses after 1201 and 1205 are probably in error.
599.

Ach.

1190-1234

(Exode).

Burlesque of a Monody.
Aa.
aTTarai aTTarat
Of. W^m6. 707 (289).

38,

72

^J

'^

1191

crrvyepa. rdSe ye

Kpvipa TrdOea'

rdXas

iyo).

284

THE VEKSE OF GREEK COMEDY


SloWvfiaL Sophs
VTTO TToXeflLOV TVTTiis.

599

1194 1196

K6tvo

S'

alaKTov dv ycvoiTo

fiot,

AtKatoTToAts

ei'

/a'

lSol Terpoi/xevov

Ka.T'

iyxdvoi rats

efxals

rv)(^aL(rLV.

^_ ._^_
Ai.

^ ^
2

3CV

drTarai aTraTal

_ ^ _
(TKXrjpd Kal Kv8h)Via.

_ ^ _

1199

TWV

TLTOiOiV

a)S

(^iX-qcraTov

jxe

fiaXdaKm w

xpvcriui

TO TTcpiTrerao-Tov xaTri/AavSaAwTov,
10
v^

.^

w
.

w -

w ^ -

v^

3^^'

1202
Aa.

Tov yap

X'^"'

T^P'^TO'i

eK~iTrwKa.

_ _ ^ _
w
10)
iiy

_ ^ _

V.

3^^'

(rvficfiopa.

rdXaiva twv e^wv

KaKwi/.

^ 1205
At.
10)
it)

Tpav/xaTiav (TrajBvvtDV.

v^ v^

X'^V^ AayuaxiTTTTiov.

w w
.

^_^_ ^_^_3 v^ ^_^_3 v^ ^_^_3


v.>^^..-2

Aa.

arrvyepos eyw.

At. fxoyepos iyw.

15v^^wAa.
A.
At.
Ti
/;ie

(TV

Kwets;

At.

rt /xe crv SaKvets

TaAas eyw

^v/xlSoXrjs (Sapeias.

v^

w ._^
;
.

3^

Tois Xovcrt

yap

tis ^v/x/BoXas eTrpaTTero

Aa.
At.

to)

Ilatttv ITaiav.
ov)(l

^
20

_ _

dAA

vvvl TT^/xepov Ilatwvta.

w_

v^.^3^

Aa.

Xd/Secrde p.ov XafSecrOe tou o-KeAous TraTrat,

1215
At.

Trpoa-Xd/Sea-d'
eyuou

(3

(/>iAot

v.^

v^

^ 5

Se

y cr^w tou Treons dfKpu)

jikcrov

1217
Aa.

-poa-XdjSea-e'

</)tAat.

- ^ -

v^

w 5^

etAiyyto) Kapa At^oj 7r7rA7^yp,ev'os


25

^ ^w v^

^ - ^ 3

^_^_

1219
At.

Kttl

(TKOToStVtO).

Id

Kayo) Ka^ei'Setv /SovXojxaL Kal a-Tvo/xat

1221

Kat cTKOTOjSivto).

^^

v./

+ Id

599
6vpa^e
/x'

MONODIES
i^eveyKar' eh tov HittuXo}'

285

Aa.

1223
At.
0)5

Traiwviaurt xepa-iv.

30 v^

^ ^

5*^^

T0V5

Kpira.<:

jxe

(ftepere

ov

'crrtv

6 /3ao-iAer>?y

1225
Aa.
At.

aTToSore /xot tov oo-koi'.


Aoy;(T7 rts
St'
/>t7re;77;ye

/xoi

ocrreoiv oSvprd.

opare tovtovi Kevov.

T^veAAa KaWiviKOi.
Kop. a
Ti]VX\a 8rJT,
eiTrep

5''' v^ ^ ^ w w4 35 w ^ ^ w 4*^^ v^ vy
v./
v.^

w ^^ w

v^

v./

KaAets

y',

At.

Kop.

At.

Xo.

_ ^ _ ^ _ ^ 4^^ y^ ^ -^ w v> v^ 4 ^ 40 a/xvcTTtv k^kXaxj/a. v^ ^' TryveAAa vvv w yevmSa w ^wpet Xa/Swv TOV a(TKov. ^ ^ ^ 4*^^ ^ ^ ^ eTrecrOk vvv aSovres m _ ^ _ ^ _ ^^ 4*^^ TV/veAAa /caAAtvi/cos. ^~ v^ v^ aAA' k-^ofxea-Qa crrjv X-P'-^ ^"' ^ ^ ^ TiyveAAa KaAAtvtKos a v^ 6*^^ v^ SovTes ere Kal tov acrKov.
(0

TTpeajSv KaAAtVtKOS.

Kal irpos y' aKparov eyx'^o.S

v./

v,-

1194 alaKTbv Person

alaKTov oifxwKTou

1210

^vfi^oXrjs

Dindorf

rrji iv

fidxv

See the metrical scholia on Ach. 1190

ff.

CHAPTEK XV
OEIGIN OF THE FOEMS OF GEEEK POETEY
600. It
is

now

a commonplace of Comparative Metric that


in

the

primitive poetic forms

eight and a trimeter of eleven or twelve syllables.

was quantitative,

Aryan speech were a dimeter of The language but the order of longs and shorts was not yet

regulated, so that the dimeter, for example,

may

be represented
is

aso

oooooooor>=^^^^^^^^.

This dimeter

where two dimeters, separated by a tetrameter, and two tetrameters are united in a
in the Avesia,
first

diaeresis,
distich.

found form

The
fifth,

ordering of quantities appears in the Rigveda.

The
dimeter

sixth

and seventh syllables


;

of

the

octosyllabic

are

respectively short, long, short

the final syllable remains ancipital.


:

This gives an iambic metre in the second half

oooov^-v^i=i.
it

The rhythmiziug impulse gained


quantities
of

force

as

operated.^

The

the

first

metre

of

the

Vedic

dimeter

remain

practically unregulated, although preferences are manifest.

601. The facts have been ascertained with great patience and are See Oldenberg's Hymnen des Itigveda, i. 1 &. From the table on p. 14 it appears that of the sixteen possible forms of the first metre (two units in four places) fifteen occur. The four that v^-^-, predominate are, in the order of preference, v-- The combination <^ v^ v.- v^ is not found. E. Vernon Arnold in his Vedic Metre in its Historical Development, 153, records that over ninety per cent of the lyric dimeters he tabulates ^ ^ He distinguishes three forms of have pure iambic close the normal form the opening as relatively common (39 per cent in lyric dimeters) ; the iambic form ^ w (29 per cent)
clearly stated.
,

v--

and the 'syncopated' form:


^

(11 per cent).

Arnold gives

See 653 on the evolution of the dimeter in Aeolic Greek verse.

!<

604

ORIGIN OF THE FORMS OF GREEK POETRY


interesting
detail
(pp.

287
in

much
Avesta

149-174).
f.

For the trimeter


one of the

the

and Rigveda

see

611

It

is

many

services

rendered to metrical science by Rudolf Westphal that he noted many years ago the Avestan and Vedic dimeters and trimeters and pointed out their significant bearing on the corresponding Greek cola. See Zur
verglekhenden Metrik, 437
ft'.

See also his Alhj.

Meirik'^,

38-47.

602.

The

distich of the Avesta, with its four dimeters arranged

pair and pair,

elevated by

its

rhythmical.
in check,

an impressive means of dignified expression, form above ordinary prose speech, but it is not Poetic impulse, however, could not long be held
is

to the second half of the primitive dimeter in India

and the rhythmizing influence that gave melodic form found early

among those other more highly gifted men of Aryan speech who in the third millennium before Christ began to make their way from the north-western regions of the Balkan peninsula into the land which afterwards was to be known as The rhythmizing impulse regulated the order of Greece. quantities among these earlier Greeks in two modes which are
expression also

now

seen to have been distinct.

Ionian Verse
603.

Among

the ancestors of the Ionian poets,

it

fixed a long
:

syllable in the even places of the dimeter, second, fourth, sixth

o-o-o-o^.

These

even

places

were

finally

developed

into the theses of simple feet (664)

and they remained remark-

ably constant and stable (27) in all the various formations that were gradually evolved. The dimeter was in ascending rhythm.

The odd
simple

syllables,

feet,

on the other hand, the arses ultimately of were for a long time in a state of flux. They
;

might be short or long, or become two shorts they might be omitted altogether. Variability of form remained the distinctive mark of these odd places in the dimeter.
LOGAOEDIC, IAMBIC AND ANAPAESTIC DIMETERS
604. Probably the
first

metrical phrase to emerge from these

elements was logaoedic (375


its

theses constant but ff.), with its and the division into thesis and arsis only approximately diplasic. This was the form that would naturally be first evolved, when poets were dealing with material that was not yet under easy control.
arses variable

288
605.

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


The unconscious
sacrifice
effort

605

to

secure

regularity of order,

produced monotony, evolved two forms of the dimeter in ascending rhythm that, with the corresponding forms in descending rhythm, became the chief resources of Ionian poetry, namely the iambic (62 fif.)
without that
of variety

which would have

and the anapaestic (270 fF.) dimeter. 606. The constitution of the iambic dimeter (^ _^_v^_^_) seems simple, but while it is regular it admits variety. Short syllables were fixed in only the second and fourth arses of the the first and third continued to admit either original dimeter The dimeter was now naturally felt to consist of short or long. two metres,' identical in structure ^^ - ^ - i^_^_. This metre, like the dimeter itself, was isomeric (12), but its arsis might be irrational (15), with a variability parallel to that which characterized the odd places of the primitive dimeter. The recognition of thesis and arsis in the metre ( ^ - o finally established the simple foot, the iamb (^ -), as a distinct
;

'

'

'

element of rhythm. ^-^607. In the evolution of the anapaestic dimeter - - the unconscious effort to differentiate it from the iambic dimeter, in which the simple feet were diplasic (9 ii.), gradually
:

^ ^

fixed one long or

two short syllables in

all arses
its

of the original

normal value of two Thus arose an isomeric simple foot, adapted to primary times. the movement of men on the march.
LOGAOEDIC, TROCHAIC AND DACTYLIC DIMETERS
608.

dimeter and this long syllable assumed

The

principle prevails in

Greek poetry that cola are


;

reduced, not enlarged, in verse-building


rather than growth.
Catalexis
is

the process involves loss

the natural manifestation of

and results from disposition to upon the voices of the singers, the musical accompaniment and the dance, if the song was orchestic, continuing for the full time of the colon. The syllable thus suppressed in the primitive dimeter was the final arsis. But it was the first arsis of this dimeter that, in consequence of its position, was peeuHarly exposed, and initial attrition was so constant that gradually a series of dimeters was evolved in The primitive form of the acephalous descending rhythm. dimeter in Ionian rhythm was - o - o - o -. From this came
this principle at the close of cola,

ease

the

strain

610

ORIGIN OF THE FORMS OF GREEK POETRY


- ^ -, with recognition
of

289
feet,

- ^ - ^
as in

metres and simple

the iambic dimeter (606).

but only apparently

Eelations are

now

apparently
are

reversed:
of

the odd
the

syllables

the

constant and stable part

the

phrase,

even places are

Thus arose, subject to the variability that marks the arsis. not to dwell needlessly on obvious facts, logaoedic, trochaic and
dactylic hephtheniimers in descending
i)

rhythm
.^

ttoXlv rjfxeTepav e^et


)']

X.aLpe(f>wv

vvKTepi<s

prj/xaTa Kal irapairpicrixaT

^^ ^ eVwv ^^

^^

w v^ ^^

Thenn. 1140

Av. 1564

Ran. 882

609.
of

It is not likely that in the primitive stage the

rhythm
the
initial

these

dimeters was
dimeters
;

felt

to

be

different

from that of
to

complete

the

syllable

corresponding

the

upward beat with which the phrase began was felt to be lacking, See 38. the melody beginning with the first downward beat. This fact is illustrated by two forms of the acephalous iambic dimeter in early use, the acatalectic,^ - v^ - ^ - ^ -, and the These sometimes occur even in later catalectic, - ^ - v^ poetry, in association with ascending rhythms, and remain iambic, but generally they are associated with descending rhythms, and have trochaic scansion, - ^ - ^ _ ^ _^ catalectic dimeter, and _ ^ _ ^ the ithyphallic (203). See Heph. 18. 6 ff. and
.

'

'

19. 5

ff.

610.

When, however, two acephalous


cola,

cola Wi^re united in a

tetrameter in continuous rhythm, a vital change took place.

For

- v/ - v^ - ^ - ^ - ^ - and cannot be united in continuous rhythm a primary time is needed The final thesis This was secured in two ways. to link them.
example, two acephalous
v./
;

of the first phrase might be held in singing


of three primary times
\pi]<Tip.ov
:

till

it

had the value

pXv ov8iv,

(xA|Aa)S

Se

SetAbv koI fieya

- ^ - ^

- ^

^^

_ ^ _ ^

- ^ -

Av. 1476

f.

But generally a syllable This process was called protraction (31). was expressed for the lacking primary time
^ This happens to be identical with that part of the iambic trimeter that follows the ])enthemimeral caesura, aud, after Aristophanes had perpetrated his

Cf.

The uame

famous jest, came to be called \rjKv0iov. Fmu. 1197 tf., and Heph. 122. 14 tf. \riKvdiov has no historical
significance.

290

THE VEESE OF GEEEK COMEDY


ovfios vtos.

611

aAAci

[jLi]

f3o\aTe-

koI yap Tvyxo-vn-

- ^ - ^

-v>-^|-w

-v^-

Vesp.

336

The syllable was a natural interposition, since it merely restored The movement the lost arsis of the second acephalous dimeter. was now felt to begin with the downward beat, the rhythm was
descending.
lectic

Thus arose the acatalectic trochaic dimeter. Acataand dactylic dimeters were developed in a Thus in dactylic rhythm similar manner.
logaoedic
:

SeivoTaTOLV (TTOfiaToiv TTop'uraa-daL

p-qjxaTa
|

Kai Trapair pLcrfiar

eTrwv

____ __

|-^-_ -^-

Ran. 880

ff.

TKIMETERS
611. Besides the dimeter of the epic distich (600 ff.) there also occurs in the Avesta a hendecasyllabic trimetrical colon, with found in quantities still unregulated
:

ooooooooooo,

the

gathas.

The hendecasyllabic colon appears

also

in

the

Rigveda, together with an acatalectic colon of twelve syllables, and in both the principle of ordering of quantities is manifestly
in operation.

ninth, tenth, eleventh)

The regular rhythm in the last four places (eighth, and in the last five places (eighth, ninth,tenth, eleventh, twelfth) of the two trimeters is respectively - ^ - ^ and - ^ - ^ ^, that is, iambic. The seven preceding
syllables are in a state of flux, although preferences are distinctly

manifest, with disposition to iambic


612.

rhythm
fF.,

in the first metre.


Metre,

See Oldenberg's Eymnen,

i.

42

and Arnold's Fedic

The following facts are the results of Arnold's painsThe percentages here given are for archaic taking investigations.
175-227.
lyric

metres (Table, 188). Trimeters are almost invariably divided by caesura either after the fourth syllable (45 per cent) or after the fifth (50 per cent), the latter corresponding to penthemimeral caesura in the iambic trimeter The regular iambic rhythm of the close of the colon is in Greek. sometimes broken by a short syllable in the eighth place, less

The frequently in the tenth, rarely by a long syllable in the ninth. normal form of the three syllables (fifth, sixth, seventh) that follow
the early caesura
-^ ^ subnormal forms are - ^ -, ^ ^ ^, is The normal form of the with the sixth syllable short. corresponding syllables in the trimeter divided by penthemimeral v^ In both, caesura is - ^ ^ varied by a subnormal form the two syllables that follow the caesura are normally short. Trimeters generally open with a metre of the form ^ - ^ - (36 per
,

- ^

v^

all

v..

-/

615
cent) or

ORIGIN OF THE FORMS OF GREEK POETRY


(32 per cent), the latter being non-iambic.
>=^

291

The

'normal' forms of the acatalectic

^ - ^ and numerous variations occur in the first metre, ;iiid especially, as has been seen, in the second. Arnold concludes (p. 226) that the dominant scheme of the pre-Vedic trimeter was v^ - ^ (^) v^ ^
:!:1

^-^-|ww

^-^

trimeter,

would be: \^ ^ - ^ - ^ ^^ but


therefore,

(^il)

613.

The

acatalectic

trimetrical

colou

appears

in

Ionian

long syllable fixed in the even places but witli variable syllables in the odd places
:

verse in Greek with a

o-o- o-o-

i=^.

From

this base

were developed, by processes identical

dimeters, acatalectic and catalectic and anapaestic trimeters in ascending rhythm, and logaoedic, trochaic and dactylic trimeters in descending rhythm. Anapaestic and dactylic trimeters in which the simple feet were in even time, which was their normal measurement,
logaoedic, iambic
.

with those that produced

exceeded the

length

allowed

to

diplasic

compound

feet

(22)

and fell apart into dimeters and monometers. The use of the monometer (dipody) as a colon probably began in this manner.
614. In certain forms of verse the thesis of simple feet might be resolved (11, 17). The result of this new source of variation was greater liveliness in musical expression. Just the opposite effect was secured by the other variation denominated protraction (tovt]), in which the thesis of a simple foot absorbed an adjacent arsis and took its time. Thus in the rhythmization
of the iambic verse
:

ofioppodw, (TvvdeXo),

(TVfji.7TpaLvi(ras

e'x^
f.

^ - ^ -

- ^ -

- ^ -

^ - ^ - Av. 851

there was no pause in singing, but compensative lengthening of

the long syllables following the suppressed arses, here indicated

by

dots.

three primary times.

In this case the long syllable assumed the value of See 31.
IONIC COLA

615.

The

relation

of

trimeters to the primitive cola

minor and major ionic dimeters and is not so well determined as that

of the dimeters and trimeters already considered.

They appear,
to

however, to have arisen, in the


greater
anaclasis

unconscious
expression,

effort

secure
interior
its

variety

of

rhythmical
metres
of

through

within

the

the

primitive

dimeter in

292

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


Thus from ^ - ^ in
thesis

616

iambic and trochaic development.

v^-vy-,
each
;

by interchange of metre, came ^ ^

and

arsis

of simple feet ivithin

v^v.^

ascending
^^v^

rhythm
in

from

-vy-vy
rhythm.

-v.y-v-'

came
is

^ ^

descending
apparently
of

This view

supported by the fact that


in
6

we

see these ionic cola in process of

early lyric poetry.


Trepicrcrov'

Thus

making in extant remains minor ionic rhythm

a*

yap 'AttoAAwv
av
(xtto

Avktjos Alcm. 83
V^ vy

'I;/w o-aAacrcro/xeSoicr',

paarSoiv

Alcm. 84

e^ct

fJ-iv

'AvSpo/JLeSa

Kakav

d/xoL/Sav

Sapph. 58

^''dTr<f)Ot

Tt

rav iroXvok/Sov ' A(f>p68LTav Sapph. 59

Here iambic metres and minor ionics are combined in the same That the formative dipody is iambic is confirmed by colon.
the fact that
it

may

be irrational.
(syncopation
in
is

616. That

anaclasis

modern music)

is

legitimate and natural operation, and


as

not to be stigmatize4

the

and mechanical metrical process, is proved by found between the second and third metres of the last two fragments, a constant manifestation in
an
artificial

terminal

anaclasis

ionic verse of the classical period (419

flf.).

Ionic verse, although


as

generally

regular,

was

nevertheless

plastic,

Aristophanes's

famous extravaganza proves (429).


617. Similarly, fragments
in

of early

lyric

poetry are extant

which trochaic metres are combined with major ionics in the same colon. Compare the following, which are all quoted by Hephaestion (chap, xi.) in illustration of major ionic verse ^
irA^pT/s [xev k^aiv^r'

a creXdwa-

^ ^

^ ^

al 8' ws Trepl /3w/xoi' ea-Tddrjcrai' Sapph. 53

'

Not

all

modern metricians agree

who
this

classifies all

Sappho 52, for example, with him. Bergk has been variously regarded. [Altestes Versmass, 407) thought its component cola were a form of the Spruchvers (paroemiac), and he was followed by Usener ( " paroemiacus, " AUgriechischer Versbau, 93) and Schroder ("enoplion," Von Wilamowitz, Aristofh. Cant. 88).

quoted as ionic
particular

(/s^/ZZos,

the other periods here 125 ff.), regards

fragment as Glyconic {Isyllos, 129 n.). But no scansion of these cola is satisfactory that does not bring them and the trimeters in Sappho 53 and Alcaeus 38 under the same formula. Schroder discusses some of these periods in Hermes, xxxviii. (1903), 204.

i^

619

ORIGIN OF THE FORMS OF GREEK POETRY


ov yap 'ApKaSeacn XtofSa Alcaeus 38

293

Tpi^ioXerep-

OeSvKe jxlv a (jeXdvva


Kai IIAr^t^aSes, fikaai 8e
ri'xTs,

^ ~
^

^^

ww w w
v^v^

_^__

y->

irapa 8' epx^T"' ^po.,

"

yw

Se fiova

KareuSw Sap ph. 52


aiS'

KpT^o-crat

vv ttot'

e/z/xeAecus 7rd5e(r(rtv

MpX^jfT' aTraXoKr'
TTOttS

dfKfi'

epoevra jSwfiov

wv^ ww
v^v^

w
v^v^ v_/^

v^

_^__

rkpiv dvdo'i fidXaKov /xdreia-aL Sapph. 54

Vfiop(poTpa Mvaa-iBiKa ras d^rdXas FvpiVvtos Sapph. 76

dcraporepas ovSafid irw/aara crWiv ri'^^owrav Sapph. 77

In
iio
ji)artial

major

ionic

verse

the

initial

metre

of

colon,

but
of

other,

may

begin with a short syllable in consequence

acephalization.

618. Aristophanes quotes from a scolium of primitive form two cola that illustrate the same process (Vesp. 1240 f.)
ovK
0"Tiv
dAojTreKi^eii',

^w
^ ^

ov8' dfJL(fiOTpoicri yiyv^a-daL (fiiXov

_^__ _^_

v^

PAEONIC COLA
619. In certain odes of Aristophanes, which are fully treated
in

223

ff.,

trochaic and paeonic metres are freely mingled.


oTToo-oi

TTttcriv

yeojpytKOV J3lov

eT/oi/3oyLiev

ixovrj

yap

r}/xas

wt^eAeis
S.

-^ww -w-^ -w^w -w-w


Aristophanes even uses a
ovSev
ov8e
ea-TL TTVp,
'

- ^
'

^ - Pax 589
tetrameter by line

paeonic-trochaic

drfplov yvvaiKhs dfia-^byTepov,

ovS'

(58'

dvaiSvjs ov8ep.La Tro'pSaAis

-^

^ ^ ^

-w-

Lys.

1014
in

ff.

The trochaic metre and the paeon may correspond and antistrophe
Kttt

strophe

KttT

avTo TouTO fiovov av8pis /xa^^i/zwraroi


CKetcrc
Tai<;

= = 1093

Tovs evavTious TrAecov

rpiijpfa-iv

-v^-w -v^^^ -wv:;^

- ^ -

Vesp.

1062

The paeon may assume cretic form, both when used independently and when in correspondence with a trochaic metre
:

294
et TL

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


K)(^apt.(rfj.Vov

620

yoipiBLOv ota-da Trap

ejiou

ye KanSrjSoKws

-wv^v^ -

av
jx

-wwv^

-www -www -wtv TwSe

Pax 347

f.

KovKT

evpois SiKao-rr^v hpifJ.vv ov8e


vo/i.t^'

8vcrKoXoi' =

TOVTo

fXTj

(fiavXov

Tw

irpayfiaTi

_ ^
620.
it is

_ ^

w -

- w - Pax 349 = 388


must have been uniform, and trochaic, each metre had

The time

of these periods
it

highly probable that

was

'

approximately the rhythmical value of six primary times.

Von

Wilamowitz explains the


the
first
;

origin of these

'

light

trochaic metres.

In rapid dancing, he suggests, the second step


the foot just touches the earth and
that
lifted,

is less is

heavy than
dipody
is

again quickly

so

the

second

long

of

the

trochaic

differentiated from the first

trochaic

metre gravitated
it

assumed - w - ^
(

in some cases. became - ^ ^ ^

In the dance the toward paeonic form and actually Expressed in mechanical symbols,
.

by shortening.

The

cretic

of

three

syllables

^^

-)

is

a later substitute for

-www.

See von Wilamowitz's

Orestie,

265.
is

621. It

obvious that

if

successive periods consisted solely

of metres in paeonic or cretic form, the tendency

would be
arisen

to

reduce the original value of these metres from six primary times
to
five.

The process by which

-www
At

had

from

- w - w
part
still
;

affected only the arsis of the trochaic metre, its lighter

the thesis remained constant.

a time

when

metres,

would be but a step, and a natural step, in a continuous series of cola composed of metres of the form - w w w to give each short its normal value of a primary time. Thus would arise a new metre of five primary times, in descending hemiolic rhythm, with thesis related to arsis in the ratio of 3 to 2, namely the paeonic (-www,
in evolution,

were seeking

final definition, it

-W-).
622. Kossbach and Westphal first expressed the view that the paeonic metre, in essence, was a rhythmical shortening of the trochaic But they dipody. See Ehythmik\ 221, Rhythmik\ 141 fi"., 153 f. maintained that in such series as are quoted above from Aristophanes These the trochaic metres were reduced to the value of paeonics. were the cretics (k/jt/tikoi Kara. Sirpoxaiov) of the Greek rhy thmicians, with the value, not of J See their Spec. J^, but of J J'S'.J^'
'

/J

625

ORIGIN OF THE FORMS OF GREEK POETRY

295

This would account for the equivalence of the paeon and the trochaic metre, but they fail to explain the process by which the paeonic metre J J" J* J" was derived from J J* J J* or J J'J^^.
Metrik^, 738.

THE DOCHMIUS
in Greek v^ of the dochmius, v^ Aeschylus is doubtful, and its use is mainly Its evolution was apparently due to confined to the drama. the pressing need that tragic poets felt for a rhythmical phrase adequate to express the great excitement naturally incident to

623.

The occurrence

poetry before

scenes in tragedy.
621
Its

source and even

its

constitution
(ix.

are
4.

still

subjects of

discussion.

Among

the ancients, Quintilian


J.)

97) was uncertain

whether

it

consisted of bacchius and


ff.

Aristides states (39 M., 26. 5

that

iamb or of iamb and cretic. it is composed of iamb and

Hephaestion (32. 5 If.) regards it as TratW Smyi'to? ( - v^ - ). an antispastic penthemimer {kXvlv iiaUrai). Choeroboscus in his commentary (Heph. 239. 13 ff.) interprets this to mean antispast and a syllable, but adds oi fikv-oi pyd/xtKol to 7rav fierpov ws fitav The scholiast on Aesch. crv^vylav Xafx/SdvovTes Soxz-itaKov 6vofjLa.(ov(rt. Sept. 128, (TV T (3 Atoyeves (fnXo/iaxov Kpdro'i, has similar comment: Kal Tavra 8o)(^[j.LaKa. eo'Tiv Kal mto, lav Tts avra OKTaa-fjiiui'i paivij.
Kvpl,(i)<;

Se

eiov
Se

(Balvrj

'

pvdjxol

yap

elcri

'

/Saivovrab

8k

ol

pvdfiol,

Siai/Detrai

On Sejpt. to fierpa, ovxl jSatvovrai. 1188, 1190, he says that the rhythm is octaseme.
625.

103, quoting Av.

Epitome, the moderns, Hermann {Elementa, 243 regards the dochmius as a hypercatalectic antispast and Westphal {Spec. Metrik -, 853 f.), holding that divides it w -^ -^ ^ -^ any octaseme rhythm must have dactylic division (4 4), and that such
;

Among
i

225

ff.)

division as

is

indicated

by Quintilian

(3

5 or

5:3)

is

arrhythmical,

regards the dochmius as a catalectic bacchiac dimeter (v./ - - ^ -), the last long syllable being followed by a pause equal to two primary 76 ff.) times.i J. H. H. Schmidt {Metrik, 509 ff., Introduction, bacchius,' with anacrusis, and following analyzes the dochmius into
'

^ - A ||). Pickel {De versuum dochmiacorum shortened choree {y^ origine, 167) holds that the dochmius is an iambic tripody, with the second thesis protracted in consequence of the loss of the second arsis {^ - i^ ^ -). In dochmii in which the first two theses are both resolved, and protraction is therefore impossible, he assumes a pause, sometimes necessarily in the middle of a word, in place of the lost Brambach {Metrische Stvdien zu Sophocles, 59 ff.) regards second arsis.
\
|

See Rossbach's discussion in Spec. Metrik^, 760

ff.

296

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY

626

the dochmius as a catalectic trochaic tripody with anaclasis in the Every dochmius is catalectic, representing an first two syllables. Crusius {Zu neuentdeckten original phrase of nine primary times. Muslkresten, 193 If.), observing that the first syllables of the dochmii in the Reynier papyrus, which dates in the time of Augustus, are stigmatized (even the iambic form rwd^as Sai/Awv), and assuming that the o-Tty/xvy was attached to the thesis, concludes that the beginning of the dochmius shows the same variability of form that characterizes The dochmius, he thinks, is the shortest and freest Aeolic rhythm. Von Wilamowitz also believes that the Aeolic (Mogaoedic ') colon. source of the dochmius is to be found ultimately in Aeolic rhythm {Comment Metricum, ii. 29), notwithstanding the fact that resolution is alien to Aeolic metre, which limits variability of form by the strict He counting of syllables {Gottingische gelehrte Anzeigen, clx. 149). regards ^ ^ ^ as the primitive form of the dochmius {Orestie, Schroder {Forarbeiten, 126 ff.) derives the dochmius outright 189). from the acatalectic lesser Asclepiadean (cf. 518 ii.) by fusion of
' '

its

two

halves,

^ - - ^ ^ - and - ^ ^ - ^ -

626. These and other theories that have been advanced have

not escaped criticism.

Their number and variety show that the


It
is

problem

is

difficult.

perhaps

insoluble, but

certain in-

disputable facts must not be ignored in any attempt to establish

the relation of the dochmius to the primitive dimeter.

The case
is

may
form

be stated as follows.
of the

Each short
^
--'

syllable of the

fundamental
This
true

dochmius

^^y

be long.

also of the arsis of the first simple foot in each metre of the

primitive dimeter as developed in iambic form in Ionian rhythm.

Thus ^ ~ Ku - v3-v^-. Again, each normally long syllable of This is true also of each of the the dochmius may be resolved.
first

three theses of the primitive dimeter in

its

iambic developfact

ment.

Thus

^^^^^
first

^^

-.

Now

the

cannot

be

ignored that the


primitive

three simple feet of the iambic form of the

dimeter

thus

developed
of the

furnish

all

the

thirty-two

dochmius (460, n.), if the second arsis is absolutely suppressed and the number of primary Thus ^^^xy^. times is thus reduced from nine to eight. The effect of this suppression, in its disturbance of the rhythm, is startling, through the juxtaposition of two theses, with disThis is an entirely new effect, since solution of the time. continuous rhythmization by repetition of simple feet is the The name Sop^/ito? law that prevails elsewhere in Ionian verse.
theoretically possible forms

630

ORIGIN OF THE FORMS OF GREEK POETRY


new
plirase

297
its

given to this

seems thus

to be justified

by

form.

Other regular rhythms are called 6p6oL 627. Furthermore, dochmiac verse is associated in the tragic
poets chiefly with iamljic periods, generally trimeters and tetra-

meters, and these display, by

appropriate variety of form.

means The

of protraction
relation

and resolution, between the iambic

metre and the dochmius is so close that they may be united within a single colon and even joined within a word. Compare,
for

347 = 359, 370 = 381, 738 = avv a-rpaTm), Agam. 1100 = 1107 (t&> Kikaiva, rote yap TeXet9), 1117 = 1128, 1157 (ta) XKafidvhpov
example, in Aeschylus, Sup.
(-TToXet

745

fxeXayxtfio)

Trdrpiov

ttotoz/)

1 16

(loi

TrpoTTupyoL

dvcriai

irarpo'i),

Eum.

173

178

{jMLaarop' elatv ov Trda-erat).

Less often the iambic

metre follows, as in Sept. 888 = 900. 628. In comedy also iambic is the rhythm with which the dochmius is most frequently associated. See 466. Here also the two rhythms may be closely joined, as in Ach. 569 (460). With this compare Aesch. Sept. 419 f rpefio) S' ai/xaTr],^6pov<; Five dochmii precede and an ithypliallic fiopov^ virep <f>l\(ov. follows, closing the strophe. Note also the much discussed colon in Ucc. 971 (564), a combination of an iambic dimeter With this compare Aesch. Agam. with a dochmiac monometer.
.

1156

tu

ydjiOL ydjxoL Ila'/Dioos okidpioi (piXwv

629.

The

facts

noted in 626

ff.

may

indicate the true source

of the dochmius, namely, that it

is

in origin an iambic tripody

with the arsis of the second simple foot absolutely suppressed.

Prosodiac-F^noplic Cola
630. Testimony that
it
is

trustworthy links the prosodiac, as


in

appears

with fixed
as

constitution

the

poets

of

the

fifth

century, with an early form of the Ionian dimeter.

This early
simplified

phrase

appears

the

first

half

of

celebrated

logaoedic period in Archilochus (79. 1):


'EpaxrpoviSi] XaptXae,
\prip6.

Toi yeAoTov

^w ^v^ ^ w
v./

298

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


"

631

Hephaestion (xv.) expressly states that the prosodiac, which consists of ionic and choriamb," lies implicit in the anapaestic hephthemimer which constitutes the first part of this tetrametrical The second half, he says, is the ithyphallic. period. Archilochus, he continues, always observed the division of the two cola and admitted different forms of the anapaestic dimeter zf^ - ^), but Cratinus and the poets who followed him maintained and cultivated a fixed prosodiac form of this tetrameter,' They

(^-^

'

made

it

a real tetrameter, treating


S>

its

division with indifference

Xatp

fj-ey'

a^peioyeAws

o/^tAe rais iwi/SSais Crat. 323. 1

and regarding its first half not as anapaestic but as prosodiac. For, he adds, an anapaestic tripody of the form s^ ^ - ^ ^ admits prosodiac division, ^v^ - ^ ^^ - and he explains the process at length,^ This means that Cratinus and his successors, pleased with its rhythm, adopted a fixed form of the logaoedic period employed by Archilochus, hut gave it a tlie first half was identified with different metrical constitution the prosodiac, an ancient and well-known dimeter, the second was a catalectic iambic dimeter.^ The tetrameter thus constituted was in ascending rhythm, as was each of its parts, and each half of each dimeter had the rhythmical value of six primary times. This particular prosodiac tetrameter, as we have seen (495), had great vogue with the comic poets.^ 631. The identification by Cratinus of a fixed form of the anapaestic tripody with the prosodiac at once suggests the
,
:

probable relation

of

the
its

prosodiac

to

the

primitive

dimeter,

namely, that
^

it

had
rij

source in the paroemiac form of this


tov n-po<TOOiaKOv 'dv Kal tovto elSos, to e^ to iwviKov koI xopi-o-P-l^i-KoO avyKeifievov. <i'"^5'''<^^"^': ^'7'^ ovTwOLaipoliro, '''T iav fvptjaei ry TrpocrooLaKU} ((papfiofov.
fiiv

ol

8i

ij.er'

avTov

fief

ro/iy dSia-

<f>6pws expT7(rai'ro,

wavep Kparivos (323)


dxp67Xwj
6>iXe

Xalp

MH''

Tah
'

iTrl^dats,
ri}j rjixeripas <Tocf)La$
evdai/j.oi''

^tikt^

ffe

Kpnrjs dpLCTe irdvTuiv iJ.i]TT]p iKplwv xj/o^rjan.

yap

(XTTovdeiov

ixv

'''ov

TrpGirov,

tov%

ivTavda yap
irpo <rv\\a^i)s.

o/xofojs

to
S^

rplTOV
irpb

Tirixi^Tai

Toh 'Apxi\oxeiois,
oeiovs

to.

Kal p-evToi Kai


Toiis

toi'-j

avTov Svo avof/leVy


ol

TraprjT-ncavTo

iv

ry

fiiTk TOV 'Kpx'ikoxov,


iiyovfievot,

ovx ws dvairaiaTLKov

TrpoaodiaKdv, to e^ I^jviktjs Kal xoptaA'./3iK^s, t^s iwviK^s Kal ^paxeiav


Ti)v
eis Tplirovu

dWa

TrpuiTTjv 5exop.ivT)s. dvvaTai 5e Kal dvaTraiaTiKov diatpdadai, el dirb airovBdov ApxoLTo, ohv to 2a7r0oOs (82)

8e e^TJs duairaiaTovs, rds tov devrepov dvawaicrTov 5uo /Spaxeta? irpoadels rip o-woi'ddu' Troiriaecs' 'iwvLKov dnb nel^ovos. Heph. 47. 16 ff. ^^^ 5' ^^^j xop'^p-^ov. 2 Qf. Schol. Heph. 154. 11-17. The statement at the close of the .scholiast's comment is significant icperifxifieph yap lafM^iKov T<p npoaoSLaK^ Tip KaBapi^ iiri,x4,xiKTai kclI irpoaodiaKdv 6/j.oiws KaXeiTai. 3 poj. g, discussion of this important testimony see the Editor's Enoplic Metre
:

^-^

g^ggj^

Comedy, 419

ff.

avTo. oe

<j\>

KaXXioTu,

633

ORIGIN OF THE FORMS OF GREEK POETRY

299
arsis

dimeter and was thus derived at a time


the paroemiac was
still

when

the

tirst

of

in flux,

^-^^-^^-^

(603).

In
final

the conversion of this particular form of the paroemiac into the


prosodiac, in
syllable

the various

processes

of verse-building,

its

was either merged in the following colon, ^ - ^ ^ -v^wtetrameter under consideration,


^
,

as

in the

^j-v/-

appeared sporadically as a hypercatalectic syllable (488), as in odes in which a prosodiac used as an independent - ^ ^ - ^ such as ^^v^ period assumes the form
or
,

KOLvy yap

ctt'

VTV\iaL(rL\' Eccl.

574
:

or was

lost, at
Tr]

the close of an acatalectic period, as


fSaOv^MVOti
v(f)dva<i

(Tvv XapiTT(T(ri

^ ^

- ^ ^
is

^ ^

_^^_v Bacch.

vfivov

oltto

(aOeas
V.

f.

K.

632. It

to be

observed that the tetrameter employed by


is

Cratinus and his successors

not found in Pindar and in but

one ode of Bacchylides


general,

(xix. K.).

The

lyric

poets did not, in

make use

of catalectic prosodiac cola

and periods, but

substituted for them, with the

same purpose

of resting the voices

of the singers (33), the hypercatalectic cola

and periods which


of

they found ready to

their

hands.
at

which

Hephaestion

notes

The discovery length was not, of


of

Cratinus
the
of

course,

invention of prosodiac verse, but the adoption of a


prosodiac tetrameter
in use, but

new form
a
line

by the clever adaptation


it

that

Archilochus had made famous.

Prosodiac verse had long been

seems probable, from anapaestic and iambic forms of the primitive dimeter in a manner precisely analogous to that which Cratinus employed, although he was not
633.

had originated,

conscious of precedents.

What was

the iambic element in prosodiac verse

Two

longer tetrameters antecede the catalectic tetrameter of Cratinus.

The

first is
i.

hypercatalectic
e'^

ras

eparojv

i(j)6/3-q(Tev

TrayKparTj?

"Hpa

fieXdOpon'

^ ^

- ^ ^ -

-|-^-

^ eirt

Bacch.

xi.

43

f.

K.

o ras deov,

ov '^apdOeia tikt'

prjyjxlvL ttovtov

v^-v^w
The second
ii.

_^^_ ^i_^_
acatalectic
:

^_
criv 8'

Pind. Nem.

v.

is

v^ov vapa

8a[p.ocrL

/cetraf

dXaOeuj. fSpurwi'

^w -wv^-

-'- ^

^ -

Bacch.

ix.

84

f.

K.

300

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


oSov irapa KaAAtoTras Aa>^oio-av ^o)(ov yepas

634

v^-ww
TTws
8rj

- ^ ^ -

^|_.^_
| vy

^_^_ ^_^_

Bacch. xix. 13

f.

K.

XtTTov euKAea vacrov,

koI tcs av8pas uAki/xovs

WW
The
comic poets,
iii.

WW

Pind. iV^em.

v.

catalectic tetrameter of Cratinus, particularly affected

by the

may

again be illustrated
aKovcrov uv Acyo> aoi

w SionroTa Kal rdSe vvv

WW -WW- w|-w634.
closes
iii.

Eupol. 236
'

The identification as an acephalous

of Hephaestion's

ithyphallic

'

that

catalectic iambic dimeter


' '

and of the

corresponding clause in

ii. as a lecythium (609, n.) is forbidden an acephalous hypercatalectic iambic dimeter is foreign to Ionian rhythm.

by

i.,

for

635.

The
in
is
ii.

nature

of

this

phrase

as

it

appears

in

i.,

-wphrases
pare
reduction,
first

w-

-, from which evidently the corresponding and iii. are successively derived by regressive

revealed by certain other prosodiac periods. Comtwo hypercatalectic trimeters (iv. and vi.), from which were formed, by regressive reduction, two corresponding acatalectic trimeters (v. and vii.) that often occur
iv.
'()

fjiiiv

TToXv Spip.vraro'i y

tJv

twf

Trap

rjp.iv

f.

aAA

Styad

dvtcTTacro

p.7^8'

ovTin crtavTov

Vesp. 277'*

= 286
xi.

f.

(TT-qde(T(TL

TraXivrpoTTOV e/x,/3aAev vorjpia

WW
V.

WW
<3

^|

^
xiii.

Bacch.

54 K.

VLKav T

ipLKvSea p-eXirer,

veot

WW -WW- w|-wvi.

Bacch.

190 K.

Tov

Trais

Xet/awv

Aarous evpvp.e8(ov re Ilocretoav awTOV BAeiji'iaSais kiriviKov


6

^ vii.

_|_^^ _^^_

w Ymd.

01. viii.

32, 75

dvSpwv re Salras Kal BaXtas p.aKdpwv Pax 779


Keivov crvv dvSpbs 8atp.ovtaLs dperals Pind.

Nem.

i.

crravTCS, iTLTvav

h aWepa

\eLpas dp.a

w
deols 6'

w| |

WW WW
'

WW

Pind.

Nem.

v.

dvia)(0VT'i X'^pa'i

dOavdroLS

w-

WW
'

Bacch. XV. 45 K.

The
In

last (vii.)

was called

iambelegus

(481, n.).

636. Prosodiac verse


all

is

thus seen to be eminently episynthetic.

other verse trimetrical cola are derived from a primitive

' ,:

639

ORIGIN OF THE FORMS OF GREEK POETRY


fif.),

301

trimeter (611

but in prosodiac verse trimeters as well as


It

longer periods are compound.

appears, furthermore, that the


in

component
637.

elements

may

be

combined

either

order

of

arrangement.
third of the foregoing trimeters
also in the following
viii.

The shorter iambic phrase that appears in the first and ( c; - v^ - o in iv. and vi.) is seen

avSrjfi

eAata? iv IleAoTro'j ^pvyiox' Kkewoi^ dedkois

^
TlcvSapiKov

|-vyw
verses
:

^^

\-^

Bacch.

viii.

14

ff.

K.

Compare the
")

quoted by Hephaestion (51.

16

f.,

"to

OS Kal Ti'TTfts ayi'w TreAeKet TtKero


cro(f)ol

^avOav 'Addvav

Se

Kol to [xyjSev dyav iiros aLvrjcrav Treptcrcrws

-_^_ -|_^^ -V.W- -|-wThis tetrameter, like


all

Pind./ragr. 34,

216

other hypercatalectic prosodiac periods,

might be reduced by a syllable


ix.

/JLKrdos

yap aAAots aAAos

ctt'

epy/xacrtv dvOptoTrois

yXvKis
Isth.
i.

^ 638.

-|-^^ -wv^- -|-v^-

Find.

47

examples
an
syllable.

The phrase joined with the paroemiac is the iambic penthemimer, ^ - v^ - ^

in the
,

foregoing
in

which ends
'

arsis, as

the paroemiac, being catalectic, ends in a

variable

periods

The combination of paroemiac and penthemimer into was controlled by the rhythmical law, which holds

without exception in all compound prosodiac periods, that each phrase if initial is complete, ^ ^^-^j^--^:!. or - - ^ - acephalous, hut in each its subsequent occicrrences is of acephalous paroemiac, or - ^ - ^, acephalous

-^^-K^^-^,
in

iambic

penthemimer.
the

In

the

various

processes
(cf.

of

verse-

building, the final syllable of each phrase

merged
or

following

colon,

supplying

631) was either the lacking arsis,

appeared sporadically as a hypercatalectic syllable, or lost, at the close of an acatalectic period.


639.

was

To

revert

now

to the tetrameter

with the consideration of

which
began,
triple

this investigation of the iambic element in prosodiac verse

a it seems certain that i. (633), like viii. (637), is compound, but with the elements differently arranged ii_^^ ^>^ ^ - i:i|_^_ i=i. Compare the follow-

_^^_

302

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


is

640

ing period, which


versely arranged
:

composed of the same elements but con-

vvv \pr) IlocretSai/os re UiTpaiov re/^evos KeXaSrja-at

^ -

_|_^_ _|_^^ -w^'

Bacch. xiv. 20
'

f.

K.

This composite

hypercatalectic iambic dimeter

occurs also as

an independent period
Oepfiav
8'

eVt Trvewv

aeAXav

v^

^^|

v^

elp'qa-eTai ttoAA' ev /Spax^crroLS

w
that

Bacch.
Find.

x.

22 K.

Isth. vi.

59
of

640. It

is

now
in

obvious

the iambic

trimeter also

prosodiac

verse was not originally indivisible, like

the normal
It is

iambic

trimeter
in

Ionian verse (613), but composite.


hypercatalectic, acatalectic and,

found

three

forms,

in

the

drama, catalectic
X.

\py]<jr6v.

Tt fjLaKpav yXwa-crav Wx'cras eXavvo)

^_ _|_^_ _|_^_
xi.

Bacch.

X.

51 K.

ij/vxav 8'

aKap-TTTOs,

irpocnraXaicrwv ^Xd' dvrjp

w- -|-.^- -|-wxii.

Find.

Isth. iv.

53 b

Tlvdoivi 8ia prj ko.km^ Trevecrdai

^- -|-^641.

^1

^2-1273
suffice for the
is

The paroemiac and iambic peuthemimer


it

constitution of all normal prosodiac periods, and


fact that

a striking

they can be identified in the fully developed prosodiac


fifth

verse of poets of the


642.
of the

century.
(cf.
'

The examples quoted


'

i.,

iv.,

vi.,

viii.,

x.)

disclose

the

origin

hypercatalectic

syllable in prosodiac verse

(488).

This

syllable,

which
is

has

been

the
still

subject

of

much

discussion in recent years,


poetry, of

the trace,

subsisting in later

the final syllable of an original paroemiac or of an

original iambic penthemimer.

On

the rhythmical value of the

hypercatalectic syllable, see 37.


643.

To turn now

to enoplic verse,

we could hardly expect

to find testimony as

explicit as
ff.)
;

that given by Hephaestion in

regard to the prosodiac (630

but once in possession of the

by which, in Ionian verse, all cola in descending rhythm arose from the primitive dimeter by loss of

key

to the general process

its first arsis

(608

ff.),

we

see at once the ultimate relation of the


its

enoplius to the prosodiac and thereby discover

probable origin.
primitive

The enoplius was the acephalous form

of

the same

645

ORIGIN OF THE FORMS OF GREEK POETRY


:

303

paroemiac from which the prosodiac had sprung

the enoplius,

-v-'v^-lw^-^,
by
acephalization.

arose from the paroemiac,

^-^w-v^w-^,
is

The

enoplius,
it

therefore,
differs

in

origin

dactylic tripody of fixed form, but

from this tripody in

Each half normally contains six constitution (647). primary times. If described in terms similar to those used by Hephaestion in describing the prosodiac, it would be said to In verse-building consist of a choriamb and minor ionic' The distinction between trochaic cola. it is associated with prosodiac and enoplic cola is precisely that which subsists between anapaestic and dactylic or iambic and trochaic cola: prosodiac cola are in ascending, enoplic in descending rhythm.
metrical
' '

'

644.

Each prosodiac colon and


its

period, with a few exceptions,

has in fact

enoplic correspondent, and the original distinction


to the retention or

between prosodiac and enoplic cola was due


suppression of an initial
cola
arsis.

and

periods,

which are

Compare the following enoplic numbered to correspond with the


Kapv^ovn Aaw
Bacch.
xiii.

numbered prosodiac periods previously quoted


i.

TepxpieTrei';

vlv doiSai ttuvtI

- ^ ^ ii.

^ ^

1-^

\- ^

230

f.

K.

iravporepiov to Se irdvTMV vpapeiv oi'Sev yXvKv


Bacch.
i.

-WW- ^^--|_w--|-wlv8op.a.\a<;

174

f.

K.

ar

aXeKTwp o-uyyoi'w
ti}s
I

Trap'

ecTTia
01. xii.

-WW- WW
iii.

|-w-w|-wecrTrepas
I

Find.
aTro.y^at

14

ft'xe

rh Spaifxa yaXrjv

iv.

V.

w -

^ ^ _ -

- w - w

- -

Paa;

795
Isth.

f. i.

61 S"

dpera KarctKeiTat -rdaav opydw Find.

41

Trpdyfiara Kdrnypac^as ttoAAwv TaXdi'TO)v

-WW- WW
V.

|-w
io-jrir'

(483, n.) Nub.

472

f.

(0TtV6 (Tuv

yepas

dyXuov
Find.
01. viii.

-WW- ww-w|-w645. Analyzed

11

with

reference

to

their

origin,

these

five
i.e.

periods consist of a paroemiac with suppressed initial arsis,

ww an enoplius elements that constitute the


prosodiac periods.

(-ww-

),

and the same acephalous iambic


phrase of the
five

final

corresponding

But

just as the enoplius, although ultimately

derived by acephalization from the same form of the primitive

dimeter as the prosodiac, was early individualized as a distinct


dimeter in descending rhythm, thus also the second colon in each
of the enoplic periods just quoted, even in early antiquity,

when

304
this

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY

646

form of verse was developed, must have been felt to be Poets of the fifth century at least must have regarded trochaic.
these clauses
dimeter, 646.
'

as,

respectively, trochaic dimeter, catalectic trochaic

ithyphallic,' trochaic metre, catalectic trochaic metre.

The order

of arrangement

might

be the

converse of

iambic element with suppressed initial arsis begins each of the following periods, the opening is now trochaic
that in i.v.
vi.

An

a^Oov-qros

8'

atvos 'OAi'/xTrtoviKais Pind. 01.

xi.

ipXerai yXtaTTrjs iirivoLa TroAtTvjv

_^
vii.

|_^^_
^ ^
8'

^ ^

Eccl.

574
18

Ota irapdkvoL (jitXeoiCTLV kraipat

-^-s^\-^^Y/)o"i9'

Pind. Pyth.

iii.

eVrtv

ovpavimv

v8a.T(av Pind. 01. xi.

ofSa KuX ttXovtov /xeydXav 8vvaa-iv

_^
vvv
8'

|_^^_
o-Te<^ai'OJcra/xevos

^ ^ Pind. 01.

Bacch.

X.

49 K.

'OXvpiria

_w-w|-v.wviii.

^ ^ -

xii.

17

oWts

al(rxvv(JiV kTrix^pia.

TraTrraivf.i to. iropcrw

_^
ix.

|_^^_
_^

^ ^

|_^
8'

Pind. Pyth.

iii.

22

eyyovwi' yeiVai/TO, Kal vxl/iirvXov Tpoias eSos Bacch.


OS TVX9- H-^^ 8aip.ovos, dvopias

ix.

46 K.
67

ovk dpirXaKwv

|_^^_
^ ^ -

^ ^
^ -

l-v..-

Pind. 01.

viii.

(fjacrydi'M

re p.apvap.eva Kepd'i^ev dypiowi

- ^ X.

^\-

^ ^ -

^\Aws

Pind. Pyth.

ix. 21'

i8e

viKdaavTa xpvaroTraxv^

_^
pvdfjia

|_^_^|_^
TWV
'

Bacch.

V.

40 K.
15

OXvpTTLU. KdXXuTTOV qidXiOV

_^_^|_^
xi.

1-^

Pind.

01.

iii.

evSov dpirkXov KaxXd^oifrav 8p6aro)

_^_^|_^
xii.

|-w-

Pind.

01. vii. 2

lp.ipw \pi<Ta.(T

d(pVKTOV OKTTOV

'_^
In
all cases

|_^_^|

Eur. Med. 634

(i., iv., vi., viii., x.)

the hypercatalectic syllable of the

prosodiac period becomes the final syllable of the corresponding


acatalectic enoplic period.

647.

The poets of the

fifth

century were probably unconscious

of the relation of the prosodiac


source.
'

and enopHus to their common To them these were dimeters, isomeric dodecaseme feet,' and as distinct and individual entities, in musical phrasing, Yet these poets must have as iambic and trochaic dimeters. felt the anapaestic movement in the prosodiac and the dactylic

648

ORIGIN OF THE FORMS OF GREEK POETRY


There
is

305

in the enoplius.

differentiated

the
cola.

prosodiac

and dactylic
himself

ample and enoplius from true anapaestic Hephaestion states that Cratinus and his suc1).

evidence, nevertheless, that they

cessors thus distinguished the prosodiac (630, n.


testifies

Aristophanes
the

as

to

the

enoplius.^

Socrates in

Clouds

(649

f),

in the first extant literary reference to the enoplius,

instructs

Strepsiades

that

it

is

important for a gentleman in

society to understand the difference between dactylic


verse.

The two were

different, therefore,

an uninstructed

person like
is

and enoplic and yet so similar that Strepsiades might confuse them.
difficult.

Their differentiation

now

not

The enoplic dimeter,

-wv^-

^ ^

differs

from the dactylic tripody in metrical

constitution.

Taken

as a whole, it is the metrical equivalent of

a dactylic tripody of fixed form,


process
of

- ^ ^ - ^
this

y^

but in the

musical phrase-building

rhythmical basis was

converted into an isomeric dimeter (ttow), complete in itself, in which each half, as in the trochaic dimeter, normally consisted of
six

primary times.

Here, as elsewhere, the dimeter was normally


a 7rplo8o<i, to

the smallest unit of rhythmical measurement and was regarded


as a whole.

The enoplius was


xv.)

employ the term


ff.).

applied by Heliodorus to the prosodiac (Schol.


648. Hephaestion (ch.

Fax 775

and
a
'

the

scholiasts

(cf

Schol.

metr. Find.

01.

iii.

2)

might, as
'

convenience, designate
'

the

metres of the prosodiac as

ionic

and

choriambic,'

naming each

from

ionics.

accidental form, but these are spurious choriambs and The true choriamb is Aeolic (651) and is alien to Ionian rhythm (71, 206), and the two true ionics are at variance both in their probable origin (615 ff.) and in their rhythm with the The genuine found in the prosodiac and enoplius. ionics minor ionic is in ascending, the genuine major ionic in descending rhythm (29). In such a tetrameter as
its
'
'

ot

fj.v

TTttAai

w QpaarvfSovXe

(fiwres,

o'i

y^pv<rafi~VK(av

^ ^
the

-w^first

V.-W-

^ -

Find.

Isth.

ii.

rhythm

of the

half of the period


is

is

anapaestic, of the

second iambic, but the period


dimeters, and the
first

a tetrameter, composed of two

is

as certainly

an isomeric

7roy<?

as the

second.

The normal measure


ff. ;

of each dimeter is twelve primary


Bacchylidis Carmina ^ xxxv.
ff.
;

1 See Blass, Kleine Beitrage, 455 of Bacchylides, 166 f.

Rhythms

306

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


;

649

the normal measure of each times, four longs and four shorts metre is six primary times, two longs and two shorts the order of arrangement of the longs and shorts in each dimeter is determined by its rhythm. The metres of the prosodiac and enoplius,
:

therefore, are not feet,' and these dimeters are the best existing illustration of the essential indivisibility of the Greek dimeter. Here certainly there can be no assumption of podic stress.
'

See 28.

Each dimeter

is

a unit, with thesis and arsis equal, the


in the prosodiac in ascending rhythm,,

order being

arsis, thesis

and

thesis, arsis in the enoplius in

descending rhythm.

649. Doubt has been expressed whether the last two metres in such a tetrameter as that just quoted can properly be regarded as iambic, since this view involves the combination of diplasic ( - - ^ ^ ) and isomeric ( v^ - ^ - ) feet in the same period. See Gleditsch in
1
|

The error that underlies Bursian's JahresbericM, cxhv. (1909), 128 f. assumption that the metre, and not the dimeter, In of a tetrameter. is the element that determines the composition
this criticism is the

each component dimeter in this tetrameter is isomeric, and the But ignoring difiference between the two parts is their rhythm. illthis mistaken point of view for a moment, the objection seems
fact,

only

are combined in precisely this feet taken, for diplasic and isomeric See the periods in true ionic verse, in early Greek poetry. quoted from Alcman, Alcaeus and Sappho in 615, 617, and Gleditsch
'
'

manner

in his Metrik'^ 106. 1, 107. 3, illustration of ionic verse.

who

cites

some

of these periods in

650. The iambic and consequently also the trochaic elements This is prosodiac -enoplic verse are generally irrational not an abnormal manifestation that invalidates the assumption that these metres are iambic and trochaic, for irrational outin

number rational metres in all three sorts of iambic and trochaic This fact, which verse in comedy, melic, recitative and spoken. of such significance that is commonly overlooked or ignorfed, is See for statistics confirming it are given elsewhere in this book.
iambic verse 186

The general and trochaic metres in prosodiacenoplic verse is legitimate, and it is also natural, comporting with the character of this verse, which is eminently dignified and But pure iambic ( ^ - ^ - ) and trochaic ( - ^ - ^ ) stately.
f.,

for trochaic 247, 256, 261, 268.

use, therefore, of irrational iambic

metres are by no means excluded, as the periods prove that are quoted above (633 ff., 644 ff.).

653

ORIGIN OF THE FORMS OF GREEK POETRY


Aeolic Verse

307

The rhythmizing impulse regulated the ordering of mode that was distinct from that The musical number in which prevailed in Ionian verse (603). which the poetic impulse of early Aeolian singers found satisThis factory rhythmical expression was the choriamb, - v^ w -. The first half is the fundamental metre (foot) in Aeolic verse. of the primitive dimeter in which it appeared remained with
651.
quantities in Aeolic poetry in a

quantities

practically

unregulated

(oooo -ww-)

even in

the

fifth

century.

The

principle that
first

prevailed, in the

un-

conscious attempt to give this

half of the dimeter rhythmical

form, was exclusion in selection.

Nine of the sixteen possible

forms (two units, w and -, in four places) that the first metre These are starred in might assume are found in Aristophanes.
the following
1

list

308

THE VERSE OF GKEEK COMEDY


the
first

654

failed to regulate

half of

the

primitive dimeter, but


half.

gathering force gave choriambic form to the second

In the

second stage

it

placed the choriamb at the middle of the dimeter,

forming the Glyconic, with final cadence in the last two syllables In the third stage that had been developed in the first stage. the first metre finally became choriambic and the dimeter ended
with the double
stages.
final

The process was natural and these dimeters were inherited by poets
For
illustrations of these dimeters
f.,

cadence developed in the two preceding All it was unconscious.


of a later age.
of their catalectic forms,

and

see 507

511, 513.

654.

The choriambization

of the primitive colon of twelve

syllables (611) produced trimeters of constitution similar to that

of the three dimeters just considered.


acatalectic

Compare the following

and

catalectic trimeters
I.

Polyschematist Trimeters.

7rpoi"^t

Kal yv(o[xa, Trap' otw to deiov Soph. Ph. 139

(xAAo. Ti;iS'

eXd', ai ttotu KarepuiTa Sapph. frag.

1.

Tov ^vyy pa(firj rov /xeXeMV

iroi7]T-qv

Ach. 1151

oi'av

eSrjAwcras ave/aos ai^ovos Soph. Aj.

221

vO'

oifj.ai

Tov ypep.d)(av Qrja-ea Kal Soph. O.G. 1054

ei'ddSe KtVSvvos dvelrac o"0(^ta?

Nub. 956
/ra^.
1. 1

TTotKcXodpov'

dOavdr 'Ac^pdSira Sapph.


10

-v^-,^
116

_^^_
- ^ ^ -

6 Moio-ayeras

/^e

KaXe'i xopevcraL Pind. frag.


11

^__^

^--2
w ^ - ^ -

efJLol

^vveir]

8id Trav-O'i

ev(f)p(3)v

Soph. Aj. 705

12>^-w- -v^v^eyo) 8'

rXd/xoiv TraAatbs a^' oS xpoi/os Soph. Aj.

599

f.

12v^-v^II.
(

- ^ - ^

The

following trimeters begin with Glyconic

movement

o
^

0-..W-):
Sapphic hendecasyllable, Heph.
43.
'^

Pindaric hendecasyllable, Heph. 44,


ff.

11 S.

12

656

ORIGIN OF THE FORMS OF GREEK POETRY


(Tapwv
e's

309

/xvpi<j)v

"A/ayos i'lnnov Find.

Isth. vii.

11

(W

i^rjv irapa

ry

V<^t

KaOevSecv Ec. 938

TjkOes (K irepaTiov

yas eAe^avrtvav Alcaeus 33


\pv(roTpiaLv'

Sevp'

eXd'

ets

)(^opov

t5

w Eq. 559
1168

tYftf p-vpLov a\do'i o ^DVOiKci Soph. Ph.

III.

The followiug open with choriambo-iambic movement

ov yap dvacrXTov tovto y' ikevdepw Ec. 941

rov T p.tyaa-6Vi] TpLatvrjs ra/xtav Nub. 566

See also the trimeters quoted in 518,


655.

i.-iii.

The Aeolic trimeter originated under the same choriambizing impulse that produced the dimeter, and the possible
forms of the trimeter, like those of the dimeter,
in graphic

may

be exhibited

form

OOOO
o

v/^

- w w - w ^ o

2
3

656. The choriambization of the primitive trimeter was a continuation of the process begun in the choriambization of the The law by which the different forms of the trimeter dimeter.
are controlled
is

simple, and

it

operates with singular precision.

Formation develops by

dissyllables,

and a metre may consist

only of such elements as have already been regularly formed. The third metre of the trimeter, therefore, like the second metre

- ^ ^ - (by catalexis - ^ - ) or The second metre in the first - or - ^ - ^ in the stage of the trimeter must be second and third stages it may be distinctively ^ - ^ - or The first metre ^ ^ forms not allowed in the first stage.
of the dimeter, will be either

^ _ ^ _ (by catalexis

^^

).

v.^

v.^

of the trimeter in the first stage is polyschematist, in the


1

second
ff.

Phalaecean, Heph. 32. 21

ff.

Asclepiadeaii,

Heph.

33. 5

::

+
657

310
it

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY

always has Glyconic form, in the third it is the choriamb. These facts are illustrated in the examples just quoted (I.-III.). 657. Other cola occur in Aeolic odes that in appearance are iambic or trochaic
(TV
8'

dvSpos (KTmrXrjyixevov Nub. 809


Lys.

ywatKas dv6paKiVtv
kX^s ewl yAwcrcra

340
1052
f.

j3e/3aKe

_^__ _^_^

v--

^ v^ v^ w

^ w w

Trpoa-TToXuiv KvixoX.TTiSdi' Sopli. O.G.

658. These
selves

cola

associated

with Aeolic verses are themif

legitimate Aeolic cola, and, like the others, are due to

choriambization.

This process, for example,

carried

to

the

length of four or j&ve metres, as dimeter


trimeter, or trimeter

+ dimeter,
among

dimeter

+ dimeter,

would

give,

others,
:

under

the law just stated, tetrameters and pentameters such as

---- w-.-|.-^- ^-.659. It


is

probable, however, that

the

poets

of

the

fifth

century

did

not

consciously

differentiate

cola where they crossed, such Aeolic cola, been quoted, and the iambic and trochaic verses of Archilochus. These poets admitted into all iambic and trochaic cola not only the irrational metres found in Archilochus, but also the
'
'
' '

and Ionian namely, as have just


Aeolic

two other variations that characterize these forms of verse in We have the fifth century, resolution and protraction (tovt]).
seen that the
'

iambic

'

might be

irrational

(514).

element even of choriambo-iambic cola In illustration of resolution and

protraction in diiambic and ditrochaic (19) cola in Aeolic odes

compare the following


^vvevx6fJi-e9a
TJ

fxkya ri [j^iTaTrea-elrai.

o Trats o

TQ X^'P'
7ra^eiv

w ^>^ ^ ^- ^ ^^^v^.^>_. ^iAokAcwvos Vesp. 1454 = 1466 v^ w ^^ ^ ^ v^v^ v^ w iriX(.9ov dprita's Kexeo-jJ-hov 8' e'^wv Ach. 1170 f. ^
xeAea
/j-ev

Thes.

352

v^

^v-f

._^_
N^lb.

v6i]ixa
y^

<fipev6<i,

vTTvos 8' direaTOi yXvi<vOvfJLO<; opLfidrwi'

^^
Trap'

^ - ^ d(piXoii

-^^_ ^_^_
fTretre

705

f.

lirecr'

/icAeois 'ArpeiSat?

^w-v.

^^^ ^

- ^

Soph. Aj. 620

f.

'

663

ORIGIN OF THE FORMS OF GREEK POETRY

311

660. Ditrochaic cola are not frequent in comedy, but Aristophanes abounds in diiarabic dimeters in close association with other Aeolic cola. Doubt whether these diiambic cola are in fact Aeolic is dissipated by cases in which they correspond For in strophe or antistrophe with undoubted Aeolic cola.

example, compare
ovTos ideXei Kparrjcrai
7}56/xV'os

=
= 641

AeyovTt Fcsp. 537


ToSe.

.^w ^ ^

v^
v.-

aAAd
(US

({)of3ovfj.ai
)(^prj

fiQv uo"Te/307rovs fSorjdio

TTvpl

rai yMUcrapds yui'aiKas dvOpaKivetr

- ^ ^ -

- ^ ^ -

^ ^ ^ -

Lys.

326

= 340

in

661. The metres, then, that appear in Aeolic verse are six number the fundamental choriamb, - ^ ^ - the unregulated first metre of the polyschematist dimeter and trimeter, ^ ^ ^ ^ and the semi-regulated first metre of the Glyconic, ^ ^ - ^
:

three

others
:

due

to

the

process

of

choriambization
the

carried

through

the diiamb, ^ - ^

- the
,

ditrochee,

- ^ - ^, and the
see

autispast,

v^

(19).

On

the

antispast

Editor's

Origin and Forvi of Aeolic Verse, 303-309. 662. The evidence of crossing of styles exhibited by

'

iambic
points

and
the

'

trochaic

'

cola

is

interesting and instructive, for

it

way

to the differentiation

of Ionian

main facts are now apparent. rhythm of Ionian verse, and when it occurs there except in the prosodiac and enoplius, where it is
form (648),
It

The and Aeolic verse. The choriamb is alien to the


it

is

due,

spurious

may

to interior anaclasis, as in iambic verse in English. thus occur in Greek, as has often been noted, at the
Cf.

beginning even of a spoken trimeter.

Aesch. Sept.

488,

547; Choeph. 1049; Soph.


is

/ra^.

the other hand, a succession of

785; Arist. Pax (S^2>. On two or more dactyls or anapaests

clear indication of Ionian rhythm, just as conversely the single occurrence of a long and two shorts, or of two shorts and a

long, generally signifies that

the verse

is

Aeolic.
is

Hybrid cola
effec-

are inadmissible, but a series of Aeolic cola


tively varied

sometimes

by the introduction of one


See 526.
of the
is

or

more cola completely


and Ionian
Aeolic verse

in Ionian metre.

663.

The

effect

interrelation of Aeolic
still

verse in the

fifth

century
;

further manifest.

counted syllables

a dimeter was octosyllabic, a trimeter dodeca-

312
syllabic.

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


But the poets

664

of the fifth century, under the influence

of Ionian rhythm, admitted resolution in Aeolic cola generally

with some freedom, not only in those that in form were identical with the normal iambic and trochaic cola of Ionian verse (see

657 f.), but also in the polyschematist dimeter and the Gly conic and the corresponding trimeters
:

7rt

TO

TpV<f>tOV

Kttt

[XaXaKOV =
Vesp.

^^Kj
1455

ouSevi

yap

oiirws

ayavw

1467 ~ ^^ ^

TO yap
rt

dTToa-Trjvai,

^^aAcTTov

Vesp.

1457

wv^

yap

e/cetvos
7ri

avTcXeycav Vesp. 1470

w^^
992
f.

v^

{wvTfs tot'

Twv

Trporepoiv

Nub. 1029

v^^-

KaT opea

vvp-f^av iparois ev vfivois Th.

Ti TTOTC TvpayfJLa yevqa-erat Ran.

1251

<^v^

v^^v^^ v^


^^

Kjx^

^ ^ wv^

^w

v^

^ ^

v^w
^

Bpo/nie Kul Se/xeAas Trat Th.

991

wv^ wv^

See for other examples 510, 512.

Conclusion
664. It appears from the preceding survey (600
flf.)

of the
itself,

probable origin of Ionian and Aeolic cola, that the colon

not the metre or the simple

foot, is

the true unit of rhythmical


'

measurement

Greek poetry. Aristoxenus called cola feet,' and Aristophanes in a merry jest refers to the Glyconic dimeter as a ttou?, contrasting two extreme types
in
7roSe9 avvderot (21),

(Ban. 1322

fi'.).

was the
colon

colon,

in

gradual process.
that

The primitive poetic element in Aryan speech which the regulation of quantities was a It was in this gradual development of the
form as subordinate

metres and simple feet took

elements of the true unit of measurement.

; ;

CHAPTER XYI
STEUCTURE OF COMEDY^
665.
different

The structure

of a

comedy
tragedy

of Aristophanes of

is

essentially

The same period. primitive elements of a play of the Old Comedy were the parode, the debate, in which in which the poet brought in his chorus two of his players maintained and disputed the theme of his play,
from that of a
the
;

contending against one another as if pleaders in a court of law and the parabasis, in which, at the close of the primitive play, he
set

forth his

own

merits and personal grievances, and in two

following topical parts expressed his views on questions of the The debate and parabasis are peculiar to comedy, and are day.
structurally individualized
as

by the pairing
Attic

of non-melic as well

melic parts.

The

oldest

comedies were

short

and

A probably consisted only of parode, debate, and parabasis. comedy of Menander, on the contrary, derived its five acts
from tragedy and was structurally
Aristophanes.
666.
far

removed from a play of

As comedy developed and


to the three original

lengthened, other divisions


:

were added

elements

prologue and exode


;

and stasima mediatnig scenes that, while advancing the action, served specially
epirrhematic
syzygies
;

episodes

with

following

to connect other divisions of the play.

Among
is

these the syzygy,

a division that
1

is

also peculiar to

comedy,
-

a free imitation of
:

See, in particular, Zielinski's Glicdc-

rungderaltattisckenKoi/iddieatnd 113.2011' Composition dcs comedies d'Aristophane. In reading this chapter, the student will need to consult the "Table of Structure and Rhythms," to be found at the end of this book.

See Kaibel's Fragmenta, 72. 13 fl'. in fabiilas primi earn contulerunt ita ut non excederent in singulis versus trecenos" (e libro glossarum), and Usener in ^A<;zn. J/ms. xviii. (1873), 417 ff., 429 f.

"sed

<non> magnas,

313

314

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY

667

the last four parts of the parabasis, and admirably illustrates in

balanced speech and song, the primitive distinguishing principle


of the structure of

comedy, the pairing of non-melic as well as


is

melic parts.

play of Aristophanes
It
is

in

many

particulars a

peculiar literary creation.

drama only
It
is

in a restricted

sense, since the action is at a standstill during


divisions,

two important
distinguished,

the debate and


a

the

parabasis.

Shakspere or Moliere by the fact that quite one-half of its verses are melodramatic, recitative, or melic, and were rendered to the accompaniment of a musical
furthermore, from

comedy

of

instrument.
667. Some of these divisions have canonical form and most them show canonical use of rhythm, but Aristophanes is bound by neither. He varies and changes, shifting his rhythms

of

special effects and subordinating form to the better development of the action, often weaving division imperceptibly into division, but always in such fashion that the fundamental He is structure and limits of the divisions are discoverable. always flexible, he has complete mastery of his materials, and the development of his theme never suffers from slavish adherence
to secure

to convention.

668.

The parabasis

was

originally an epilogue, but in the


it is

developed comedy of Aristophanes

found

at

about

the

It consists, when middle of the play, except in the Vespae. complete, of seven parts KOfi/jbdriov, 7rapd^acrt<i, fiaKpov (Schol.
:

Pax 765)

or

Trviyo?

(Schol.

AcJi.

659), fieXo^ (strophe, ode),

iTTippyjfjba, /ieXo<?

avriarpocfiov (antistrophe, antode), dvTeiripp'qp.a.

The first three are single parts and were probably all rendered by the first corypheus the last four are paired and constitute, in
;

the terminology of Heliodorus, an

i7rippr)/jbariKr)

crv^vyia (Schol.

The commation (293 ff.) was 551, 1264). probably a solo, and is composed, wholly or partly, in anapaestic The parabasis proper, avrr) rj rhythm, except in the Aves (546).
Ach.

665, Eq.

7rapd^acn<; (Schol. Ach. 626),


spectators,

is

the poet's
tetrameters
is

own

address to the

and
;

is

written in anapaestic tetrameters, except in the


anapaestic
follows
it

Nubes

(528)
so

these

recitative.

The pnigos that

and was

named because
1

were rendered in an anapaestic hypermeter, was to be recited at one breath


corypheus speechless.
ff.

{d'TTvevaTL,

Heph. 73.

4), leaving the

The

See Heph. 72. 11

670

STRUCTURE OF COMEDY

315

strophe and antistroplie were sung respectively by the first and Their structure is elaborate and they are second half-choruses. composed in many different rhythms. The epirrhema, following
the strophe, as the the
antistrophe,

name
are

implies,

composed

probably were rendered in


half-choruses respectively.^

and the antepirrhema, following in trochaic tetrameters and recitative by the leaders of the two The In theme they are topical.
if
it

number
equal
to

of verses in the

antepirrhema,

occurs, is
is

always

that in the epirrhema.

The number

commonly a

multiple of four, sixteen in eight epirrhemata, twenty in the first parabasis of the Nitbcs and in the Vespae and Eanae, and twice
ten in the Lysistrata.
669.
is

Sometimes a play contains a second parabasis.


last four

This

normal A tricolic trochaic period is added to the epirrhema and parts. The second See Schol. Pao: 1127. antepirrhema of the Peace. parabasis of the Nubes (1113 ff.) consists merely of a protracted iambic tetrameter, of the nature of a commation, and an Even the first parabasis is not always complete. epirrhema.
never complete and generally consists of the
;

That of the Nubes lacks a pnigos that of the Peace has neither TJiesmojphoriazusae that of the epirrhema nor antepirrhema that consists simply of parabasis proper, pnigos, and epirrhema
; ;

of the

Eanae

of the last four parts; that of the Lysistrata of


It is to be observed that the first

these four parts doubled.

two

periods in the

first

strophe and antistrophe of the parabasis of

the Lysistrata have the tone of a commation.


670. The debate is now a recognized division of the Old Attic Comedy, thanks to the acute investigations of Eossbach and In two plays of Westphal,- Zielinski ^ and Humphreys.^ Aristophanes {Vesp. 534, Pan. 883) the chorus speaks of it as a The subject in dispute, which is generally the contest,' drycov. poet's main contention in the play, is often indicated and an
'

umpire chosen at the


example, Vesp. 513
is

close of the preceding division.


ff.,

See, for

LJq.

733

ff.

The master

of ceremonies

the chorus, and

it

is

The debate belongs


1

historically in

the chorus that announces the verdict. the first half of the play,
-

the division of the chorus of into half-choruses and the functions of its two leaders, the two coryphei, see the editor's Unrecognized Actor, 103 ff.

On

Spec. Metrik", 401


ff.

fi'.,

Spec.

Metnk?,

comedy

133
3

QUederxmg 9

ff.

Agon

of the Old Conmdy, 179

ff.

316

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


the
parabasis

671
it

between the parode and

(665) and

generally

occurs there in the comedies that are extant, but in two of these, the Nules and the Putnae, the poet has transferred it for special

reasons to the

consists of nine parts, of

When complete, it second half of the play. which the second four are paired with
It begins with a song

the

first

four.

by the

first

half-chorus,

whose leader
to argue his

in

two
in

recitative anapaestic or iambic tetrameters

then bids one of the contestants open the debate.


case

He

proceeds
'

which tail ofi' as feeling is roused into dimeters, both in the same rhythm as the distich. Iambic tetrameters and dimeters rendered by a debater are Then the second half- chorus sings the melodramatic (804). antistrophe and its leader exhorts the other contestant to defend His argument also is expressed in tetrameters and his views. Slight modifications of the The verdict follows. dimeters. disposition and significance of the nine parts as just outlined
tetrameters,

may

occur.

Zielinski has
7rvlyo<;,

named

these parts

(ohrj,

KaraKe\evafx6<;,
avTeiripprj/xa,

iTTipprj/JLa,

avrwhrj,

avTLKaTaKe\evafj,6(;,

avmrvl'yo^,
671.

(T(f)payi^.

The songs

of the debate are closely connected in


:

theme

with the following discussion they emphasize the importance of the question at issue or touch upon the abilities or characters of In a the contestants, often addressing one or both directly. single case (JEq. 303 ff.) the song consists of two strophes and two antistrophes, mesodic tetrameters separating the two parts
of the pericope.

The following
f), is

distich,

with two exceptions (Uq.


is

407
it

f,

Thesm. 531

hortatory.

It

worthy of note that

and begins in fourteen instances out of nineteen with that the epirrhema, following the first distich, in seven cases in
ten begins with kuI
locution only once.
iJbrjv.

aWd

The antepirrhema, however, has this In exceptional cases both distichs may be

addressed to the same debater, as in the Equites (761 f, 841 f), in which the chorus is intensely partisan, and in the Aves (460 f
tion of the Lysistrata

In the antihortais only one debater. (549 f.), Lysistrata and her companions are addressed, as both Chremylus and Blepsidemus in the Plutus In the hortation of the Ranae (905 ) both debaters (487 f). This are warned by Dionysus to mind their manner of speech. is the only hortatory distich not recited by the leader of one of The debate proper, composed of epirrhema the half-choruses.

548

f.),

in wliich there

672

STRUCTURE OF COMEDY
of

317

and pnigos, antepirrhema and antipnigos, does not consist


set speeches

two

delivered without interruption, but


in

is

a dialogue,

which other speakers may take part Both epirrhema and antepirrhema are generally expressed in the same rhythm, anapaestic or iambic,
often
bitter

tone, in

besides the two debaters.

but one

may

be anapaestic, the other iambic.


is

When

the tone

of the debate

contentious and abusive, the lines are iambic.


in Nuh.

The four trimeters

1085-8

are the only exception to

the principle that the epirrhema and antepirrhema are written


solely in tetrameters.

The number

of tetrameters is generally

approximately equal in epirrhema and antepirrhema.


cases
first
it is

exactly the same {Eq.


it

335

ff.,

Av. 462
if

ff.),

In two and in the

of these

is

a multiple of four, as

in imitation of the

epirrhema and antepirrhema of the parabasis. The pnigos is generally a dialogue and differs in this particular from the pnigos
of the

parabasis (668), but with two exceptions {Lys.


f.)

598

fi'..

Ran. 1078

it

also consists of a single hypermeter.

672. The verdict, when it by the second corypheus, but

occurred,
it

was probably delivered might be omitted, as in both

debates

in

the

Nubes, in which
Cf.

debate abandons his case.


first

one of the speakers in each Nub. 1101^ ff., 1437 ff. In the
ff.)

debate in the Equites (457

it

consists of four iambic

ff.) of three, and here no more than a peremptory command to stop wrangling in the second debate in the Equites (941 f.) it is expressed in prose. In the Vespae (725 ff.) it consists of four anapaestic tetrameters and two paired songs and two paired recitative anapaestic periods. The verdict proper is found in the first three tetrameters in the

tetrameters, in the Thesmophoriazusae

(571

it is

verses

that

follow

the

chorus,

now

convinced,

pleads
ff.),

with

Philocleon to yield.

Similarly in the Aves (626

after the
first

chorus
verses
scene.

has

clearly
it

expressed

its

judgment

in

the

two

tetrameters,

begins to think of the future, and the remaining


introduction
to the

constitute an appropriate

following

In the Lysistrata the poet substitutes for the verdict two trimetrical tristichs spoken by the two debaters (608 ff.). The chorus is still divided and a verdict is not possible. The introduction to the debate in this play

(467-70-471-5)

is

noteworthy,

as also the hortatory distich

The

first

(539 f.) prefixed to the second half. debate in the Nubes has an elaborate introduction in
ff.).

anapaestic dimeters (889

Generally a scene (679

ff.)

serves

318
this

THE VERSE OF GEEEK COMEDY


purpose.

673

The

close of the debate in the


;

Banae resembles

has not been brought to a satisfactory conclusion {^aXeTrov ovv epyov Siaipelv is the judgment of the chorus), and in a monostrophie dyad (Ban.
that of the Lysistrata the discussion

here also

1099

&.)

that

is

substituted for the verdict, the chorus urges its

continuance, but in some other form,


673.
debates.

Two

plays,

the
in

Equites

and

N^ibes,

have
half.

each

two

The debates

the

Thesmophoriazusae, Ecdesiazusae,

and Plutus are not complete, lacking the second


Peace.

Debates

and The theme did not allow set discussion. There is an exposition of the poet's main contention in the Acharnians (347625), but it is veiled, and the effect of its seriousness is counteracted by the intrusion of a laugh-compelling satire (393-488). To discuss in set form, in 425 B.C. in Athens, the folly of the party that insisted on continuing the war with Sparta would have exasperated the public.^ In the spring of 421 B.C., when the poet's Fcaxe was brought out, the question of
peace or war needed no discussion.
a debate but a continuous argument.
there
is

in canonical form are not found at all in the Acharnians

On

the

other hand, the


is

debate sometimes preserves canonical form, but in reality

not

but one debater.

In the Aves, for example, In the epirrhema he endeavours to


antepirrhema he develops his plan
earliest

convince the chorus of birds that sovereignty rightly belongs, not


to

men, but to them


it.

in the

for securing

674.

The parode

of
;

the

Attic

comedy (665) was

probably wholly lyrical


added, in two
lyrical element

subsequently verses in recitative were

extant plays to the


(Eq.

complete exclusion of the


ff.).

242 K, Fax 299


'

This division

is

in

many
irpoiTrj

particulars singular as
'

developed in Aristophanes.

The

parodos in Aristotle's Art of Poetry (1452 b), 17 of Xe^t? oXt] x^P^> whether his own or not and whether intended to apply to comedy or not, certainly does not cover
definition

the parode of Aristophanes."


parode, as
'

Zielinski's definition of the

comic

the verses rendered by the chorus, with accompanying


it first

evolutions and music, from the time


until
1

appears in the isode


fails

it

comes

to

standstill

in

the

orchestra,' also
jiarode

to

See Mazon, Composition, 24 f. 2 See Westphal's discussion of this statement of Aristotle (Prolegmicna, 57
tf.)

of the

with 127), {Metrik^, 236).

of comedy {Gliederung, Gleditsch's restattment

and

Zielinski's elaborate definition

676
comprehend the
the chorus
is

STRUCTURE OF COMEDY
facts.
sets,

319
the chorus, appear

Actors, as well

as

within the limits he

and in two

plays, at least {Nuhes, llanae),

The chorus is an important it is seen. two leaders are actors as well as singers, Its coming is always in the parode it dominates the scene. intimated, and the preparations for its appearance, which may be The parode would purposely delayed, are sometimes elaborate. naturally seem, then, to begin at that point in the play where the chorus either actually appears or its coming is definitely There is always a shift at this point from the stock indicated. Some previous trimeters of the prologue to some other rhythm.
heard before
factor in comedy, its

allusion to the chorus in the trimeters of the prologue prepares

the

way
fl'.;

for the

199 268
to

Eq.
ff.;

225

Av. 198
ff.
;

See Ach. 178 ff., change in all the extant plays. Vesp. 214 Pax 296 ff. Nub. 252 f. f. Thesm. 280 ff. Ban. 312 ff. Ecd. Lys. 247 ff.
; ;

fif.

Plut.

223

ff.

to be the

end at that point in most prominent

The parode would naturally seem also the action where the chorus has ceased
figure

on the scene.

This

is

coincident

with the beginning of a following division of the play of which These limits of the parode the form and use are unmistakable.
are adopted in this book.

675.

the poet

In each instance The parode lacks canonical form. has employed the particular structure that is best

adapted to carry the action forward at this important stage of It is noteworthy that the principle of pairing its development.
of

non-melic

notable a feature of the debate

The lyrical some plays, are generally paired. 676. The parode of the Ranae (316 ff.) is almost wdiolly lyrical, and the lyrical elements are in correspondence as dyads, Non-lyrical parts, rendered by actors, by the triad and octad. first corypheus of the chorus of men as hierophant, and by the
leader of the supplementary chorus of
^

and is so employed in the parode,^ elements, on the contrary, which are abundant in
parts

that

is

seen in the parabasis


is

rarely

women

as daduch, serve

Zielinski

endeavours

to

establish

both
in

'symmetry'

and

'eurhythmy,'

technical sense in which he employs tliose terms, in the parode Not only are (Gliedcrung, 352 ff.). epirrhema and antepirrhema here discoverable, he says, but each has the same nunibei' of verses, and this number

the

is four or a multiple of four. He assumes, of course, exceptions to the application of these principles. Their application to the debate ((?^io?erM?i^, 366 ^.) involves the frequent assumption of pauses equivalent to a whole ti.tramcter. In this investigation, Zielinski proceeds from the parabasis {Glicdei-ung, 349 fi'.).

320

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY

676

See 704. Just when the choruses appeared in the isode in tliis play cannot be certainly determined. It cannot have been before 323, and it is probable that the general introit was delayed till 354, when the hierophant entered
as links to connect the songs.
at

the

head of the
also

great

procession.
lyrical

Compare the
See
704.

similar

situation in the Nuhes.

The
ff.)

elements in the parode of

the

Lysistrata

(254

are

paired.

Compare

with the preceding the simple structure of the first half of the This is separated parode of the Acharnians (204 ff.), AA**.^ from the second half by an intermediate scene, during which The structure of the lyrical element in the chorus is in hiding.
the second half
is

The parode of the Ecdcsiazusae is proodic, AB*B. The members of the chorus have gathered during the prologue,^ and leave the scene in the parodos ^ (285 ff.), *AA. They return in the epiparode (478 ff.), ABB**. The
peculiar.
'
'

first

parode of
ff.), is

the Peace

(299

ff.),

like

that

of

the

Equites
close

(247

non-lyrical, although extremely lively.

At the

of the following syzygy

Hermes

bids the chorus and the super-

numeraries 'come in' (eiaiopra, 427), namely to that part of the orchestra which lay within the wings just in front of the proscenium, and shovel away the stones under which Peace is
buried.

When

parode (553
place,

ff.),

she has been recovered, the chorus, in the second returns with the supernumeraries to its proper

of the play.

down for the remaining business These two parts of the second parode, of which each has the structure and employs the rhythms of the first parode, are separated by a non-antistrophic mesode, so that the The lyrical elements in the parode general scheme is **A**.
and
after a song settles

of the Plutus

(253

ff.)

are pentadic,

*AABBC

the structure

of that of the Ves2}ae

(230

ff) is similar,

**AABBC.

See 716.

In that of the Thesmophoriazusae (295 ff.), on the other hand, In the JVuhes there is no correspondence of lyrical parts, *A*B. the chorus does not appear until long after the parode (263 ff.) Its song, in answer to the invocation Cf. 323 ff. is under way.
of Socrates, has been heard from afar.
this
lyric

The

discourse that follows


its
is

subject.

dyad is very long, but the Clouds are The long anapaestic verses in which it

continuous
written are

singularly appropriate to the character both of the chorus and


1

The

See the editor's Unrecognized Actor, 124

asterisk signifies a non-melic part. * fierd^Tacns Poll. f.

iv.

108.

677

STRUCTURE OF COMEDY
two elderly men.
it,

321
dignity the

of the

With becoming
but
it

chorus

takes but small part in


Strepsiades.

closes the parode in a trio with

The structure of this parode is *A*A**B. The parode of the Aves (227 f.) is an excellent illustration of the poet's skill in devising a form suited to the theme. The Hoopoe convokes the birds in an elaborate monody, but the chorus delays It probably enters in regular formation, its coming till 294. since six birds are named in 297-301, the first file, and six each in 302, 303, 304, but it breaks rank at the isode, and its members run chirping and calling in confusion about the orchestra. Its excitement increases when the Hoopoe repeats his fatal announcement in 320, an attack ensues, and it is long before its hostility can be allayed and the parode brought to a close. The structure of this parode seems to be intricate, but it is
exactly adapted to the situation,
677.

A**B*B**C.
comedy developed named syzygy by

In imitation of the epirrhematic syzygy that closes the

parabasis, a primitive part of the play (665),

a division which has also been appropriately


Zielinski, since it consists of strophe

and antistrophe, epirrhema and antepirrhema, with strophe and antistrophe always separated. But this new division, although its structure is unmistakable, differs from the epirrhematic syzygy that closes the parabasis The strophe and antistrophe of the in important particulars. parabasis are never amoebean, but were sung solely by the
half-choruses.

In the syzygy quite one half of the strophes

and antistrophes are extremely vivacious duos or trios in which the singers were actors and the leaders of the half-choruses. The epirrhema and antepirrhema of the parabasis always consist of trochaic tetrameters, and the number of these is the same in each they always follow strophe aud antistrophe, and they were continuously rendered in recitative respectively by
;

the leaders

of the half-choruses in the syzygy they consist, with a few exceptions which will be considered below, exclusively
;

of

spoken

trimeters
first

which
of

are

not

equal

in

number,

they
ant-

frequently come
antistrophe, in

in order, epirrhema, strophe, antepirrhema,

place

strophe, epirrhema,

antistrophe,
in
of

and they are commonly a dialogue speakers are actors (or an actor) and a leader
epirrhema,
half-choruses, or
actors
alone.
is

which

the

one of the

Occasionally

the

epirrhema or

antepirrhema,

or

both,

monologue

taken

by

an

actor.

322
Syzygies
in
in

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


four
ff.,

678

parts

of
fif.,

canonical form and

Ach.
ff.

347

489

Pax 819

ff.,

rhythm occur Av. 1118 ff., Ban.

460

Syzygies do not occur iu the Lysistrata, Ecclesiazusae

or Plutus.

may occur. These development of the action and are Thus, in Eq. 611 ff. and Ach. 1000 ff. the generally simple. In Pax situation warrants a brief introduction in trimeters.
678. Deviations from the prescribed form
result

from

the

natural

rhythm (974-1015) breaks the Similarly in Nub. 627 ff. the poet has inserted a burlesque K0f^fM6<i (70722) between the two Twenty epirrhemata or antepirrhemata halves of the syzygy. in a total of thirty-two are composed exclusively in trimeters, but appropriate variations of rhythm may occur, as in Pax 346 ff, iu which each half of the syzygy closes with two hortatory

922

ff.,

a prayer in anapaestic

continuity of the antepirrhema.

trochaic tetrameters, so that the epirrhema and antepirrhema end

each in a compound tristich


of
trimeters

in Aves

801

ff.,

1494
ff,

ff.,

in

which

the epirrhemata consist solely of trimeters, the antepirrhemata

and prose;

and

in

Pax 459

in

which the

antepirrhema ends in four iambic tetrameters and a final Yoheave-ho in the effort, which is successful, to bring the huge In Vesp. 403 ff. the epirrhema statue of Peace from the pit.

and antepirrhema
of tetrameters
is

are

composed

in trochaic tetrameters, in imita-

tion of the corresponding parts in the parabasis, but the

number
and

respectively

thirty-one

and thirty-eight
ff.

they constitute a dialogue.


the epirrhematic
structure

In Vesp. 334
of the

the poet imitates

debate

the

epirrhema
;

and

antepirrhema are written in anapaestic tetrameters the first two of these in each division are recited by a corypheus and are
hortatory

epirrhema even ends in a recitative anapaestic But no question is under discussion and The syzygy in TJies7n. 655 ff is the action advances rapidly. In the preceding scene the sex of unusually elaborate. Mnesiiochus has been revealed and Cleisthenes, as he leaves, bids
;

the

hypermetrical period.

women watch him with care until he lodges information with The women constituting the chorus are greatly and the syzygy there may be other men lurking near excited
the
the prytanes.

is

prefaced by an introduction, as in Ach.


ff.,

1000

if.

and Equites

611

but here

it

is

a Song of Quest opened by recitative

anapaestic tetrameters that have the ring of the commation of a

680

STRUCT UEE OF COMEDY

323
song.

parabasis.

lively
at

dance

accompanies

the

Then the
and
ant-

syzygy begins

667.

In

this

again

epirrhema

epirrhema, written in the main in trimeters, begin each with two


hortatory tetrameters recited respectively by the leaders of the
half-choruses, but the

rhythm

is

now

trochaic.

When,

further-

more, in the epirrhema the


Mnesilochus, feeling
is

women

realize the bold stratagem of

so intense that the

rhythm

shifts

from

trimeters to dochmii and trochaic tetrameters.


679. There are certain divisions of a comedy that serve to mediate the parts between which they occur, special connecting It is historically links that adjust and advance the action. significant that more than half of them thus connect primitive
divisions
(665).

Furthermore, twenty in twenty-six

of

them

occur either before a parabasis or before a debate, primitive parts

They here gather which the action of the play stands still. up the lines of the action and bring it to the point at which it may be readily resumed after the intermission. This continuance of a suspended action is marked in those cases in which the same personages that are actors in the scene that precedes a
in

parabasis reappear in the part that follows

it.

Cf.

Eq.

461

ff.
ff.,

with 611

ff.,
ff.

Fax 657
with 846

Nul. 476 ff. with 627 ff., Vesp. 891 ff. with 1122 with 819 ff., ^u 638 ff. with 801 ff., Thesm. 765

ff.

with 738 ff. When this connecting division occurs before a debate, it becomes, by its ordering of the action, an appropriate introduction to the following discussion.
ff..

Ban. 605

ff.

Cf Nuh. 1321 ff, ^v. 434 ff, Zt/s. 387 ff., Thesm. 372 ff. Ban. 830 ff., Fed. 520 ff., Plut. 322 The name scene has been
ff.

given to this mediating division.


680.

The stock verse


In

of the scene is the trimeter, as

would

be expected.
is

fifteen cases in

a total of twenty-six the scene

lines

composed exclusively in trimeters, including shorter iambic and anaphonemata. Eecitative verses are introduced in four scenes: Nuh. 476 ff. begins with a hortatory anapaestic

distich;

Fax 428

ff.

begins

with
;

three

trochaic

tetrameters

and ends with a prose formula


'hexameters';
scene

Fax 1039
anapaestic

introduces dactylic
tetrameters.
it.

Av. 638

ff.

three
if

may

include a lyric,

the situation warrants

The Thus

Ach.

242 ff. ends with a monody in iambic rhythm and Thesm. 765 ff. with a short monody in anapaestic rhythm. On Fan. 664-7, in Scene I., see 709. Fan. 830 ff. includes a prayer to

324

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


fif.

681

two hortatory iambic the Muses in dactylic rhythm, Thesm. 3 V 2 tetrameters and two songs, one in simplified logaoedic, the other in paeonic-trochaic rhythm, Av. 903 ff. the song of the Poet,
dactylic
'

hexameters
is

'

and

prose.

In Vesp. 760

&.

the length of

the mock-trial
triad
for the case

skilfully relieved

and a prayer in recitative and its hearing. 681. The special use of the scene before parabasis and debate Twenty scenes are found somewhere m determines its position.
the
first

by the introduction of a lyric verse between the preparations

half of the play, all preceding the

first

parabasis

the

other six are in

the

second
or

half, into

which they have been


ff.,

attracted by a second parabasis {Eq.

1151

Nuh. 1105
jGf.,

fi'.,

Pax

Ban. 830 by a debate {Nub. 1321 Only two scenes before which they occur. ff.), immediately {Ach. 242 ff., Thesm. 765 ff.), as has been noted, end in a lyric, and in each case this is a non-antistrophic monody. 682. The action of the second half of the play is carried forward mainly in the episode, which is invariably followed by

1039 K,Av. 903

fif.)

a stasimon

that

either

actually occurs or

is

indicated in the

manuscripts.

From

the

point

of view

of structure, therefore,

episode and stasimon properly constitute a single division.

Both The stasimon is never It is often a monostrophic dyad AA (seven non-antistrophic. cases), but it may be a tetrad AAAA {Ach. 836 ff., ^^. 1111 ff., Ran. 814 ff.), a hexad AAAAAA {Eq. 973 ff.), a triad consisting of proode, strophe and antistrophe ABB {Ach. 1143 ff.) or of strophe, mesode and antistrophe ABA {Av. 1313 ff.), a pericope ABAB {Ach. 971 ff., Vesp. 1265 ff.), or it may have still more

names have been adopted from

tragedy.

elaborate
{TJiesm.

structure

947

ff.).

AABCD {Thesm. 1136 A stasimon is missing in

ff.),

ABCCCDDE

the JVuhes and no

stasima occur in the Ecclesiazusae and Plutus, but their places are The stasimon always severally indicated in the manuscripts.
follows the episode, once with an introduction composed of verses
in recitative {Lys.

101442) its parts are never separated from one another by intervening recitative or spoken verses in six; ;

teen cases in eighteen


the
strophe
instances
in

it is

rendered solely by the chorus, as are

and antistrophe of the parabasis, and the two which it is a duo {Eq. 1111 ff., Av. 1313 ff.) Besides these two cases, there are introduce each a single actor. only two others {Eq. 973 ff., Thesm. 1136 ff.) in which an actor

684
actors

STRUCTURE OF COMEDY
remain
during
the

325
of

or

rendering

the
its

stasimon.

importance by leaving the chorus in sole possession of the scene during its performance. The particulars just mentioned differentiate the stasimon from the lyric dyad of the syzygy. This is always a
Aristophanes, like the tragic writers, emphasized

dyad

strophe and antistrophe often precede the epirrhema and


;

antepirrhema
in

they are always separated by intervening verses

in half the instances of their occurrence they are duos or trios

twenty-nine instances in thirty-two an actor or actors are


during their rendering.

present

In three cases (Av. 851

ff.,

1553

ff.,

1694

ff.)

the situation requires that the actors shall


of the episode

leave the scene.


683.

The stock verse


it

is

the trimeter.

In ten

cases in twenty-six

is

composed

solely of trimeters, including

In seven other cases, dochmii (Thesm. 846 ff., 627 ff.), recitative verses (Fq. 997 K, Fax 1191 ff., Lys. 706 ff., 1072 ff.) or prose {Ach. 719 ff.) have been introduced. The episode may include lyric elements, if the situation warrants Thus melic periods have been introduced in Vesp. 1122 ff., it. melic periods and the song of Cinesias in Aves 1335 ff., a nonantistrophic iambo-trochaic monody in Vesp. 1292 ff., a nonantistrophic anapaestic trio in Lys. 829 ff., a dyadic iambic trio in Ach. 860 ff., an extremely lively duo in composite rhythm and a short iambic monody in JVuh. 1131 ff., a parody of a scene from the Andromeda in iambo-trochaic rhythm and the echo-scene in Thesm. 1001 ff., a continuous succession of songs in Ecd. 877 ff.

auaphonemata.

Flict.

Finally, in the celebrated Battle of the Bards in Ran. 1 1 1 9

ff.,

long but closely connected episode, a song in Aeolic rhythm, in

which the chorus expresses eager curiosity


poets' prologues,
lyric in Aeolic

to learn

how

Euripides

will establish his charge against Aeschylus, follows the test of the

and two mock lyrics in dactylic rhythm, a mock rhythm and a burlesque monody are introduced

into the following test of their choral rhythms, the episode ending

with the
trochaic

trial of the scales, introduced by a short lyric in rhythm which expresses great excitement. 684. The prologue is that division of a comedy which

Like the scene it is normally ff.). and the prologues of six extant plays are written exclusively in trimeters, including short iambic lines and anaphonemata. Eecitative verses and non-antistrophic songs by
precedes the parode (674
trimetrical,

326
actors

THE VERSE OF GREEK COMEDY


may

685

be introduced on occasion, but since the chorus has no dyadic lyric, consisting of strophe and Dactylic antistrophe, is found in the prologue of any play.
not yet appeared

'hexameters' occur in the prologue of the Bquites; a melic anapaestic period in that of the Aves two recitative anapaestic periods and a melic dactylic period in that of the Peace; a
;

recitative anapaestic period

and a song chiefly in ionic rhythm in

the Thesmophoriazusae
in the Ranae.

the frog-song in ianibo-trochaic

rhythm

685. In eight of the extant comedies of Aristophanes the exode follows a stasimon, in the other three, JEquites, Nubes, Aves, it follows respectively a second parabasis, a second debate and a The last lines of eight of these exodes were rendered syzygy.

by

tlie

chorus.

chorus, in a ninth, the Lysistrata, by a sujiphimentary It seems likely that the Peace also originally ended

with the singing of the hymeneal strain by half-choruses, so that the rendering of the last strophe was the same as that of the This general choral ending See 584. strophe that preceded it.
of the plays led Dindorf to suggest that lines

had been

lost

at

the close of the Equites, which as transmitted consists simply of recitative anapaestic tetrameters and iambic trimeters.
686. Tt seems probable that these final lines were all melic, but the NuhcH, Thesmophoriazusae and Plutus end each in an anapaestic period that is too brief to furnish sure evidence of this
in its metrical form.

See 292.

The
:

iinal

words, however, of

Zei yap KaToiriv tovtwv the chorus in the Plutus are significant ciBovra^ eTrea-Oat,, although they are sometimes interpreted to

refer to a following

stock

song that has not been preserved.

The remainder

of the exode in each of these three plays is

com-

Trimeters are found also in all the other plays except the lianac, in which the exode begins with a recitative anapaestic period and ends with a non-antistrophic

posed in trimeters.

dactylic period,

and the Peace, in which it consists of recitative anapaestic tetrameters, a recitative anapaestic period, and probably The lyrical close of the a monostrophic octad in Aeolic rhythm.
latter
is

elaborate
in a

Acharnians
Aves
in

and five other plays end similarly: the pseudo-monody, chiefly in iambic rhythm the the Lysistrata in three lyric of seven periods;
;

non-antistrophic

periods in sin)pliHed logaoedic rhythm; the Ecclesiazusae in a hyporcliematic lyric, chiefly in dactylic rhythm,

687

STRUCTUUK OF COMEDY
;

327
in

following recitative trochaic tetrameters

and the Vespae

an

epodic triad in prosodiac rhythm,

followinj,'

a recitative anapaestic

period and recitative anapaestic tetrameters.

Four of the divisions of comedy tliat have been disthe preceding paragraphs have canonical form, the parabasis, the debate, the syzygy, and the episode with following
687.

cussed

in

stasimou.

Eegarded from the point of


fall

vi(!vv

of their
classes, of

use of

rhythms, the divisions of comedy

into

two

which

The one normally excludes the trimeter, the other admits it. former includes the three primitive divisions, parode, debate and
parabasis.

Trimeters never occur

in

the parabasis
in

they are

irregularly admitted into the debate only


LijH.

Nnbcs 1085-8 and

608-13, and into tlie parode only in Thcsni. 331-51, J'Jrcl. 504-13, yli'. 203-6, and Ran. 318-22, 337-9, 414-15(?). Tbe
of

normal elements
recitative verses

these three divisions are melodramatic and


lyric strophes.

and periods and

Four of

tlic

remaining divisions, syzygy, episode with stasimon, scene and Tlie first two consist prologue, all normally include the trimeter. of trimeters and lyric strophes that are arranged iv Siex^ia in
trimeters are former and Kara avvix^tav hi the latter (700) the sole normal constituent of the last two, but Aristophanes, as
tlie
;

we have

seen, is not

bouiul by convention, and

tlie

trimetrical

parts of these four

divisions

may admit

recitative

verses

and

periods and lyric strophes.

The prologue and the

trimetrical

parts of the syzygy eschew the infusion of the lyrical element,


llecitait freely, the episode still more freely, and periods are admittinl into any of these trimetrical The remaining division of comedy is the parts on occasion. exode, a happy elective combination, with melic close, of trimeters, recitative verses and periods, and lyric strophes.

the scene admits

tive verses

OHAPTEK

XVII

COMPOSITION OF A COMEDY
688. Ancient metricians distinguish
^evq, of poetic composition.

three

principal

forms,
line,

poem may be
of

written by

Kara

crTt'Xpv,

and then

it

consists

the same verse, o-Tt%o9,

change of rhythm