06EC73
POWER ELECTRONICS
Subject Code: 06EC73 No. of Lecture Hrs/Week: 04 Total no. of Lecture Hrs: 52
PART  A
Introduction, Applications of power electronics, Power semiconductor devices, Control characteristics, Types of power electronics circuits, Peripheral effects. 5 Hours
POWER TRANSISTOR: Power BJTs, switching characteristics, Switching limits, Base derive control, Power MOSFETs, switching characteristics, Gate drive, IGBTs, Isolation of
UNIT  3
INTRODUCTION TO THYRISTORS: Principle of operation states anodecathode characteristics, two transistor model. Turnon Methods, Dynamic Turnon and turnoff characteristics, Gate characteristics, Gate trigger circuits, di / dt and dv / dt protection, Thyristor firing circuits. 7 Hours
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UNIT  4
CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS: Introduction, Principles of phase controlled converter operation, 1 fully controlled converters, Duel converters, 1 semi converters (all converters 5 Hours
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UNIT  1
6 Hours
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PART B
UNIT  5 COMMUTATION: Thyristor turn off methods, natural and forced commutation, self commutation, class A and class B types, Complementary commutation, auxiliary commutation, external pulse commutation, AC line commutation, numerical problems. 7 Hours
UNIT  6
AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLERS: Introduction, Principles of on and off control, Principles of phase control, Single phase controllers with restive loads and Inductive loads,
UNIT  7
chopper with RL loads, Chopper classification, Analysis of impulse commutated Thyristor chopper (only qualitative analysis). 8 Hours
UNIT  8
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inverter, voltage control of 1 invertors, current source invertors, Variable DC link inverter. 7 Hours
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Power Electronics  M. H. Rashid 3rd edition, PHI / Pearson publisher 2004. 2. Power Electronics  M. D. Singh and Kanchandani K.B. TMH publisher, 2nd Ed. 2007.
REFERENCE BOOKS: 1. Thyristorized Power Controllers  G. K. Dubey S. R. Doradla, A. Joshi and Rmk Sinha New age international (P) ltd reprint 1999. 2. Power Electronics  Cynil W. Lander 3rd edition, MGH 2003.
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DC CHOPPERS: Introduction, Principles of step down and step up choppers, Step down
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numerical problems.
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INDEX SHEET
UNIT TOPIC PAGE NO. UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION TO POWER ELECTRONICS 05
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 Brief History of Power Electronics Power Electronic Application Power Semiconductor Devices Control Characteristics Of Power Devices Types of Power Converters or Types of Power Electronic Circuits Peripheral Effects 05 05 06 10 12 17
Bipolar Junction Transistors Transistor as a Switch Transient Model of BJT Switching Limits Power MOSFETS Switching Characteristics IGBT di dt and dv dt Limitations
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Switching Characteristics (Dynamic characteristics) Resistance Triggering Resistance Capacitance Triggering UniJunction Transistor (UJT) UJT Relaxation Oscillator Synchronized UJT Oscillator dv Protection dt di Protection dt
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19 23 27 32 39 44 47 50 52
19
56
56 60 61 63 69 71 73 75 80 84 87
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89
89 89 90 90 92 102 109 120
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UNIT5 COMMUTATION
126
126 128 140 154 158 165
UNIT6
AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER
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168
168 169 170 178 188 194 216 216 216 224 230 236
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Introduction Principle of Stepdown Chopper Principle of Stepup Chopper Classification of Choppers Impulse Commutated Chopper
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UNIT7 UNIT8
Phase Control Type of Ac Voltage Controllers Principle of OnOff Control Technique (Integral Cycle Control Principle Of Ac Phase Control Single Phase Full Wave Ac Voltage Controller (Ac Regulator) or Rms Voltage Controller with Resistive Load Single Phase Full Wave Ac Voltage Controller (Bidirectional Controller) With RL Load
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DC CHOPPER
INVERTERS
242
242 242 243 245 248 250 252 258 258 261
8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.10
Classification of Inverters Principle of Operation Half bridge inverter with Inductive load Fourier analysis of the Load Voltage Waveform of a Half Bridge Inverter Performance parameters of inverters Single Phase Bridge Inverter Single Phase Bridge Inverter with RL Load Comparison of half bridge and full bridge inverters Principle of Operation of CSI: Variable DC link Inverter
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The first SCR (silicon controlled rectifier) or Thyristor was invented and developed by Bell Labs in 1956 which was the first PNPN triggering transistor. The second electronic revolution began in the year 1958 with the development of the commercial grade Thyristor by the General Electric Company (GE). Thus the new era of power electronics was born. After that many different types of power semiconductor devices & power conversion techniques have been introduced.The power electronics revolution is giving us the ability to convert, shape and control large amounts of power.
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1. COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS Heating Systems Ventilating, Air Conditioners, Central Refrigeration, Lighting, Computers and Office equipments, Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS), Elevators, and Emergency Lamps.
2. DOMESTIC APPLICATIONS Cooking Equipments, Lighting, Heating, Air Conditioners, Refrigerators & Freezers, Personal Computers, Entertainment Equipments, UPS. 3. INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS Pumps, compressors, blowers and fans. Machine tools, arc furnaces, induction furnaces, lighting control circuits, industrial lasers, induction heating, welding equipments.
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The first Power Electronic Device developed was the Mercury Arc Rectifier during the year 1900. Then the other Power devices like metal tank rectifier, grid controlled vacuum tube rectifier, ignitron, phanotron, thyratron and magnetic amplifier, were developed & used gradually for power control applications until 1950.
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4. AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS Space shuttle power supply systems, satellite power systems, aircraft power systems. 5. TELECOMMUNICATIONS Battery chargers, power supplies (DC and UPS), mobile cell phone battery chargers. 6. TRANSPORTATION Traction control of electric vehicles, battery chargers for electric vehicles, electric locomotives, street cars, trolley buses, automobile electronics including engine controls.
A. POWER DIODES
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Power diodes are made of silicon pn junction with two terminals, anode and cathode. Diode is forward biased when anode is made positive with respect to the cathode. Diode conducts fully when the diode voltage is more than the cutin voltage (0.7 V for Si). Conducting diode will have a small voltage drop across it. Diode is reverse biased when cathode is made positive with respect to anode. When reverse biased, a small reverse current known as leakage current flows. This leakage current increases with increase in magnitude of reverse voltage unt il avalanche voltage is reached (breakdown voltage).
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POWER DIODES TYPES Power diodes can be classified as General purpose diodes. High speed (fast recovery) diodes. Schottky diode. General Purpose Diodes
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Schottky Diodes
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The diodes have low recovery time, generally less than 5 s. The major field of applications is in electrical power conversion i.e., in freewheeling acdc and dcac converter circuits. Their current ratings is from less than 1 A to hundreds of amperes with voltage ratings from 50 V to about 3 KV. Use of fast recovery diodes are preferable for freewheeling in SCR circuits because of low recovery loss, lower junction temperature and reduced di dt . For high voltage ratings greater than 400 V they are manufactured by diffusion process and the recovery time is controlled by platinum or gold diffusion. For less than 400 V rating epitaxial diodes provide faster switching speeds than diffused diodes. Epitaxial diodes have a very narrow base width resulting in a fast recovery time of about 50 ns.
A Schottky diode has metal (aluminium) and semiconductor junction. A layer of metal is deposited on a thin epitaxial layer of the ntype silicon. In Schottky diode there is a larger barrier for electron flow from metal to semiconductor. Figure shows the schotty diode.
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The diodes have high reverse recovery time of about 25 microsecs ( sec). They are used in low speed (frequency) applications. e.g., line commutated converters, diode rectifiers and converters for a low input frequency upto 1 KHz. Diode ratings cover a very wide range with current ratings less than 1 A to several thousand amps (2000 A) and with voltage ratings from 50 V to 5 KV. These diodes are generally manufactured by diffusion process. Alloyed type rectifier diodes are used in welding power supplies. They are most cost effective and rugged and their ratings can go upto 300A and 1KV.
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Comparison Between Different Types Of Diodes General Purpose Diodes Upto 5000V & 3500A Fast Recovery Diodes
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0.1 s to 5 s
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trr
Reverse recovery time Reverse recovery time Reverse recovery time High Low Extremely low.
trr 25 s trr = a few nanoseconds
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frequency
Switching High
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VF
When Schottky diode is forward biased free electrons on nside gain enough energy to flow into the metal causing forward current. Since the metal does not have any holes there is no charge storage, decreasing the recovery time. Therefore a Schottky diode can switchoff faster than an ordinary pn junction diode. A Schottky diode has a relatively low forward voltage drop and reverse recovery losses. The leakage current is higher than a pn junction diode. The maximum allowable voltage is about 100 V. Current ratings vary from about 1 to 300 A. They are mostly used in low voltage and high current dc power supplies. The operating frequency may be as high 100300 kHz as the device is suitable for high frequency application.
VF = 0.7V to 1.2V
VF = 0.8V to 1.5V
B. Thyristors
Silicon Controlled Rectifiers (SCR): The SCR has 3 terminals namely: Anode (A), Cathode (k) and Gate(G). Internally it is having 4layers pnpn as shown in figure (b).
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Schottky Diodes Upto 100V and 300A Turn off time Extremely low frequency 0.4V to 0.6V
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C. POWER TRANSISTORS
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Transistors which have high voltage and high current rating are called power transistors. Power transistors used as switching elements, are operated in saturation region resulting in a low  on state voltage drop. Switching speed of transistors is much higher than the thyristors. And they are extensively used in dcdc and dcac converters with inverse parallel connected diodes to provide bidirectional current flow. However, voltage and current ratings of power transistor are much lower than the thyristors. Transistors are used in low to medium power applications. Transistors are current controlled device and to keep it in the conducting state, a continuous base current is required. Power transistors are classified as follows BiPolar Junction Transistors (BJTs) MetalOxide SemiConductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFETs) Insulated Gate BiPolar Transistors (IGBTs)
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The word thyristor is coined from thyratron and transistor. It was invented in the year 1957 at Bell Labs.
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Controlled turn on and uncontrolled turn off (e.g. SCR) Controlled turn on and off characteristics (e.g. BJT, MOSFET, GTO, SITH, IGBT, SIT, MCT).
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MCT).
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Bidirectional current capability (e.g.: Triac, RCT). Unidirectional current capability (e.g. SCR, GTO, BJT, MOSFET, MCT,
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Line commutated converters or AC to DC converters (controlled rectifiers) AC voltage (RMS voltage) controllers (AC to AC converters).
Cyclo converters (AC to AC converters at low output frequency). DC choppers (DC to DC converters). Inverters (DC to AC converters).
1. AC TO DC Converters (Rectifiers)
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Line Commutated Converter
AC Input V oltage
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These are AC to DC converters. The line commutated converters are AC to DC power converters. These are also referred to as controlled rectifiers. The line commutated converters (controlled rectifiers) are used to convert a fixed voltage, fixed frequency AC power supply to obtain a variable DC output voltage. They use natural or AC line commutation of the Thyristors.
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Fig1.4: A Single Phase Full Wave Uncontrolled Rectifier Circuit (Diode Full Wave Rectifier) using a Center Tapped Transformer
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Fig: 1.5 A Single Phase Full Wave Controlled Rectifier Circuit (using SCRs) using a Center Tapped Transformer
Different types of line commutated AC to DC converters circuits are Diode rectifiers Uncontrolled Rectifiers Controlled rectifiers using SCRs. o Single phase controlled rectifier. o Three phase controlled rectifiers.
Applications of Ac To Dc Converters AC to DC power converters are widely used in Speed control of DC motor in DC drives.
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2. a. AC TO AC Converters or AC regulators.
V0(RMS)
fs
AC regulators (RMS voltage controllers) are mainly used for Speed control of AC motor.
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Fig.1.6: A Single Phase AC voltage Controller Circuit (ACAC Converter using a TRIAC)
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The AC voltage controllers convert the constant frequency, fixed voltage AC supply into variable AC voltage at the same frequency using line commutation.
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fS
AC Input V oltage fs
Vs
AC V oltage Controller
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2. b. AC TO AC Converters with Low Output Frequency or CYCLO CONVERTERS V0 , f0 AC Input V oltage Vs fs Cyclo Converters V ariable Frequency AC Output f0< fS The cyclo converters convert power from a fixed voltage fixed frequency AC supply to a variable frequency and variable AC voltage at the output. The cyclo converters generally produce output AC voltage at a lower output frequency. That is output frequency of the AC output is less than input AC supply frequency. Applications of cyclo converters are traction vehicles and gearless rotary kilns.
3. CHOPPERS or DC TO DC Converters
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DC Chopper
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The choppers are power circuits which obtain power from a fixed voltage DC supply and convert it into a variable DC voltage. They are also called as DC choppers or DC to DC converters. Choppers employ forced commutation to turn off the Thyristors. DC choppers are further classified into several types depending on the direction of power flow and the type of commutation. DC choppers are widely used in Speed control of DC motors from a DC supply.
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+ V0(d c ) V ariable DC Output V oltage
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4. INVERTERS or DC TO AC Converters
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Uninterrupted power supplies (UPS system) used for computers, computer labs.
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The inverters are used for converting DC power from a fixed voltage DC supply into an AC output voltage of variable frequency and fixed or variable output AC voltage. The inverters also employ force commutation method to turn off the Thyristors.
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DC S upply
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AC Output Voltage
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These induced harmonics can cause problems of distortion of the output voltage, harmonic generation into the supply system, and interference with the communication and signaling circuits. It is normally necessary to introduce filters on the input side and output side of a power converter system so as to reduce the harmonic level to an acceptable magnitude. The figure below shows the block diagram of a generalized power converter with filters added. The application of power electronics to supply the sensitive electronic loads poses a challenge on the power quality issues and raises the problems and concerns to be resolved by the researchers. The input and output quantities of power converters could be either AC or DC. Factors such as total harmonic distortion (THD), displacement factor or harmonic factor
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Fig.1.9: A General Power Converter System
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The power converter operations are based mainly on the switching of power semiconductor devices and as a result the power converters introduce current and voltage harmonics (unwanted AC signal components) into the supply system and on the output of the converters.
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(HF), and input power factor (IPF), are measures of the quality of the waveforms. To determine these factors it is required to find the harmonic content of the waveforms. To evaluate the performance of a converter, the input and output voltages/currents of a converter are expressed in Fourier series. The quality of a power converter is judged by the quality of its voltage and current waveforms.
Recommended questions:
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1. State important applications of power electronics 2. What is a static power converter? Name the different types of power converters and mention their functions. 3. Give the list of power electronic circuits of different input / output requirements. 4. What are the peripheral effects of power electronic equipments? What are the remedies for them? 5. What are the peripheral effects of power electronic equipments? What are the remedies for them?
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The control strategy for the power converters plays an important part on the harmonic generation and the output waveform distortion and can be aimed to minimize or reduce these problems. The power converters can cause radio frequency interference due to electromagnetic radiation and the gating circuits may generate erroneous signals. This interference can be avoided by proper grounding and shielding.
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UNIT2
POWER TRANSISTORS
Power transistors are devices that have controlled turnon and turnoff characteristics. These devices are used a switching devices and are operated in the saturation region resulting in low onstate voltage drop. They are turned on when a current signal is given to base or control terminal. The transistor remains on so long as the control signal is present. The switching speed of modern transistors is much higher than that of Thyristors and are used extensively in dcdc and dcac converters. However their voltage and current ratings are lower than those of thyristors and are therefore used in low to medium power applications. Power transistors are classified as follows Bipolar junction transistors(BJTs)
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If we recall the structure of conventional transistor we see a thin player is sandwiched between two nlayers or vice versa to form a three terminal device with the terminals named as Emitter, Base and Collector. The structure of a power transistor is as shown below.
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The need for a large blocking voltage in the off state and a high current carrying capability in the on state means that a power BJT must have substantially different structure than its small signal equivalent. The modified structure leads to significant differences in the IV characteristics and switching behavior between power transistors and its logic level counterpart.
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Collector Base npn BJT Emitter Base Collector pnp BJT Emitter
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Base
Emitter
10 m
10
19
cm
3
10
16
cm
3
10
14
cm
3
10
19
cm
3
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Figure 3(a) shows the circuit to obtain the steady state characteristics. Fig 3(b) shows the input characteristics of the transistor which is a plot of I B versus VBE . Fig 3(c) shows the output characteristics of the transistor which is a plot I C versus VCE . The characteristics shown are that for a signal level transistor.
The power transistor has steady state characteristics almost similar to signal level transistors except that the VI characteristics has a region of quasi saturation as shown by figure 4.
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The thickness of the drift region determines the breakdown voltage of the transistor. The base thickness is made as small as possible in order to have good amplification capabilit ies, however if the base thickness is small the breakdown voltage capability of the transistor is compromised.
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The doping of emitter layer and collector layer is quite large typically 1019 cm3. A special layer called the collector drift region (n) has a light doping level of 1014.
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A power transistor is a vertically oriented four layer structure of alternating ptype and ntype. The vertical structure is preferred because it maximizes the cross sectional area and through which the current in the device is flowing. This also minimizes onstate resistance and thus power dissipation in the transistor.
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Collector
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Hard Saturation
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Quasisaturation
There are four regions clearly shown: Cutoff region, Active region, quasi saturation and hard saturation. The cutoff region is the area where base current is almost zero. Hence no collector current flows and transistor is off. In the quasi saturation and hard saturation, the base drive is applied and transistor is said to be on. Hence collector current flows depending upon the load.
 1/Rd
Second breakdown
iC
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IB5 IB4 IB3 IB2 IB1
Active region
IB=0
BVSUS
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I B5 >I
B4
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,etc.
Primary breakdown I B<0 IB=0 BV CEO BVCBO
vCE
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The power BJT is never operated in the active region (i.e. as an amplifier) it is always operated between cutoff and saturation. The BVSUS is the maximum collector to emitter voltage that can be sustained when BJT is carrying substantial collector current. The BVCEO is the maximum collector to emitter breakdown voltage that can be sustained when base current is zero and BVCBO is the collector base breakdown voltage when the emitter is open circuited. The primary breakdown shown takes place because of avalanche breakdown of collector base junction. Large power dissipation normally leads to primary breakdown. The second breakdown shown is due to localized thermal runaway. Transfer Characteristics
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IE IC h fE I B IC IB IC I B I CEO 1 1
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Fig. 2.4: Transfer Characteristics Page 22
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2.2 Transistor as a Switch The transistor is used as a switch therefore it is used only between saturation and cutoff. From fig. 5 we can write the following equations
IB VC VC VCE VCB
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VCC VCE RC
active region, The maximum collector current in the active region, which can be obtained by setting VCB 0 and VBE VCE is given as
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I CM
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If the base current is increased above I BM , VBE increases, the collector current increases and
VCE falls below VBE . This continues until the CBJ is forward biased with VBC of about 0.4 to
0.5V, the transistor than goes into saturation. The transistor saturation may be defined as the point above which any increase in the base current does not increase the collector current significantly. In saturation, the collector current remains almost constant. If the collecto r emitter voltage is VCE sat the collector current is
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.... 1
VBE the CBJ is reverse biased and transistor is in
IBM
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I CM
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I CS I BS
VCC VCESAT RC I CS
Normally the circuit is designed so that I B is higher that I BS . The ratio of I B to I BS is called to overdrive factor ODF. ODF IB I BS .
I CS IB
A high value of ODF cannot reduce the CE voltage significantly. However VBE increases due
Problems
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b. The forced
f
1. The BJT is specified to have a range of 8 to 40. The load resistance in Re 11 . The dc supply voltage is VCC=200V and the input voltage to the base circuit is V B=10V. If VCE(sat)=1.0V and VBE(sat)=1.5V. Find a. The value of RB that results in saturation with a overdrive factor of 5. .
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18.1 8
ODF I BS
to increased base current resulting in increased power loss. Once the transistor is saturated, the CE voltage is not reduced in relation to increase in base current. However the power is increased at a high value of ODF, the transistor may be damaged due to thermal runaway. On the other hand if the transistor is under driven I B I BS it may operate in active region, VCE
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200 1.0 11 2.2625 A
11.3125 A
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(c)
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min
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(a) Therefore Forced
f
Also
IB
VB VBE ( sat ) RB
ODF
I CS IB
(c)
P T
VBE I B
P T P T
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40 1.2 1.5 2.15 A 25.86 12 6 1.6 0.7 IB I BS 6.28 2.15 4.11 2.92 25.86 6.28
VCE I C
1.2 25.86
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25.86 A 6.28 A
2. The of a bipolar transistor varies from 12 to 75. The load resistance is RC 1.5 . The dc supply voltage is V CC=40V and the input voltage base circuit is VB=6V. If VCE(sat)=1.2V, VBE(sat)=1.6V and RB=0.7 determine
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of transistor.
b. If the manufacturers specified is in the range of 8 to 40, calculate the minimum overdrive factor (ODF). c. Obtain power loss PT in the transistor. VB 10V , VBE sat VCE sat 1V , RB VCC 0.75 , 11 , 200V
1.5V , RC
Solution (i)
IB VB VBE RB VCC VCE RC
sat sat
10 1.5 0.75
Therefore
I BS
I CS
min
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(ii) ODF (iii)
P T VBE I B VCE I C
IB I BS
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f
I CS IB
11.33 2.26
5.01
4. A simple transistor switch is used to connect a 24V DC supply across a relay coil, which has a DC resistance of 200 . An input pulse of 0 to 5V amplitude is applied through series base resistor RB at the base so as to turn on the transistor switch. Sketch the device current waveform with reference to the input pulse. Calculate a. I CS . b. Value of resistor RB , required to obtain over drive factor of two.
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18.09 8 2.26 A 18.09 1.6 11.33
I CS
200 1.0 11
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11.33 A 18.09 A 35.085W
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c. Total power dissipation in the transistor that occurs during the saturation state.
+ VCC=24V
I/P 5V 0
RB
=25 to 100
0 iC ICS =L/RL
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iL =L/R L
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Solution
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To sketch the device current waveforms; current through the device cannot rise fast to the saturating level of I CS since the inductive nature of the coil opposes any change in current through it. Rate of rise of collector current can be determined by the L . Where L is inductive in Henry of coil and R is resistance of coil. time constant 1 R Once steady state value of I CS is reached the coil acts as a short circuit. The collector current stays put at I CS till the base pulse is present. Similarly once input pulse drops to zero, the current I C does not fall to zero immediately since inductor will now act as a current source. This current will now decay at the fall to zero. Also the current has an alternate path and now can flow through the diode.
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t t =L/RL+Rf
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vB 5
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VCE(sat)=0.2V VBE(sat)=0.7V
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(i)
I CS
VCC
VCE RC
sat
24 0.2 200
0.119 A
(ii)
Value of RB I BS
IB RB
I CS
min
0.119 25
4.76mA
2 4.76 5 0.7 9.52 9.52 mA 450
ODF I BS VB VBE IB
sat
(iii)
P T
VBE sat
I B VCE sat
I CS
Switching Characteristics
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Fig. 2.6: Transient Model of BJT
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A forward biased pn junction exhibits two parallel capacitances; a depletion layer capacitance and a diffusion capacitance. On the other hand, a reverse biased pn junction has only depletion capacitance. Under steady state the capacitances do not play any role. However under transient conditions, they influence turnon and turnoff behavior of the transistor.
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Ie IB I CS
I
This extra charge which is called the saturating charge is proportional to the excess base drive and the corresponding current Ie. ODF.I BS
s BS
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s e
The base current is normally more than that required to saturate the transistor. As a result excess minority carrier charge is stored in the base region. The higher the ODF, the greater is the amount of extra charge stored in the base. This extra charge which is called the saturating charge is proportional to the excess base drive.
Saturating charge QS
I (ODF 1) where
When the input voltage is reversed from V1 to V2, the reverse current IB2 helps to discharge the base. Without IB2 the saturating charge has to be removed entirely due to recombination and the storage time t s would be longer.
Once the extra charge is removed, BEJ charges to the input voltage V2 and the base current falls to zero. t f depends on the time constant which is determined by the reverse biased BEJ capacitance.
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I BS
s
Due to internal capacitances, the transistor does not turn on instantly. As the voltage VB rises from zero to V1 and the base current rises to IB1, the collector current does not respond immediately. There is a delay known as delay time td, before any collector current flows. The delay is due to the time required to charge up the BEJ to the forward bias voltage VBE(0.7V). The collector current rises to the steady value of I CS and this time is called rise time t r.
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I BS ODF 1
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ton td toff
tr
ts t f
Problems 1. For a power transistor, typical switching waveforms are shown. The various parameters of the transistor circuit are as under Vcc 220V , VCE ( sat ) 2V , I CS 80 A ,
I CEO 2mA . Determine average power loss due to collector current during t on and t n. Find also the peak instantaneous power loss, due to collector current during turnon time.
Solution ic t Pd t
iCVCE
ICEOVCC
Pd
td
Pd Pd
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Pd
5x103 2 10
vCE t
VCC
VCC
vCE t
VCC
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3
220 0.4 10
VCE ( sat ) tr
t tr
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6
During delay time, the time limits are 0 t td . Figure shows that in this time I CEO and VCE t VCC . Therefore instantaneous power loss during delay time is
0.88mW
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td 0.4 s ,
tr
1 s,
tn
50 s ,
ts
3 s,
tf
2 s,
t0
40 s ,
5Khz ,
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Pr Pr Pr
VCE sat
VCC
t dt tr
220 2 3
14.933W
Instantaneous power loss during rise time is Pr t ICS t VCC tr ICS tVCC tr VCC VCE sat tr t
Pr t
Therefore
dPr t dt dPr t dt 0
At t
tm ,
I CS Vcc tr trVCC 2
CI TS
Therefore
tm tr VCC 2 VCC VCE
TU
tm VCC VCE sat
sat
Therefore
I CS VCC tr
Therefore
tm
VCC tr
Peak instantaneous power loss Prm during rise time is obtained by substituting the value of t=tm in equation (1) we get
CITSTUDENTS.IN
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220 1 10 2 200 2
6
I CSVCC tr
I CS 2t VCC VCEsat tr 2
NT
0.5046 s
Differentiating the above equation and equating it to zero will give the time t m at which instantaneous power loss during t r would be maximum.
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P rm
Prm
80 x 2 160W
Pn
1 n iC vCE dt T 0
fICSVCES tn
5 103 80 2
NT
50 10
CI TS
It is a destructive phenomenon that results from the current flow to a small portion of the base, producing localized hot spots. If the energy in these hot spots is sufficient the excessive localized heating may damage the transistor. Thus secondary breakdown is caused by a localized thermal runaway. The SB occurs at certain combinations of voltage, current and time. Since time is involved, the secondary breakdown is basically an energy dependent phenomenon. 2. Forward Biased Safe Operating Area FBSOA During turnon and onstate conditions, the average junction temperature and second breakdown limit the power handling capability of a transistor. The manufacturer usually provides the FBSOA curves under specified test conditions. FBSOA indicates the I c Vce limits of the transistor and for reliable operation the transistor must not be subjected to greater power dissipation than that shown by the FBSOA curve.
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6
40W
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The final portion of the boundary of the FBSOA is breakdown voltage limit BVCEO . 3. Reverse Biased Safe Operating Area RBSOA
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VBE(off)=0 BVCEO
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iC ICM
During turnoff, a high current and high voltage must be sustained by the transistor, in most cases with the baseemitter junction reverse biased. The collector emitter voltage must be held to a safe level at or below a specified value of collector current . The manufacturer provide I c Vce limits during reversebiased turn off as reverse biased safe area (RBSOA).
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The area encompassed by the RBSOA is somewhat larger than FBSOA because of the extension of the area of higher voltages than BVCEO upto BVCBO at low collector currents.
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VBE(off)<0 BVCBO
The dc FBSOA is shown as shaded area and the expansion of the area for pulsed operation of the BJT with shorter switching times which leads to larger FBSOA. The second break down boundary represents the maximum permissible combinations of voltage and current without getting into the region of ic vce plane where second breakdown may occur.
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vCE
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This operation of the transistor upto higher voltage is possible because the combination of low collector current and reverse base current has made the beta so small that break down voltage rises towards BVCBO . 4. Power Derating The thermal equivalent is shown. If the total average power loss is PT , The case temperature is The sink temperature is The ambient temperature is Tc
Ts TA
Tj
Tc TS
. P T T jc
P T TCS P TA T RSA and T j
P R jc T
Rcs
RSA
C .
5. Breakdown Voltages
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circuited. 6. Base Drive Control
CITSTUDENTS.IN
A break down voltage is defined as the absolute maximum voltage between two terminals with the third terminal open, shorted or biased in either forward or reverse direction.
BVSUS : The maximum voltage between the collector and emitter that can be sustained across
BVCBO : This is the collector to base break down voltage when emitter is open circuited.
This is required to optimize the base drive of transistor. Optimization is required to increase switching speeds. ton can be reduced by allowing base current peaking during turnPage 34
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250 C .
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on,
ICS forced IB
can
be increased to a sufficiently high value to maintain the transistor in quasisaturation region. toff can be reduced by reversing base current and allowing base current peaking during turn off since increasing I B 2 decreases storage time. A typical waveform for base current is shown.
IB1 IBS 0 IB
IB2
Some common types of optimizing base drive of transistor are Turnon Control. Turnoff Control.
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Fig. 2.11: Base current peaking during turnon
When input voltage is turned on, the base current is limited by resistor R1 and therefore initial value of base current is I BO Capacitor voltage
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V1 VBE , I BF R1 V1 VBE . R1 R2 VC V1 R2 R1 R2 .
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t
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Therefore
R1 R2 C1 R1 R2
Once input voltage v B becomes zero, the baseemitter junction is reverse biased and C1 discharges through R2. The discharging time constant is
2
R2 C1 . To allow sufficient 5
1
charging and discharging time, the width of base pulse must be t1 pulse must be t 2
5 2 .The maximum switching frequency is f s
1 T
t1 t2
If the input voltage is changed to during turnoff the capacitor voltage VC is added to
V2 as reverse voltage across the transistor. There will be base current peaking during turn off.
As the capacitor C1 discharges, the reverse voltage will be reduced to a steady state value, V2
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Proportional Base Control
CITSTUDENTS.IN
This type of control has advantages over the constant drive circuit. If the collector current changes due to change in load demand, the base drive current is changed in proportion to collector current.
When switch S1 is turned on a pulse current of short duration would flow through the base of transistor Q1 and Q1 is turned on into saturation. Once the collector current starts to flow, a corresponding base current is induced due to transformer action. The transistor would latch IC on itself and S1 can be turned off. The turns ratio is N 2 . For proper operation N1 IB of the circuit, the magnetizing current which must be much smaller than the collector current should be as small as possible. The switch S1 can be implemented by a small signal transistor
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Fig: 2.12. Base current peaking during turnon and turnoff
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. If different turnon and turnoff characteristics are required, a turnoff circuit using C2 , R3 & R4 may be added. The diode D1 isolates the forward base drive circuit from the
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TurnOff Control
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and additional arrangement is necessary to discharge capacitor C1 and reset the transformer core during turnoff of the power transistor.
Antisaturation Control
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IB
CITSTUDENTS.IN
If a transistor is driven hard, the storage time which is proportional to the base current increases and the switching speed is reduced. The storage time can be reduced by operating the transistor in soft saturation rather than hard saturation. This can be accomplished by clamping CE voltage to a predetermined level and the collector current is given by VCC VCM IC . RC Where VCM is the clamping voltage and VCM VCE sat .
The base current which is adequate to drive the transistor hard, can be found from VB VD1 VBE IB . I1 and the corresponding collector current is I C I L RB Writing the loop equation for the input base circuit, Vab VD1 VBE
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Similarly Therefore
This means that the CE voltage is raised above saturation level and there are no excess carriers in the base and storage time is reduced. The load current is I L with clamping is I C IB VCC VCE RC I1 IC IL VCC VBE VD1 VD2 RC 1 I1 I L and the collector current
diodes in place of D1 . The load resistance RC should satisfy the condition VCC VBE V D1 V D2 .
The clamping action thus results a reduced collector current and almost elimination of the storage time. At the same time, a fast turnon is accomplished. However, due to increased VCE , the onstate power dissipation in the transistor is increased, whereas the switching power loss is decreased.
ADVANTAGES OF BJTS
BJTs have high switching frequencies since their turnon and turnoff time is low. The turnon losses of a BJT are small.
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DEMERITS OF BJT
CITSTUDENTS.IN
BJT has controlled turnon and turnoff characteristics since base drive control is possible. BJT does not require commutation circuits.
Drive circuit of BJT is complex. It has the problem of charge storage which sets a limit on switching frequencies.
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cut in SiO2 to make contact with ntype blocks. The gate is also connected to a metal contact extremely high input impedance of the order of 1010 to 1015
TU
surface but remains insulated from the nchannel by the SiO2 layer. SiO2 layer results in an for this area.
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Fig.2.16: Structure of nchannel depletion type MOSFET
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It consists of a highly doped ptype substrate into which two blocks of heavily doped ntype material are diffused to form a source and drain. A nchannel is formed by diffusing between source and drain. A thin layer of SiO2 is grown over the entire surface and holes are
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type substrate and attracts hole from ptype substrate. Therefore recombination occurs and will reduce the number of free electrons in the nchannel for conduction. Therefore with increased negative gate voltage I D reduces. For positive values, Vgs , additional electrons from psubstrate will flow into the channel and establish new carriers which will result in an increase in drain current wit h positive gate voltage.
Drain Characteristics
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Transfer Characteristics
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2.5.2 Enhancement Type MOSFET Here current control in an nchannel device is now affected by positive gate to source voltage rather than the range of negative voltages of JFETs and depletion type MOSFET.
Basic Construction A slab of ptype material is formed and two nregions are formed in the substrate. The source and drain terminals are connected through metallic contacts to ndoped regions, but the absence of a channel between the doped nregions. The SiO2 layer is still present to isolate the gate metallic platform from the region between drain and source, but now it is separated by a section of ptype material.
Operation If VGS
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CITSTUDENTS.IN
0V and a voltage is applied between the drain and source, the absence of a
nchannel will result in a current of effectively zero amperes. With VDS set at some positive
voltage and VGS set at 0V, there are two reverse biased pn junction between the ndoped regions and p substrate to oppose any significant flow between drain and source. If both VDS and VGS have been set at some positive voltage, then positive potential at the gate will pressure the holes in the psubstrate along the edge of SiO2 layer to leave the area and enter deeper region of psubstrate. However the electrons in the psubstrate will be attracted to the positive gate and accumulate in the region near the surface of the SiO2 layer. The negative carriers will not be absorbed due to insulating SiO2 layer, forming an inversio n layer which results in current flow from drain to source.
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The level of VGS that result in significant increase in drain current is called threshold voltage
VT . As VGS increases the density of free carriers will increase resulting in increased level o f
drain current. If VGS is constant VDS is increased; the drain current will eventually reach a saturation level as occurred in JFET.
Drain Characteristics
Transfer Characteristics
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Power MOSFETS
Power MOSFETs are generally of enhancement type only. This MOSFET is turned ON when a voltage is applied between gate and source. The MOSFET can be turned OFF by removing the gate to source voltage. Thus gate has control over the conduction of the MOSFET. The turnon and turnoff times of MOSFET s are very small. Hence they operate
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at very high frequencies; hence MOSFET s are preferred in applications such as choppers and inverters. Since only voltage drive (gatesource) is required, the drive circuits of MOSFET are very simple. The paralleling of MOSFETs is easier due to their positive temperature coefficient. But MOSFTSs have high onstate resistance hence for higher currents; losses in the MOSFETs are substantially increased. Hence MOSFETs are used for low power applications.
Source
Gate
Source Metal
 +  +  +  +  +  + +
n



p VDD n
+
Current path
Construction
CI TS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
n layer. Further n regions are diffused in the p regions as shown. SiO2 layer is added,
A power MOSFET actually consists of a parallel connection of thousands of basic MOSFET cells on the same single chip of silicon.
p junctions are reverse biased and
no current flows from drain to source. When gate terminal is made positive with respect to source, an electric field is established and electrons from n channel in the p regions. Therefore a current from drain to source is established. Power MOSFET conduction is due to majority carriers therefore time delays caused by removal of recombination of minority carriers is removed. Because of the drift region the ON state drop of MOSFET increases. The thickness of the drift region determines the breakdown voltage of MOSFET. As seen a parasitic BJT is formed, since emitter base is shorted to source it does not conduct.
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Power MOSFETs have additional features to handle larger powers. On the n substrate high resistivity n layer is epitaxially grown. The thickness of n layer determines the voltage blocking capability of the device. On the other side of n substrate, a metal layer is deposited to form the drain terminal. Now p regions are diffused in the epitaxially grown
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n substrate
+
Drain
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n
+
J3
Metal layer
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2.6 Switching Characteristics The switching model of MOSFET s is as shown in the figure 6(a). The various inter electrode capacitance of the MOSFET which cannot be ignored during high frequency switching are represented by Cgs , Cgd & Cds . The switching waveforms are as shown in figure 7. The turn on time t d is the time that is required to charge the input capacitance to the threshold voltage level. The rise time tr is the gate charging time from this threshold level to the full gate voltage Vgsp . The turn off delay time tdoff is the time required for the input capacitance to discharge from overdriving the voltage V1 to the pinch off region. The fall time is the time required for the input capacitance to discharge from pinch off region to the threshold voltage. Thus basically switching ON and OFF depend on the charging time of the input gate capacitance.
CI TS
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Fig.2.18: Switching model of MOSFET Fig2.19: Switching waveforms and times of Power MOSFET Page 44
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Gate Drive The turnon time can be reduced by connecting a RC circuit as shown to charge the capacitance faster. When the gate voltage is turned on, the initial charging current of the capacitance is IG The steady state value of gate voltage is VGS RGVG . RS R1 RG VG . RS
Gate Signal
NT
RG
+VCC
RD
C1 R1
+ VG
RS
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C NPN
+
DE
M1 PNP
Vin
VD
VDD
I D RD , VS
VD
VDS b on g , VS
The above circuit is used in order to achieve switching speeds of the order of 100nsec or less. The above circuit as low output impedance and the ability to sink and source large currents. A totem poll arrangement that is capable of sourcing and sinking a large current is
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ID RD VDD + ID VDD VD VDS(on) + VS
VD
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VDD
I D RD .
Power MOSFETS have lower switching losses but its onresistance and conduction losses are more. A BJT has higher switching loss bit lower conduction loss. So at high frequency applications power MOSFET is the obvious choice. But at lower operating frequencies BJT is superior. MOSFET has positive temperature coefficient for resistance. This makes parallel operation of MOSFET s easy. If a MOSFET shares increased current initially, it heats up faster, its resistance increases and this increased resistance causes this current to shift to other devices in parallel. A BJT is a negative temperature coefficient, so current shaving resistors are necessary during parallel operation of BJT s. In MOSFET secondary breakdown does not occur because it have positive temperature coefficient. But BJT exhibits negative temperature coefficient which results in secondary breakdown. Power MOSFETs in higher voltage ratings have more conduction losses.
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Power MOSFETs have lower ratings compared to BJTs . Power MOSFETs 500V to 140A, BJT 1200V, 800A.
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If ID increases VDS reduces. Therefore the positive terminal of opamp which is tied to the source terminal of the MOSFET feels this reduction and this reduction is transmitted to gate through the capacitor C and the gate voltage reduces and the drain current is regulated by this reduction.
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achieved by the PNP and NPN transistors. These transistors act as emitter followers and offer a low output impedance. These transistors operate in the linear region therefore minimize the delay time. The gate signal of the power MOSFET may be generated by an opamp. Let Vin be a negative voltage and initially assume that the MOSFET is off therefore the noninverting terminal of the opamp is at zero potential. The opamp output is high therefore the NPN transistor is on and is a source of a large current since it is an emitter follower. This enables the gatesource capacitance Cgs to quickly charge upto the gate voltage required to turnon the power MOSFET. Thus high speeds are achieved. When Vin becomes positive the output of opamp becomes negative the PNP transistor turnson and the gatesource capacitor quickly discharges through the PNP transistor. Thus the PNP transistor acts as a current sink and the MOSFET is quickly turnedoff. The capacitor C helps in regulating the rate of rise and fall o f the gate voltage thereby controlling the rate of rise and fall of MOSFET drain current. This can be explained as follows
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2.7 IGBT
The metal oxide semiconductor insulated gate transistor or IGBT combines the advantages of BJTs and MOSFETs. Therefore an IGBT has high input impedance like a MOSFET and lowon state power loss as in a BJT. Further IGBT is free from second breakdown problem present in BJT.
Emitter Load
NT
G Gate
      +++++++
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n
+


TU
VCC p
+
substrate
CI TS
Current path
Collector
It is constructed virtually in the same manner as a power MOSFET. However, the substrate is now a p layer called the collector. When gate is positive with respect to positive with respect to emitter and with gate emitter voltage greater than VGSTH , an n channel is formed as in case of power MOSFET. This n channel short circuits the n region with n emitter regions. An electron movement in the n channel in turn causes substantial hole injection from p substrate layer into the epitaxially n layer. Eventually a forward current is established. The three layers p , n and p constitute a pnp transistor with p as emitter, n as base and
p as collector. Also n , p and n layers constitute a npn transistor. The MOSFET is formed
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Emitter Metal Silicon dioxide n
+
J3
p n p

J2 J1
Metal layer
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with input gate, emitter as source and n region as drain. Equivalent circuit is as shown below.
E G
G D
npn pnp
+
J3 p
p substrate C
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npn is formed as shown. When gate is applied VGS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
Also p serves as collector for pnp device and also as base for npn transistor. The two pnp and
Therefore T1 starts conducting. The collector of T1 is base of T2 . Therefore regenerative action takes place and large number of carriers are injected into the n drift region. This reduces the ONstate loss of IGBT just like BJT. When gate drive is removed IGBT is turnoff. When gate is removed the induced channel will vanish and internal MOSFET will turnoff. Therefore T1 will turnoff it T2 turns off.
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VGSth MOSFET turns on. This gives the base drive to T1 .
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J1
J2
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Structure of IGBT is such that R1 is very small. If R1 small T1 will not conduct therefore IGBTs are different from MOSFETs since resistance of drift region reduces when gate drive is applied due to p injecting region. Therefore ON state IGBT is very small.
Same as in BJT except control is by VGE . Therefore IGBT is a voltage controlled device. Transfer Characteristics ( I C versus VGE )
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VGET , IGBT is in offstate.
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Applications Widely used in medium power applications such as DC and AC motor drives, UPS systems, Power supplies for solenoids, relays and contractors. Though IGBTs are more expensive than BJTs, they have lower gate drive requirements, lower switching losses. The ratings up to 1200V, 500A. 2.8 di dt and dv dt Limitations Transistors require certain turnon and turnoff times. Neglecting the delay time t d and the storage time t s , the typical voltage and current waveforms of a BJT switch is shown below.
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di dt
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During turn off, the collector emitter voltage must rise in relation to the fall of the collector current, and is
The conditions di dt and dv dt in equation (1) and (2) are set by the transistor switching characteristics and must be satisfied during turn on and turn off. Protection circuits are normally required to keep the operating di dt and dv dt within the allowable limits of transistor. A typical switch with di dt and dv dt protection is shown in figure (a), with operating wave forms in figure (b). The RC network across the transistor is known as the
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IL tr I cs ...(1) tr dv dt Vs tf Vcc ...(2) tf
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snubber circuit or snubber and limits the dv dt . The inductor LS , which limits the di dt , is sometimes called series snubber.
Let us assume that under steady state conditions the load current I L is freewheeling through diode Dm , which has negligible reverse reco`very time. When transistor Q1 is turned on, the collector current rises and current of diode Dm falls, because Dm will behave as short circuited. The equivalent circuit during turn on is shown in figure below
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The turn on di dt is
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di dt Vs Ls ...(3) Equating equations (1) and (3) gives the value of Ls L s Vs tr IL ...(4)
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During turn off, the capacitor Cs will charge by the load current and the equivalent circuit is shown in figure. The capacitor voltage will appear across the transistor and the dv dt is dv dt IL Cs ...(5)
Equating equation (2) to equation (5) gives the required value of capacitance, Cs I Lt f Vs ...(6)
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Rs
The discharge current is shown in figure below. When choosing the value of Rs , the discharge time, Rs Cs s should also be considered. A discharge time of one third the switching period, Ts is usually adequate. 3Rs Cs Ts 1 fs
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Necessity Illustration
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Driver circuits are operated at very low power levels. Normally the gating circuit are digital in nature which means the signal levels are 3 to 12 volts. The gate and base drives are connected to power devices which operate at high power levels.
The logic circuit generates four pulses; these pulses have common terminals. The terminal g , which has a voltage of VG , with respect to terminal C , cannot be connected directly to gate terminal G , therefore Vg 1 should be applied between G1 & S1 of transistor Q1 . Therefore there is need for isolation between logic circuit and power transistor.
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1 3 f s Cs
The capacitor Cs has to discharge through the transistor and the increase the peak current rating of the transistor. The discharge through the transistor can be avoided by placing resistor Rs across Cs instead of placing Rs across Ds .
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Rs
Ls Cs
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Once the capacitor is charge to Vs , the freewheeling diode will turn on. Due to the energy stored in Ls , there will be damped resonant circuit as shown in figure . The RLC circuit is normally made critically damped to avoid oscillations. For unity critical damping, R C 1 , and equation yields L 2 0
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J
Vs
Ml
=+
G2
Gl
gl Logic generator
st
sa M,
0
M4f
G 54
G4 +
.
G3
..............
c
(b) Logic generator
"' vg1,vg2
0
vg3,vg4
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Gate pulses
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"'. ............
0
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"
.,...
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There are two ways of floating or isolating control or gate signal with respect to ground. Pulse transformers Optocouplers Pulse Transformers Pulse transformers have one primary winding and can have one or more secondary windings. Multiple secondary windings allow simultaneous gating signals to series and parallel connected transistors. The transformer should have a very small leakage inductance and the rise time of output should be very small. The transformer would saturate at low switching frequency and output would be distorted.
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IC Q1 VCC
ID R3 ID D G RG M1 S RD 1 Q3 VDD
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0
Optocoupler
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V1 V2
+VCC R2 Q1 0
RB
RC
+ 
Optocouplers
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+ 1 Vg1 RB R
Optocouplers combine infrared LED and a silicon photo transistor. The input signal is applied to ILED and the output is taken from the photo transistor. The rise and fall times of photo transistor are very small with typical values of turn on time = 2.5 s and turn off of
300ns. This limits the high frequency applications. The photo transistor could be a darlington pair. The phototransistor requires separate power supply and adds to complexity and cost and weight of driver circuits.
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+ 
1 R1
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Recommended questions: 1. Explain the control characteristics of the following semiconductor devices 1) Power BJT 3) MOSFET 4) IGBT 2. Give the comparison between MOSFET and BJT. 3. Draw the circuit symbol of IGBT. Compare its advantages over MOSFET 4. Draw the switching model and switching waveforms of a power MOSFET, define the various switching applications. 5. With a circuit diagram and waveforms of base circuit voltage, base current and collector current under saturation for a power transistor, show the delay that occurs during the turnON and turn OFF. 6. Explain the terms Overdrive factor (ODF) and forced beta for a power transistor for switching applications? 7. Explain the switching characteristics of BJT. 8. Explain the steady and switching characteristics of MOSFET.
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UNIT3
THYRISTORS
A thyristor is the most important type of power semiconductor devices. They are extensively used in power electronic circuits. They are operated as bistable switches fro m nonconducting to conducting state. A thyristor is a four layer, semiconductor of pnpn structure with three pn junctions. It has three terminals, the anode, cathode and the gate.
Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR). TRIAC DIAC Gate Turn Off Thyristor (GTO)
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The SCR is a four layer three terminal device with junctions J1 , J 2 , J 3 as shown. The construction of SCR shows that the gate terminal is kept nearer the cathode. The approximate thickness of each layer and doping densities are as indicated in the figure. In terms of their lateral dimensions Thyristors are the largest semiconductor devices made. A complete silicon wafer as large as ten centimeter in diameter may be used to make a single high power thyristor.
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The word thyristor is coined from thyratron and transistor. It was invented in the year 1957 at Bell Labs. The Different types of Thyristors are
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Gate
Cathode
n J3 J2
10 cm
19
3 17 3
n 10 cm
13
10 cm
19
3
10 m 30100 m
n J1 p p
10 5 x 10 cm 10 cm
19 17 3 3
14
3
501000 m 3050 m
10 cm
Anode
Qualitative Analysis
When the anode is made positive with respect the cathode junctions J1 & J 3 are forward biased and junction J 2 is reverse biased. With anode to cathode voltage VAK being small, only leakage current flows through the device. The SCR is then said to be in the forward blocking state. If VAK is further increased to a large value, the reverse biased junction The voltage at which this phenomenon occurs is called the forward breakdown voltage VBO . Since the other junctions J1 & J 3 are already forward biased, there will be free movement of carriers across all three junctions resulting in a large forward anode current. Once the SCR is switched on, the voltage drop across it is very small, typically 1 to 1.5V. The anode curr ent is limited only by the external impedance present in the circuit.
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Fig.3.2: Simplified model of a thyristor
Although an SCR can be turned on by increasing the forward voltage beyond VBO , in practice, the forward voltage is maintained well below VBO and the SCR is turned on by applying a positive voltage between gate and cathode. With the application of positive gate voltage, the
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J 2 will breakdown due to avalanche effect resulting in a large current through the device.
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leakage current through the junction J 2 is increased. This is because the resulting gate current consists mainly of electron flow from cathode to gate. Since the bottom end layer is heavily doped as compared to the player, due to the applied voltage, some of these electrons reach junction J 2 and add to the minority carrier concentration in the player. This raises the reverse leakage current and results in breakdown of junction J 2 even though the applied forward voltage is less than the breakdown voltage VBO . With increase in gate current breakdown occurs earlier.
VI Characteristics RL
VAA VGG
Fig.3.3 Circuit
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Fig 3.4: VI Characteristics
A typical VI characteristics of a thyristor is shown above. In the reverse direction the thyristor appears similar to a reverse biased diode which conducts very little current until avalanche breakdown occurs. In the forward direction the thyristor has two stable states or
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A K
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modes of operation that are connected together by an unstable mode that appears as a negative resistance on the VI characteristics. The low current high voltage region is the forward blocking state or the off state and the low voltage high current mode is the on state. For the forward blocking state the quantity of interest is the forward blocking voltage VBO which is defined for zero gate current. If a positive gate current is applied to a thyristor then the transition or break over to the on state will occur at smaller values of anode to cathode voltage as shown. Although not indicated the gate current does not have to be a dc current but instead can be a pulse of current having some minimum time duration. This ability to switch the thyristor by means of a current pulse is the reason for wide spread applications of the device.
CI TS
Holding Current I H Latching Current I L than holding current.
CITSTUDENTS.IN
After an SCR has been switched to the on state a certain minimum value of anode current is required to maintain the thyristor in this low impedance state. If the anode current is reduced below the critical holding current value, the thyristor cannot mainta in the current through it and reverts to its off state usually I is associated with turn off the device.
After the SCR has switched on, there is a minimum current required to sustain conduction. This current is called the latching current. I L associated with turn on and is usually greater
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However once the thyristor is in the on state the gate cannot be used to turn the device off. The only way to turn off the thyristor is for the external circuit to force the current through the device to be less than the holding current for a minimum specified time period.
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CI TS
3.2.1 Pulsed Gate Drive
CITSTUDENTS.IN
The characteristic of Fig. 3.6 also shows the curve for constant gate power (P g). Thus for reliable turnon, the (Vg, Ig) point must lie in the shaded area in Fig. 3.6. It turnson thyristor successfully. Note that any spurious voltage/current spikes at the gate must be less than V g (min) and I g(min) to avoid false triggering of the thyristor. The gate characteristics shown in Fig. 3.6 are for DC values of gate voltage and current.
Instead of applying a continuous (DC) gate drive, the pulsed gate drive is used. The gate voltage and current are applied in the form of high frequency pulses. The frequency of these pulses is upto l0 kHz. Hence the width of the pulse can be upto 100 micro seconds. The pulsed gate drive is applied for following reasons (advantages):
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The gate voltage is plotted with respect to gate current in the above characteristics. Ig(max) is the maximum gate current that can flow through the thyristor without damaging it Similarly Vg(max) is the maximum gate voltage to be applied. Similarly Vg ( min ) and Ig(min) are minimum gate voltage and current, below which thyristor will not be turnedon. Hence to turnon the thyristor successfully the gate current and voltage should be Ig(min) < Ig < Ig(max) Vg ( min) < Vg < Vg ( max)
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i) The thyristor has small turnon time i.e. upto 5 microseconds. Hence a pulse of gate drive is sufficient to turnon the thyristor. ii) Once thyristor turnson, there is no need of gate drive. Hence gate drive in the form of pulses is suitable.
iii) The DC gate voltage and current increases losses in the thyristor. Pulsed gate
thyristor and trigger circuit. 3.2.2 Requirement of Gate Drive The gate drive has to satisfy the following requirements: i) The maximum gate power should not be exceeded by gate drive, otherwise thyristor will be damaged. ii) The gate voltage and current should be within the limits specified by gate characteristics (Fig. 3.6) for successful turnon.
iv) The width of the pulse should be sufficient to turnon the thyristor successfully.
vi) The gate drive should not exceed permissible negative gate to cathode voltage, otherwise the thyristor is damaged. vii) The gate drive circuit should not sink current out of the thyristor after turnon.
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Two Transistor Model
CITSTUDENTS.IN
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v) The gate drive should be isolated electrically from the thyristor. This avoids any damage to the trigger circuit if in case thyristor is damaged.
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iii) The gate drive should be preferably pulsed. In case of pulsed drive the following relation must be satisfied: (Maximum gate power x pulse width) x (Pulse frequency) Allowable average gate power
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The SCR can be considered to be made up of two transistors as shown in above figure. Considering PNP transistor of the equivalent circuit,
IE1
I A , IC I B1
I C1 , IA 1
1
, I CBO I CBO1
I CBO1 , I B
I B1
IC I C2 IC 2
IC2 , I B
2 k 2
I B2 , I E2 I CBO2
IK
IA
IA
CI TS
Case 1: When I g 0,
IA 1
The gain 1 of transistor T1 varies with its emitter current I E I A . Similarly varies wit h I E I A I g I K . In this case, with I g 0 , 2 varies only with I A . Initially when the applied forward voltage is small,
1 2
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2 g
IC 2
I B1
I CBO1
1
I CBO1
1
DE
I CBO 2
2
IA IG
I CBO2
I CBO2
2
1.
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IG 2
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1
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If however the reverse leakage current is increased by increasing the applied forward voltage, the gains of the transistor increase, resulting in 1 1. 2 From the equation, it is seen that when
1 2
This explains the increase in anode current for the break over voltage VB 0 .
Case 2: With gate current I g applied. When sufficient gate drive is applied, we see that I B2 a current through transistor T2 , these increases I C2 IC1
2
2 g 1
1 B1
2 B2
2 g
base drive of T2 is increased which in turn increases the base drive of T1 , therefore regenerative feedback or positive feedback is established between the two transistors. This causes 1 to tend to unity therefore the anode current begins to grow towards a large 2
CI TS
When the SCR is turned on with the application of the gate signal, the SCR does not conduct fully at the instant of application of the gate trigger pulse. In the beginning, there is no appreciable increase in the SCR anode current, which is because, only a small portion of the
CITSTUDENTS.IN
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value. This regeneration continues even if I g is removed this characteristic of SCR makes it suitable for pulse triggering; SCR is also called a Lathing Device.
S. IN
I ,
current
through
T,
is
established.
Therefore,
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silicon pellet in the immediate vicinity of the gate electrode starts conducting. The duration between 90% of the peak gate trigger pulse and the instant the forward voltage has fallen to 90% of its initial value is called the gate controlled / trigger delay time t gd . It is also defined as the duration between 90% of the gate trigger pulse and the instant at which the anode current rises to 10% of its peak value. t gd is usually in the range of 1 sec. Once t gd has lapsed, the current starts rising towards the peak value. The period during which the anode current rises from 10% to 90% of its peak value is called the rise time. It is also defined as the time for which the anode voltage falls from 90% to 10% of its peak value. The summation of t gd and tr gives the turn on time ton of the thyristor. Thyristor Turn OFF Characteristics
V AK
tC tq
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Recovery t1 t2 t3 trr tq tc
IA
TU CI TS
tq=device tc=circuit
Commutation
off time
tgr
off time
When an SCR is turned on by the gate signal, the gate loses control over the device and the device can be brought back to the blocking state only by reducing the forward current to a level below that of the holding current. In AC circuits, however, the current goes through a natural zero value and the device will automatically switch off. But in DC circuits, where no neutral zero value of current exists, the forward current is reduced by applying a reverse voltage across anode and cathode and thus forcing the current through the SCR to zero.
CITSTUDENTS.IN
S. IN
t di dt Recombination t4 t5 t
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As in the case of diodes, the SCR has a reverse recovery time trr which is due to charge storage in the junctions of the SCR. These excess carriers take some time for recombination resulting in the gate recovery time or reverse recombination time t gr . Thus, the turnoff time tq is the sum of the durations for which reverse recovery current flows after the application of reverse voltage and the time required for the recombination of all excess carriers present. At the end of the turn off time, a depletion layer develops across J 2 and the junction can now withstand the forward voltage. The turn off time is dependent on the anode current, the magnitude of reverse Vg applied ad the magnitude and rate of application of the forward voltage. The turn off time for converte grade SCRs is 50 to 100 sec and that for inverter grade SCRs is 10 to 20 sec. To ensure that SCR has successfully turned off , it is required that the circuit off time tc be greater than SCR turn off time tq . Thyristor Turn ON
Light: If light be allowed to fall on the junctions of a thyristor, charge carrier concentration would increase which may turn on the SCR.
CI TS
avoided. ij2 dq2 dt
CITSTUDENTS.IN
High Voltage Triggering: This is triggering without application of gate voltage with only application of a large voltage across the anodecathode such that it is greater than the forward breakdown voltage VBO . This type of turn on is destructive and should be Gate Triggering: Gate triggering is the method practically employed to turnon the thyristor. Gate triggering will be discussed in detail later.
dv Triggering: Under transient conditions, the capacitances of the pn junction will dt influence the characteristics of a thyristor. If the thyristor is in the blocking state, a rapidly rising voltage applied across the device would cause a high current to flo w through the device resulting in turnon. If i j 2 is the current throught the junction j2 and C j2 is the junction capacitance and V j2 is the voltage across j2 , then d C j Vj 2 2 dt C j2 dVJ 2 dt V j2 dC j2 dt
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LASCR: Light activated SCRs are turned on by allowing light to strike the silicon wafer.
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Thermal Turn on: If the temperature of the thyristor is high, there will be an increase in charge carriers which would increase the leakage current. This would cause an increase in 1 & 2 and the thyristor may turn on. This type of turn on many cause
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dv dt
charging current may damage the thyristor and the device must be protected against high The manufacturers specify the allowable dv . dt
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W R S
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Second Subscript working M Third Subscript Peak Value Repetitive Surge or nonrepetitive
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Forward Reverse R VOLTAGE RATINGS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
VDWM : This specifies the peak off state working forward voltage of the device. This specifies
the maximum forward off state voltage which the thyristor can withstand during its working.
VDRM : This is the peak repetitive off state forward voltage that the thyristor can block
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VDSM : This is the peak off state surge / nonrepetitive forward voltage that will occur across
the thyristor.
VRWM : This the peak reverse working voltage that the thyristor can withstand in the reverse
direction.
VRRM : It is the peak repetitive reverse voltage. It is defined as the maximum permissible
instantaneous value of repetitive applied reverse voltage that the thyristor can block in reverse direction.
VRSM : Peak surge reverse voltage. This rating occurs for transient conditions for a specified
time duration.
temperature.
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Current Rating
CITSTUDENTS.IN
ITaverage : This is the on state average current which is specified at a particular temperature.
Latching current, I L : After the SCR has switched on, there is a minimum current required to sustain conduction. This current is called the latching current. I L associated with turn on and is usually greater than holding current
TU
dv rating: This is the maximum rate of rise of anode voltage that the SCR has to withstand dt dv triggering). and which will not trigger the device without gate signal (refer dt
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VTM : Peak on state voltage. This is specified for a particular anode current and junction
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Holding current, I H : After an SCR has been switched to the on state a certain minimum value of anode current is required to maintain the thyristor in this low impedance state. If the anode current is reduced below the critical holding current value, the thyristor cannot maintain the current through it and reverts to its off state usually I is associated with turn off the device.
dt
Gate Specifications
I GT : This is the required gate current to trigger the SCR. This is usually specified as a DC
value.
VGT : This is the specified value of gate voltage to turn on the SCR (dc value).
CI TS
will keep the SCR in off state. Gate Triggering Methods Types
CITSTUDENTS.IN
VGD : This is the value of gate voltage, to switch from off state to on state. A value below this
QRR : Amount of charge carriers which have to be recovered during the turn off process.
Rthjc : Thermal resistance between junction and outer case of the device.
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permanently. The
di
rating is specified in A
sec .
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di rating: This is a non repetitive rate of rise of onstate current. This maximum value of rate dt of rise of current is which the thyristor can withstand without destruction. When thyristor is switched on, conduction starts at a place near the gate. This small area of conduction spreads di is large compared to the spreading velocity of rapidly and if rate of rise of anode current dt carriers, local hotspots will be formed near the gate due to high current density. This causes the junction temperature to rise above the safe limit and the SCR may be damaged
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RC triggering. UJT triggering. 3.5 Resistance Triggering A simple resistance triggering circuit is as shown. The resistor R1 limits the current through the gate of the SCR. R2 is the variable resistance added to the circuit to achieve control over the triggering angle of SCR. Resistor R is a stabilizing resistor. The diode D is required to ensure that no negative voltage reaches the gate of the SCR.
vO
LOAD
R1
R2
VS
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VS 4 t
DE
Vmsin t 3 2 3 2 4 t
NT
D R Vg
VS 3 2 4 t gp =V gt Vg Vgp >Vgt t Vo t io 270
0
vS=Vmsin t
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Vg Vgt t
Vg
Vo
Vgp
Vgp
Vgt
Vo
io
io t
VT
t VT
3 t 90 (a)
0
4 t t <90 (c)
0
2 =90 (b)
0
(b)
= 900
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VT
t t t VT
(c)
< 900
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Design With R2
0 , we need to ensure that
Vm R1
Vm . I gm
0 , we need to ensure that the voltage drop across resistor R does not exceed
Vgm , the maximum gate voltage Vgm Vm R R1 R Vgm R1 Vgm R Vm R Vgm R1 R Vm Vgm R Operation Case 1: Vgp Vgt Vgm R1 Vm Vgm
through the gate is very small. SCR will not turn on and therefore the load voltage is zero and vscr is equal to Vs . This is because we are using only a resistive network. Therefore, output will be in phase with input. Case 2: Vgp Vgt , R2
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optimum value. small value. , VS Vgt , Vm
Vgt Vgp
1
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Case 3: Vgp Vgt , R2
900 (since Vgp reaches its peak at 900 only). The waveforms shows that the load voltage is
zero till 900 and the voltage across the SCR is the same as input voltage till it is triggered at 900 .
The triggering value Vgt is reached much earlier than 900 . Hence the SCR turns on earlier than VS reaches its peak value. The waveforms as shown with respect to Vs At Therefore t Vgp Vgt Vgp sin
Vm sin t .
sin
But
Vgp
Vm R R1 R2 R
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Vgp , the peak gate voltage is less then Vgt since R2 is very large. Therefore, current I flowing
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Therefore
sin
Vgt R1
R2
Vm R
3.6 Resistance Capacitance Triggering A. RC Half Wave Capacitor C in the circuit is connected to shift the phase of the gate voltage. D1 is used to prevent negative voltage from reaching the gate cathode of SCR. In the negative half cycle, the capacitor charges to the peak negative voltage of the supply Vm through the diode D2 . The capacitor maintains this voltage across it, till the supply voltage crosses zero. As the supply becomes positive, the capacitor charges through resistor R from initial voltage of Vm , to a positive value.
vO
LOAD
DE
R D2 VC C D1
vS=Vmsin t
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vs  /2 0
TU
Vmsin t V gt 0 a vc t a vc vo t vT Vm V m (a) t
NT
+ VT Vm 0 Vm (b) (2 + )
When the capacitor voltage is equal to the gate trigger voltage of the SCR, the SCR is fired and the capacitor voltage is clamped to a small positive value.
CITSTUDENTS.IN
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t t t
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Case 1: R
Large.
When the resistor R is large, the time taken for the capacitance to charge from Vm to Vgt is large, resulting in larger firing angle and lower load voltage. Case 2: R Small
When R is set to a smaller value, the capacitor charges at a faster rate towards Vgt resulting in early triggering of SCR and hence VL is more. When the SCR triggers, the voltage drop across it falls to 1 1.5V. This in turn lowers, the voltage across R & C. Low voltage across the SCR during conduction period keeps the capacitor discharge during the positive half cycle.
Vgt Vd 1 . Considering the source voltage and the gate circuit, we can I gt R VC that is vS I g R Vgt Vd 1 . Therefore
. The RC time constant for zero output voltage that is maximum firing angle T . 2
B. RC Full Wave
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A simple circuit giving full wave output is shown in figure below. In this circuit the initial voltage from which the capacitor C charges is essentially zero. The capacitor C is reset to this voltage by the clamping action of the thyristor gate. For this reason the charging time constant RC must be chosen longer than for half wave RC circuit in order to delay the vs Vgt 50T triggering. The RC value is empirically chosen as RC . Also R . 2 I gt
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D1
DE
vO
+ D3 vd
LOAD
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R C D2 
vS =Vm sin t
D4
CITSTUDENTS.IN
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+ VT 
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vs
Vmsin
vs
Vmsin
t vd vc vd vd vc v gt vc t vgt
vo
vo
t t
vT
vT
(a)
Fig 3.10: RC fullwave trigger circuit Fig: Waveforms for RC fullwave trigger circuit
1. Design a suitable RC triggering circuit for a thyristorised network operation on a 220V, 50Hz supply. The specifications of SCR are Vgt min 5V , I gt max 30mA .
vs Vgt VD Ig
Therefore
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B2
ptype E
ntype
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RC 0.013 R 7.143k C 1.8199 F
RB2 A RB1 E V BB 
Fig.3.11: (a) Basic structure of UJT (b) Symbolic representation (c) Equivalent circuit
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7143.3
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(b)
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UJT is an ntype silicon bar in which ptype emitter is embedded. It has three terminals base1, base2 and emitter E. Between B1 and B2 UJT behaves like ordinary resistor and the internal resistances are given as RB 1 and RB 2 with emitter open RB B
RB 1 RB 2 . Usually the
pregion is heavily doped and nregion is lightly doped. The equivalent circuit of UJT is as shown. When VBB is applied across B1 and B2 , we find that potential at A is
VAB1 VBB RB1 RB1 RB 2 VBB RB1 RB1 RB 2
is intrinsic stand off ratio of UJT and ranges between 0.51 and 0.82. Resistor RB 2 is
Operation
When voltage VBB is applied between emitter E with base 1 B1 as reference and the emitter voltage VE is less than VD
VP VBE
VP which is the value of voltage required to turn on the UJT. Once VE is equal to VD , then UJT is forward biased and it conducts.
The peak point is the point at which peak current I P flows and the peak voltage VP is across
The negative resistance region of UJT is between peak point and valley point. After valley point, the device acts as a normal diode since the base region is saturated and RB 1 does not
CI TS
decrease again.
CITSTUDENTS.IN
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the UJT. After peak point the current increases but voltage across device drops, this is due to the fact that emitter starts to inject holes into the lower doped nregion. Since pregion is heavily doped compared to nregion. Also holes have a longer life time, therefore number of carriers in the base region increases rapidly. Thus potential at A falls but current I E
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VBB
between 5 to 10K .
is designated as
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Valley Point
0 I p
Iv
DE
Ve Vp VV Vo 1 T 1=RC T
UJT is highly efficient switch. The switching times is in the range of nanoseconds. Since UJT exhibits negative resistance characteristics it can be used as relaxation oscillator. The circuit diagram is as shown with R1 and R2 being small compared to RB 1 and RB 2 of UJT.
Capacitor charging Capacitor V BB+V discharging T 2=R 1C
R E
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VBB R2
B2
CI TS
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VP Vv (b)
Ve
B1
R1 v o
(a)
Fig.3.13: UJT oscillator (a) Connection diagram and (b) Voltage waveforms
Operation When VBB is applied, capacitor C begins to charge through resistor R exponentially towards VBB . During this charging emitter circuit of UJT is an open circuit. The rate of
CITSTUDENTS.IN
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Ie
t t
Vv
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charging is
RC . When this capacitor voltage which is nothing but emitter voltage VE VBB VD , the emitter base junction is forward biased and UJT
turns on. Capacitor C rapidly discharges through load resistance R1 with time constant
2 2 1
. When emitter voltage decreases to valley point Vv , UJT turns off. Once
again the capacitor will charge towards VBB and the cycle continues. The rate of charging of the capacitor will be determined by the resistor R in the circuit. If R is small the capacitor charges faster towards VBB and thus reaches VP faster and the SCR is triggered at a smaller firing angle. If R is large the capacitor takes a longer time to charge towards VP the firing angle is delayed. The waveform for both cases is as shown below. (i) Expression for period of oscillationt
The period of oscillation of the UJT can be derived based on the voltage across the capacitor. Here we assume that the period of charging of the capacitor is lot larger than than the discharging time. Using initial and final value theorem for voltage across a capacitor, we get
VC V final Vinitial V final e
t RC
t T , VC VP , Vinitial
Therefore
VP V BB
VV VBB e
T If
RC log e
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VV T VBB , RC ln RC ln But
VP VBB VD
If
VD VBB
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TU
VBB VV VBB VP VBB VBB VP 1 VP 1 VBB
VP VBB
DE
VV , V final VBB
T / RC
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Therefore
RC ln
1 1
Design of UJT Oscillator Resistor R is limited to a value between 3 kilo ohms and 3 mega ohms. The upper limit on R is set by the requirement that the load line formed by R and VBB intersects the device characteristics to the right of the peak point but to the left of valley point. If the load line fails to pass to the right of the peak point the UJT will not turn on, this condition will be satisfied VBB VP if VBB I P R VP , therefore R . IP At the valley point I E turnoff is VBB
IV and VE
IV R VV , therefore R
VBB VV . IV
In general RB 1 is limited to a value of 100 ohm and RB 2 has a value of 100 ohm or greater and can be approximately determined as RB 2 PROBLEM 10 4 . VBB
TU
14v and Vv T RC C ln 1 1 T 1 f 1 2 103
14 0.66VBB 0.8
1. A UJT is used to trigger the thyristor whose minimum gate triggering voltage is 6.2V, The UJT ratings are: 0.66 , I p 0.5mA , I v 3mA , RB1 RB 2 5k , leakage current = 3.2mA, Vp
1V . Oscillator frequency is 2kHz and capacitor C
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Here, Let VD
CITSTUDENTS.IN
Solution
DE
NT
1 1 0.66 VBB VD 11.6k
The recommended range of supply voltage is from 10 to 35V. the width of the triggering pulse t g RB1C .
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VBB
20V
RB1
R2
R2
RB1 RB 2
20 3.2 10
R1 985
R1 265 5000
CI TS
Rc min Rc min Rc min
TU
Rc max 12k 6.33k
Rc max
20 14 0.5 10 3
DE
Ip 20V ,
NT
0.6 , I p 10 A ,
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1 f
1 100
From equation T
RcC ln
1 100
RcC ln
1 1 0.6
Rc min
10.91k
VBB VD
CI TS
Rc min R2 R2
CITSTUDENTS.IN
Here the pulse width is give, that is 50 s. Hence, value of R1 will be,
TU
Rc min VBB Vv Iv 20 2 10 10 3
Vp
DE
1.8k
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Rc C 0.0109135
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R1C
2
The width
50 sec and C
50 10 6
R1 50
R1 1 10 6
, C 1 F.
A synchronized UJT triggering circuit is as shown in figure below. The diodes rectify the input ac to dc, resistor Rd lowers Vdc to a suitable value for the zener diode and UJT. The zener diode Z functions to clip the rectified voltage to a standard level VZ which remains constant except near Vdc
0 . This voltage VZ is applied to the charging RC circuit. The
capacitor C charges at a rate determined by the RC time constant. When the capacitor reaches the peak point VP the UJT starts conducting and capacitor discharges through the
CI TS
+ D1 D3
TU
R1 + Vdc Z D2 
synchronization of the trigger circuit with the supply voltage across the SCRs is archived, small variations in supply voltage and frequency are not going to effect the circuit operation. In case the resistor R is reduced so that the capacitor voltage reaches UJT threshold voltage twice in each half cycle there will be two pulses in each half cycle with one pulse becoming redundant.
DE
i1 R VZ vc + C
primary of the pulse transformer. As the current through the primary is in the form of a pulse the secondary windings have pulse voltages at the output. The pulses at the two secondaries feed SCRs in phase. As the zener voltage VZ goes to zero at the end of each half cycle the
NT
R2 B2 E B1
D4
CITSTUDENTS.IN
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Pulse Transf G1 C1 G2 C2
To SCR Gates
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G1 G2
y(1 or 0)
ZCD
vc, vdc
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vc
DE
VZ vc 1 2 1 2
NT
V dc VZ vc t 1 2 t
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Pulse Voltage
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Fig.3.16: Generation of output pulses for the synchronized UJT trigger circuit
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A B A B y
I J
fc
0.1 F H
Modulator
Logic Circuit
A B A B y K
fc G2
0.1 F
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2n 2
CITSTUDENTS.IN
n
Zero Crossing Detector: The zero crossing detector gives a short pulse whenever the input ac signal goes through zeroes. The ZCD output is used to reset the counter, oscillator and flipflops for getting correct pulses at zero crossing point in each half cycle, a low voltage synchronized signal is used. Counter: The counter is a presettable nbit counter. It counts at the rate of f C pulses/second. In order to cover the entire range of firing angle from 0 to 1800 , the nbit counter is required for obtaining 2n rectangular pulses in a half cycle.
Example: If 4bit counter is used there will be sixteen pulses / half cycle duration. The counter is used in the down counting mode. As soon as the synchronized signal crosses zero, the load and enable become high and low respectively and the counter starts counting the clock pulses in the down mode from the maximum value to the preset value N. N is the binary equivalent of the control signal. once the counter reaches the preset value N counter overflow signal goes high. The counter overflow signal is processed to trigger the Thyristors. Thus by varying the preset input one can control the firing angle of Thyristors. The value of firing angle can be calculated from the following equation N 1800 1 N 1800 for n 4 16
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Oscillator: The oscillator generates the clock required for the counter. The frequency of the clock is say f C . In order to cover the entire range of firing angle that is from 0 0 to 1800, a nbit counter is required for obtaining 2 n rectangular pulses in a half cycle of ac source. Therefore 4bit counter is used, we obtain sixteen pulses in a half cycle of ac source.
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The digital firing scheme is as shown in the above figure. It constitutes a presettable counter, oscillator, zero crossing detection, flipflop and a logic control unit with NAND and AND function.
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Modified RS FlipFlop: The reset input terminal of flipflop is connected to the output of ZCD and set is connected to output of counter. The pulse goes low at each zero crossing o f the ac signal. A low value of ZCD output resets the Bbar to 1 and B to 0. A high output of the counter sets Bbar to 0 and B to 1. This state of the flipflop is latched till the next zero crossing of the synchronized signal. The output terminal B of flipflop is connected with enable pin of counter. A high at enable EN of counter stops counting till the next zero crossing.
Input R 1 0 0 1 1 S 1 1 0 0 1 B 1 1 0 0 1
Output Bbar 0 0 1 1 0
Remarks
Set Reset
Last Stage
Logic Circuit, Modulation and Driver Stage: The output of the flipflop and pulses A and Abar of ZCD are applied to the logic circuit. The logic variable Y equal to zero or one enables to select the firing pulse duration from to or Overall Operation The input sinusoidal signal is used to derive signals A and Abar with the help of ZCD. The zero crossing detector along with a low voltage sync signal is used to generate pulses at the instant the input goes through zeroes. The signal C and Cbar are as shown. The signal Cbar is used to reset the fixed frequency oscillator, the flip flop and the nbit counter. The fixed frequency oscillator determines the rate at which the counter must count. The counter is preset to a value N which is the decimal equivalent of the trigger angle. The counter starts to down count as soon as the Cbar connected to load pin is zero. Once the down count N is over the counter gives a overflow signal which is processed to be given to the Thyristors. This overflow signal is given to the Set input S of the modified RS flip flop. If S=1 B goes high as given by the truth table and B bar has to go low. B has been connected to the Enable pin of counter. Once B goes low the counter stops counting till the next zero crossing. The carrier oscillator generates pulses with a frequency of 10kHz for generating trigger pulses for the Thyristors. Depending upon the values of A, Abar, B, Bbar and Y the logic circuit will generate triggering pulses for gate1 or gate 2 for Thyristors 1 and 2 respectively.
CI TS
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across the thyristor is limited by using snubber circuit as shown in figure (a) below. dt If switch S1 is closed at t 0 , the rate of rise of voltage across the thyristor is limited by the by the resistor RS as shown in figure (b) below.
capacitor C S . When thyristor T1 is turned on, the discharge current of the capacitor is limited
TU
Fig.3.18 (a)
DE
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Fig.3.18 (b)
VS
TU
i t RS VS e RS VS
t
s
The voltage across the thyristor will rise exponentially as shown by fig (c) above. From fig. (b) above, circuit we have (for SCR off) 1 i t dt V c 0 C
for t 0
CI TS
Therefore Also i t VT t VT t VS Therefore At t = 0, At t
s
, where
i t RS VS e RS
t
s
VT t VT 0
VS VS e 0 0.632VS
VT
CITSTUDENTS.IN
DE
Fig.3.18 (c)
RS CS
t
s
RS
t
VS 1 e
NT
.
s
S. IN
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Therefore
dv dt RS
VT
s s
VT 0
0.632VS RS CS
And
VS . ITD
It is possible to use more than one resistor for figure (d) below. The such that ITD VS R1 R2
CI TS
RS
0
The load can form a series circuit with the snubber network as shown in figure (e) below. The damping ratio of this second order system consisting RLC network is given as, R 2 CS LS L , where LS stray inductance and L, R is is load inductance
and resistance respectively. To limit the peak overshoot applied across the thyristor, the damping ratio should be in the range of 0.5 to 1. If the load inductance is high, RS can be high and C S can be small to retain the desired value of damping ratio. A high value of RS will reduce discharge current and a
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
Fig.3.18 (d)
DE
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S. IN
dv is limited by R and C . R 1 S 1 dt
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06EC73
low value of C S reduces snubber loss. The damping ratio is calculated for a particular circuit
RS and C S can be found.
Fig.3.18 (e)
di PROTECTION dt 3.11
CI TS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
Practical devices must be protected against high di dt . As an example let us consider the circuit shown above, under steady state operation Dm conducts when thyristor T1 is off. If T1 di can be very high and limited only by the stray dt di is limited by adding a series inductor LS as inductance of the circuit. In practice the dt di VS shown in the circuit above. Then the forward . dt LS is fired when Dm is still conducting
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Recommended questions: 1 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Distinguish between latching current and holding current. Converter grade and inverter grade thyristors Thyristor turn off and circuit turn off time Peak repetitive forward blocking voltage i2 t rating Explain the turn on and turn of dynamic characteristics of thyristor A string of series connected thyristors is to withstand a DC voltage of 12 KV. The maximum leakage current and recovery charge differences of a thyristors are 12 mA and 120 C respectively. A derating factor of 20% is applied for the steady state and dynamic (transient) voltage sharing of the thyristors. If the maximum steady sate voltage is 1000V, determine 1) the steady voltage sharing resistor R for each thyristor. 2) the transient voltage capacitor C1 for each thryristor 7. A SCR is to operate in a circuit where the supply voltage is 200 VDC. The dv/dt should be limited to 100 V/ s. Series R and C are connected across the SCR for limiting dv/dt. The maximum discharge current from C into the SCR, if and when it is turned ON is to be limited to 100 A. Using an approximate expression, obtain the values of R and C. 8. With the circuit diagram and relevant waveforms, discuss the operation of synchronized UJT firing circuit for a full wave SCR semi converter. 9. Explain gate to cathode equivalent circuit and draw the gate characteristics. Mark the operating region. 10. Mention the different turn on methods employed for a SCR 11. A SCR is having a dv/dt rating of 200 V/s and a di/dt rating of 100 A/s. This SCR is used in an inverter circuit operating at 400 VDC and has 1.5 source resistance. Find the values of snubber circuit components. 12. Explain the following gate triggering circuits with the help of waveforms: 1) R triggering 2) RC triggering.
CI TS
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UNIT4
Controlled Rectifiers
4.1 Line Commutated AC to DC converters
+ AC Input V oltage L ine Commutated Converter DC Output V0(d c )
Type of input: Fixed voltage, fixed frequency ac power supply. Type of output: Variable dc output voltage Type of commutation: Natural / AC line commutation
CI TS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
4.1.2 Differences Between Diode Rectifiers & Phase Controlled Rectifiers The diode rectifiers are referred to as uncontrolled rectifiers . The diode rectifiers give a fixed dc output voltage . Each diode conducts for one half cycle. Diode conduction angle = 1800 or radians. We cannot control the dc output voltage or the average dc load current in a diode rectifier circuit
4.2 Applications of Phase Controlled Rectifiers DC motor control in steel mills, paper and textile mills employing dc motor drives. AC fed traction system using dc traction motor. Electrochemical and electrometallurgical processes. Magnet power supplies. Portable hand tool drives
Page 89
TU
Single phase half wave diode rectifier gives an Vm Average dc output voltage VO dc Single phase full wave diode rectifier gives an 2Vm Average dc output voltage VO dc
DE
NT
4.1.1Different types of Line Commutated Converters AC to DC Converters (Phase controlled rectifiers) AC to AC converters (AC voltage controllers) AC to AC converters (Cyclo converters) at low output frequency
S. IN

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4.3 Classification of Phase Controlled Rectifiers Single Phase Controlled Rectifiers. Three Phase Controlled Rectifiers 4.3.1 Different types of Single Phase Controlled Rectifiers. Half wave controlled rectifiers. Full wave controlled rectifiers. Using a center tapped transformer. Full wave bridge circuit. Semi converter. Full converter. 4.3.2 Different Types of Three Phase Controlled Rectifiers Half wave controlled rectifiers. Full wave controlled rectifiers. Semi converter (half controlled bridge converter). Full converter (fully controlled bridge converter).
CI TS
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Equations:
vs Vm VS vO Vm sin t Vm 2 vL output voltage across the load i/p ac supply voltage
max. value of i/p ac supply voltage RMS value of i/p ac supply voltage
4.4.1 To Derive an Expression for the Average (DC) Output Voltage across the Load
VO dc
Vdc vO
DE
1 2
2
vO .d
Vm sin t for 1 2
TU
V O dc VO dc Vdc 1 2
Vm sin t.d t
CI TS
VO dc VO dc VO dc VO dc
CITSTUDENTS.IN
Vm sin t.d
Vm cos 2 Vm 1 cos 2
cos ; Vm
NT
t ; t to t t ; cos 2VS 1
S. IN
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Maximum average (dc) o/p voltage is obtained when 0 and the maximum dc output voltage Vdc max Vdc max VO dc Vdm Vdm Vm 1 cos 0 ; cos 0 2 Vm 1
from 0 to a
4.5 Control Characteristic of Single Phase Half Wave Phase Controlled Rectifier with Resistive Load The average dc output voltage is given by the expression Vm 1 cos 2 We can obtain the control characteristic by plotting the expression for the dc output VO dc voltage as a function of trigger angle
CI TS
4.5.1 Control Characteristic
CITSTUDENTS.IN
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VO(dc) Vdm
0.6Vdm
Trigger angle
Normalizing the dc output voltage with respect to Vdm , the Normalized output voltage Vm Vdc 2 1 cos Vn Vm Vdm Vn Vdc Vdm 1 1 cos 2
4.5.2 To Derive an Expression for the RMS Value of Output Voltage of a Single Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectifier with Resistive Load
TU
VO RMS 1 2
2
CI TS
VO RMS VO
RMS
DE
t
0
Vm sin t ; for
1 2 Vm sin 2 t.d 2
2 m
1 cos 2 t 2
1 cos 2 t .d
VO
RMS
VO RMS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
Vm 1 2 Vm 1 2
NT
Vdcn t
1 2
1 cos 2 t , we get 2
1 2
.d
t
1 2
t
1 2
cos 2 t.d
sin 2 t 2 sin 2 2
1
VO RMS
sin 2
S. IN
to t
t
1 2 1 2
Page 93
; sin2
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06EC73
Output dc power (avg. or dc o/p power delivered to the load) PO dc VO dc I O dc ; i.e., Pdc Where VO dc Vdc I O dc I dc
Vdc I dc
TU
Efficiency
DE
I O RMS I O RMS PO dc PO ac
; % Efficiency
The o/p voltage consists of two components The dc component VO dc The ac /ripple component Vac Vr rms
CI TS
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The o/p voltage consists of two components The dc component VO dc The ac /ripple component Vac Vr rms 4.5.4 The Ripple Factor (RF) w.r.t output voltage waveform
NT
PO dc PO ac 100
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rv
= RF = V:(nn) = VO(dc)
V:c
vdc
r = JvqRMs)Vqdc)
v
v dc)
rv = ..JFF 2 1
. Current R1pple Factor
1j = =
Jr rms Jo de
J
!!_
! de
Vr
pp
Ir
pp
. I r pp =I0 max I 0 mm
CI TS
TU
Inpu t ctuTent Ipl'
Where
DE
Input voltage
NT
wt
(transformer secondary winding current) Fundamental component of the i/p supply current
S. IN
Ftmda mental cu rrent
Ide
Power Electronics
06EC73
CI TS
TU
DE
NT
S. IN
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06EC73
= tan l (
DF=Cos
Where
CI TS
PF
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
=
CF = I s peak Is
DE
=
rms
RF=rv =0; HF=THD=O; PF=DPF=l 4.5.5 Single Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectifier with an RL Load
NT
TUF = 1 '
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4.5.6 To derive an expression for the output (Load) current, during t = to when
TU
DE
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thyristor T 1 conducts
J +Rio
!!!_
= vm Slll mt
; a :::; mt :::; fJ
. A t er sm mt + 1
R 2 + mL
=Load impedance.
=tan_, r
DE
v
z
'f'
11.1 L
TU
0
initial condition i0 = 0 at mt
i = 0 = ......!!l.. sin a  A. + A e
1
CI TS
Ae
1
= _m_ sin
V
=e
!....!':_[z V
mL
CITSTUDENTS.IN
NT
=a
a A.
'f'
sin a 
S. IN
; t= (:
1/.t L
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iO
i
O
V
m
sin Where
t t
sin
R L
sin
t e
R L
sin sin
R L
sin
4.5.7 To Derive an Expression for Average (DC) Load Voltage of a Single Half Wave Controlled Rectifier with RL Load
TU
0
VO dc VO dc
VL
1 2
DE
2
vO .d
VL
1 2
vO .d
NT
2
vO .d
CI TS
vO
0 for t 0 to 1 2 vO .d t
& for t ; to
V O dc
VL
vO Vm sin t for t 1 2 Vm 2
VO dc VO dc VO dc VO dc
CITSTUDENTS.IN
VL VL VL
S. IN
0 vO .d to 2 t
Power Electronics
06EC73
Effect of Load Inductance on the Output During the period t = to the instantaneous output voltage is negative and this reduces the average or the dc output voltage when compared to a purely resistive load. 4.5.8 Average DC Load Current
IO
dc
IL
VO
Avg
dc
RL
Vm cos 2 RL
cos
vS
Supply voltage
iG
Gate pulses 0
CI TS
TU
DE
t= 2
NT
L
4.5.9 Single Phase Half Wave Controlled Rectifier with RL Load & Free Wheeling Diode T i0 + V0 R + Vs FWD
iO
Load current
vO
Load voltage
CITSTUDENTS.IN
S. IN
t t t t
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The average output voltage Vm Vdc 1 cos which is the same as that 2 of a purely resistive load. The following points are to be noted For low value of inductance, the load current tends to become discontinuous. During the period to the load current is carried by the SCR. During the period to load current is carried by the free wheeling diode. The value of depends on the value of R and L and the forward resistance of the FWD.
For Large Load Inductance the load current does not reach zero, & we obtain continuous load current.
i0 t1
DE
t2
NT
t3
SCR
SCR
TU
FWD
S. IN
t4
FWD
CI TS
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4.6 Single Phase Full Wave Controlled Rectifier Using A Center Tapped Transformer
A + R
T1 vO
AC Supply
T2 B
4.6.1 Discontinuous Load Current Operation without FWD for << (+)
vO
0 iO
Vm
DE
( ) ( )
Assuming T1 is triggered t we can write the equation, diO RiO Vm sin t ; t dt General expression for the output current, L i Vm sin
O t
NT
t t
, t A1e
Page 102
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0
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(i) To derive an expression for the output (load) current, during t = to when thyristor T1 conducts
TU
Z
S. IN
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06EC73
at wt =a ; t= (:
R t
L
V
i0 = 0 =
R t
L
sin a  + 4e
4e
=_
V
_sin a m
voltage.
= R 2 + ruL
=Load impedance.
DE
V
i
0
L d . . . c1rcmt tlme constant. R :. general expression for the output load current
TU
i0
V . = Slll
CI TS
OJf
rp
. = vm Z[ Slll
0
NT
R t
in the
+e'" L
 R wt a [
OJt 'f'
d,
 Slll
R d, e'''L a 'f'
Where a s ruts f3
e "'"
:. sin j3  = e"'L
x sin a 
CITSTUDENTS.IN
S. IN
V .
4 =e!!
r!_ [ z m
sin a
Sln
 liJt a
l
. '
]=0
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(ii) To Derive an Expression for the DC Output Voltage of A Single Phase Full Wave Controlled Rectifier with RL Load (Without FWD)
vO
0 iO
Vm
0 (
V O dc V O dc VO dc VO dc V dc V dc Vdc Vdc 1
t
(
vO .d
)
t
DE
Vm Vm cos t cos
Vm Vm cos 1 cos 1
TU CI TS
VO
dc
NT
Vm sin t.d t cos
0 ; for R load, when
Page 104
Extinction angle radians Hence the average or dc output voltage for R load Vm cos cos VO dc
VO dc
CITSTUDENTS.IN
S. IN
t
Power Electronics
06EC73
vO
0 iO
Vm
Thyristor T2 is triggered at t
S. IN
; to 2
0 ( ) (
(v) To Derive an Expression for the DC Output Voltage for a Single Phase Full Wave Controlled Rectifier with RL Load & FWD
CI TS
VO dc VO dc VO dc VO dc VO dc
TU
Vdc Vdc Vdc Vdc Vdc 1
t 0
DE
)
vO .d t t 1 Vm Vm Vm Vm sin t.d cos t cos 1 cos cos ; cos 1
Page 105
CITSTUDENTS.IN
NT
t
T2 conducts from t
Power Electronics
06EC73
The load current is discontinuous for low values of load inductance and for large values of trigger angles. For large values of load inductance the load current flows continuously without falling to zero. Generally the load current is continuous for large load inductance and for low trigger angles.
vO
0 iO
Vm
DE
( ) (
Vm ( ) (
NT
t )
t t )
Page 106
(i) To Derive an Expression for Average / DC Output Voltage of Single Phase Full Wave Controlled Rectifier for Continuous Current Operation without FWD
CI TS
vO
0
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
iO 0
S. IN
t
Power Electronics
06EC73
V O dc V O dc VO dc
V dc V dc Vdc
1
t
vO .d
Vm sin t.d
Vm
cos t
VO dc
cos cos
CI TS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
Vdc Vdm cos
DE
By plotting VO(dc) versus , we obtain the control characteristic of a single phase full wave controlled rectifier with RL load for continuous load current operation without FWD
NT
S. IN
Page 107
Vm
Power Electronics
06EC73
Vo(dc)
  ; .  t'  .  i  .  . .  i..  : .  .. ';
I I
1
 r .
1
I I
I I
1
I I
I
1 I
I
I I
I
I I
1
I I
I
1
1
I
I I
I
I 1
1 r
I
0.6Vdm
I I
:
I
: :
I
:
1
:
I
: : :
1
1 I I I
I
:
0.2 vdm
, ., I' . ,
I I I I I I I I I
I I
,. r
I I
I I I I
"" T
I
.,
I
I
I
I
(l
0
0.2Vdm 0.6 vdm
30
1 I I
: 60
I
: 90
I
I I
. . !  I   ....   I . I 1 .
1 I
,..  "" .  1 I
I I
r 
1
1
I
I
  : f   i
I I I 1 1 1 1 '
I I
I I
I I I I I I 1 1
'
I
I 1
'
I
I 1
By varying the trigger angle we can vary the control the de output power flow to the load.
output de voltage across the load. Hence we can For trigger angle a, 0 to 90 i.e., 0::;; a::;; 90 cos a is positive and hence
CI TS
e
TU
Pde
In this case the converter operates as a Line Commutated Inverter. Power flows from the load ckt. to the i/p ac source. The inductive load energy is fed back to the i/p source.
Drawbacks of Full Wave Controlled Rectifier with Centre Tapped Transformer We require a centre tapped transformer which is quite heavier and bulky. Cost of the transformer is higher for the required de output voltage & output power. Hence full wave bridge converters are preferred.
CITSTUDENTS.IN
DE
e
Ide
NT
is positive is negative.
S. IN
I 1 1 I
i  I  : :
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4.7 Single Phase Full Wave Bridge Controlled Rectifier 2 types of FW Bridge Controlled Rectifiers are Half Controlled Bridge Converter (SemiConverter) Fully Controlled Bridge Converter (Full Converter) The bridge full wave controlled rectifier does not require a centre tapped transformer
4.7.1 Single Phase Full Wave Half Controlled Bridge Converter (Single Phase Semi Converter)
CI TS
t
CITSTUDENTS.IN
Thyristor T2 is triggered at , at
The time delay between the gating signals of T1 & T2 radians or 180 0
TU
DE
Page 109
NT
S. IN
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06EC73
Waveforms of single phase semiconverter with general load & FWD for
> 900
CI TS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
DE
Page 110
NT
S. IN
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06EC73
Thyristor T1 and D1 conduct from t = to Thyristor T2 and D2 conduct from t = ( + ) to 2 FWD conducts during t = 0 to , to ( + ) , .. Load Voltage & Load Current Waveform of Single Phase Semi Converter for & Continuous load current operation < 900
vO
0 iO
Vm
0 ( ) ( )
TU
VO dc VO dc Vdc Vdc 1
t 0
(i) To Derive an Expression for The DC Output Voltage of A Single Phase Semi Converter with R, L, & E Load & FWD For Continuous, Ripple Free Load Current Operation
CI TS
VO dc VO dc VO dc
CITSTUDENTS.IN
Vdc Vdc
DE
vO .d t t 1 Vm Vm Vm Vm sin t.d cos t cos 1 cos cos
Vdc
NT
t
; cos 1
Page 111
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Vdc can be varied from a max. value of For 2Vm to 0 by varying from 0 to .
VO RMS
VO RMS
V 2
2 m
1 cos 2 t .d
DE
Vm 1 2 sin 2 2
VO RMS
4.7.2 Single Phase Full Wave Full Converter (Fully Controlled Bridge Converter) With R, L, & E Load
CI TS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
NT
1 2
2 2 Vm sin 2 t.d 2
S. IN
1 2
1 2
Page 112
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Waveforms of Single Phase Full Converter Assuming Continuous (Constant Load Current) & Ripple Free Load Current.
v = V m sin wt
It)
I
1
I
0
Is
I I I
DE
1T
I I
TU
0
I
1f
[a
CI TS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
NT
I
I
1
Load current
1T' +a
S. IN
1
21i 21i
I
I
wt
wt
Page 113
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06EC73
iO Ia
iT1
& iT2
Ia
Ia t
iT3
& iT4
Ia t
(i) To Derive An Expression For The Average DC Output Voltage of a Single Phase Full Converter assuming Continuous & Constant Load Current The average dc output voltage can be determined by using the expression VO dc Vdc 1 2
2
vO .d
0
t ;
TU
VO dc Vdc 2 2
DE
Vm sin t.d cos t cos t Vdc Vdc 2Vm 2 2Vm
00 2Vm Vdm Vdm 2Vm 2Vm cos 0
Page 114
The o/p voltage waveform consists of two o/p pulses during the input supply time period of
CI TS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
VO dc VO dc
NT
S. IN
Power Electronics
06EC73
The normalized average output voltage is given by VO dc Vdc Vdcn Vn Vdc max Vdm 2Vm Vdcn Vn cos cos
2Vm
Single Phase Full Converter for constant & continuous load current operation. We use the equation for the average/ dc output voltage V O dc Vdc 2Vm
CI TS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
DE
Page 115
NT
cos
S. IN
By plotting VO(dc) versus , we obtain the control characteristic of a single phase full wave fully controlled bridge converter (single phase full converter) for constant & continuous load current operation.
Power Electronics
06EC73
VO(dc) Vdm 0.6Vdm 0.2 Vdm 0 0.2Vdm 0.6 Vdm Vdm Trigger angle 30 60 90 120 150 180
in degrees
CI TS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
DE
During the period from t = to ( + ), the input voltage vS is negative and the input current iS is positive and the output power becomes negative and there will be reverse power flow from the load circuit to the supply. The converter is said to be operated in the inversion mode. Line Commutated Inverter Operation for 900 < < 1800
NT
During the period from t = to the input voltage vS and the input current iS are both positive and the power flows from the supply to the load. The converter is said to be operated in the rectification mode Controlled Rectifier Operation for 0 < < 900
S. IN
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(ii) To Derive an Expression for the RMS Value ofthe Output Voltage
.d 1 [ Jv
2n
" 0
OJt
The single phase full converter gives two output voltage pulses during the input supply time period and hence the single phase full converter is referred to as a two pulse converter. The rms output voltage can be calculated as
The single phase full converter gives two output voltage pulses during the input supply time
is referred to as a two pulse converter. The rms output voltage can be calculated as
CI TS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
DE
NT
S. IN
Page 117
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v:[
2Jr
;r+aa (sin 2
DE
=: [_(
: [[sin 2H2;sin2a)}
TU
V o roJs
CI TS
0 V
=:

O=H= Jz
S
_Vm _ v
.".
0 RMS
.J2 
Hence the rms output voltage is same as the rms input supply voltage
CITSTUDENTS.IN
NT
7r
sin 2;r + 2a
S. IN
+a sin 2a )] 2
"
.d ( mt)
= sin 2a
Page 118
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iO Ia
iT1
& iT2
Ia
Ia t
iT3
& iT4
Ia
TU CI TS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
DE
RMS
NT
IT
RMS
IT
I O dc 2
Avg
S. IN
t
Page 119
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06EC73
Con verte r 1
Converter 2
T4 ' a o.
+
Yo2
Vs
Vs
Vs
vm
v = vm sin wt
NT
27r 7r
Vol
DE
0'1
TU
/
+ 0'1
/
CI TS
 '\1
.....
Vm sin wt
/
Converter 1 output wt
Vm sin wt
Conve rter 2 output 0 f+t :+1 > wt
vm sin wt
CITSTUDENTS.IN
S. IN
Tl'
(a) Circu
wt
. wt hym Sill
Page 120
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voz
0 f
,;+11!:+t'...,._
7T / \ 27T a 1
wt
vlll sin wt
Voltage generatin g circula tin g current
= _m_ cos al
7r
2V
CI TS
Jr
TU
Jr
converter is operated as a controlled rectifier with a < 90 & the second converter is operated as a line commutated inverter
a > 90
a2 =
Which gives
a1 + a2 = Jr radians
CITSTUDENTS.IN
DE
2V
7r
vdc2 = _m _
Jr
= _m_ cos a2
or
Jr
a1 or
NT
2V
cosa 2
S. IN
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(i) To Obtain an Expression for the Instantaneous Circulating Current vO1 = Instantaneous o/p voltage of converter 1. vO2 = Instantaneous o/p voltage of converter 2. The circulating current ir can be determined by integrating the instantaneous voltage difference (which is the voltage drop across the circulating current reactor Lr), starting from t = (2  1). As the two average output voltages during the interval t = ( + 1) to (2  1) are equal and opposite their contribution to the instantaneous circulating current ir is zero.
ir
vO1 vO 2 .d
2
1
Vm sin t for 2
t
NT
1
ir ir
DE
sin t.d cos t
1
TU CI TS
when t n , n Ip 4Vm , Lr
CITSTUDENTS.IN
2Vm cos t Lr
0,
the magnitude of circulating current becomes min. 0, 2, 4, .... & magnitude becomes
max. when t n , n 1, 3, 5, .... If the peak load current is I p , one of the converters that controls the power flow may carry a peak current of
S. IN
t ; to t
sin t.d t
Page 122
1 Lr
vr .d
vr
vO1 vO 2
Power Electronics
06EC73
CI TS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
Circulating Current Mode Of Operation In this mode, both the converters are switched ON and operated at the same time. The trigger angles 1 and 2 are adjusted such that ( 1 + 2) = 1800 ; 2 = (1800 1). When 0 < 1 <900, converter 1 operates as a controlled rectifier and converter 2 operates as an inverter with 900 < 2<1800. In this case Vdc and Idc, both are positive. When 900 < 1 <1800, converter 1 operates as an Inverter and converter 2 operated as a controlled rectifier by adjusting its trigger angle 2 such that 0 < 2<900. In this case Vdc and Idc, both are negative.
TU
DE
NT
NonCirculating Current Mode of Operation In this mode only one converter is operated at a time. When converter 1 is ON, 0 < 1 < 900 Vdc is positive and Idc is positive. When converter 2 is ON, 0 < 2 < 900 Vdc is negative and Idc is negative.
S. IN
Page 123
The Dual Converter Can Be Operated In Two Different Modes Of Operation Noncirculating current (circulating current free) mode of operation. Circulating current mode of operation
Power Electronics
06EC73
CI TS
Recommended questions:
CITSTUDENTS.IN
Disadvantages of Circulating Current Mode of Operation There is always a circulating current flowing between the converters. When the load current falls to zero, there will be a circulating current flowing between the converters so we need to connect circulating current reactors in order to limit the peak circulating current to safe level. The converter thyristors should be rated to carry a peak current much greater than the peak load current.
1. Give the classification of converters, based on: a) Quadrant operation b) Number of current pulse c) supply input. Give examples in each case. 2. With neat circuit diagram and wave forms, explain the working of 1 phase HWR using SCR for Rload. Derive the expressions for Vdc and Idc. 3. With a neat circuit diagram and waveforms, explain the working of 1phase HCB for Rload and RLload. 4. Determine the performance factors for 1phase HCB circuit. 5. With a neat circuit diagram and waveforms, explain the working of 1phase FCB for R and RLloads.
Page 124
TU
DE
Advantages of Circulating Current Mode of Operation The circulating current maintains continuous conduction of both the converters over the complete control range, independent of the load. One converter always operates as a rectifier and the other converter operates as an inverter, the power flow in either direction at any time is possible. As both the converters are in continuous conduction we obtain faster dynamic response. i.e., the time response for changing from one quadrant operation to another is faster.
NT
S. IN
Power Electronics
06EC73
6. Determine the performance factors for 1phase FCB circuit. 7. What is dual converter? Explain the working principle of 1phase dual converter. What are the modes of operation of dual converters? Explain briefly. 8. With a neat circuit diagram and waveforms explain the working of 3 phase HHCB using SCRs. Obtain the expressions for Vdc and Idc. 9. With a neat circuit diagram and waveforms, explain the working of 3phase HWR using SCRs. Obtain the expressions for Vdc and Idc. 10. With a neat circuit diagram and waveforms, explain the working of 3 phase FCB using SCRs. Obtain the expressions for Vdc and Idc. 11. Draw the circuit diagram of 3 phase dual converter. Explain its working? 12. List the applications of converters. Explain the effect of battery in the RLE load in converters. 13. A single phase half wave converter is operated from a 120V, 60 Hz supply. If the load resistive load is R=10 and the delay angle is =/3, determine a) the efficiency b) the form factor c) the transformer utilization factor and d) the peak inverse voltage (PIV) of thyristor T1 14. A single phase half wave converter is operated from a 120 V, 60 Hz supply and the load resistive load is R=10. If the average output voltage is 25% of the maximum possible average output voltage, calculate a) the delay angel b) the rms and average output current c) the average and ram thyristor current and d) the input power factor. 15. A single half wave converter is operated from a 120 V, 60Hz supply and freewheeling diodes is connected across the load. The load consists of seriesconnected resistance R=10, L=mH, and battery voltage E=20V. a) Express the instantaneous output voltage in a Fourier series, and b) determine the rms value of the lowest order output harmonic current. 16. A single phase semiconverter is operated from 120V, 60 Hz supply. The load current with an average value of Ia is continuous with negligible ripple content. The turns ratio of the transformer is unity. If the delay angle is A= /3, calculate a) the harmonic factor of input current b) the displacement factor and c) the input power factor. 17. A single phase semi converter is operated from 120V, 60Hz supply. The load consists of series connected resistance R=10, L=5mH and battery voltage E=20V. a) Express the instantaneous output voltage in a Fourier series, b) Determine the rms value of the lowest order output harmonic current. 18. The three phase half wave converter is operated from a three phase Y connected 220V, 60Hz supply and freewheeling diodes is connected across the load. The load consists of series connected resistance R=10, L=5mH and battery voltage E=120V. a) Express the instantaneous output voltage in a Fourier series and b) Determine the rms value of the lowest order output harmonic current.
CI TS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
DE
NT
S. IN
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UNIT5
THYRISTOR COMMUTATION TECHNIQUES
5.1 Introduction In practice it becomes necessary to turn off a conducting thyristor. (Often thyristors are used as switches to turn on and off power to the load). The process of turning off a conducting thyristor is called commutation. The principle involved is that either the anode should be made negative with respect to cathode (voltage commutation) or the anode current should be reduced below the holding current value (current commutation). The reverse voltage must be maintained for a time at least equal to the turnoff time of SCR otherwise a reapplication of a positive voltage will cause the thyristor to conduct even without a gate signal. On similar lines the anode current should be held at a value less than the holding current at least for a time equal to turnoff time otherwise the SCR will start conducting if the current in the circuit increases beyond the holding current level even without a gate signal. Commutation circuits have been developed to hasten the turnoff process of Thyristors. The study of commutation techniques helps in understanding the transient phenomena under switching conditions. The reverse voltage or the small anode current condition must be maintained for a time at least equal to the TURN OFF time of SCR; Otherwise the SCR may again start conducting. The techniques to turn off a SCR can be broadly classified as Natural Commutation Forced Commutation. 5.1.1 Natural Commutation (CLASS F) This type of commutation takes place when supply voltage is AC, because a negative voltage will appear across the SCR in the negative half cycle of the supply voltage and the SCR turns off by itself. Hence no special circuits are required to turn off the SCR. That is the reason that this type of commutation is called Natural or Line Commutation. Figure 5.1 shows the circuit where natural commutation takes place and figure 1.2 shows the related waveforms. tc is the time offered by the circuit within which the SCR should turn off SCR will become forward biased before it has turned off completely and will start conducting even without a gate signal.
CI TS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
completely. Thus tc should be greater than tq , the turn off time of the SCR. Otherwise, the
TU
DE
NT
S. IN
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T +
vs
vo
Supply voltage vs
Sinusoidal
3 0 2
NT
3
Load voltage vo
DE
2 Voltage across SCR tc
TU CI TS
0 CITSTUDENTS.IN
Fig. 5.2: Natural Commutation Waveforms of Supply and Load Voltages (Resistive Load)
This type of commutation is applied in ac voltage controllers, phase controlled rectifiers and cyclo converters.
5.1.2 Forced Commutation When supply is DC, natural commutation is not possible because the polarity of the supply remains unchanged. Hence special methods must be used to reduce the SCR current below the holding value or to apply a negative voltage across the SCR for a time interval greater than the turn off time of the SCR. This technique is called FORCED COMMUTATION and is applied in all circuits where the supply voltage is DC  namely,
Page 127
S. IN
t t t t
Power Electronics
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Choppers (fixed DC to variable DC), inverters (DC to AC). Forced commutation techniques are as follows: Self Commutation Resonant Pulse Commutation Complementary Commutation Impulse Commutation External Pulse Commutation. Load Side Commutation. Line Side Commutation. 5.2 Self Commutation or Load Commutation or Class A Commutation: (Commutation By Resonating The Load) In this type of commutation the current through the SCR is reduced below the holding current value by resonating the load. i.e., the load circuit is so designed that even though the supply voltage is positive, an oscillating current tends to flow and when the current through the SCR reaches zero, the device turns off. This is done by including an inductance and a capacitor in series with the load and keeping the circuit underdamped. Figure 5.3 shows the circuit. This type of commutation is used in Series Inverter Circuit.
DE
i R Load V
CI TS
(i) Expression for Current
CITSTUDENTS.IN
At t 0 , when the SCR turns ON on the application of gate pulse assume the current in the circuit is zero and the capacitor voltage is VC 0 . Writing the Laplace Transformation circuit of figure 5.3 the following circuit is obtained when the SCR is conducting.
TU
Fig. 5.3: Circuit for Self Commutation
NT
L
S. IN
Vc(0) + C
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R I(S)
sL
1 VC(0) S CS +  + C
V S
V VC 0 I S S R sL
1 CS
TU CI TS
s
2
DE
LC s 2 s s
2
NT
CS V VC 0 RCs S s 2 LC 1
C V VC 0 R 1 L LC
V VC 0 L R s L 1 LC
V VC 0 L R s L 1 LC R 2L
2
V VC 0 L s R 2L
2
1 LC
CITSTUDENTS.IN
S. IN
R 2L
2
Fig.: 5.4.
R 2L
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A s
2 2
Where
A V VC 0 L , R , 2L 1 LC R 2L
2
DE
t
(ii) Expression for voltage across capacitor at the time of turn off Applying KVL to figure 1.3
vc V vR
CI TS
vc V iR L Substituting for i, vc V R A e vc V R A A e vc V e
t
TU
VL
di dt
sin t L d A e dt sin t L A e
t
R sin t
L cos t L sin t
CITSTUDENTS.IN
NT
e 2 L sin t
t
V VC 0 L
sin t
cos t
S. IN
e
t
sin t
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vc V
R sin t R sin t 2
L cos t L
R sin t 2L
vc V Substituting for A,
vc t V
L cos t
V VC 0 L V VC 0
R sin t 2 R sin t 2L
L cos t
SCR turns off when current goes to zero. i.e., at Therefore at turn off vc V V VC 0 e
Therefore
vc V
V VC 0 e 2 L
Note: For effective commutation the circuit should be under damped. That is
R 2L
2
CI TS
TU
1 LC
DE
R
vc
V VC 0 e
NT
0 cos 0 V C t sin L LC
Page 131
But
1 LC i V t LC sin L LC
Therefore
CITSTUDENTS.IN
S. IN
vc t
cos t
Power Electronics
06EC73
Figure 5.5 shows the waveforms for the above conditions. Once the SCR turns off voltage across it is negative voltage. Conduction time of SCR .
C L
Current i
/2
2V V
Capacitor voltage
Gate pulse
NT
V oltage across SCR
DE TU
T V =300V RL 100
Fig. 5.6
Fig. 5.5: Self Commutation Wave forms of Current and Capacitors Voltage
CI TS
Problem 5.1 : Calculate the conduction time of SCR and the peak SCR current that flows in the circuit employing series resonant commutation (self commutation or class A commutation), if the supply voltage is 300 V, C = 1 F, L = 5 mH and RL = 100 . Assume that the circuit is initially relaxed.
L 5 mH
Solution:
CITSTUDENTS.IN
S. IN
t t t
1 F
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1 LC
RL 2L
1 5 10
3
1 10
100 2 5 10
2 3
Since the circuit is initially relaxed, initial voltage across capacitor is zero as also the initial current through L and the expression for current i is i V e L
t
sin t , where
V L
CI TS
V =100V
Solution:
CITSTUDENTS.IN
Problem 1.2: Figure 1.7 shows a self commutating circuit. The inductance carries an initial current of 200 A and the initial voltage across the capacitor is V, the supply voltage. Determine the conduction time of the SCR and the capacitor voltage at turn o ff.
TU
L IO 10 H
DE
3
300 10000 5 10
10000
0.314msec
Fig. 5.7
NT
6A
i(t)
C 50 F
S. IN
R , 2L
VC(0)=V
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sL I(S) + V S
IO L + + VC(0) =V S 1 CS
I S sL I O L VC 0 s sL 1 Cs
I S
1 Cs
Therefore
I S
V s
IOL
TU
s LC 1 I S
I S
V s
CI TS
I S I S Taking inverse LT i t
CITSTUDENTS.IN
V VC 0 C 1 LC s 2 LC V VC 0
2 2
DE
VC 0 s Cs
2
L s
V VC 0 L s
2 2
V VC 0
C sin t I O cos t L
NT
I O LCs s 2 LC 1 I O LCs LC s 2 1 LC sI O
2
sI O s
2 2
Where
S. IN
1 LC
Power Electronics
06EC73
vc t
1 i t dt VC 0 C0 1 C
t
vc t
V VC 0
0
C sin t L
I O cos t dt VC 0
vc t
1 C
V VC 0
C L
cos t
t o
IO
sin t
t VC 0 o
vc t
1 C
V VC 0
C 1 cos t L
vc t
IO
vc t
IO
CI TS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
V i t I O cos t and
DE
L sin t C
L sin t V V cos t VC 0 C
V VC 0 cos t V
NT
vc t
IO C
LC sin t
1 V VC 0 C
LC
S. IN
IO sin t VC 0 C 1 cos t L VC 0 VC 0 cos t VC 0
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I0
i(t)
/2 vc(t)
Therefore
tO tO tO
0.5
TU
0.5 10 10 10
6
6
0.5
CI TS
vc tO IO v c tO vc tO vc tO
CITSTUDENTS.IN
10 10 200 50 10
DE
LC 50 10
6
500
35.1 seconds
NT
100
Page 136
S. IN
t
Power Electronics
06EC73
Problem 5.3: In the circuit shown in figure 1.10. V = 600 volts, initial capacitor voltage is zero, L = 20 H, C = 50 F and the current through the inductance at the time of SCR triggering is Io = 350 A. Determine (a) the peak values of capacitor voltage and current (b) the conduction time of T1. L I0 V C T1 i(t)
Fig. 5.10
Solution: (Refer to problem 5.2). The expression for i t is given by i t V VC 0 C sin t I O cos t L
It is given that the initial voltage across the capacitor VC O is zero. Therefore i t V C sin t I O cos t L
i t can be written as i t
CI TS
IO where tan
1
and
TU
2 IO V2
C sin L
L C
1 LC
C L
DE
t
NT
Page 137
S. IN
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06EC73
350 2 600 2
50 10 6 20 10 6
1011.19 A
vc t
IO
V VC 0 cos t V
with
VC 0
0, vc t
IO
vc t
L sin C
V Where tan
1
C L IO
CI TS
600
2
TU
L V C 350
2
To calculate conduction time of T1 The waveform of capacitor current is shown in figure 5.11.When the capacitor current becomes zero the SCR turns off.
CITSTUDENTS.IN
DE
600
Page 138
NT
V
S. IN
L sin t V cos t V C
Power Electronics
06EC73
Capacitor current
Fig. 5.11
IO tan
1
L C V
tan
CI TS
1
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
tan
1
350 20 10 6 600 50 10 6
DE
V 1 20 10
6
LC
0.3534 31622.8
88.17 sec
NT
50 10
6
S. IN
31622.8 rad/sec
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5.3 Resonant Pulse Commutation (Class B Commutation) The circuit for resonant pulse commutation is shown in figure 5.12.
L T
a b
i C
V FWD
IL Load
value of i becomes equal to I L , the SCR current becomes zero and the SCR turns off. Now
CI TS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
the capacitor starts charging and its voltage reaches the supply voltage with plate a being positive. The related waveforms are shown in figure 5.13.
TU
short circuits the LC combination which starts oscillating. A current i starts flowing in the direction shown in figure. As i reaches its maximum value, the capacitor voltage reduces to zero and then the polarity of the capacitor voltage reverses b becomes positive). When i falls to zero this reverse voltage becomes maximum, and then direction of i reverses i.e., through SCR the load current I L and i flow in opposite direction. When the instantaneous
DE
current I L flows through the load and this is assumed to be constant. At the same time SCR
NT
This is a type of commutation in which a LC series circuit is connected across the SCR. Since the commutation circuit has negligible resistance it is always underdamped i.e., the current in LC circuit tends to oscillate whenever the SCR is on. Initially the SCR is off and the capacitor is charged to V volts with plate a being positive. Referring to figure 5.13 at t t1 the SCR is turned ON by giving a gate pulse. A
S. IN
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Ip
IL ISCR
NT
Voltage across SCR
DE
CI TS
(i) Expression For tc , The Circuit Turn Off Time Assume that at the time of turn off of the SCR the capacitor voltage vab
V and
load current I L is constant. tc is the time taken for the capacitor voltage to reach 0 volts from
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
tc
S. IN
t t t t
Power Electronics
06EC73
For proper commutation tc should be greater than tq , the turn off time of T. Also, the magnitude of I p , the peak value of i should be greater than the load current I L and the expression for i is derived as follows The LC circuit during the commutation period is shown in figure 5.14.
+V
=V
Fig. 5.14
I(S)
DE
+
Fig. 5.15
TU CI TS
I S V s sL 1 Cs I S V Cs s s 2 LC 1 VC LC s 2 1 LC I S
CITSTUDENTS.IN
NT
sL 1 Cs V s
Page 142
S. IN
(0)
Power Electronics
06EC73
I S
V L
1 s2 1 LC 1
I S
V LC L s2 1 LC 1 LC 1 s2 LC
1 1 LC
I S Taking inverse LT
Where
1 LC
Or
i t
V sin t L
Therefore
Ip
CI TS
t sin
1
(ii) Expression for Conduction Time of SCR For figure 5.13 (waveform of i), the conduction time of SCR
Alternate Circuit for Resonant Pulse Commutation The working of the circuit can be explained as follows. The capacitor C is assumed to be charged to VC 0 with polarity as shown, T1 is conducting and the load current I L is a constant. To turn off T1 , T2 is triggered. L, C, T1 and T2 forms a resonant circuit. A resonant
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
V C amps . L IL Ip
DE
I p sin t
Page 143
NT
i t
C sin t L
S. IN
C L
Power Electronics
06EC73
current ic t , flows in the direction shown, i.e., in a direction opposite to that of load current
IL .
ic t = I p sin t (refer to the previous circuit description). Where I p and the capacitor voltage is given by vc t 1 iC t .dt C 1 VC 0 C C sin t.dt . L
VC 0
C L
&
vc t
VC 0 cos t
T1 C
iC(t)
ab
DE
T3
t1 LC C L
1
+ VC(0)
NT
iC (t) T2 FWD
L C
CI TS
When ic t becomes equal to I L (the load current), the current through T1 becomes
zero and T1 turns off. This happens at time t1 such that IL I p sin
TU
Ip VC 0
t1 LC sin IL VC 0
S. IN
IL L O A D
Page 144
vc t
Power Electronics
06EC73
vc t1
V1
VC 0 cos t1
Once the thyristor T1 turns off, the capacitor starts charging towards the supply voltage through T2 and load. As the capacitor charges through the load capacitor current is same as load current I L , which is constant. When the capacitor voltage reaches V, the supply voltage, the FWD starts conducting and the energy stored in L charges C to a still higher voltage. The triggering of T3 reverses the polarity of the capacitor voltage and the circuit is ready for another triggering of T1 . The waveforms are shown in figure 5.17. Expression For tc Assuming a constant load current I L which charges the capacitor tc CV1 seconds IL
Normally V1 VC 0
For reliable commutation tc should be greater than tq , the turn off time of SCR T1 . It is to be noted that tc depends upon I L and becomes smaller for higher values of load current. Current iC(t)
TU CI TS
V Capacitor voltage vab t1 V1 tC VC(0)
CITSTUDENTS.IN
DE
NT
S. IN
t t
Page 145
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D2
iC(t)
C + VC(0) V
T1 L
IL i C(t) T2
T3
Fig. 5.17(a)
iC IL 0 VC 0
DE
t1 tC
Fig. 5.17(b)
NT
t t2 t
Page 146
CI TS
A diode D2 is connected as shown in the figure 5.17(a) to accelerate the discharging of the capacitor C. When thyristor T2 is fired a resonant current iC t flows through the capacitor and thyristor T1 . At time t t1 , the capacitor current iC t equals the load current
I L and hence current through T1 is reduced to zero resulting in turning off of T1 . Now the
capacitor current iC t continues to flow through the diode D2 until it reduces to load current
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
V1 VC(O)
S. IN
FWD
L O A D
Power Electronics
06EC73
level I L at time t 2 . Thus the presence of D2 has accelerated the discharge of capacitor C. Now the capacitor gets charged through the load and the charging current is constant. Once capacitor is fully charged T2 turns off by itself. But once current of thyristor T1 reduces to zero the reverse voltage appearing across T1 is the forward voltage drop of D2 which is very small. This makes the thyristor recovery process very slow and it becomes necessary to provide longer reverse bias time. From figure 5.17(b) t2 VC t2 Circuit turnoff time tC LC t1
t2 t1
Problem 5.4: The circuit in figure 5.18 shows a resonant pulse commutation circuit. The initial capacitor voltage VC O 200V , C = 30 F and L = 3 H. Determine the circuit turn off time tc , if the load current I L is (a) 200 A and (b) 50 A.
NT
iC(t) T2 FWD
DE
C + VC(0) T3
T1 L
CI TS
Let T2 be triggered at t
TU
Fig. 5.18
200 A
0.
t1
LC sin
t1
3 10
30 10 sin
CITSTUDENTS.IN
S. IN
IL L O A D
VC O cos t2
200 3 10 6 200 30 10 6
Page 147
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t1
3.05 sec .
1 LC
1 3 10
6
30 10
VC 0 cos t1
V1 189.75 Volts
and
tc
tc (b) When I L
50 A
30 10 6 189.75 200
TU
t1
t1
3 10
CI TS
V1
V1
0.749 sec .
DE
6
CV1 IL
30 10 6 sin
tc
tc
NT
28.46 sec .
1
50 3 10 6 200 30 10 6
S. IN
Page 148
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D2
iC(t)
 + VC(0) V T3
Solution
IL 200 A
Let
T2 be triggered at t
CI TS
Therefore
TU
t1
LC sin
t1
3 10
t1
3.05 sec .
1 LC
CITSTUDENTS.IN
DE
Fig. 5.18(a)
0.
30 10 6 sin
1 3 10
6
NT
1
200 3 10 6 200 30 10 6
30 10
S. IN
FWD L O A D
Page 149
T1 L
IL i C(t) T2
Power Electronics
06EC73
VC t1
VC t1
V1
VC O cos t1
3.05 10
6
VC t1
189.75V
LC t1 3 10
6
30 10
26.75 sec .
1 LC
At t
t2
TU
VC t2 V2 VC t 2 tC
tC
DE
1 3 10
6
CI TS
Therefore
CITSTUDENTS.IN
V2 189.02 V 26.75 10
6
t2 t1
23.7 secs
NT
6
3.05 10
30 10
3.05 10
S. IN
6
26.75 10
Page 150
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Problem 5.5: For the circuit shown in figure 5.19. Calculate the value of L for proper commutation of SCR. Also find the conduction time of SCR.
4 F V =30V RL 30
Solution: The load current I L V RL 30 1 Amp 30
L i IL
Fig. 5.19
For proper SCR commutation I p , the peak value of resonant current i, should be Let Also Ip Ip 2I L , V L Therefore V 1 L LC
6
Therefore
2 30
Therefore
TU
L 0.9mH . 1 LC sin
1
DE
4 10 L 1 0.9 10 IL Ip
3
CI TS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
sin 16666
1 2 16666
1
NT
Ip V C L 4 10
6
greater than I L ,
S. IN
2 Amps . 16666 rad/sec
Power Electronics
06EC73
Problem 5.6: For the circuit shown in figure 5.20 given that the load current to be commutated is 10 A, turn off time required is 40 sec and the supply voltage is 100 V. Obtain the proper values of commutating elements.
C V =100V L
IL IL
... a
CI TS
Therefore Therefore
TU
40 10
6
tc
CV seconds IL
C 4 F
1.5 10 100
4 10 L L 1.777 10 4 H L 0.177mH .
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DE
C 100 10 10
6
Also, assuming that at the time of turn off the capacitor voltage is approximately equal to V (and referring to waveform of capacitor voltage in figure 5.13) and the load current linearly charges the capacitor
NT
S. IN
1.5I L .
Power Electronics
06EC73
Problem 5.7: In a resonant commutation circuit supply voltage is 200 V. Load current is 10 A and the device turn off time is 20 s. The ratio of peak resonant current to load current is 1.5. Determine the value of L and C of the commutation circuit. Solution Given Ip IL Ip 1.5
Therefore
1.5I L C
1.5 10 15 A .
That is
Ip
15 A
... a
It is given that the device turn off time is 20 sec. Therefore tc , the circuit turn off
Let
tc
30 sec .
And Therefore
tc
CV IL
6
30 10
Therefore
CI TS
Substituting in (a) 15
2
Therefore
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
C 1.5 F . 1.5 10 15 200 L
6
200
L 0.2666 mH
DE
200 C 10 1.5 10 L
6
NT
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5.4 Complementary Commutation (Class C Commutation, Parallel Capacitor Commutation) In complementary commutation the current can be transferred between two loads. Two SCRs are used and firing of one SCR turns off the other. The circuit is shown in figure 5.21.
IL R1
ab
R2 iC
C T1
the same time, the capacitor C gets charged to V volts through R2 and T1 (b becomes positive with respect to a). When the capacitor gets fully charged, the capacitor current ic becomes zero. To turn off T1 , T2 is fired; the voltage across C comes across T1 and reverse biases it, hence T1 turns off. At the same time, the load current flows through R2 and T2 . The capacitor C charges towards V through R1 and T2 and is finally charged to V volts with a plate
CI TS
vc t Vf Vi V f e
t
positive. When the capacitor is fully charged, the capacitor current becomes zero. To turn off T2 , T1 is triggered, the capacitor voltage (with a positive) comes across T2 and T2 turns off. The related waveforms are shown in figure 5.22. (i) Expression for Circuit Turn Off Time tc From the waveforms of the voltages across T1 and capacitor, it is obvious that tc is the
time taken by the capacitor voltage to reach 0 volts from V volts, the time constant being RC and the final voltage reached by the capacitor being V volts. The equation for capacitor voltage vc t can be written as
TU
DE
The working of the circuit can be explained as follows. Initially both T1 and T2 are off; now, T1 is fired. Load current I L flows through R1 . At
NT
S. IN
T2
is the time constant.
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At
tc , vc t R1C , V f
0, V , Vi
tc
V,
Therefore 0 V
V V e R1C
tc R1C
0 V
2Ve
tc R1C
Therefore
2Ve
0.5
tc R1C
This time should be greater than the turn off time tq of T1 . Similarly when T2 is commutated
CI TS
Usually
R1 R2
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
tc 0.693R2 C
DE
NT
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Gate pulse of T2
t
2V R2
V R1
t Current through T2
2V R1
V R2
V Voltage across capacitor vab
NT DE
tC Voltage across T1 tC
Fig. 5.22
V
tC
TU
CI TS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
S. IN
t
t
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Problem 5.8: In the circuit shown in figure 1.23 the load resistances R1
R2
and
the capacitance C = 7.5 F, V = 100 volts. Determine the circuits turn off time tc .
R1 V C T1
R2
T2
Fig. 5.23
tc
0.693 RC seconds
tc
26 sec .
the circuit shown in figure 1.24. When it is conducting a full load current of 25 A flows. The minimum time for which the SCR has to be reverse biased for proper commutation is 40 sec. Also find R1 , given that the auxiliary SCR will undergo natural commutation when its forward current falls below the holding current value of 2 mA.
TU
R1 V =100V Auxiliary SCR
DE
i1 iC C
Fig. 5.24
Problem 5.9: Calculate the values of RL and C to be used for commutating the main SCR in
CI TS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
Solution In this circuit only the main SCR carries the load and the auxiliary SCR is used to turn off the main SCR. Once the main SCR turns off the current through the auxiliary SCR is the sum of the capacitor charging current ic and the current i1 through R1 , ic reduces to zero after
NT
IL RL
tc
0.693 5 7.5 10
S. IN
6
Main SCR
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a time tc and hence the auxiliary SCR turns off automatically after a time tc , i1 should be less than the holding current. IL Given That is 25 A
25 A
V RL
4
100 RL
Therefore
RL tc
40 sec
6
0.693 RL C
That is Therefore
40 10 C
0.693 4 C
40 10 6 4 0.693
Therefore That is
R1
R1
CI TS
5.5 Impulse Commutation (CLASS D Commutation) The circuit for impulse commutation is as shown in figure 5.25.
T1 VC(O) L C T2 FWD L O A D IL
The working of the circuit can be explained as follows. It is assumed that initially the capacitor C is charged to a voltage VC O with polarity as shown. Let the thyristor T1 be
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
50 K
T3 + V
100 2 10
DE
3
V should be less than the holding current of auxiliary SCR. R1 100 should be < 2mA. Therefore R1 i1
NT
C 14.43 F
S. IN
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conducting and carry a load currentlL. Ifthe thyristor T1 is to be turned off, T2 is fired. The capacitor voltage comes across T1, T1 is reverse biased and it turns off Now the capacitor starts charging through T2 and the load. The capacitor voltage reaches V with top plate being positive. By this time the capacitor charging current (current through T2 ) would have reduced to zero and T2 automatically turns off Now and T
2
the capacitor voltage should be reversed. This is done by turning onT3 , C discharges through
T3 and Land the capacitor voltage reverses. The waveforms are shown in figure 5.26.
Capacitor voltage
CI TS
(i) Expression for Circuit Tum Off Time (Available Tum Off Time) tc tc depends on the load current IL and is given by the expression
TU
V
c
tc = _c 
DE
= ] Ltc
vc
JL
seconds
NT
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Note: T1 is turned off by applying a negative voltage across its terminals. Hence this is voltage commutation. tc depends on load current. For higher load currents tc is small. This is a disadvantage ofthis circuit. When T2 is fired, voltage across the load is V + Vc ; hence the current through load shoots up and then decays as the capacitor starts charging.
CI TS
Initially let the voltage across the capacitor be Vc 0 with the top plate positive. Now T1 1s
1 ,
triggered. Load current flows through and load. At the same time, C discharges through T
L and D (the current is 'i') and the voltage across C reverses i.e., the bottom plate becomes positive. The diode D ensures that the bottom plate of the capacitor remains positive. To tum offT1 , T2 is triggered; the voltage across the capacitor comes across T1 . T1 is
reverse biased and it turns off (voltage commutation). The capacitor now starts charging through T2 and load. When it charges to V volts (with the top plate positive), the current through T2 becomes zero and T2 automatically turns off. The re lated waveforms are shown in figure 5.28.
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
Fig. 5.27: Impulse Commutation An Alternate Circuit
DE
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S. IN
Vc(O)
Power Electronics
06EC73
Gate pulse of T1
Gate pulse of T2 t
VC Capacitor voltage t
2V RL IL Load current
NT
tC
Voltage across T1
DE
+ T1 VC(0) T2
Fig. 5.29
Problem 5.10: An impulse commutated thyristor circuit is shown in figure 5.29. Determine the available turn off time of the circuit if V = 100 V, R = 10 and C = 10 F. Voltage across capacitor before T2 is fired is V volts with polarity as shown.
CI TS
TU
CITSTUDENTS.IN
S. IN
t t t
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VC(O)  + C V T2
i(t)
Fig. 5.30
1 Cs
VC(0) s +
+ V s
CI TS
Voltage across capacitor
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
I S I S I S R s VC s I s
DE
Fig. 5.31
C V VC 0 1 RCs V VC 0 1 RC 1 Cs VC 0 s
NT
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I(s) R
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VC s
1 V VC 0 1 RCs s RC V VC 0 s
VC 0 s
VC s
V VC 0 1 s RC VC 0 1 s RC VC 0 e
VC 0 s
VC s
V s
V s 1 RC
t RC
vc t
V 1 e
Therefore
vc t
V 1 2e
RC
TU
V
CI TS
At t
tc , vc t
DE
vC(t) t tC
Fig. 5.32
VC(0)
0
tc
Therefore
0 V 1 2e
RC
1 2e
CITSTUDENTS.IN
tc
RC
NT
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S. IN
t RC
Power Electronics
06EC73
1 e 2
tc
RC
RC ln 2 10 10 10 6 ln 2
69.3 sec .
TU
tc CV IO tc max CVmax I O min 20 10
6
DE
C VC(0)=V + T2 I0
Fig. 5.33
CI TS
Therefore tc max
CITSTUDENTS.IN
Solution It is given that V varies between 180 and 220 V and I O varies between 50 and 200 A. The expression for available turn off time tc is given by
220 50
NT
88 sec
Problem 5.11: In the commutation circuit shown in figure 5.33. C = 20 F, the input voltage V varies between 180 and 220 V and the load current varies between 50 and 200 A. Determine the minimum and maximum values of available turn off time tc . T1 I0
S. IN
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and
tc min
CVmin I O max 20 10
6
tc min
T1
T2
T3
VS
RL
2VAUX
source and VAUX is the auxiliary supply. Assume thyristor T1 is conducting and load RL is connected across supply VS . When thyristor T3 is turned ON at t 0 , VAUX , T3 , L and C from an oscillatory circuit. Assuming capacitor is initially uncharged, capacitor C is now charged LC . When current through T3 falls to to a voltage 2VAUX with upper plate positive at t zero, T3 gets commutated. To turnoff the main thyristor T1 , thyristor T2 is turned ON. Then
CI TS
TU
turnedoff. Once T1 is off capacitor C discharges through the load RL Load Side Commutation In load side commutation the discharging and recharging of capacitor takes place through the load. Hence to test the commutation circuit the load has to be connected. Examples of load side commutation are Resonant Pulse Commutation and Impulse Commutation. Line Side Commutation In this type of commutation the discharging and recharging of capacitor takes place through the supply.
CITSTUDENTS.IN
DE
In this type of commutation an additional source is required to turnoff the conducting thyristor. Figure 5.34 shows a circuit for external pulse commutation. VS is the main voltage
NT
S. IN
C V AUX
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L + T3 VS +
T1 IL
_C
FWD Lr T2
L O A D
capacitor C. When C charges to a voltage of 2V, T2 is self commutated. To reverse the voltage of capacitor to 2V, thyristor T3 is fired and T3 commutates by itself. Assuming that ON of T2 will result in forward biasing the diode (FWD) and applying a reverse voltage of 2V across T1 . This turns off T1 , thus the discharging and recharging of capacitor is done through the supply and the commutation circuit can be tested without load.
T1 is conducting and carries a load current I L thyristor T2 is fired to turn off T1 . The turning
CI TS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
CITSTUDENTS.IN
Recommended questions:
What are the two general types of commutation? What is forced commutation and what are the types of forced commutation? Explain in detail the difference between self and natural commutation. What are the conditions to be satisfied for successful commutation of a thyristor Explain the dynamic turn off characteristics of a thyristor clearly explaining the components of the turn off time. 6. What is the principle of self commutation? 7. What is the principle of impulse commutation? 8. What is the principle of resonant pulse commutation? 9. What is the principle of external pulse commutation? 10. What are the differences between voltage and current commutation? 11. What are the purposes of a commutation circuit? 12. Why should the available reverse bias time be greater than the turn off time of the Thyristor
Page 166
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DE
NT
Figure 5.35 shows line side commutation circuit. Thyristor T2 is fired to charge the
S. IN
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13. What is the purpose of connecting an antiparallel diode across the main thyristor with or without a series inductor? What is the ratio of peak resonant to load current for resonant pulse commutation that would minimize the commutation losses? 14. Why does the commutation capacitor in a resonant pulse commutation get over charged? 15. How is the voltage of the commutation capacitor reversed in a commutation circuit? 16. What is the type of a capacitor used in high frequency switching circuits?
CI TS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
DE
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Unit6
AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER CIRCUITS
AC voltage controllers (ac line voltage controllers) are employed to vary the RMS value of the alternating voltage applied to a load circuit by introducing Thyristors between the load and a constant voltage ac source. The RMS value of alternating voltage applied to a load circuit is controlled by controlling the triggering angle of the Thyristors in the ac voltage controller circuits. In brief, an ac voltage controller is a type of thyristor power converter which is used to convert a fixed voltage, fixed frequency ac input supply to obtain a variable voltage ac output. The RMS value of the ac output voltage and the ac power flow to the load is controlled by varying (adjusting) the trigger angle
AC Input V oltage fs
Vs fs
AC V oltage Controller
NT
There are two different types of thyristor control used in practice to control the ac power flow OnOff control Phase control
CI TS
These are the two ac output voltage control techniques. In OnOff control technique Thyristors are used as switches to connect the load circuit to the ac supply (source) for a few cycles of the input ac supply and then to disconnect it for few input cycles. The Thyristors thus act as a high speed contactor (or high speed ac switch).
In phase control the Thyristors are used as switches to connect the load circuit to the input ac supply, for a part of every input cycle. That is the ac supply voltage is chopped using Thyristors during a part of each input cycle. The thyristor switch is turned on for a part of every half cycle, so that input supply voltage appears across the load and then turned off during the remaining part of input half cycle to disconnect the ac supply from the load. By controlling the phase angle or the trigger angle (delay angle), the output RMS voltage across the load can be controlled.
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
DE
S. IN
V0(RMS) V ariable AC R MSO/P V oltage fS
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6.2 Type of Ac Voltage Controllers The ac voltage controllers are classified into two types based on the type of input ac supply applied to the circuit. Single Phase AC Controllers. Three Phase AC Controllers. Single phase ac controllers operate with single phase ac supply voltage of 230V RMS at 50Hz in our country. Three phase ac controllers operate with 3 phase ac supply of 400V RMS at 50Hz supply frequency. Each type of controller may be sub divided into Unidirectional or half wave ac controller. Bidirectional or full wave ac controller. In brief different types of ac voltage controllers are Single phase half wave ac voltage controller (unidirectional controller). Single phase full wave ac voltage controller (bidirectional controller). Three phase half wave ac voltage controller (unidirectional controller). Three phase full wave ac voltage controller (bidirectional controller).
CI TS
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Applications of Ac Voltage Controllers Lighting / Illumination control in ac power circuits. Induction heating. Industrial heating & Domestic heating. Transformer tap changing (on load transformer tap changing).
Page 169
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The trigger delay angle is defined as the phase angle (the value of t) at which the thyristor turns on and the load current begins to flow. Thyristor ac voltage controllers use ac line commutation or ac phase commutation. Thyristors in ac voltage controllers are line commutated (phase commutated) since the input supply is ac. When the input ac voltage reverses and becomes negative during the negative half cycle the current flowing through the conducting thyristor decreases and falls to zero. Thus the ON thyristor naturally turns off, when the device current falls to zero. Phase control Thyristors which are relatively inexpensive, converter grade Thyristors which are slower than fast switching inverter grade Thyristors are normally used. For applications upto 400Hz, if Triacs are available to meet the voltage and current ratings of a particular application, Triacs are more commonly used. Due to ac line commutation or natural commutation, there is no need of extra commutation circuitry or components and the circuits for ac voltage controllers are very simple. Due to the nature of the output waveforms, the analysis, derivations of expressions for performance parameters are not simple, especially for the phase controlled ac voltage controllers with RL load. But however most of the practical loads are of the RL type and hence RL load should be considered in the analysis and design of ac voltage controller circuits.
S. IN
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Speed control of induction motors (single phase and poly phase ac induction motor control). AC magnet controls. 6.3 Principle of OnOff Control Technique (Integral Cycle Control) The basic principle of onoff control technique is explained with reference to a single phase full wave ac voltage controller circuit shown below. The thyristor switches T1 and T2 are turned on by applying appropriate gate trigger pulses to connect the input ac supply to the load for n number of input cycles during the time interval tON . The thyristor switches T1 and T2 are turned off by blocking the gate trigger pulses for m number of input cycles during the time interval tOFF . The ac controller ON time tON usually consists of an integral number of input cycles.
Vs
TU
n Vo io Gate pulse of T1 Gate pulse of T2
DE
m
NT
wt
CI TS
ig1
ig2
R
CITSTUDENTS.IN
RL = Load Resistance
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wt wt wt
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Example Referring to the waveforms of ONOFF control technique in the above diagram, n Two input cycles. Thyristors are turned ON during tON for two input cycles.
m One input cycle. Thyristors are turned OFF during tOFF for one input cycle
CI TS
VS tON n T,
direction, which is the downward direction as shown in the circuit diagram when T1 conducts. The thyristor T2 is turned on at the beginning of each negative half cycle, by applying gating signal to the gate of T2 , during tON . The load current flows in the reverse direction, which is the upward direction when T2 conducts. Thus we obtain a bidirectional load current flow (alternating load current flow) in a ac voltage controller circuit, by triggering the thyristors alternately. This type of control is used in applications which have high mechanical inertia and high thermal time constant (Industrial heating and speed control of ac motors). Due to zero voltage and zero current switching of Thyristors, the harmonics generated by switching actions are reduced. For a sine wave input supply voltage, vs Vm sin t 2VS sin t
TU
tOFF m T
= RMS phase supply voltage. 2 If the input ac supply is connected to load for n number of input cycles and disconnected for m number of input cycles, then RMS value of input ac supply =
Where T
CITSTUDENTS.IN
DE
Vm
Thyristors are turned ON precisely at the zero voltage crossings of the input supply. The thyristor T1 is turned on at the beginning of each positive half cycle by applying the gate trigger pulses to T1 as shown, during the ON time tON . The load current flows in the positive
NT
S. IN
Power Electronics
06EC73
tON = controller on time = n T . tOFF = controller off time = m T . TO = Output time period = tON
tOFF
nT mT .
V
S
tON TO
Where Vi RMS is the RMS input supply voltage = VS . (i) To derive an expression for the rms value of output voltage, for onoff control method. 1 TO
tON
Vm 2 Sin 2 t.d
t 0
V O RMS
Vm2 TO
Substituting for
Sin2
TU
VO RMS Vm 2 TO
tON 0
DE
1 Cos 2 2 1 Cos 2 t d 2 t Vm 2 2 TO
tON tON
CI TS
VO RMS VO RMS VO RMS Now
CITSTUDENTS.IN
d
0
Vm 2 2 TO
t
0
Vm2 2 TO
tON 0
tON = an integral number of input cycles; Hence tON T , 2T , 3T , 4T , 5T , ..... & tON 2 , 4 , 6 , 8 ,10 , ......
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tON
Sin 2 t.d
t
0
Cos 2 t.d
tON
Sin2 t 2
sin 2 tON 2
S. IN
t t t
tON 0
sin 0
Power Electronics
06EC73
Where T is the input supply time period (T = input cycle time period). Thus we note that sin 2 tON 0 VO RMS VO Vm 2 tON 2 TO Vi RMS tON T
O
Vm tON 2 TO V
S
RMS
tON TO
Vm 2
VS k
DE
Vm 2 sin 2 t.d t
0
2 Vm 2
TU
m n k Vi
RMS
VO RMS
Vi RMS
CI TS
RMS
VO
VS k
Where VS
Duty Cycle k
tON TO n m n
nT m n T
Where, k
CITSTUDENTS.IN
NT
1 2
VS k
S. IN
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VO
RMS
RL
RL .
RL
PF
RL I in RMS
IS
I in RMS
NT
IO
PF
RL
DE
VO RMS Vi RMS Vi RMS Vi RMS
Avg
k k
Vi RMS
I in RMS n
PF
CI TS
iT
TU
k m n
Im
0
IT
2
n m n
3
I m sin t.d
0
Avg
CITSTUDENTS.IN
S. IN
RMS input supply current.
IL
PO VA
PO VS I S
I O RMS .
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IT
Avg
nI m 2 m n
sin t.d
0
IT
Avg
nI m 2 m n nI m 2 m n nI m 2 m n
cos t
0
IT
Avg
cos
cos 0
IT
Avg
IT
Avg
n 2Im m n Imn m n k .I m
duty cycle
IT
Avg
Imn m n
Where I m
CI TS
IT
RMS
TU
RMS
IT
RMS
2 nIm 2 n m
DE
k .I m ,
1 2
I sin
0
2 m
sin
0
t.d
IT
RMS
2 nIm 2 n m
1 cos 2 t d 2
IT
RMS
2 nIm 4 n m
d
0
t
0
CITSTUDENTS.IN
NT
n n m t.d t
1 2
IT
Avg
cos 2 t.d
S. IN
1 2 1 2
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IT
RMS
2 nIm 4 n m
t
0
sin 2 t 2
1 2
IT
RMS
nIm2 n m
sin 2 2
1 2
sin 0
IT
RMS
2 nI m 4 n m
0 0
IT
RMS
nIm2 4 n m Im 2 Im k 2 n m n
2 nI m 4 n m
IT
RMS
Im k 2
IT
RMS
CI TS
Vin RMS T 1 f 230V , 1 50 Hz
tON tON tOFF
CITSTUDENTS.IN
Problem 1. A single phase full wave ac voltage controller working on ONOFF control technique has supply voltage of 230V, RMS 50Hz, load = 50 . The controller is ON for 30 cycles and off for 40 cycles. Calculate ON & OFF time intervals. RMS output voltage. Input P.F. Average and RMS thyristor currents.
TU
Vm 0.02 sec , T
n T n T m T 30 20ms 40 20 ms
DE
2 230V 20ms .
600ms 0.6 sec 800ms
NT
325.269 V, Vm
325.269V ,
S. IN
1 2
1 2
Power Electronics
06EC73
tOFF
m T
30 40 30
0.4285
Vi RMS 230V
n m n 30 30 40 230 3 7
VO
RMS
230 0.65465
VO RMS
IO2 RMS
k
RL
3.01142 50 453.426498W
CI TS
where
Im Vm RL Im
TU
PF 0.654653 n m n
2 230 50
n m n
IT IT
6.505382
Avg
Avg
0.88745 A
DE
30 70 0.4285 k Im
325.269 50
3 7
NT
Page 177
IO
RMS
RMS
RMS
RL
150.570V 50
S. IN
3.0114 A
Power Electronics
06EC73
IT
RMS
Im 2
n m n
Im k 2
6.505382 2
3 7
IT
RMS
2.129386 A
6.4 Principle of AC Phase Control The basic principle of ac phase control technique is explained with reference to a single phase half wave ac voltage controller (unidirectional controller) circuit shown in the below figure. The half wave ac controller uses one thyristor and one diode connected in parallel across each other in opposite direction that is anode of thyristor T1 is connected to the cathode of diode D1 and the cathode of T1 is connected to the anode of D1 . The output voltage across the load resistor R and hence the ac power flow to the load is controlled by varying the trigger angle . The trigger angle or the delay angle refers to the value of t or the instant at which the thyristor T1 is triggered to turn it ON, by applying a suitable gate trigger pulse between the gate and cathode lead. The thyristor T1 is forward biased during the positive half cycle of input ac supply. It can be triggered and made to conduct by applying a suitable gate trigger pulse only during the positive half cycle of input supply. When T1 is triggered it conducts and the load current flows through the thyristor T1 , the load and through the transformer secondary winding. when it is ON during the period t to radians. The output voltage across the load follows the input supply voltage when the thyristor T1 is turnedon and when it conducts from By assuming T1 as an ideal thyristor switch it can be considered as a closed switch
CI TS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
t to radians. When the input supply voltage decreases to zero at t , for a resistive load the load current also falls to zero at t and hence the thyristor T1 turns off
at t . Between the time period t to 2 , when the supply voltage reverses and becomes negative the diode D1 becomes forward biased and hence turns ON and conducts. t to 2 radians when D1 is ON and the output voltage follows the negative half cycle of input supply.
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vs
Vm sin t
CI TS
Output Load Voltage
vo vL 0 ; for vo
VS
TU
Vin RMS Vm 2 t 0 to t
vL Vm sin t ; for
io
CITSTUDENTS.IN
iL
0 ; for
DE
to 2 . t
NT
to 2 .
S. IN
Power Electronics
06EC73
VO RMS
Vm 2 sin 2 t.d
VO RMS
Vm 2 2 Vm 2 4
1 cos 2 t .d 2
VO RMS
1 cos 2 t .d
VO RMS
Vm 2
cos 2 t.d t
VO RMS
Vm 2
sin 2 t 2
VO
Vm
RMS
TU
Vm 2 2 Vm 2 2 Vm 2 2 2 Vm 2 1 2 1 2 2 Vi RMS 2
DE
sin 2 t 2
2
VO RMS
sin 4 2
NT
2
sin 2 2
CI TS
VO RMS
sin 2 2 sin 2 2
VO RMS
V O RMS
sin 2 2 sin 2 2
VO RMS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
S. IN
; sin 4 0
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V O RMS
VS
1 2
Note: Output RMS voltage across the load is controlled by changing ' ' as indicated by the expression for VO RMS PLOT OF VO RMS VERSUS TRIGGER ANGLE FOR A SINGLE PHASE HALFWAVE
V O RMS
V O RMS
VS
DE
Trigger angle in radians 0
By using the expression for VO RMS we can obtain the control characteristics, which is versus the trigger angle . A typical control characteristic of single phase halfwave phase controlled ac voltage controller is as shown below
TU
Trigger angle in degrees 0
NT
VS 6 ;1 ; 2 6 ; 3 6 ; 4 6 ; 5 6 ; 6 6
CI TS
300
6 3 2 2 5 3 6
600
900
CITSTUDENTS.IN
S. IN
VO RMS Vm 2
0.992765 VS 0.949868 VS 0.866025 VS 0.77314 VS 0.717228 VS 0.707106 VS
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60% VS
Trigger angle
Fig 6.5: Control characteristics of single phase halfwave phase controlled ac voltage controller
Note: We can observe from the control characteristics and the table given above that the range of RMS output voltage control is from 100% of VS to 70.7% of VS when we vary the trigger angle from zero to 180 degrees. Thus the half wave ac controller has the drawback of limited range RMS output voltage control.
VO
dc
Vm 2
sin t.d
VO dc
CI TS
VO dc Vm 2 Vdc Vm cos 2 Hence Vdc 2VS cos 2
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
Vm 2
2
cos t
DE
t
(ii) To Calculate the Average Value (Dc Value) Of Output Voltage 2 1 VO dc Vm sin t.d t 2
cos 2
cos
; Vm
Disadvantages of single phase half wave ac voltage controller. The output load voltage has a DC component because the two halves of the output voltage waveform are not symmetrical with respect to 0 level. The input supply
NT
; cos 2 1 2VS
S. IN
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current waveform also has a DC component (average value) which can result in the problem of core saturation of the input supply transformer. The half wave ac voltage controller using a single thyristor and a single diode provides control on the thyristor only in one half cycle of the input supply. Hence ac power flow to the load can be controlled only in one half cycle. Half wave ac voltage controller gives limited range of RMS output voltage control. Because the RMS value of ac output voltage can be varied from a maximum of 100% 0 to a low of 70.7% of VS at Radians . of VS at a trigger angle These drawbacks of single phase half wave ac voltage controller can be over come by using a single phase full wave ac voltage controller. Applications of rms Voltage Controller Speed control of induction motor (polyphase ac induction motor). Heater control circuits (industrial heating). Welding power control. Induction heating. On load transformer tap changing. Lighting control in ac circuits. Ac magnet controls.
CI TS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
RMS output voltage. Output power. RMS load current and average load current. Input power factor. Average and RMS thyristor current.
TU
Problem 1. A single phase halfwave ac voltage controller has a load resistance R 50 ; input ac supply voltage is 230V RMS at 50Hz. The input supply transformer has a turns ratio of 1:1. If the thyristor T1 is triggered at 60 0 . Calculate
DE
NT
S. IN
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Given, Vp f RL 230V , RMS primary supply voltage. Input supply frequency = 50Hz. 50 600 VS Vp VS Therefore Vp radians. 3 RMS secondary voltage. 1 1 1 230V
Np NS VS
VO
RMS
2 Vm sin 2 t.d
TU
VS 1 2 2
230 1 2 2 3
V O RMS
CI TS
VO
RMS
VO RMS
230
1 5.669 2
VO RMS
218.4696 V
IO
CITSTUDENTS.IN
RMS
RL
DE
t sin 1200 2
230 0.94986
218.47 V
218.46966 50
NT
4.36939 Amps
Page 184
S. IN
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IO2 RMS
RL
4.36939
50 954.5799 Watts
0.9545799 KW
IS
I O RMS
4.36939 Amps
PF
We have obtained the expression for the average / DC output voltage as,
CI TS
VO dc Vm cos 2 VO dc VO dc
IO VO
dc dc
TU
1 2 230 cos 600 2 0.5 325.2691193 2
RL 25.884094 50
VO dc
Vm sin t.d
CITSTUDENTS.IN
DE
t 1 325.2691193 0.5 1 2 25.88409 Volts
0.51768 Amps
Page 185
0.9498
NT
S. IN
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06EC73
iT1 Im 2 (2 + ) 3 t
Referring to the thyristor current waveform of a single phase halfwave ac voltage controller circuit, we can calculate the average thyristor current IT Avg as IT
Avg
1 2 Im 2 Im 2
I m sin t.d
IT
Avg
sin t.d
Avg
CI TS
IT
Avg
IT
Avg
Where, I m
Im
Im
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
Im 2 cos cos Im 1 cos 2 Vm = Peak thyristor current = Peak load current. RL 2 230 50
6.505382 Amps
IT
cos t
DE
t
Page 186
NT
S. IN
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06EC73
IT
Avg
Vm 1 cos 2 RL 2 230 1 cos 600 2 50 2 230 1 0.5 100 1.5530 Amps can be calculated by using the expression
IT IT IT
Avg
Avg
Avg
RMS
IT
RMS
2 Im sin 2 t.d
IT
1 cos 2 t 2
RMS
.d
IT
RMS
2 Im 4
TU
Im 1 4 t
Im 1 4
IT
RMS
CI TS
IT
RMS
IT
RMS
Im
1 4
IT
Im
RMS
1 2
IT
RMS
6.50538 1 2 2
CITSTUDENTS.IN
DE
t cos 2 t.d t sin 2 t 2
sin 2 2 sin 2
NT
t
Page 187
S. IN
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IT
RMS
4.6
1 2
2 3
0.8660254 2
IT IT
RMS
4.6 0.6342
2.91746 A
RMS
2.91746 Amps
6.5 Single Phase Full Wave Ac Voltage Controller (Ac Regulator) or Rms Voltage Controller with Resistive Load Single phase full wave ac voltage controller circuit using two SCRs or a single triac is generally used in most of the ac control applications. The ac power flow to the load can be controlled in both the half cycles by varying the trigger angle ' ' . The RMS value of load voltage can be varied by varying the trigger angle ' ' . The input supply current is alternating in the case of a full wave ac voltage controller and due to the symmetrical nature of the input supply current waveform there is no dc component of input supply current i.e., the average value of the input supply current is zero. A single phase full wave ac voltage controller with a resistive load is shown in the figure below. It is possible to control the ac power flow to the load in both the half cycles by adjusting the trigger angle ' ' . Hence the full wave ac voltage controller is also referred to as to a bidirectional controller.
CI TS
Fig 6.7: Single phase full wave ac voltage controller (Bidirectional Controller) using SCRs
The thyristor T1 is forward biased during the positive half cycle of the input supply voltage. The thyristor T1 is triggered at a delay angle of ' ' 0 resistor RL and the output voltage vO during the conduction time of T1 from t
vS during
TU
radians . Considering radians. The load current the ON thyristor T1 as an ideal closed switch the input supply voltage appears across the load t to flows through the ON thyristor T1 and through the load resistor RL in the downward direction to radians.
CITSTUDENTS.IN
DE
NT
S. IN
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At
OJt
= :r, when the input voltage falls to zero the thyristor current (which is flowing
OJ! =
through the load resistor RL ) falls to zero and hence T1 naturally turns off. No current flows in the circuit during :r to
1r
+a .
The thyristor T2 is forward biased during the negative cycle of input supply and when thyristor T2 is triggered at a delay angle halfcycle of input from cot=
1r 1r
+a
+a
interval (spacing) between the gate trigger pulses of T1 and T2 is kept at :rradians or 180. At
OJ!=
2tr the input supply voltage falls to zero and hence the load current also falls to zero and
Instead of using two SCR's in parallel, a Triac can be used for full wave ac voltage control
TRIAC
+
ac
Vs =
suppl y
Fig 6.8: Single phase full wave ac voltage controller (Bidirectional Controller) using TRIAC
CI TS
I
I
TU
vm
Gate pu lse of T1 0 1g2
CITSTUDENTS.IN
DE
._.....__
Gate pulse of T2
Y111 si n wt
NT
+
I ;.....L..I wt 
S. IN
Res ist i ve
l oad, R
Page 189
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for
and
to 2
for
to
and
to 2
(i) To Derive an Expression for the Rms Value of Output (Load) Voltage
The RMS value of output voltage (load voltage) can be found using the expression
VO2 RMS V 2L 1 2
2
V 2L
1
RMS
CI TS
V
2 L RMS
1 2
TU
Vm 2 sin 2 t.d t
0 2
For a full wave ac voltage controller, we can see that the two half cycles of output voltage waveforms are symmetrical and the output pulse time period (or output pulse repetition time) is radians. Hence we can also calculate the RMS output voltage by using the expression given below.
v L 2 .d
t ; t to
DE
and t
2 2
RMS
vL 2 d
t ;
vL
vO
Vm sin t ; For
Hence,
2 L RMS
1 2
Vm sin t d
1 Vm 2 sin 2 t.d 2
Vm
CITSTUDENTS.IN
NT
to 2 Vm sin t d
2
sin 2 t.d
S. IN
t t
Page 190
Vm sin t RL
Im sin t ;
Power Electronics
06EC73
Vm 2 2 Vm 2 2 2 Vm 2 4 Vm 2 4 Vm 2 2 4
1 cos 2 t d 2
1 cos 2 t d 2
2
cos 2 t.d
cos 2 t.d
sin 2 t 2 1 sin 2 2
sin 2 t 2
sin 2
1 0 sin 2 2
V m2 2 4 V m2 2 4 Vm 2 2 4 sin 2 Therefore,
TU
0 & cos 2 1 sin 2 2 sin 2 2 2 sin 2
DE
sin 2 2 2 sin 2 2 sin 2 2
1 sin 2 .cos 2 2
CI TS
2 VL RMS
Vm 2 2 4
Vm 2 2 4 Vm 2 4
V 2 L RMS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
NT
2 cos 2 .sin 2
Page 191
S. IN
sin 2
1 sin 4 2
Power Electronics
06EC73
VL RMS
Vm 2 Vm 2 2 Vm 2
Vm
sin 2
VL RMS
sin 2
VL RMS
1 2
1 2
sin 2
RMS
VL RMS
Vm 2
VL RMS
Vi RMS
VL RMS
VS
CI TS
VL RMS Vm 1
0
VL RMS
VL RMS
0
The output control characteristic for a single phase full wave ac voltage controller with resistive load can be obtained by plotting the equation for VO RMS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
2 0 Vm 1 2 0 2 Vm 2 Vi RMS VS
Maximum RMS voltage will be applied to the load when 0 , in that case the full sine wave appears across the load. RMS load voltage will be the same as the RMS supply Vm voltage . When is increased the RMS load voltage decreases. 2 sin 2 0 2
DE
NT
Page 192
S. IN
VL
sin 2 2
Power Electronics
06EC73
Control Characteristic of Single Phase FullWave Ac Voltage Controller with Resistive Load The control characteristic is the plot of RMS output voltage VO RMS versus the trigger angle ; which can be obtained by using the expression for the RMS output voltage of a fullwave ac controller with resistive load. 1 sin 2 2
VO RMS
VS
VO RMS
VS
NT
6 0.896938 VS 0.7071 VS 6 6 0.44215 VS 0.1698 VS 0 VS 6
0.985477 VS
DE
2 3 5 6 ; 6 6
TU
VO(RMS) VS 0.6VS 0.2 VS 0
CI TS
60
120
Trigger angle
CITSTUDENTS.IN
S. IN
% 100% VS 98.54% VS 89.69% VS 70.7% VS 44.21% VS 16.98% VS 0 VS
Where VS
Vm
180 in degrees
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We can notice from the figure, that we obtain a much better output control characteristic by using a single phase full wave ac voltage controller. The RMS output 0 to a minimum of 0 at voltage can be varied from a maximum of 100% VS at 1800 . Thus we get a full range output voltage control by using a single phase full wave ac voltage controller. Need For Isolation In the single phase full wave ac voltage controller circuit using two SCRs or Thyristors T1 and T2 in parallel, the gating circuits (gate trigger pulse generating circuits) of Thyristors T1 and T2 must be isolated. Figure shows a pulse transformer with two separate
6.6 Single Phase Full Wave Ac Voltage Controller (Bidirectional Controller) With RL Load In this section we will discuss the operation and performance of a single phase full wave ac voltage controller with RL load. In practice most of the loads are of RL type. For example if we consider a single phase full wave ac voltage controller controlling the speed of a single phase ac induction motor, the load which is the induction motor winding is an RL type of load, where R represents the motor winding resistance and L represents the motor winding inductance. A single phase full wave ac voltage controller circuit (bidirectional controller) with an RL load using two thyristors T1 and T2 ( T1 and T2 are two SCRs) connected in parallel is shown in the figure below. In place of two thyristors a single Triac can be used to implement a full wave ac controller, if a suitable Traic is available for the desired RMS load current and the RMS output voltage ratings.
CI TS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
DE
NT
K2
Page 194
S. IN
G1 K1 G2
Power Electronics
06EC73
Fig 6.11: Single phase full wave ac voltage controller with RL load
the positive half cycle of input supply. The output voltage across the load follows the input supply voltage when T1 is ON. The load current iO flows through the thyristor T1 and through the load in the downward direction. This load current pulse flowing through T1 can be considered as the positive current pulse. Due to the inductance in the load, the load current iO
become negative.
The thyristor T1 will continue to conduct the load current until all the inductive energy
zero at
, where
TU
stored in the load inductor L is completely utilized and the load current through T1 falls to is referred to as the Extinction angle, (the value of t ) at which the
CI TS
of the positive half cycle of input supply to the point where the load current falls to zero. The thyristor T1 conducts from t to . The conduction angle of T1 is and the load impedance angle . The
waveforms of the input supply voltage, the gate trigger pulses of T1 and T2 , the thyristor current, the load current and the load voltage waveforms appear as shown in the figure below.
CITSTUDENTS.IN
DE
NT
t
S. IN
The thyristor T1 is forward biased during the positive half cycle of input supply. Let
Page 195
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is the extinction angle which depends upon the load inductance value.
CI TS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
Fig 6.13: Gating Signals
DE
Page 196
NT
S. IN
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06EC73
Waveforms of single phase full wave ac voltage controller with RL load for Discontinuous load current operation occurs for i.e., , conduction angle . and ;
CI TS
Note
CITSTUDENTS.IN
Fig 6.14: Waveforms of Input supply voltage, Load Current, Load Voltage and Thyristor Voltage across T1
The RMS value of the output voltage and the load current may be varied by varying the trigger angle . This circuit, AC RMS voltage controller can be used to regulate the RMS voltage across the terminals of an ac motor (induction motor). It can be used to control the temperature of a furnace by varying the RMS output voltage. For very large load inductance L the SCR may fail to commutate, after it is triggered and the load voltage will be a full sine wave (similar to the applied input supply
Page 197
TU
DE
NT
S. IN
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06EC73
voltage and the output control will be lost) as long as the gating signals are applied to the thyristors T1 and T2 . The load current waveform will appear as a full continuous sine wave and the load current waveform lags behind the output sine wave by the load power factor angle . (i) To Derive an Expression for the Output (Inductive Load) Current, During t to When Thyristor T1 Conducts Considering sinusoidal input supply voltage we can write the expression for the supply voltage as
vS Vm sin t = instantaneous value of the input supply voltage.
Let us assume that the thyristor T1 is triggered by applying the gating signal to T1 at t . The load current which flows through the thyristor T1 during t to can be found from the equation diO dt RiO Vm sin t ;
The solution of the above differential equation gives the general expression for the output load current which is of the form
iO
Where Vm Z
CI TS
R2 L tan
1
L = Load circuit time constant. R Therefore the general expression for the output load current is given by the equation iO Vm sin Z t A1e
R t L
TU
t A1e
2
Vm sin Z
CITSTUDENTS.IN
DE
t
NT
Page 198
S. IN
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The value of the constant A1 can be determined from the initial condition. i.e. initial value of load current iO and substituting t
0 , at
, we get V 0 m sin Z
R t L R t L
iO
A1e
Therefore
A1e
Vm sin Z
1 Vm sin Z
A1 e
R t L
A1 e
R t L
Vm sin Z
t
A1
Vm sin Z
By substituting t
R
Substituting the value of constant A1 from the above equation into the expression for iO , we
CI TS
iO Vm sin Z Vm sin Z t iO t iO Vm sin Z t
CITSTUDENTS.IN
obtain
TU
R
A1
DE
eL e
t R L
t L
R L
Therefore we obtain the final expression for the inductive load current of a single phase full wave ac voltage controller with RL load as
NT
Vm sin Z Vm sin Z Vm sin Z ;
Page 199
S. IN
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iO
Vm sin Z
sin
R L
Where
The above expression also represents the thyristor current iT 1 , during the conduction time interval of thyristor T1 from t To Calculate Extinction Angle The extinction angle t , which is the value of t at which the load current iO
0 , at
to
falls to zero and T1 is turned off can be estimated by using the condition that iO By using the above expression for the output load current, we can write Vm sin Z
R L
sin
sin
TU
radians, i.e., for t sin
CI TS
angle For
is the extinction angle which depends upon the load inductance value. Conduction increases as is decreased for a known value of . radians, for to . the load current
waveform appears as a discontinuous current waveform as shown in the figure. The output load current remains at zero during . This is referred to as discontinuous
load current operation which occurs for When the trigger angle i.e., when
DE
R
sin
CITSTUDENTS.IN
NT
e
R L
S. IN
e 0
Page 200
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; for the case when radians 1800 ; for the case when t to and provides a
Each thyristor conducts for 1800 ( radians ) . T1 conducts from and provides a positive load current. T2 conducts from to 2
negative load current. Hence we obtain a continuous load current and the output voltage waveform appears as a continuous sine wave identical to the input supply voltage waveform for trigger angle and the control on the output is lost.
vO Vm 2
vO=vS
Im
DE
Vm 2 VS ; for
iO
NT
Fig 6.15: Output Voltage And Output Current Waveforms For A Single Phase Full Wave Ac Voltage Controller With Rl Load For
CI TS
Thus we observe that for trigger angle , the load current tends to flow continuously and we have continuous load current operation, without any break in the load current waveform and we obtain output voltage waveform which is a continuous sinusoidal waveform identical to the input supply voltage waveform. We lose the control on the output voltage for as the output voltage becomes equal to the input supply voltage and thus we obtain
VO RMS Hence,
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
S. IN
3 t t Page 201
Power Electronics
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(ii) To Derive an Expression For rms Output Voltage VO RMS Voltage Controller with RL Load.
When O , the load current and load voltage waveforms become discontinuous as shown in the figure above. VO RMS 1
1 2
Vm 2 sin 2 t.d
Output vo
Vm sin t , for
to
, when T1 is ON.
1 2
VO RMS
Vm 2
1 cos 2 t 2
VO RMS
Vm 2 2
TU
t sin 2 t 2 sin 2 2 sin 2 2
1 2 sin 2 2 sin 2 2 1 sin 2 2 sin 2 2
VO RMS
Vm 2 2
CI TS
V O RMS Vm 2 2
VO
RMS
Vm
VO
Vm
RMS
The RMS output voltage across the load can be varied by changing the trigger angle . For a purely resistive load L 0 , therefore load power factor angle 0.
CITSTUDENTS.IN
DE
1 2
cos 2 t.d
NT
t
1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2
S. IN
Page 202
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L R
0 ;
1800
radians
Performance Parameters of A Single Phase Full Wave Ac Voltage Controller with Resistive Load RMS Output Voltage VO RMS supply voltage.
IO VO
RMS RMS
Vm 2
sin 2 2
Vm 2
VS = RMS input
RL
IS
RL
DE
PO IO2 RMS RL VS I S
RMS
PF
VS I O RMS 1
TU
PF VS
iT1 Im
VO
CI TS
NT
I O RMS VS sin 2 2 RL
2 (2 + ) 3 t
IT
Avg
1 2
iT d
1 2
CITSTUDENTS.IN
S. IN
I m sin t.d t
Page 203
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IT
Avg
Im sin t.d 2
Im 2
cos t
Im 1 cos 2 0,
2 Im
IT
RMS
1 2 0,
Performance Parameters of A Single Phase Full Wave Ac Voltage Controller with RL Load
CI TS
iO iT1 Vm sin Z t
The Expression for the Output (Load) Current The expression for the output (load) current which flows through the thyristor, during t to is given by sin e
R L t
TU
L
2
half cycles and the thyristor current is alternating and we obtain a symmetrical thyristor current waveform which gives an average value of zero on integration.
DE
Im 2 In the case of a single phase full wave ac voltage controller circuit using a Triac with resistive load, the average thyristor current IT Avg 0 . Because the Triac conducts in both the
RMS
NT
; for
Where,
Vm Z
= Load impedance.
tan
S. IN
sin 2 2 t
Page 204
IT
2 Im sin 2 t.d
Power Electronics
06EC73
= Extinction angle of thyristor, (value of falls to zero. is calculated by solving the equation
sin sin e
R L
Thyristor Conduction Angle Maximum thyristor conduction angle RMS Output Voltage VO RMS 2 radians = 1800 for .
IT
Avg
1 2 Vm 2 Z
Vm sin Z
NT
t sin e
R L
1 2
iT1 d
DE
sin t .d t
Avg
IT
Avg
TU
occur at
, where I m
Vm . Z
CI TS
RMS
1 2
2 iT d 1
Maximum value of IT Im 2
RMS
occurs at
IT
RMS
When a Triac is used in a single phase full wave ac voltage controller with RL type of Im load, then IT Avg 0 and maximum IT RMS 2
CITSTUDENTS.IN
S. IN
t
Vm
sin 2 2
sin 2 2
sin
R L
Page 205
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PROBLEMS 1. A single phase full wave ac voltage controller supplies an RL load. The input supply voltage is 230V, RMS at 50Hz. The load has L = 10mH, R = 10 , the delay angle of thyristors T1 and T2 are equal, where . Determine 3 a. Conduction angle of the thyristor T1 .
1 2
b. RMS output voltage. c. The input power factor. Comment on the type of operation. Given
Vs 230V ,
50Hz , L 10mH , R 10
S. IN
, 600 ,
1 2
radians, . Vm Z L Z 2VS
2 230 325.2691193 V R2 L
2
NT
10
2
3
Load Impedance 2 fL 10 Vm Z
2
50 10 10
2
3.14159
DE
3.14159 2 230 31.03179 A 10.4818
1
109.8696
10.4818
CI TS
tan Trigger Angle operation, we get
TU
Im tan L R tan
1
10
0.314159
17.440590
240 0
1800
2400
CITSTUDENTS.IN
Page 206
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sin
sin
and
Rad
Rad
Rad
60 17.44059
0
42.55940
10 0
sin sin
1800
17.44 17.44
radians,
Rad
1800
Assuming
1900 ;
0 Rad
1800
1900 180
0
DE
3.183 3.3161 3
sin 172.56
TU
0 Rad
1800
1830 180
CI TS
L.H.S: sin Assuming
1800
Rad
3.19395
R.H.S: 0.676354e
1800
L.H.S: sin
CITSTUDENTS.IN
NT
3.3161 0.129487
4
4.94 10
3.19395
2.14675 sin165.560
4
7.2876 10
0.2997
S. IN
0.24936
Page 207
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3.183
8.6092 10
1800
1960 180
3.420845 0.02513
4
3.5394 10
1800
197 0 180
3.43829
7.69
Assuming
180
DE
0
197.42 180
L.H.S: sin
TU
3.183 3.4456
197.420
600
CI TS
VO RMS
VS
230
3.4456
NT
3.4456 3.4906 10
4 4
4.950386476 10
3.2709 10
137.420
sin 2 2
230
2.39843
0.4330 0.285640
CITSTUDENTS.IN
S. IN
7.67937 10
4 3
Page 208
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I O RMS P O VS PF
10 3901.716 W
19.7527
0.8588
2. A single phase full wave controller has an input voltage of 120 V (RMS) and a load resistance of 6 ohm. The firing angle of thyristor is 2 . Find
Solution 2 900 , VS
TU
VO 120 1 2
VO 84.85 Volts
CI TS
RMS Output Current IO Load Power P O P O
CITSTUDENTS.IN
VO R
2 IO R
14.14
DE
120 V, R 6 sin 2 2 sin180 2
1 2 1 2
84.85 14.14 A 6
6 1200 watts
Page 209
NT
d. e. f. g.
RMS output voltage Power output Input power factor Average and RMS thyristor current.
S. IN
Power Electronics
06EC73
Input Current is same as Load Current Therefore I S I O 14.14 Amps Input Supply VoltAmp VS I S 120 14.14 1696.8 VA Therefore Input Power Factor = Load Power Input VoltAmp 1200 1696.8 0.707 lag
Each Thyristor Conducts only for half a cycle Average thyristor current IT
IT 1
Avg
Avg
2 R
Vm sin t.d
Vm 1 cos 2 R
DE
RMS
RMS
IT
TU CI TS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
1 2
Vm2 2 R2
Vm 1 2R 2VS 1 2R 2 120 1 2 6
NT
4.5 A
2 Vm sin 2 t d R2
1 cos 2 t 2
sin 2 2 sin 2 2
3. A single phase half wave ac regulator using one SCR in antiparallel with a diode feeds 1 kW, 230 V heater. Find load power for a firing angle of 45 0.
S. IN
t
Vm
2VS
1 2
1 2
sin180 2
1 2
10 Amps
Page 210
Power Electronics
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Solution
1KW 1000W , VS 230 V ; P O 4 At standard rms supply voltage of 230V, the heater dissipates 1KW of output power
450
VO IO
VO VO R
VO2 R
52.9
1 2
sin 2 2 sin 90 2
VO
230
4. Find the RMS and average current flowing through the heater shown in figure. The delay angle of both the SCRs is 450.
CI TS
TU
1220V ac
450 4 , VS
DE
SCR1
+
RMS value of output current VO 224.9 4.2479 Amps IO 52.9 R Load Power 2 4.25 52.9 954.56 Watts PO IO2 R
SCR2
Solution 220 V
Resistance of heater
CITSTUDENTS.IN
NT
io
1 2
S. IN
; for firing angle 450 224.7157 Volts
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V2 R
220 1000
48.4
VO
220
VO
220
209.769 Volts
VO R
Solution
TU
, load angle L R tan
1
5. A single phase voltage controller is employed for controlling the power flow from 220 V, 50 Hz source into a load circuit consisting of R = 4 and L = 6 mH. Calculate the following a. Control range of firing angle b. Maximum value of RMS load current c. Maximum power and power factor d. Maximum value of average and RMS thyristor current.
DE
tan
1
NT
0 6 4 56.30 1800
CI TS
impedance angle
Maximum possible value of is 1800 Therefore control range of firing angle is 56.30 Maximum value of RMS load current occurs when Maximum value of RMS load current
S. IN
4.334 Amps is equal to the load 56.30 . At this value of the
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IO
VS Z
220 42 62
2
30.5085 Amps
2 IO R
30.5085
4 3723.077 W
6711.87 W
VS I O
220 30.5085
PO Input VA
3723.077 6711.87
0.5547
1800 .
At
0, iT1 i O Vm sin Z Vm 2 Z t
IT
Avg
TU
IT
Avg
Vm 2 Z
But
CI TS
IT
Avg
Vm 2 Z
DE
cos t cos cos Vm 2 2 Z Vm Z cos cos 0
Vm Z 2 220 42 62 13.7336 Amps
IT
Avg
ITM
ITM
1 cos 2 t 2
CITSTUDENTS.IN
NT
0 and . t d t 2 d t
Page 213
Note:
iO
iT1
Vm sin Z
sin
R L
S. IN
and conduction angle Average thyristor current will be maximum when Therefore maximum value of average thyristor current Vm 1 d t IT Avg sin t 2 Z
Power Electronics
06EC73
ITM
Vm2 4 Z2 Vm2 4 Z2
Vm 2Z
sin 2 t 2 2
I TM
I TM
2 220 2 42 62
21.57277 Amps
Recommended questions:
CI TS
8.
7. The AC Voltage controller shown below is used for heating a resistive load of 5 and the input voltage Vs = 120 V (rms). The thyristor switch is on for n=125 cycles and is off for m = 75 cycles. Determine the RMS output voltage Vo, the input factor and the average and RMS thyristor current. T1
i. + Vs
TU
1. Discuss the operation of a single phase controller supplying a resistive load, and controlled by the onoff method of control. Also highlight the advantages and disadvantages of such a control. Draw the relevant waveforms. 2. What phase angle control is as applied to single phase controllers? Highlight the advantages and disadvantages of such a method of control. Draw all the wave forms. 3. What are the effects of load inductance on the performance of voltage controllers? 4. Explain the meaning of extinction angle as applied to single phase controllers supplying inductive load with the help of waveforms. 5. What are unidirectional controllers? Explain the operation of the same with the help of waveforms and obtain the expression for the RMS value of the output voltage. What are the advantage and disadvantages of unidirectional controllers? 6. What are bidirectional controllers explain the operation of the same with the help of waveforms and obtain the expression for the R<S value of the output voltage. RMS value of thyristor current. What are the advantages of bidirectional controllers?
DE
D
ii. 
CITSTUDENTS.IN
NT
a. R b. (load)
S. IN
+Vo
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in the problem above R=4 , Vs =208 V (rms) if the desired output power is 3 KW, determine the duty cycle K and the input power factor. 9. The single phases half wave controller shown in the figure above has a resistive load of R=5 and the input voltage Vs=120 V(rms), 50 Hz. The delay angle of the thyristor is . Determine the RMS voltage, the output Vo input power factor and the average input current. Also derive the expressions for the same. 10. The single phase unidirectional controller in the above problem, has a resistive load of 5 and the input voltage Vs = 208 V (rms). If the desired output power is 2 KW, calculate the delay angle of the thyristor and the input power factor.
CI TS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
DE
Page 215
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S. IN
Power Electronics
06EC73
UNIT7
DC Choppers
7.1 Introduction Chopper is a static device. A variable dc voltage is obtained from a constant dc voltage source. Also known as dctodc converter. Widely used for motor control. Also used in regenerative braking. Thyristor converter offers greater efficiency, faster response, lower maintenance, smaller size and smooth control. Choppers are of Two Types Stepdown choppers. Stepup choppers. In step down chopper output voltage is less than input voltage. In step up chopper output voltage is more than input voltage. 7.2 Principle of Stepdown Chopper
Chopper
TU
CI TS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
A stepdown chopper with resistive load. The thyristor in the circuit acts as a switch. When thyristor is ON, supply voltage appears across the load When thyristor is OFF, the voltage across the load will be zero.
DE
i0 + R V0
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S. IN
Power Electronics
06EC73
VI.
+t
VIR I.
Vde I de
=Average value of output or load current t0N =Time interval for which SCR conducts_
t0FF
V,,
e
=V
{ON ) = Vd
but
CI TS
R
I
=
de
v ( tON) = v d
T R
V0 =  v:dt T o
=V
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
DE
Page 217
v(
NT
S. IN
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06EC73
VO I O VO R VO2 R dV 2 R
Output power PO PO
CI TS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
V0 V tON V0 V tON
Methods of Control The output dc voltage can be varied by the following methods. Pulse width modulation control or constant frequency operation. Variable frequency control. Pulse Width Modulation tON is varied keeping chopping frequency f & chopping period T constant. Output voltage is varied by varying the ON time tON
DE
tOFF T tOFF
Variable Frequency Control Chopping frequency f is varied keeping either tON or tOFF constant. To obtain full output voltage range, frequency has to be varied over a wide range. This method produces harmonics in the output and for large tOFF load current may become discontinuous
Page 218
NT
t t
S. IN
Ri
V I dc
Power Electronics
06EC73
v0 V
tON T v0 V tON T
tOFF t
tOFF t
NT
FWD L
CI TS
For a continuous current operation, load current varies between two limits Imax and Imin When current becomes equal to Imax the chopper is turnedoff and it is turnedon when current reduces to Imin.
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
When chopper is ON, supply is connected across load. Current flows from supply to load. When chopper is OFF, load current continues to flow in the same direction through FWD due to energy stored in inductor L. Load current can be continuous or discontinuous depending on the values of L and duty cycle d
DE
S. IN
+ R V0 E
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Output voltage
NT
i0 R L E
Expressions for Load Current Io for Continuous Current Operation When Chopper is ON (0 T Ton) +
DE
I min R S L
TU
R L
CI TS
LS S
CITSTUDENTS.IN
S. IN
Discontinuous current t
V0
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I min e
R t L
This expression is valid for 0 t tON , i.e., during the period chopper is ON. At the instant the chopper is turned off, load current is iO tON When Chopper is OFF I max
i0
When Chopper is OFF 0 t tOFF diO E dt Talking Laplace transform 0 RiO L 0 RIO S L SIO S
CI TS
initial current iO 0 I max R S L I max IO S E LS S R E 1 e R
R t L
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
iO 0 E S
DE
NT
L E
Page 221
S. IN
R
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06EC73
The expression is valid for 0 ::::; t ::::; toFF ' i.e., during the period chopper is OFF At the instant the chopper is turned ON or at the end ofthe off period, the load current is
]min
=
At
t = tON = dT,
i0 t = J max
v _E r
_!!:_t
m ax
1 e
dRT
L
+Imine
dRT
L
t =1
r 
E[
R
1e
_!!:_t:
r
t = tOFF =
1 d T
1d RT L
CI TS
R we get, I
max 
E[ d RT ] d RT 1e r +1. e r mm
_ V [1 e dT : R _ RT 1e L
[  R E
L
we get, I V R
min
/T
e
1
r
RT
j
1
TU
_
 1e R
l_
E R

1 e
E R
DE
1 dL RT
At
t = tOFF = T
 tON'
io t = J min
NT
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06EC73
M =I max I nun
Average output voltage
c
J
de approx
Assuming load current varies linearly from Imin to Imax instantaneous load current is given by i0 i
0
M.t
dT
=J
. + ( J max  J min ) f mm dT
_1 dJ T [J + _J_max__J_nn_n _f dT 0 min dT
TU
2
CI TS
J CH
= va r;j J 2
[
mm
I I max min 3
+ J mm . Jmax Jmin
I CH
= JdiO RMS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
DE
12 dt
2 ]
1
Ji:dr dT
dT
NT
Page 223
S. IN
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06EC73
Ri
V Chopper
CI TS
VO V L dI i.e., VO dt
CITSTUDENTS.IN
The current tends to decrease resulting in reversing the polarity of induced EMF in L. Therefore voltage across load is given by V
A large capacitor C connected across the load, will provide a continuous output voltage . Diode D prevents any current flow from capacitor to the source. Step up choppers are used for regenerative braking of dc motors.
TU
Stepup chopper is used to obtain a load voltage higher than the input voltage V. The values of L and C are chosen depending upon the requirement of output voltage and current. When the chopper is ON, the inductor L is connected across the supply. The inductor current I rises and the inductor stores energy during the ON time of the chopper, tON. When the chopper is off, the inductor current I is forced to flow through the diode D and load for a period, tOFF.
DE
NT
S. IN
+ C L O V O A D
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When Chopper is OFF (energy is supplied by inductor to load) Voltage across L = V0  V Energy supplied by inductor L = V 0  V It0FF where t0FF =OFF period of Chopper. Neglecting losses, energy stored in inductor L = energy supplied by inductor L
Vft0N
V0
V
ItOFF
Vo=v(T tJ
Where
CI TS
of switching.
1
0
v = v[ to; jI
1V0
= V(1)
1d
Page 225
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
tOFF
DE
NT
S. IN
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06EC73
Performance Parameters The thyristor requires a certain minimum time to turn ON and turn OFF. Duty cycle d can be varied only between a min. & max. value, limiting the min. and max. value of the output voltage. Ripple in the load current depends inversely on the chopping frequency, f . To reduce the load ripple current, frequency should be as high as possible.
Solution:
V
CI TS
V
CITSTUDENTS.IN
Problem 2. Input to the step up chopper is 200 V. The output required is 600 V. If the conducting time of thyristor is 200 sec. Compute Chopping frequency, If the pulse width is halved for constant frequency of operation, find the new output voltage. Solution: 200 V , tON Vdc V 600 200 s, Vdc T T tON T T 200 10
6
TU
200 Solving for T T 300 s
Conduction period of thyristor T Vdc tON V 0.5 10 3 350 tON 460 0.38 msec tON
DE
600V
Page 226
NT
460 V, Vdc = 350 V, f = 2 kHz 1 Chopping period T f 1 T 0.5 m sec 2 10 3 tON Output voltage Vdc V T
S. IN
Problem 1. A Chopper circuit is operating on TRC at a frequency of 2 kHz on a 460 V supply. If the load voltage is 350 volts, calculate the conduction period of the thyristor in each cycle.
Power Electronics
06EC73
3.33KHz
100 s
1 f
Output voltage = V
200
Problem
Solution: VS d
TU
220V , R 20 , f Vdc Vdc
3. A dc chopper has a resistive load of 20 and input voltage VS = 220V. When chopper is ON, its voltage drop is 1.5 volts and chopping frequency is 10 kHz. If the duty cycle is 80%, determine the average output voltage and the chopper on time.
CI TS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
tON 0.80 T Vch = Voltage drop across chopper = 1.5 volts Average output voltage tON VS Vch T 0.80 220 1.5
DE
10 kHz
NT
300 Volts
174.8 Volts
S. IN
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Chopper ON time, Chopping period, 1 10 103 Chopper ON time, tON dT T tON tON Problem 0.08 10
tON T
dT 1 f
0.80 0.1 10
3
80 secs
4. In a dc chopper, the average load current is 30 Amps, chopping frequency is 250 Hz, supply voltage is 110 volts. Calculate the ON and OFF periods of the chopper if the load resistance is 2 ohms. Solution:
I dc
30 Amps, f
Chopping period, T I dc I dc d
CI TS
Problem
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
Chopper ON period, tON dT tOFF 4 10
DE
Vdc & Vdc dV R dV R I dc R 30 2 0.545 110 V 0.545 4 10
3
tOFF 1.82 10
5. A dc chopper in figure has a resistive load of R = 10 and input voltage of V = 200 V. When chopper is ON, its voltage drop is 2 V and the chopping frequency is 1 kHz. If the duty cycle is 60%, determine Average output voltage RMS value of output voltage
Page 228
NT
4 10
3
110 V , R 2 4 msecs
2.18 10
1.82 msec
S. IN
2.18 msecs
Power Electronics
06EC73
R v0
Solution:
CI TS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
Effective input resistance of chopper is V V Ri I S I dc Vdc 118.8 I dc 11.88 Amps R 10 V V 200 R 16.83 i I S I dc 11.88 Output power is P O
PO PO Input power, Pi PO 1 dT ViO dt T 0 1 T
dT
TU
1 T
dT 0
0
DE
0.6 200 2
2 v0 dt R
2
d V Vch R 10
0.6 200 2
V V Vch R
NT
153.37 Volts 1 dT V V ch R T 0
2
118.8 Volts
2352.24 watts
dt
S. IN
dt
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7.4 Classification of Choppers Choppers are classified as Class A Chopper Class B Chopper Class C Chopper Class D Chopper Class E Chopper
i0 Chopper V FWD
L O A D
v0
v0 V
NT TU
ig
CI TS
When chopper is ON, supply voltage V is connected across the load. When chopper is OFF, vO = 0 and the load current continues to flow in the same direction through the FWD. The average values of output voltage and current are always positive. Class A Chopper is a first quadrant chopper . Class A Chopper is a stepdown chopper in which power always flows form source to load. It is used to control the speed of dc motor. The output current equations obtained in step down chopper with RL load can be used to study the performance of Class A Chopper.
Thyristor gate pulse t Output current
i0
DE
tON T
CITSTUDENTS.IN
S. IN
i0
t
1. Class A Chopper
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2. Class B Chopper
D i0 R V Chopper E i0 L v0 v0
ig
TU
tON T
DE
NT
Thyristor gate pulse Output current
i0
tOFF
CI TS
Imax
Imin v0
Output voltage
CITSTUDENTS.IN
S. IN
t t t
When chopper is ON, E drives a current through L and R in a direction opposite to that shown in figure. During the ON period of the chopper, the inductance L stores energy. When Chopper is OFF, diode D conducts, and part of the energy stored in inductor L is returned to the supply. Average output voltage is positive. Average output current is negative. Therefore Class B Chopper operates in second quadrant. In this chopper, power flows from load to source. Class B Chopper is used for regenerative braking of dc motor. Class B Chopper is a stepup chopper.
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(i) Expression for Output Current During the interval diode 'D' conducts voltage equation is given by dio+R. E V =L 10 + dt For the initial condition i.e., i0 t =Imin at t
=0
The solution ofthe above equation is obtained along similar lines as in stepdown chopper
E(
At t I
= tOFF
max
= Jmax
=
nun
=
+ Ri0 + E
=1max e
_!1_, 1

CI TS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
E[ _!1_, ) 1 1e R
DE
z0 t
NT
= Imax
Page 232
v E [1e!!ctOFF r
J +I.e _!!:_tOFF r
S. IN
Power Electronics
06EC73
3. Class C Chopper
CH1
D1 i0 + R v0
V CH2 Chopper D2
L v0 E i0
CI TS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
DE
NT
Class C Chopper is a combination of Class A and Class B Choppers. For first quadrant operation, CH1 is ON or D2 conducts. For second quadrant operation, CH2 is ON or D1 conducts. When CH1 is ON, the load current is positive. The output voltage is equal to V & the load receives power from the source. When CH1 is turned OFF, energy stored in inductance L forces current to flow through the diode D2 and the output voltage is zero. Current continues to flow in positive direction. When CH2 is triggered, the voltage E forces current to flow in opposite direction through L and CH2 . The output voltage is zero. On turning OFF CH2 , the energy stored in the inductance drives current through diode D1 and the supply Output voltage is V, the input current becomes negative and power flows from load to source. Average output voltage is positive Average output current can take both positive and negative values. Choppers CH1 & CH2 should not be turned ON simultaneously as it would result in short circuiting the supply. Class C Chopper can be used both for dc motor control and regenerative braking of dc motor. Class C Chopper can be used as a stepup or stepdown chopper.
S. IN
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ig1
ig2
i0 Output current t
V0
4. Class D Chopper
DE
R i0 L v0 CH2 E + D1
NT
v0 D2 CH1 i0
Page 234
CI TS
Class D is a two quadrant chopper. When both CH1 and CH2 are triggered simultaneously, the output voltage vO = V and output current flows through the load. When CH1 and CH2 are turned OFF, the load current continues to flow in the same direction through load, D1 and D2 , due to the energy stored in the inductor L. Output voltage vO =  V . Average load voltage is positive if chopper ON time is more than the OFF time Average output voltage becomes negative if tON < tOFF . Hence the direction of load current is always positive but load voltage can be positive or negative.
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
S. IN
Output voltage t
D1
CH1 ON
D2
CH2 ON
D1
CH1 ON
D2
CH2 ON
Power Electronics
06EC73
ig1
ig2
i0 Output current
v0 V
CH1,CH2 ON
ig1
NT
Gate pulse of CH2 CH1 CH2
ig2
i0
DE
D1, D2
TU
V
v0
CI TS
5. Class E Chopper
CH1
D1 i0 + R L
V CH2
v0 D2
CITSTUDENTS.IN
S. IN
Average v0 t
Output current
t Output voltage
Average v0
CH3 E
D3
CH4
D4
Page 235
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v0 CH2  D4 Conducts D1  D4 Conducts CH1  CH4 ON CH4  D2 Conducts i0 CH3  CH2 ON CH2  D4 Conducts
CI TS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
The source inductance should be as small as possible to limit the transient voltage. Also source inductance may cause commutation problem for the chopper. Usually an input filter is used to overcome the problem of source inductance. The load ripple current is inversely proportional to load inductance and chopping frequency. Peak load current depends on load inductance. To limit the load ripple current, a smoothing inductor is connected in series with the load. 7. 5 Impulse Commutated Chopper Impulse commutated choppers are widely used in high power circuits where load fluctuation is not large. This chopper is also known as Parallel capacitor turnoff chopper Voltage commutated chopper
Page 236
TU
Class E is a four quadrant chopper When CH1 and CH4 are triggered, output current iO flows in positive direction through CH1 and CH4, and with output voltage vO = V. This gives the first quadrant operation. When both CH1 and CH4 are OFF, the energy stored in the inductor L drives iO through D2 and D3 in the same direction, but output voltage vO = V. Therefore the chopper operates in the fourth quadrant. When CH2 and CH3 are triggered, the load current iO flows in opposite direction & output voltage vO = V. Since both iO and vO are negative, the chopper operates in third quadrant. When both CH2 and CH3 are OFF, the load current iO continues to flow in the same direction D1 and D4 and the output voltage vO = V. Therefore the chopper operates in second quadrant as vO is positive but iO is negative.
DE
NT
S. IN
Power Electronics
06EC73
Classical chopper. LS
+ a + C b _ iC VS
T1
iT1 IL + L O A D
T2
FWD
vO
D1
Mode1 Operation
TU
LS + + VC
CI TS
DE
T1
To start the circuit, capacitor C is initially charged with polarity (with plate a positive) by triggering the thyristor T2. Capacitor C gets charged through VS, C, T2 and load. As the charging current decays to zero thyristor T2 will be turnedoff. With capacitor charged with plate a positive the circuit is ready for operation. Assume that the load current remains constant during the commutation process. For convenience the chopper operation is divided into five modes. Mode1 Mode2 Mode3 Mode4 Mode5
_C
NT
IL iC L D1
VS
Thyristor T1 is fired at t = 0. The supply voltage comes across the load. Load current IL flows through T1 and load. At the same time capacitor discharges through T1, D1, L1, & C and the capacitor reverses its voltage. This reverse voltage on capacitor is held constant by diode D1.
CITSTUDENTS.IN
S. IN
L O A D
Page 237
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06EC73
IL + VS LS VC +
_
C T2
CI TS
Circuit turnoff time is given by VC C tC IL Where I L is load current. t C depends on load current, it must be designed
for the worst case condition which occur at the maximum value of load current and minimum value of capacitor voltage.
The total time required for the capacitor to discharge and recharge is called the commutation time and it is given by At the end of Mode2 capacitor has recharged to VS and the freewheeling diode starts conducting.
CITSTUDENTS.IN
TU
Thyristor T2 is now fired to commutate thyristor T1. When T2 is ON capacitor voltage reverse biases T1 and turns if off. The capacitor discharges through the load from V to 0. Discharge time is known as circuit turnoff time Capacitor recharges back to the supply voltage (with plate a positive). This time is called the recharging time and is given by
DE
NT
Page 238
S. IN
IL L O A D
Power Electronics
06EC73
Mode3 Operation
IL + VS FWD LS VS + IL T2 L O A D
_C
FWD starts conducting and the load current decays. The energy stored in source inductance LS is transferred to capacitor. Hence capacitor charges to a voltage higher than supply voltage, T2 naturally turns off. The instantaneous capacitor voltage is VC t Where
S
VS
IL
LS sin C
1 LS C
Mode4 Operation
CI TS
+
TU
LS + IL D1 L FWD L O A D VC
VS
Capacitor has been overcharged i.e. its voltage is above supply voltage. Capacitor starts discharging in reverse direction. Hence capacitor current becomes negative. The capacitor discharges through LS, VS, FWD, D1 and L.
CITSTUDENTS.IN
DE
_C
Page 239
NT
S. IN
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06EC73
When this current reduces to zero D1 will stop conducting and the capacitor voltage will be same as the supply voltage.
Mode5 Operation
IL FWD L O A D
Both thyristors are off and the load current flows through the FWD. This mode will end once thyristor T1 is fired.
ic 0 Ip iT1 IL 0
Capacitor Current IL
NT
t
Output Voltage
CI TS
TU
v T1 Vc 0 vo Vs+Vc Vs vc Vc Capacitor Voltage V c
DE
Ip tc
Current through T 1
td
CITSTUDENTS.IN
S. IN
t
Voltage across T1 t t t
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Disadvantages A starting circuit is required and the starting circuit should be such that it triggers thyristor T2 first. Load voltage jumps to almost twice the supply voltage when the commutation is initiated. The discharging and charging time of commutation capacitor are dependent on the load current and this limits high frequency operation, especially at low load current. Chopper cannot be tested without connecting load. Thyristor T1 has to carry load current as well as resonant current resulting in increasing its peak current rating.
Recommended questions:
CI TS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
1. Explain the principle of operation of a chopper. Briefly explain timeratio control and PWM as applied to chopper 2. Explain the working of step down shopper. Determine its performance factors, VA, Vo rms, efficiency and Ri the effective input resistane 3. Explain the working of step done chopper for RLE load. Obtain the expressions for minimum load current I1max load current I2, peak peak load ripple current di avg value of load current Ia, the rms load current Io and Ri. 4. Give the classification of stem down converters. Explain with the help of circuit diagram onequadrant and four quadrant converters. 5. The step down chopper has a resistive load of R=10ohm and the input voltage is Vs=220V. When the converter switch remain ON its voltage drop is Vch=2V and the chopping frequency is 1 KHz. If the duty cycle is 50% determine a) the avg output voltage VA, b) the rms output voltage Vo c) the converter efficiency d) the effective input resistance Ri of the converter. 6. Explain the working of stepup chopper. Determine its performance factors.
TU
DE
NT
S. IN
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UNIT8
INVERTERS
The converters which converts the power into ac power popularly known as the inverters,. The application areas for the inverters include the uninterrupted power supply (UPS), the ac motor speed controllers, etc.
CI TS
CITSTUDENTS.IN
Typical applications Uninterruptible power supply (UPS), Industrial (induction motor) drives, Traction, HVDC. 8.1 Classification of Inverters There are different basis of classification of inverters. Inverters are broadly classified as current source inverter and voltage source inverters. Moreover it can be classified on the basis of devices used (SCR or gate commutation devices), circuit configuration (half bridge or full bridge), nature of output voltage (square, quasi square or sine wave), type of circuit (switched mode PWM or resonant converters) etc.
8.2 Principle of Operation: 1. The principle of single phase transistorised inverters can be explained with the help of Fig. 8.2. The configuration is known as the half bridge configuration. 2. The transistor Q1 is turned on for a time T0/2, which makes the instantaneous voltage across the load Vo = V12. 3. If transistor Q2 is turned on at the instant T0/2 by turning Q1 off then V/2 appears across the load.
Page 242
TU
The thyristorised inverters use SCRs as power switches. Because the input source of power is pure de in nature, forced commutation circuit is an essential part of thyristorised inverters. The commutation circuits must be carefully designed to ensure a successful commutation of SCRs. The addition of the commutation circuit makes the thyristorised inverters bulky and costly. The size and the cost of the circuit can be reduced to some extent if the operating frequency is increased but then the inverter grade thyristors which are special thyristors manufactured to operate at a higher frequency must be used, which are costly.
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The inverters can be classified based on a number of factors like, the nature of output waveform (sine, square, quasi square, PWM etc), the power devices being used (thyristor transistor, MOSFETs IGBTs), the configuration being used, (series. parallel, half bridge, Full bridge), the type of commutation circuit that is being employed and Voltage source and current source inverters.
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Operation with inductive load:
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Fig. Load voltage and current waveforms with resistive load for half bridge inverter.
Let us divide the operation into four intervals. We start explanation from the second lime interval II to t2 because at the beginning of this interval transistor Q1 will start conducting. Interval II (tl  t2): Q1 is turned on at instant t l, the load voltage is equal to + V/2 and the positive load current increases gradually. At instant t2 the load current reaches the peak
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value. The transistor Q1 is turned off at this instant. Due to the same polarity of load voltage and load current the energy is stored by the load. Refer Fig. 8.3(a).
Interval III (t2 t3): Due to inductive load, the load current direction will be maintained same even after Q1 is turned off. The self induced voltage across the load will be negative. The load current flows through lower half of the supply and D2 as shown in Fig. 8.3(b). In this interval the stored energy in load is fed back to the lower half of the source and the load voltage is clamped to V/2. Interval IV (t3  t4):
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Fig.8.4
At the instant t3, the load current goes to zero, indicating that all t he stored energy has been returned back to the lower half of supply. At instant t3 ' Q2 is turned on. This will produce a negative load voltage v0 =  V/2 and a negative load current. Load current reaches a negative peak at the end of this interval. (See Fig. 8.4(a)).
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Fig.8.5: Current and voltage waveforms for half bridge inverter with RL load
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Interval I (t4 to t5) or (t0 to t1) Assumptions:
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Conduction period of the transistors depends upon the load power, factor. For purely inductive load, a transistor conducts only for T0/2 or 90 o. Depending on the load power factor, that conduction period of the transistor will vary between 90 to 180 0 ( 1800 for purely resistive load). 8.4 Fourier analysis of the Load Voltage Waveform of a Half Bridge Inverter
The load voltage waveform is a perfect square wave with a zero average value. The load voltage waveform does not depend on the type of load. an, bn and cn are the Fourier coefficients. n is the displacement angle for the nth harmonic component of output voltage. Total dc input voltage to the inverter is V volts.
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Fig.8.6
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and
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This is the peak amplitude of nth harmonic component of the output voltage and n = tan1 0 = 0 Vo (av) = 0
Therefore the instantaneous output voltage of a half bridge inverter can be expressed In Fourier series form as,
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Equation indicates that the frequency spectrum of the output voltage waveform consists of only odd order harmonic components. i.e. 1,3,5,7 ....etc. The even order harmonics are automatically cancelled out. RMS output voltage
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8.5 Performance parameters of inverters The output of practical inverters contains harmonics and the quality of an inverter is normally evaluated in terms of following performance parameters: Harmonic factor of nth harmonic. Total harmonic distortion. Distortion factor. Lowest order harmonic. Harmonic factor of nth harmonics HFn: The harmonic factor is a measure of contribution of indivisual harmonics. It is defined as the ratio of the rms voltage of a particular harmonic component to the rms value of fundamental component.
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Distortion Factor DF
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Lowest order Harmonic
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8.6 Single Phase Bridge Inverter A single phase bridge inverter is shown in Fig.8.7. It consists of four transistors. These transistors are turned on and off in pairs of Q1, Q2 and Q3 Q4. In order to develop a positive voltage + V across the load, the transistors Q1, and O2 are turned on simultaneously whereas to have a negative voltage  V across the load we need to turn on the devices Q3 and Q4. Diodes D1, D2, D3, and D4 are known as the feedback diodes, because energy feedback takes place through these diodes when the load is inductive.
With the purely resistive load the bridge inverter operates in two different intervals In one cycle of the output. Mode I (0  T0/2):
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The transistors 01 and O2 conduct simultaneously in this mode. The load voltage is + V and load current flows from A to B. The equivalent circuit for mode 1 is as shown in Fig. 8.8 (A). At t = To/2 , 0, and Q2 are turned off and Q3 and Q4 are turned on.
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At t = T0/2, Q3 and Q4 are turned on and Q1 and Q2 are turned off. The load voltage is V
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Fig.8.8
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and load current flows from B to A. The equivalent circuit for mode II is as shown in Fig. 9.5.1(b). At t = To, Q3 and Q4 are turned off and Q1 and Q2 are turned on again. As the load is resistive it does not store any energy. Therefore the feedback diodes are not effective here. The voltage and current waveforms with resistive load are as shown in Fig. 9.5.2.
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The important observations from the waveforms of Fig. 8.10 are as follows: (i) The load current is in phase with the load voltage (ii) The conduction period for each transistor is 1t radians or 1800 (iii) Peak current through each transistor = V/R. (iv) Average current through each transistor = V/2R (v) Peak forward voltage across each transistor = V volts.
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Fig.8.10:Voltage and current waveforms with resistive load.
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8.7 Single Phase Bridge Inverter with RL Load The operation of the circuit can be divided into four intervals or modes. The waveforms are as shown in Fig. 8.13. Interval I (t1 t2): At instant tl, the pair of transistors Q1 and Q2 is turned on. The transistors are assumed to be ideal switches. Therefore point A gets connected to positive point of dc source V through Q, and point B gets connected to negative point of input supply. The output voltage Vo == + V as shown in Fig 8.11(a). The load current starts increasing exponentially due to the inductive nature of the load. The instantaneous current through Q1 and Q2 is equal to the instantaneous load current. The energy is stored into the inductive load during this interval of operation.
Interval II (t2  t3) : At instant t2 both the transistors Q1 and Q2 are turned off. But the load current does not reduce to 0 instantaneously, due to its inductive nature. So in order to maintain the flow of current in the same direction there is a self induced voltage across the load. The polarity of this voltage is exactly opposite to that in the previous mode. Thus output voltage becomes negative equal to  V. But the load current continues to now in the same direction, through D3 andD4 as shown in Fig. 8.11(b). Thus the stored energy in the load inductance is returned back to the source in this mode. The diodes D1 to D4 are therefore known as the feedback diodes. The load current decreases exponentially and goes to 0 at instant t3 when all the ener gy stored ill the load is returned back to supply. D3 and D4 are turned off at t3 Interval III (t3 t4) At instant t3 ' Q3 and Q4 are turned on simultaneously. The load voltage remains negative equal to  V but the direction of load current will reverse and become negative. The current increases exponentially in the negative direction. And the load again stores energy) in this mode of operation. This is as shown in Fig. 8.12(a) .
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Fig.8.11
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Fig.8.12
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Conduction period of devices: The conduction period with a very highly inductive load, will be T 014 or 90 0 for all the transistors as well as the diodes. The conduction period of transistors will increase towards To/2.or 1800 with increase in th1 load power factor. (i.e., as the load becomes more and more resistive).
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At instant t4 or to the transistors Q3 and Q4 are turned off. The load inductance tries to maintain the load current in the same direction, by inducing a positive load voltage. This will forward bias the diodes D) and D2. The load stored energy is returned back to the input dc supply. The load voltage Vo = + V but the load current remains negative and decrease exponentially towards 0. This is as shown in Fig. 8.12(b). At t5 or t1 the load current goes to zero and transistors Q1 and Q2 can be turned on again.
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Fig.8.13. voltage and current waveforms for single phase bridge inverter with RL load.
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lne rms output voltage can be found from the output voltage waveform of I Ill 8.13
vonns
2 Jv [To/2 o dt 1 
T/2 ]112
0
vonm
Founer seri es representation
J]'"
V volt
1.
2.
3.
4.
n l .....
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t nit
((I)
t} 
4V . sm n (I) 4V .
( C.O t)
4V .
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3 (I) I+ 4V . S
Sin
(I)
founcr erie!> for output \;Oitage of full bridge Jn1.crter is found on the amc lines a!> that of a half bridge inverter discu!'t:cd in the previous ection The hape of the load \Ohagc waveform of a bridge imerter is .une as that of a half bridge circu:t. except for the va lue of peak output voltage 1lte peak output voltage is ''V" \Olts here therefore the c pre ion for the output \Oitage m terms of Fourier series is expressed on the ">arne line..,, ic. .ubstllutc the v tluc of mstantaneous output voltage as V anstead of + V I 2. Inc m tantaneous Olltput voltage can be e pre cd in l ouricr series M folio\\ s :
(I)
3n
Sn
 Ini 1t
Sin
This equation indicate following thing: The output voltage waveform contam onl) the odd order harmonic components i.e. 3.5.1. . lhc even order harmonic Ci.e n 2.4.6...} arc automatically cancelled
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t of
..J
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In this equation Zn
hannonic component and !._V is the peak amplitude of nth hannonic \'Oilagc.
ntt
And
9n
tan 1 (nroL R)
Prob l
A single phase half bridge inverter has a resistive load of R voltage V = 24 volts. Determine (a) (b) (c)
(d)
= 3n
The rms output voltage at the fundamental frequency, The output power P 0
v,
The peak reverse blocl<ing voltage VBR for each transistor Total harmonic distortion THO The d1stortion factor OF
(e)
(f)
(g)
The harmonic factor and the dtstortton factor of the lowest order harmomc.
V
(i)
I 0.8
1t
Thoutput
flO\\
cr :
P0
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(iii)
1he average and peak current of each transistor. The average current
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P0
where
v0
P0
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VR
and
= (
12 ) /3  48 wan.
")
48 wan
T/2
NT
= V 1 fm
\OitS.
Soln.: Data
= 24 voltli.
R 3n
v0  V/2
:::; 24/3
V /2
= 4 Amp
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IT<
v
=2
Amp
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(iv)
v  24
VOlts.
(v)
TIJD  V 1 _
V 01 nns
The rms harmomc voltage
ao
lrms ( n c 2 , 3
L.J
y2
nnns
]112
to find
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v
=
0
L...J
n  1,3,5
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Vol rms n = 3.5 7
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a"
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v3 nns
2V = 3 7t 2
3.6 vol.
v5 nns
v9nns
v,nns
!'.54 volts.
VIIrm s
0.982 volts.
v,3 nns =
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112 
5 23 volts.
0.83 volts
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The circuit diagram of current source inverter is shown in Fig. 8.14. The variable dc voltage source is converted into variable current source by using inductance L.
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Fig.8.14. CSI using Thyristor
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The current IL supplied to the single phase transistorised inverter is adjusted by the combination of variable dc voltage and inductance L. The waveforms of base currents and output current io are as shown in Fig. 8.15. When transistors Q1 and Q2 conduct simultaneously, the output current is positive and equal to + I L. When transistors Q3 and Q4 conduct simultaneously the output current io =  IL. But io = 0 when the transistors from same arm i.e. Q( Q4 or Q2 Q3 conduct simultaneously.
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The output current waveform of Fig. 8.15 is a quasisquare waveform. But it is possible to Obtain a square wave load current by changing the pattern of base driving signals. Such waveforms are shown in Fig. 8.16.
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Fig.8.15: Waveforms for single phase current source
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Fig.8.16 Waveforms
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Fig.8.17 Load voltage waveforms for different types of loads
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Load Voltage: The load current waveform in CSI has a defined shape, as it is a square waveform in this case. But the load voltage waveform will be dependent entirely on the nature of the load. The load voltage with the resistive load will be a square wave, whereas with a highly inductive load it will be a triangular waveform. The load voltage will contain frequency components at the inverter frequency f, equal to l/T and other components at multiples of inverter frequency. The load voltage waveforms for different types of loads are shown in Fig. 8.17.
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8.10 Variable DC link Inverter The circuit diagram of a variable DClink inverter is shown in Fig.8.18. This circuit can be divided into two parts namely a block giving a variable DC voltage and the second part being the bridge inverter itself.
The components Q, Dm, Land C give out a variable DC output. L and C are the filter components. This variable DC voltage acts as the supply voltage for the bridge inverter.
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Fig.8.19. Output voltage Waveforms for different DC input voltages
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The pulse width (conduction period) of the transistors is maintained constant and the variation in output voltage is obtained by varying the DC voltage. The output voltage waveforms with a resistive load for different dc input voltages are shown in Fig. 8.19. We know that for a square wave inverter, the rms value of output voltage is given by, V0 ( rms) = Vdc volts Hence by varying Vdc, we can vary V0 (rms) One important advantage of variable DC link inverters is that it is possible to eliminate or reduce certain harmonic components from the output voltage waveform. The disadvantage is that an extra converter stage is required to obtain a variable DC voltage from a fixed DC. This converter can be a chopper.
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Recommended questions: 1. What are the differences between half and full bridge inverters? 2. What are the purposes of feedback diodes in inverters? 3. What are the arrangements for obtaining three phase output voltages? 4. What are the methods for voltage control within the inverters? 5. What are the methods of voltage control of Iphase inverters? Explain them briefly. 6. What are the main differences between VSI and CSI? 7. With a neat circuit diagram, explain single phase CSI? 8. The single phase half bridge inverter has a resistive load of R= 2.4 and the dc input voltage is Vs=48V Determine a) the rms output voltage at the fundamental frequency Vo1 b) The output power Po c) the average and peak currents of each transistor d) the peak reverse blocking voltage Vbr of each transistor e) the THD f) the DF g) the HF and DF of the LOH.