Smart Grid Technologies

In Indian Perspectives
Department of Electrical Engineering Delhi Technological University

Amit Singh 2K11/EE/008 Anurag Arya 2K11/EE/016 Bhotik Singh 2K11/EE/030

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. List of Figures…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………3 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………...........4 Relevance of Smart Grid to the Indian Power Sector………………………………………………………7 Overview of Smart Grid………………………………………………………………………………………………….9 Pillars of Smart Grid……………………………………………………………………………………………………..10 5.1 Integrated Communications…………………………………………………………………………………..10 5.1.1 Premises Network……………………………………………………………………………….……..14 5.1.2 Neighborhood Area Network………………………………………………………………………14 5.1.3 Wide Area Network…………………………………………………………………………………….15 5.2 Sensing and Measurements………………………………………………………………………………….16 5.2.1 Electric Grid Monitoring……………………………………………………………………………..16 5.2.2 Electromagnetic Sensors…………………………………………………………………………….16 5.2.3 Battery Monitoring Systems……………………………………………………………………….17 5.2.4 Smart Meter………………………………………………………………………………………………17 5.2.5 Phasor Measurement Unit…………………………………………………………………………18 5.3 Grid Optimization………………………………….…………………………………………….…………………21 5.3.1 The Foundation of Grid Optimization………………………………………………………….22 5.3.2 The Future…………………………………………………………………………………………….…….23 5.4 Autonomous Demand Side Management……………………………………………………….……..23 5.4.1 Approaches to Demand Side Management………………………………………….……..24 5.4.2 Autonomous Demand Side Management…………………………………………….……..25 5.4.3 Optimal Energy Consumption Scheduling…………………………………………….……..25 6. Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…….27 7. References…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..……….28

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LIST OF FIGURES
1. Informative diagram of the Smart Grid…………………………………………………………………………..6 2. Fuel wise energy generation in India……………………………………………………………………………...8 3. An overview of the Smart Grid……………………………………………………………………………………….9 4. The Layer Structure of Smart Grid………………………………………………………………………………..12 5. The communications Layer…………………………………………………………………………………………..13 6. Range vs. Data Rate representation of various parts of communication layer ………………14 7. A Smart Meter………………………………………………………………………………………………………………17 8. Schematic of a PMU module in microprocessor based DFR………………………………………….18 9. PMU function……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….19 10. Smart Meter with ECS…………………………………………………………………………………………………..25

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Introduction

A Smart Grid can be defined as an interconnected system of information, Communication technologies and control systems used to interact with Automation and business processes across the entire power sector encompassing electricity generation, transmission, distribution and the consumer. The idea of a Smart Grid is to make the existing grid infrastructure as efficient and robust as possible, through the use of intelligence and automation, by encouraging active supply and demand-side participation and by promoting innovative business practices and regulatory environments that provide incentives for efficient production, transmission, distribution and consumption of electricity across the entire value chain. The key objectives for developing and deploying smart grid technologies are as follows: 1. To improve efficiency and economy in energy conversion, transmission, distribution, storage and utilization. 2. To enhance security and safety in system operation by increasing the observability and controllability of the power grid. 3. To improve the reliability and availability of the power supply to the consumers. 4. To enable and promote the integration and utilization of renewable and sustainable energies. 5. To enable and facilitate demand side participation to increase asset utilization and return on investment. 6. To maintain and improve the quality of power delivery to increasing share of digital loads.

Smart Grids rely on many advanced applications to deliver benefits to the customers, grid operators and other societal stakeholders. Some applications or application areas that are considered core for Smart Grid are:
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1. Volt and VAR control 2. Fault detection, isolation and restoration (FDIR) 3. Demand response (DR) management 4. Distributed energy resource (DER) integration and management. 5. Wide area monitoring, protection and control (WAMPC) The first three applications are for electric distribution systems, which are medium voltage networks that distribute electric power at typically 33KV or below from the distribution substation to the service transformers at customer sites. Traditionally, the level of instrumentation and automation on the distribution systems is low, in contrast with high voltage bulk power transmission systems. The worldwide initiatives towards Smart Grid are placing a major focus on the distribution system automation due to the fact that distribution systems represent the last frontier for power system modernization. The distributed energy resource integration and management application is applicable to both the distribution and transmission systems. At the distribution system level, the distributed energy resources are small scale wind generators, community energy storages, commercial and residential PV cells, micro turbines, fuel cells and plug in EVs. At the transmission system level, distributed energy resources are the mega wind farms, solar farms, geothermal power plants etc. Collectively these applications address the key objectives of Smart Grid, with respect to energy efficiency, service reliability, consumer participation and sustainability. VVC aims to reduce the energy loss and manage peak demand on the distribution system. FDIR manages the detection, isolation and restoration of power to affected customers after the occurrence of faults on the system so as to minimize the interruption of service to customers. DR and DER management manages the dispatch of demand response and distributed energy resources to reduce the power demand during peak hours and/or shift some of the demand to hours of the day when the demand is low, thus improving the load factor of transmission and distribution assets. The WAMPC is an application for the bulk transmission grid that improves the situational awareness of thee power system operators and provides system wide protection, in contrast to device or
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component protection, through fast acting controls, to maintain integrity of the system and reduce the risk of large scale blackouts.[1]

Figure 1: An informative diagram of the Smart Grid

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Relevance of Smart Grids to the Indian power sector
The urgency for Smart Grids in India emerges from the key challenges that the industry is currently facing. India operates the 3rd largest transmission and distribution network in the world, yet faces a number of challenges such as inadequate access to electricity, supply shortfalls (peak and energy), huge network losses, poor quality and reliability and rampant, theft. The evolution towards Smart Grid would address these issues and transform the existing grid into a more efficient, reliable, safe and less constrained grid that would help provide access to electricity to all. Some Key Points: 1. India’s power needs are increasing exponentially. 2. India generates only 205GW of power and the demand is expected to be 800GW by 2035. 3. Transmission and distribution losses are about 20-45% [2] 4. Power shortages during peak hours. 5. Overdrawing from the grid which may result in grid failure 6. Power outages and improper load shedding. 7. Stealth of Power

Smart grid promises to transform the Indian electricity industry, yielding benefits such as:      A more reliable and stable supply of electricity Increased efficiency of the immense investment in electric infrastructure Increased capability to integrate renewable sources of electricity Reduced greenhouse gas emissions Increased capability to integrate renewable sources of electricity

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180000 160000 140000 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 2003 Thermal 2004 2005 Hydro 2006 2007 2008 RES 2009 2010 Total Nuclear

Fig2: Fuel wise energy generation in India [2]

Smart grid technologies can prove crucial in averting power blackouts. The July 2012 blackout which was the largest power outage in history and affected over 620mn
[3]

people could have

been detected and reined in if proper fault detection and control methodologies had been installed.

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OVERVIEW OF SMART GRID

Figure 3 : An overview of the Smart Grid

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Pillars of Smart Grid
The following constitute the fundamental framework on which Smart Grid is based:

1. Integrated communications 2. Sensing and measurement 3. Grid Optimization 4. Autonomous Demand Side Management

INTEGRATED COMMUNICATIONS Although there are various existing wired and wireless communications standards that can be applied to Smart Grid, design of the communications network architecture and protocols that can capture the characteristics and meet the specific requirements of the Smart Grid is crucial in order to provide an affordable, reliable and sustainable supply of electricity. Compared with digital data, electricity has the following characteristics that create challenges for the design of communication networks for the Smart Grid [4]: 1. Electricity cannot be effectively stored on a large scale. This is the most distinguishing difference between electricity in the Smart Grid networks and digital data. There are no mature technologies that can effectively store large amounts of electricity generated but not being used. 2. Electricity is mostly generated centrally and used locally. The generation of power is controlled centrally through scheduling generation for power stations by the utilities. The customers are fully distributed. Therefore, routing options in the network are limited and long distance transmission is common. 3. The quality of service (QoS) is the top priority in the Smart Grid. Unlike the internet, which uses the best effort delivery service, QoS is crucial in order to satisfy the demand of the consumers at any time in the Smart Grid. The Smart Grid should be capable of monitoring and forecasting the consumers peak demand so that power can be scheduled for generation, transmission and distribution to meet the demand.

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The objective of the communications network in smart grid is to provide bi-directional endto-end communications between the utilities and the appliances. The typical requirements of communication networks in the Smart Grid can be summarized as follows[5,6]: 1. Reliability: The networks must be able to provide reliable communications that coincide with or exceed the reliability of the power grid itself. 2. Scalability: The networks are expected to last decades and serve an ever increasing number of household appliances. 3. Availability: Protection mechanisms, redundancy and fault tolerance with self – healing abilities must exist to guarantee a high availability. 4. Security: The networks must guarantee end-to-end security including the complete privacy of the networks from unauthorized access as well as confidentiality of communications across the networks. 5. Low Latency: The latency requirements for some Smart Grid applications are very demanding (e.g. 10ms for tele-protection) which is far beyond telecommunications applications (e.g. 200ms for VoIP). 6. Hard QoS: QoS services must be provided for Smart Grid applications with predictable latency and low error rates. 7. Cost Effectiveness: The communications networks for the Smart Grid need to provide financial feasibilities and economics. The capital and operational expenditures must be low. 8. Standards-based and Interoperability: Standards on communication networks must be developed to enable interoperability. The above are some general requirements for communication networks in the Smart Grid. Specific network requirements vary for different applications in terms of bandwidth, latency, security and priority. To obtain a general idea of what the Smart Grid consists of , the system architecture is introduced :

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Figure 4: The Layer Structure of Smart Grid[6] The Smart Grid is divided into four layers: a. Application Layer b. Communications Layer c. Power Control Layer d. Power System Layer Each layer is a set of similar systems that provide services and interfaces to the layer above it and receives services from the layer below it. Under the applications layer, there is a two way efficient and secure information exchange provided. The communications network in the Smart Grid has a hierarchical structure consisting of the premises network (HAN, BAN, IAN) , the neighborhood area network NAN/ field area network (FAN) and wide area network including the backhaul network, the core network and metro network according to their reach and functions in the Smart Grid.[7]

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Figure 5: The communications Layer[8] According to various studies the communications network for the Smart Grid should be primarily Internet Protocol based (IP). The migration to IP brings a number of benefits to Smart Grid including simplified system architecture and control, end – to – end visibility, interoperability with different networks and support existing IP applications. IP standards can serve as the basis for upper layer applications, which enables applications to be developed without dependence on a specific data link layer communications protocol. This greatly reduces the complexity for developing upper-layer smart grid applications. Furthermore, IP has good network scalability. Any smart meters, house hold devices and smart appliances can be connected to the network IPv6 is recommended to be used in the Smart Grid, since the addressing would be a problem if the scale of the Smart Grid network expands fast. Although IP is expected to be used in smart grid, it is necessary to assess if the network performances and security meet the requirements of the smart grid.

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Figure 6: Range vs. Data Rate representation of various parts of communication layer[1] 1. Premises Network The premises network is of great significance to the smart grid, since it is the essential network dedicated to advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) and demand-side management (DSM) to realizes energy efficiency, demand response, and direct load control. The premises network can be further classified into HAN, BAN and IAN depending on residential, commercial and industrial environment. Therefore, the functions for premises networks vary in different environments. The premises network is connected to the smart grid via smart meters, providing energy management abilities for the consumers and the utilities. With the premises network energy consumers can manage energy from the demand side . The premises network also supports various energy services for the utilities such as prepaid service, user information messaging, real time pricing and control, load control and demand response. Various wired and wireless communication standards and protocols may be used in the premises network e.g. IPv6, ZigBee, Z Wave, Home Plug, Ethernet etc. 2. Neighborhood Area Network The NAN spans a greater distance than the premises network, providing communications links for smart meters in a neighborhood area. It connects several premises networks within
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the neighborhood area via smart meters at the customer premises edges.Depending on the tole in the utility network, the NAN can also be called FAN or AMI. The NAN becomes a FAN if it is connected to field devices such as intelligent electronic devices (IEDs). In this, the FN is connected to the power distribution network to support distribution automation. Alternatively the NAN can simply be viewed as a metering network that is a part of the AMII providing services such as remote meter reading, control and detection of unauthorized usage. The NAN is connected to the WAN using a backhaul network where data from many NANs are aggregated and transported between the NANs and the WAN.

3. Wide Area Network The Wide Area Network is the utility’s end of the network architecture. It consists of the core/backbone network, the metropolitan area network (MAN) and the backhaul network. The core/backbone network connects the utility backbone and substations commonly using optical fibers, which can provide high capacity communications and minimal latency. It has three actors: the electric utility, service providers and smart meters. If WAN is owned by the utility company, the term backbone is used, while for service providers’ core network is often used. The backhaul network is the link between the WAN and the NAN providing broadband connectivity to the NAN. It is also connected to distribution substation LANs, mobile workforces, automation and monitoring devices in the power transmission and distribution systems including SCADA, RTU, PMU and other sensors. WAN in the Smart Grid is connected to transmission substation LANs, the utility enterprise LANs and the public internet. The transmission substation LAN consists of interconnected transmission stations with protection and control devices in order to provide substation automation. The utility enterprise LANs enable utility controls and operations. It is used for the utility to manage, monitor and control the information flows from the smart meters, SCADA, substations and other information flows to control, manage and supervise the utility’s assets, processes and services such as substation automation, field devices automation, metering, billing, outage management, demand response and load control. The WAN is connected to the public internet using secure communications, which enables third parties to participate in smart
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grid activities. In WAN, the main service is to transport the Smart Grid data reliably and efficiently to distant sites. Therefore the network devices are mainly switches and routers that transport data at a lower layer to reduce costs. The optical communication standards and protocols in the MAC/PHY layer include MPLS (multi protocol label switching), MPLS-TP (multi protocol label switching- transport profile), synchronous optical network (SONET), synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH), optical transport network (OTN), Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and Metro-Ethernet. These technologies can provide reliable long distance connectivity up to several thousand kilometers for data transport services in the Smart Grid to support upper layer applications. In addition, wireless technologies such as 3G/LTE and WiMAX sometimes can be a good complement due to ease of deployment and proven reliability.

SENSING AND MEASUREMENT Smart Grids feature enhanced power system measurements that enable the transformation of data into information. The devices installed, evaluate the health of equipment, the integrity of the grid and support advanced protective relaying. Some of the new sensing technologies include: 1. Electric Grid Monitoring Research and Development is underway to develop low-cost, rapidly deployable, self-powering transmission line monitors that relay line operational status from remote locations wirelessly. Measurement and monitoring of power flow and direction can be performed easily. 2. Electromagnetic Sensors EM sensing technology—ultra-low noise, low-frequency electromagnetic sensing systems and services—has been used for applications such as lightning detection, electrostatic hazard monitoring, and underground facility detection.

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3. Battery Monitoring Systems Batteries are used in substations and generation plants as auxiliary power when grid power is unavailable. Batteries are a high-maintenance item and advances in low-cost monitoring help to minimize battery failures. Monitors can now check cell health, specific gravity, liquid level, cell voltage, and charge/discharge characteristics.

Smart grid intends to revolutionize the way power is measured presently. It will introduce variable pricing depending upon load conditions . Some advanced measuring instruments are: a. Smart Meters A smart meter is usually an electrical meter that records consumption of electric energy in intervals of an hour or less and communicates that information at least daily back to the utility for monitoring and billing purposes.[7] Smart meters enable two-way communication between the meter and the central system. Unlike home energy monitors, smart meters can gather data for remote reporting. Such an advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) differs from traditional automatic meter reading (AMR) in that it enables two-way communications with the meter. [9]

Figure 7: A Smart Meter[9]

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Provide interface between the utility and its customers: bi-direction control Advanced functionality Real-time electricity pricing Accurate load characterization Outage detection/restoration

b. Phasor Measurement Units Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) technology provides phasor information (both magnitude and phase angle) in real time. The advantage of referring phase angle to a global reference time is helpful in capturing the wide area snap shot of the power system. Effective utilization of this technology is very useful in mitigating blackouts and learning the real time behavior of the power system. With the advancement in technology, the microprocessor based instrumentation such as protection Relays and Disturbance Fault Recorders (DFRs) incorporate the PMU module along with other existing functionalities as an extended feature.

Figure 8: Schematic of a PMU module in microprocessor based DFR [9]

These phasor measurement units do real time vulnerability and health assessment of the grid.

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Figure 9: PMU function Working

A phasor is a complex number that represents both the magnitude and phase angle of the sine waves found in electricity. Phasor measurements that occur at the same time are called "synchrophasors", as are the PMU devices that allow their measurement. In typical applications phasor measurement units are sampled from widely dispersed locations in the power system network and synchronized from the common time source of a global positioning system (GPS) radio clock. Synchrophasor technology provides a tool for system operators and planners to measure the state of the electrical system and manage power quality. Synchrophasors measure voltages and currents at principle intersecting locations (critical substations) on a power grid and can output accurately time-stamped voltage and current phasors. Because these phasors are truly synchronized, synchronized comparison of two quantities is possible, in real time. These comparisons can be used to assess system conditions-such as; frequency changes, MW, MVARs, KVs, etc. The monitored points are preselected through various studies to make extremely accurate phase angle measurements to indicate shifts in system (grid) stability. The phasor data is collected either on-site or at centralized locations using Phasor Data Concentrator technologies. The data is then transmitted to a regional monitoring system which is maintained by the local Independent System Operator (ISO). These ISO's will monitor phasor data from individual PMU's or from as many as 150 PMU's - this monitoring provides an

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accurate means of establishing controls for power flow from multiple energy generation sources (nuclear, coal, wind, etc). Invalid PMU measurements are filtered and only reliable PMU measurements are used. This increases reliability and accuracy of estimation. Estimation of line parameters (R, X, Y) for all lines whose parameters need to be updated is performed at a given time interval (such as every 2-5 minutes or even shorter). The PMU devices can provide synchronized phasor data rate at 20-40 samples per second or even faster and thus there are considerable sampling data available in a given interval. The rate of waveform sampling can be as high as 3000 samples per second or higher. The benefit of frequent parameter estimation is twofold. The parameters can be updated as often as needed in a real-time manner and their constancy within a short time is utilized to filter invalid measurements.[1] Estimating parameters Rij, Xij and Y [1] The parameter Y is re-estimated by the average of M estimated Y values calculated using M reliable sets of measurements in the filtering process : Y (estimated) = Where Yk (new) is the value calculated using the measured reactive power flow at the two buses and the estimated line loss. The parameters Rij and Xij are also re-estimated first by averaging over M reliable sets of measurements obtained in the filtering process i.e. Rij (estimated) = Xij (estimated) = Where Rijk (new) and Xijk (new) are the values calculated from the filtering measurements. The standard deviations are then calculated. If either Rij (standard deviation) / Rij(Estimated) or Xij (standard deviation) / Xij(Estimated) are larger than a threshold value then the estimated values are abandoned and parameters are calculated using a different approach. The threshold is selected at normally half the threshold for filtering accuracy. Then the values of R and X are finally re-estimated taking the average of the values of the two processes undertaken.

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In the above derivation, it is assumed that the three phases are symmetrical and therefore a single phase model has been used in power flow modeling. Similar to measurements in supervisory control and data acquisition systems (SCADA), PMU devices provide separate measurements of phase A, B and C which may have slight differences among them. Total real and reactive power flows of the three phases can be obtained using summation of the power flows that are calculated from measured voltage and current phasors of three individual phases. Grid Optimization “A smart grid is an optimized grid.” The term “smart grid” has been used to describe a broad range of technologies, design concepts and operating practices that collectively paint an exciting picture of what our electric power infrastructure might look like in ten or twenty years. But what about the grid we have today? Certainly one of the most important attributes of a smart grid is the ability to wring more out of the assets currently deployed throughout our electricity delivery system. That is the essence of optimization. The benefits of grid optimization are: − − − − To get more out of the existing infrastructure and thus defer investments in new generation, transmission and distribution facilities To reduce the overall cost of delivering power to end users To improve reliable delivery of power to end users To reduce resource usage and by extension, emissions of CO2 and other pollutants

Running through all of these is the concept of efficiency, whether in an economic or physical sense. So, how do we go about improving the efficiency of our power grid, short of wholesale replacements of aging equipment and massive investments in the latest technologies? In short, what can be done now to make the grid operate better? What does “efficiency” mean for a power grid? Efficiency at the utility level is often overlooked outside of industry circles , in particular the substantial gains that could be made in the efficiency of power transmission and distribution systems. Grid efficiency comes down largely to “line losses,” the amount of power leaving a generation plant that is lost on the way to our homes and businesses. Losses in the transmission and distribution system of 6 to 8 percent are typical even in the world’s most advanced countries, and they can run e ven higher.

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In 2009, a total of 219.8 billion kWh of energy was lost in the Indian distribution system alone. To put this in perspective, consider that a 10 percent improvement in grid efficiency at the distribution level alone would have produced billions of rupees in savings based on the 2009. Reducing losses Improving the efficiency of power transmission and distribution comes down to two choices: you can reduce the resistance of the wires by making them larger or using better materials (not a practical solution), or you can improve the effectiveness of the flow of electricity. To address the latter, it’s important to understand one technical concept and that is the difference between active and reactive power. Real power is what we use to run our lights, computers and production lines. It’s the power the “does the work.” Reactive power does not contribute anything to doing work, but it does cause conductors to heat up and it takes up a certain amount of “space” in the wires. The more reactive power flowing on a line, the less “room” there is for real power, and the less efficient the transmission and/or distribution system will be.So, to optimize the movement of electric energy, we would ideally like to eliminate reactive power flows, or at least minimize them. Utilities do this today on their local distribution systems using devices such as capacitor banks or special transformers, typically located at substations or on feeder. These devices work to keep reactive power flows down , making the full capacity of the conductor available for the real power that will be used by our lights, TVs and refrigerators. This process is known as volt/VAr control. The Foundation of Grid Optimization (VVO: Volt/VAr optimization) Historically, Volt/VAr control devices have operated autonomously, independent of one another and without centralized coordination. This approach worked, but it left a good deal of efficiency on the table since actions taken by one device might have less-than-optimal results for another location on the grid or for the system as a whole. Advances in automation and communications have laid the foundation to make centralized, coordinated voltage control possible and in fact applications to take advantage of it have been in the works for years. The problem lies in the fact that the computing requirements for such applications to generate useful solutions in near real time are staggering. However, new methodologies and today’s faster computers have converged to make volt/VAr optimizat ion viable.VVO, as it is known, is an advanced application that runs periodically or in response to operator demand at the utility control center or in substation automation systems. Combined with two-way communication infrastructure and remote control capability for capacitor banks and voltage regulating transformers, VVO makes it possible to optimize the energy delivery efficiency on distribution systems using real-time information.

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The real breakthrough here is in the speed and quality of the computation. VVO uses advanced algorithms to identify the optimal operation strategy from millions, or even billions of possibilities. Arriving at that result fast enough to apply it in practice, in a day-to-day utility working environment, is a tall order. The result is improved efficiency that reduces the amount of power that must be generated and with it the emissions of CO2 and other pollutants associated with power generation. VVO also allows utilities to control costs better by getting the most out of their networks. The Future: More applications are being developed now that addresses not only the efficiency of grid operations but also reliability. For example, fault detection, isolation and restoration (FDIR) will require more components (devices on the grid and software applications) than VVO, and different utilities are likely to take different approaches to implementing this type of functionality. Similarly, managing large volumes of distributed generation resources like rooftop solar panels will take even more sensors, faster computers and more robust algorithms to manage the interrelated effects of so many devices on the utility’s system. For all of these applications, however, one component is vital: communications. The ability to move large amounts of data from disparate points on the grid is the key to enabling the applications that will in turn facilitate the widespread adoption of distributed generation and maintain (or even improve) the level of service customers expect. Of course, challenges remain. There are issues surrounding standards and interoperability, security, and of course cost to name a few. The long-term benefits, though, are compelling. VVO is only the beginning of a new stage in the evolution of our power systems that will make them simultaneously more reliable, more efficient and more economical.

Autonomous Demand Side Management
Demand-side management refers to various programs that are implemented by utilities to control energy consumption at the end user side.[10] These programs are used to encourage energy efficient energy consumption in order to balance supply and demand without the need to install new power generation and transmission infrastructures which are both time consuming and costly. In most cases, a residual load management program seeks to achieve one or both of the following objectives: reducing consumption and shifting consumption. [11] The former can be achieved among users by encouraging energy-aware consumption patterns. However, there is a need to shift the high power household appliances to off-peak hours to reduce the peak-to-average ratio in load demand. In general, the generation capacity of a power network is designed for peak hours in order to prevent service interrupts. Therefore, a
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high PAR in load demand leads to significant underutilized operation and energy cost inefficiency in the power system.[12] Most of the current residential load control activites among end users are operated manually. However, recent studies have shown that DSM needs to be automatic i.e. it should have minimum intervention by users. Approaches to Demand Side Management [1] There are two approaches to DSM in power generation and distribution systems: 1. Direct Load Control In this approach, the utility company or an aggregator can remotely control the operations and energy consumption of certain appliances in the household or in the industry for example lighting, thermal comfort equipment, refrigerators., pumps etc. 2. Indirect Load Control via Pricing Here, no direct energy consumption decision is enforced; instead, users are encouraged to individually and voluntarily manage their loads for example, by lowering their power consumption during peak hours. A wide range of pricing models have been proposed: a. b. c. d. Real-time Pricing Day-ahead pricing Time of use pricing Critical peak pricing

In all these methods, the key idea is twofold: first, allow retail prices to reflect fluctuating wholesale prices to end users such that users pay what electricity is worth at different times of the day; and second, encouraging users to shift high load household appliances to off-peak hours. Other common pricing models include: Energy Conversion Systems with Inclining Block Rates (IBRs) In IBR pricing, the marginal price increases by the total quantity consumed i.e. beyond a certain household in the total monthly/daily residential load, the electricity price will increase in a higher value.

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Autonomous Demand Side Management Technique Here we consider automated energy consumption scheduling done at smart meters as part of the advanced metering system. Each smart meter is equipped with an automated energy consumption scheduling (ECS) function. This ECS function is programmed according to the user’s needs. Then it automatically controls the functioning of the various appliances. All smart meters are not only connected to a power line but to a two way communication system as well.[11] Smart meters and users may be connected to the grid in different topologies either tree where each user interacts with only a single utility or another in which users interact and buy electricity from one another.

Figure 10: Smart Meter with ECS [11] Optimal Energy Consumption Scheduling[1] Let A denote the set of all appliances in the user household, for each appliance a ε A, we denote an ECS vector xa as follows:

xa = [xa1,……….xaH]
where H>1 is the scheduling horizon which denotes the number of hours ahead that are taken into account in the decision making process.
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Let Ea denote the total energy needed for the operation of the appliance For each appliance a ε A, αa, βa ε H as the beginning and end time interval in which the energy consumption of the device a can be scheduled, respectively. In order to provide the energy needed for each appliance a ε A within the given time interval, it is required that :

= Ea
And for h < αa and h> βa .

Let ϒamax denote maximum power level of appliance a. And ϒamin denote minimum standby power level of appliance a. Thus we have the constraints:

ϒamin =<

=<ϒamax

We can now define feasible energy consumption scheduling set Χ as X={x| = Ea and ϒamin =< =<ϒamax
∀ h ε [αa, βa] and

for h < αa and h> βa}

where x denotes the vector of ECS variables for all appliances. An energy consumption scheduling is valid iff x ε X. The resulting energy consumption schedule set by the ECS is then applied to all the household devices in the form of on/off commands with specified power levels over a wired/wireless HAN.

If ph is the hourly price, then the ECS is expected to select the energy consumption schedules to solve the following problem: minimize x ε X i.e. the ECS function in the smart meter should schedule energy consumption for all household appliances such that while they are operating within their feasible energy consumption ranges. Of course, the exact schedule depends on the choice of pricing functions which are assumed to have a non –flat structure (depending on time of day and total load)

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Conclusion
In a populous Country like India which is still on path of development and is struggling to provide for basic a necessity like power to its humungous population, A novel idea like smart grid, if implemented would change the fortunes of our power sector which are reeling under huge losses and unassailable demand of power. A Smarter Grid would reduce losses increase efficiency, improve power quality, and help integration of renewable sources of power into the grid. It will make power supply more reliable to consumer and keep him informed about his consumption in real time through better two way communication between the consumers and utility that smart grid induces in the grid.[13] Smart Grid will implement intelligent fault isolation and corrective measures thus reducing the frequent power outages prevalent in our country thus saving the numerous man hours wasted during power outages. Reduction in power pilferage will lead to better revenue generation and efficient generation to user transmission. In the end all we have to say is A Smarter Grid is one the many urgent steps that we have to take for a better India.

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References
[1] Lars T. Berger and Krzysztof Iniewski Smart Grid Applications, Communications and Security [2] Ashok Jhunjunwala Smart Grid in Indian Context [3] India Power Outage. Retrieved on April 14,2013 from http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/world/story/2012-07-31/india-poweroutage/56600520/1 [4] L.H.Tsoukalas and R.Gao From Smart Grids to an energy internet: Assumptions, architectures and requirements [5] E.Darmois Smart Grids: A transformational (standards) journey [6] Sonoma Innovation, Smart Grid Communications Architectural Framework, August 2009. [7] National Institute of Standards and Technology, The Role of IP in the Smart Grid, October 2009 [8] Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing. Retrieved on April 14, 2013 from
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1530-8677/earlyview

[9] Fatemeh Saremi, PoLiang Wu, and Heechul Yun Smart Grid [10] G.M. Masters, Renewable and Efficient Electric power Systems, Wiley, 2004. [11] A.H.Mohsenian Rad, V.Wong, J.Jatskevich, R Schober and A. Leon-Garcia Autonomous Demand Side Management based on game-theoretic energy consumption scheduling for the future smart grid. [12] P.Samadi,A.H.Mohsenian Rad, V.Wong, J.Jatskevich, R Schober Co-ordination of Cloud Computing and Smart Power Grids. [13] India Smart Grid Knowledge Portal. Retrieved on April 14, 2013 from
http://indiasmartgrid.org/en/Pages/Index.aspx

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