Analytical Study of Selected Book on Fun Rijal | Muhammad | Quran

CODIFICATION OF FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE) AND ITS PROBLEMS DURING CURRENT AGE WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ALLAMA IQBAL

Asim Syal, Umar Hayat (2004) CODIFICATION OF FIQH (JURISPRUDENCE) AND ITS PROBLEMS DURING CURRENT AGE WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ALLAMA IQBAL. PhD thesis, University of Karachi, Karachi. codification of fiqh, allama iqbal, fiqah, quran, hadith, ijtihad, islamic legislation, women€™s right Abstract Principles of Fiqh were introduced to solve problems in accordance with the time attempted to conform the principles derived from the Quran and Hadith to human nature Iqbal occupies a unique place among these scholars. His thoughts are based on the Quran and Hadith , therefore he is deemed to be an authority for codification of Fiqh. He studied deeply the modern theories & thinks their concordance with the fundamentals of Islamic civilization a mean for the success of humanity. In this background his ideas provides a base for answering the following these question:- 1 Conformity Iqbal€™s Conception of Ijtihad with the Quran and Sunnah 2 Views of scholars about his conception of Ijtihad 3 Practical implementation of his conception in current period and its results €œIqbal ka Taswwar-i-Ijtihad€ by Dr Masud motivated me to undertake this research.
If major religions believe that the divine resides, or at least guides each individual, they must not stop their ears from listening to others, nor close their hearts to the possibility that alternative and equally important forms of divine inspiration may be issuing from non-heteronormative persons. Furthermore, if these religions believe in that sanctity, freedom and intellect are divine gifts, it is incumbent upon them to at allow that sacredness, liberty and wisdom to flourish through avenues of discourses that respect the individual's right to read, compare, assess and decide. God is much bigger than the sacred texts and sacred traditions of major religions - in fact, those texts and traditions find their origins precisely in human experiences.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)

ANALYTICAL STUDY OF SELECTED BOOK ON FUN RIJAL (SCIENCE OF LIVES OF TRANSMITTERS)
., Samiyyah (2005) ANALYTICAL STUDY OF SELECTED BOOK ON FUN RIJAL (SCIENCE OF LIVES OF TRANSMITTERS). PhD thesis, University of Karachi, Karachi.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD) Subjects: Social Sciences(g) > Religious Studies(g18) Deposited Mr. Zeeshan Khan By:
Abstract Religious Knowledge among other knowledge�€™s is like a heart in a body. A

man devoid of this knowledge in the word of Quran is worse than animal. The developed nations, despite material progress, are deteriorating as far as morals and ether are concerned. Hadith is also a form of divine revelation as explained by the prophet verbally and practically. It explains the verses of the Quran. There is every possibility of addition and alliteration in Hadith as mostly significance of the words of prophet is transmitted. As Hadith is classified into Mutawatir (continuous) and Ahad ( single & isolated), it needs Jarh (contestation) and Tadil (Justification) of narration. It was duty of Muslims to keep traditions in their original form. Beginning of Sanad (Chain of narrators), its importance and utility. The chain of narrations started when one said; I heard this tradition from such and such companion of the prophet. Acceptation and rejection of hadith mainly based on narrators. To known trustworthiness or otherwise of the narrations to called science of the lives of narrators (Fun AL- Rijal). Seemed name of this science is AL-Jarh (contestation) Wa AL-Tadil (Justification). Ilm AL-Rijal is also defined as a science pertaining to the gradation of a hadith as Dhaif (Weak) and Sahih (Sound) by technical standards laid down for the purpose. Al-Jarh- Defects of narrator which make his narration prone to contestation and challenge. AL-Tadil. technically mean moral & behavioral quantification of a narrator which justifies his narration. Importance of Al-Jarh Wa AL-Jadil. It is this science which enable us to sift true from untrue. By protecting tradition, we protect Islam. It is incumbent upon the Muslims collectively to know this science in orders to achieve the aim & object of Islamic law. It guards the Muslim from evil. Rationale be kind selecting this Subject- The works on Ilm Al-Rijal are of different kinds. I have tried to collect them in my dissertation keeping in view their importance. The book on this science can be classified as under:-

1Biography of the companions of the prophet. 3Narrations mentioned according to the countries they belonged to 4Narration mentioned alphabetically I pray that this dissertation of mine may serve as guide for students of Hadith Is Islam a free market religion? “I made a mistake in presuming that the self-interests of organizations. a critical pillar to market competition and free markets. wherein they have been Judyed as trustworthily or otherwise 4Biographies of defector narrators 5Biographies of narration of special books 6Biographies of narration wherein their name and Surnames ---7Biographies of narrators who names are akin to one and other in writing but different in pronunciation. I still do not fully understand why it happened and. the beggars and the dispossessed have what is truthfully their due” – Al-Quran. And I think that. indeed. obviously. did break down. as I said.‖ – Alan Greenspan “and in their riches. 2Biography of the other authentic narrators along with the companions 3Biography of the General narrators. specifically banks and others. shocked me. 51:19 Is Islam a free market religion? . and. were such that they were best capable of protecting their own shareholders and their equity in the firms … The problem here is something which looked to be a solid edifice. to the extent that I figure out what happened and why. I will change my views. Subject wise Classification of above mentioned sources 1Narrators mentioned by their genealogies 2Gradation of narrations as companions and followers.

if not wholly unorthodox. Cognizant of the oppressive workings of an unregulated capitalist economy. Islam Without Extremes – which essentially argues that Islam is libertarian at heart – can be found in almost every major bookstore in KL. includes the working poor. but is in fact assured by the Quran. Because justice stands at the core of what Islam is supposed to be about. of course. Iqbal argued that Islam can be a ―middle path‖ for the unresolved problems . Their liberation goes beyond the mere occasional voluntary charity towards ensuring their voice in the governing process altogether within a polity that maintains a just economic system that would eradicate the oppression imprinted in a free market. Muhammad was also alleged to have said ―only Allah governs the market‖ when he was asked to regulate prices after some merchants were charging high prices for their products. Poet-philosopher Muhammad Iqbal is another interesting example. Ali Shariati for one believed that the Islamic faith is fundamentally about the liberation of the oppressed.It is odd that many Muslims are still vehemently championing a free market despite the global economic downturn it has caused. Not only did he lavish praise for the pursuit of profits. Islam was libertarian way before Adam Smith was born. Akyol‘s book. Other things I have heard include the claim that the Prophet tolerated the wealth gap. The oppressed in this case. namely among one or two personalities at IDEAS and their allies. Muslims and the economy The problem of course is that matters are not as simple as they make it out to be. The common libertarian Muslim argument emphasizes the simplistic claim that the prophet Muhammad PBUH was a trader. but lately we are hearing much more.‖[1] This became the basis for him to draw further daring conclusions: He added that the gap between the rich and poor is not only inevitable. encouraged individualism in the market and so forth. Consider for example.[3] These may appear to be bold. There was no place. he held that Islam provided the framework to envision a just alternative to free market capitalism. for the supposition that the rich should be special just because they are rich. the claim that Islam is in essence a free market religion would not be so problematic if not for the fact that one can easily point to counter examples and perspectives that argue the complete opposite. Mustafa Akyol who went so far as to claim that ―the sources and history of Islam point to a freemarket economy not a command economy. [2] Akyol also claimed that Muhammad himself was a libertarian. For one. in Shariati‘s philosophy. In fact. In other words. claims. I have heard the resonance of Akyol‘s arguments even in my conversations with Malaysians. but they are not rare.

Having a large gap of wealth between the rich and the poor – the gap that Akyol claims the Quran assures and by implication renders acceptable – is a clear breach of that ideal. Ibn Rushd was full of praise for Plato‘s Republic. Qutb in fact persisted to write and speak vehemently against the moral corruption inherent to the free market ethos. as Muslim libertarians can easily dismiss them for veering too far to the left. I have written a very brief piece on the progressive core of Islamic economics in another post. Sayyid Qutb who was executed after years of torture and imprisonment under Nasser‘s socialist regime.in socialism and capitalism. True. It is also an ideal of justice. as Akyol easily takes for granted. Justice by definition is social because it is about harmonious relations between citizens. [5] Anyway. claiming that ―wealth on one side and a lack of it on the other produces profound corruption. be it capitalist on worker or worker on capitalist. There‘re others: Ibn Taymiya saw nothing wrong with commerce but he condemned monopolies and endorsed price controls to ensure that goods are only to be sold at a fair value. it would suffice to note that the fundamental principle of Islam is social justice.‖ [4] He emphasized instead communalwealth which he felt was more Islamic and could be more effective in alleviating poverty. Let‘s consider then. the philosophy of economics in the history of Islam is a complex discourse. In other words. Did that eventually turn him to capitalism? No. for even a cursory reading of Islamic intellectual history will show the great extent to which it is notapparent. is constituted by balance and unity. . This is to say little of the fact that many notable figures in the history of Islam shunned material weatlh altogether for the potential spiritual corruption it can lead to: Abu Dhar Al Ghifari and Hassan Al-Basri are just two who immediately come to mind as this is being typed. Islam free marketers can make a good case for the virtues of the market. greater even than that produced by hatred and rancor. This is why Tawhid is more than simply a theological commitment. because Plato‘s ideal city denied private property to ensure the absence of greed and exploitation among its citizens. Tawhid. defined as onenness. perhaps Shariati and Iqbal are not the best examples. But it won‘t be a simple straightforward argument favoring the market‘s side. An economic system founded on Islamic principles will protect one class from the domination of the other. in the interest of balance. there is a more fundamental question we must reflect on: What explains the prominence of suspicions against wealth and the purported virtues of the market among Islam‘s greatest thinkers? A blogpost would not be sufficient to exhaustively explore this question but there is a shorter answer in the fact that Islam was never about a libertarian economy to begin with. Now. For now. especially via the corpus of Ibn Khaldun. that all of Islam points only to only a free market economy.

For this. which argues that Islam is essentially a religion of capital par excellence. I personally have serious doubts about its authenticity. Islamic Book Trust: Kuala Lumpur. compromise basic ethical principles. But he does this to his detriment as Muslim socialists can easily reply by citing evidences against Akyol‘s from within the Islamic tradition itself. examples of Islam‘s noble moral demands that would raise serious questions about how the effects of a free market – which have proven to create wars. The strategic ploy here is evident. as if that was what Allah and the Prophet Muhammad had intended for us all along. 136. [5] If Muslims have to pick a present day ideological partner. if not altogether disingenuous that Akyol would cite a Marxist historian. exploit workers. Pg. damage the environment.Tawhid in fact is one of the reasons why riba is prohibited. [2] It is ironic. they would gain much from engaging with social democracy than any other modern economic outlook. 53 Note: A friend recently posted an article on Facebook regarding a PhD dissertation in Al-Azhar which recently challenged the common claim that thehijab / tudung is a mandatory obligation for .can be accepted as negligible outcomes of a flawless ―invisible hand‖ at work. the beggars and the dispossessed have what is truthfully their due‖ (51:19). what and where exactly in the sources and history of Islam that Muslims are urged to establish a free market economy. Tawhid is the reason why manumission was so often encouraged. [3] Akyol does not cite the source for this Hadith although based on the censures against greed and wealth for wealth‘s sake that‘s spread throughout the Quran and Sunnah. since he was writing his article against Muslim socialists. On hijab and segregation: some notes about AlAhzab. There are many other examples. in my opinion. S. Tawhid is what is behind the Quranic insistence that ―and in their riches. and now shortchanging even the middle class . Akyol points to the work of Marxist historian Maxime Rodinson‘s seminal work ―Islam and Capitalism‖. [4] Qutb. Tawhid is the reason why the Muhajirun gave up their wealth to migrate to Madinah. ________________________________ [1] His argument is all the more peculiar when one begins to ask who. for it upsets the equality of what is loaned and paid. (2000) Social Justice in Islam.

would be an enormity in the sight of God. ask them from behind a screen: this will but deepen the purity of your hearts and theirs. behold. might give offence to the Prophet. with an ‗excellent‘ grade on top of that is indeed newsworthy. it was the first verse to speak of ―covering‖ women.Muslimahs. disperse without lingering for the sake of mere talk: that. It reads as follows: Muhammad Asad translates this verse as follows: O YOU who have attained to faith! Do not enter the Prophet’s dwellings unless you are given leave. my own limited opinion is that the hijab ultimately is a matter of personal choice. and when you have partaken of the meal. Lastly. Chronologically. Reading the article reminds me of my notes on verse 53 of Surah Al-Ahzab. Moreover. and yet he might feel shy of [asking] you [to leave]: but God is not shy of [teaching you] what is right. What I think is the real issue of concern is how women‘s clothing – or more to the point: women‘s bodies – end up being the battleground and tool of control and conformity for religious elites seeking to solidify their power. do not come [so early as] to wait for it to be readied: but whenever you are invited. I cannot claim expertise on the complex history of this verse. enter [at the proper time]. The phrase waraa I hijabin (behind a screen) also evidently evokes the hijab. now synonymous with the veil. In it the word ―hijab‖ is mentioned. It is purely legitimate for one to wear it as a mark of one‘s piety or commitment to Islam. but I think what‘s been said of its background and origins in some well known tafsirs is worth noting. the eminent Islamic university in the world. which I will take the liberty to post here. The Quran‘s demand to Muslims to speak behind a screen to the Prophet‘s wives is often read along with other eventual Quranic demands to women to cast their jilbabs over their persons (33:59-60) and to hide their ornaments (24:30-31) further adding to the idea that women are to be concealed as much as possible from the public male gaze. 53 The passage that is often quoted to argue for the segregation of genders is verse 53 of Al-Ahzab. verily. although not as an article of clothing necessarily but a tool of gender segregation. it does not behove you to give offence to God’s Apostle – just as it would not behove you ever to marry his widows after he has passed away: that. [and when invited] to a meal. . This argument has been made before by many Muslims activists and thinkers throughout the 20th century but that it is now acknowledged by Al-Azhar. —————————————————– Preliminary Notes: Al-Ahzab.] whenever you ask them for anything that you need. And [as for the Prophet’s wives.

in fear of stoking sexual thoughts among strangers towards the Prophets wives? Or was this a caution for their safety? Commentaries suggest that the latter was a more likely answer.[3] Many of those eventually left after the meal. we would not really understand ―the screen‖. without ever the need to quarantine or isolate anyone. Anas bin Malik also narrated that the Prophet had even hinted to his guests to leave. he was no elite leader living behind a gated community. [1] The first question is why the Quran would have to prohibit entry into the Prophet‘s house? Commentaries point to the Prophet Muhammad‘s wedding with Zainab Bint Jash as the context of this revelation. With so much traffic of people. The Prophet may have established a constitutional state in Madinah. or in actuality. a prudish request.Upon a closer look. during the feast. the fact that a revelation was needed to instruct the Medinan public on how to behave in the Prophet‘s house is telling of the way that the Prophet himself lived. advising and engaging them. full of rather particular contextual details. The Prophet being a shy man was hesitant to tell them to leave. Much of these details are of course left out in casual references to this verse. many of whom strangers. . [5] At any rate. it was also unsurprising that some measure of protecting the Prophet‘s wives were demanded. the absence of any revelation or narration addressing the need to protect the Prophet‘s property during the feast). warning. Historical accounts describe how he lived austerely with little possessions going so far as to deny his wives request for more luxury (hence. had let ―the righteous and the corrupt enter in on you‖. by standing up and leaving the room only to enter it later. curtains. only to find three men still lingering.[2] The Prophet had invited some friends to eat (according to Anas bin Malik it was held at night andclose to three hundred people eventually attended). It is. The Prophet was also known to be open towards others: he spoke to sinners. lingering). presumably. to our detriment for. however. That some of them may have even attended the feast was confirmed by a statement known to have originated from Umar when he was taken aback at how the Prophet PBUH. The Prophet is also described as shy. hence the mention of a screen. as the current Muslim mind would have to ask. without further context. mentioned. in and out of the Prophet‘s house. Al-Ahzab 53 is in actuality a complex verse. [4] Was this. for one. but a few more apparently stayed back to chat. There is a location (the Prophet‘s dwellings) and there are acts (meals. Put in more contemporary terms. but there was no moral policing in the way that conservative Muslims demand today.

p. 2008. but about how one ought to behave in the house of the Prophet. Recall that most if not all the wars that the early Muslims fought occurred only during their Medinan phase. p. Ibrahim was the first full-time Muslim faculty member at an accredited Christian Seminary. . 187) and (Maududi. In Memory of Dr. It appears that the verse. in a state of constant alert for any potential attacks from neighbouring tribes or the grudging Quraysh in Mecca. Ibrahim Abu Rabi & his Service to Risale-i Nur I wish to dedicate this post to my friend. Dr. [1] (Maududi. pp. Ibrahim was the one person responsible for this conference taking place. Fonts Vitae: Louisville. July 2nd. p. 1999. His death at the early age of 55 shocked many of us. Ibrahim was the Chairperson for the conference. Ibrahim told me: “how about if we have the next Risale-i Nur conference in Phoenix?” I was very happy for his encouragement of this suggestion. indeed. The idea that women needed protection because of the context of that time was part of daily life there.Hamka (1987) Tafsir AlAzhar Juzu’ 22. We all really enjoyed the presentations on the Risale-i Nur. p. 186) [3] (Hamka. Inshaallah. the Hartford Seminary. Islamic Publications Ltd: Lahore. IV. He and I were also in the company of Mehmet Firinci Agabey and Sukran Vahide. 2008. 1999. Pustaka Nasional: Jakarta. Dr. both arriving to the US from Turkey. Avul A‘La (1999) The Meaning of the Quran Vol. 133) [2] (Al-Wahidi. I was attending a conference at the Seminary in Connecticut. We should recall that Madinah remained a precarious and in many ways divided society. this year. Maududi. p.In other words: being the charismatic leader he was the Prophet was known to have been rather flexible about having guests frequent in and out of his residence. Dr. 2008. Dr. 132-133) Works Cited Al-Wahidi (2008) Al-Wahidi‘s Asbab al-Nuzul. I was coming from Phoenix. S. We pray for his family now. in 2005. Once. We also pray that his invaluable services to better understanding of Islam in the United States will continue. Arizona and at one point. 5764) [4] (Al-Wahidi. 1987. 187) [5] (Al-Wahidi. Saturday. Ibrahim Abu Rabi. His services to Risale-i Nur were outstanding. Dr. it was very sad news for all of us to lose such an exceptional scholar and important friend. first and foremost. to say the least. his soul will be blessed and rewarded whenever our team holds seminars or lectures in Phoenix. is not about the kind of strict segregation between genders that we find today. His sudden and unexpected death came while traveling to Jordan.

Ibrahim Abu Rabi. Du ri n g my servi ce as a vi si tin g profes so r at Harva rd Un i versi ty. bu t th ey di d n ot h ave h i s ph on e n u mber. We c on ti nu ed thi s discu ssi on an d con ve r sati on wi th oth er frien ds ov er breakfa st. He sai d: “He i s a fri e n d of mi n e. We will not forget him.” I a sked th em i f we cou l d pay hi m a vi sit. Tu rki sh stu den ts en rol l ed i n th e u ni versi ti es i n th e H artford r egi on i n vi ted me o ve r. we pass ed th rou gh a sea of green l i fe rej u ven ated afte r a h arsh wi nter. I repl i ed: “It doesn ’t matte r. After quoting him in a private conversation. Th ey sai d: “He pays atten ti on to u s an d ou r probl ems. I wi ll call hi m u p i f you wan t me to.” So we t ook of f. he brought so much good to very many people around the world. n ews o f u n ti mel y death s u psets u s. Th e re was n obody th e re ex cept th e peopl e passi n g by on th ei r way to ch u rch . On my w ay fr om Bo ston to Hartf ord. We do not know when death will find us and where. bu t they tol d me th at bec au se i t was Su n day. wh i ch was u psetti n g n ot onl y for me bu t al so for all hi s Ch ri sti an . Mu sli m an d Jewi sh fri en ds. We al l agreed th at hi s death was too s oon . I as ked t h e au di en ce wh eth er th er e was a Mu slim academi c th ere an d th ey men ti on ed wi th prai se a Pal estini an prof es so r wh o h ad been of g reat h el p to th em. l et’s do ou r j ob. B esi des. I a pp roach ed h i m an d asked i f h e kn ew Ibrah i m Abu Rabi . Dr. Th ey qu i te ri ghtl y tol d me th at it was Su n day an d th at e ven Ameri can Mu sli ms di d n ot want to be both e red on th at day bu t I was d etermi n ed to . Ameen.Needless to say. h e in vi tes u s to h i s h ome an d ev er ybody k n ows h i m h ere. Cahit Sıtkı was once more proved right. I saw som ebody comi n g ou t wi th a book i n h i s h an d. Abu-Rabi by İbrahim Özdemir Ibrahim Abu Rabi was my friend and mentor . I heard the news that he was dead. Hartf ord S emi n ary i s an i mportan t in sti tuti on an d I wo ul d li ke to se e i t. w e di scu ssed th e i ssu es an d o vera l l state of Mu sli ms an d Mu sli ms stu den ts i n th e Uni ted States.” I n oti ced th at my fri en ds we re a li ttl e embarrass ed bu t I wa s r eall y h appy. Th e wh ite buil din g of Ha rtford S emi n ary was i ndeed cl osed. at th at momen t. Osman Birgeoglu After a friend: Ibrahim M. May Allah increase His blessings on our good brother. Maybe f or th i s reas o n . T hi s was th e case wi th Ibrah i m’s death . Amon gst th is beau ty. I ask ed i f we cou l d h ead to Hartf o rd Semi n ary. I wal ked aro u n d th e buildi n g and. th ere was n o way th at we wou l d fi n d an ybody th ere. I m et Ibrah i m on a fin e day i n May in 1998.

th e Isl ami c moveme n ts in Tu rkey can n ot be an al yz ed an d u ndersto od. “Th e In tell ectu al Roots of Isl ami c Movem en t. I tol d hi m I was a prof ess or an d w ou l d li ke to meet h i m. w e wou l d come t oget h er. Sü l eyman Hil mi Tu n ah an an d even Feth u ll ah Gü l en. Th at’s ri gh t. To pr o ve h i msel f as a Pal esti ni an i n th e US h e tau gh t i n En glish . Du ri n g my s tay i n Hartfo rd i n th e year s to c ome . Th ere was i n con si sten cy betwe en th e titl e an d th e con ten t of th e bo ok. Zah it K otku . I real iz ed th at Ibrah i m came h ere oft en an d. bu t I th i n k someth in g i s mi ssi n g. An autog ra phed b ook We l oved each oth e r by th e en d o f th at day.” From h i s resp on se. most o f th e ti me. After wards.” wh i ch was l ater tran sl ated in to Tu rki sh . I a sk ed my fri en ds’ permi ssi on to wal k wi th hi m al on e.meet th i s gu y an d I wou l d take my ch an ces. a du ty I tri ed to perf orm wi th i mparti ali ty. I am comi n g.” Ibrah i m took th e off er wi th ou t h esi tati on .” He wa s th ere i n 15 mi nu tes an d th u s ou r fri en dsh i p started. On th e ver y sam e day. Th i s was th e pri mary r eas on fo r . It was li ke h eaven . I real i z ed th at h e was i n deed a se ri ou s sch ol ar. M. wh i ch focu sed on th e Isl ami c movemen ts i n th e Arab worl d. Said Nu rsi . Ibrah i m p rov ed h i s gen er osi ty. I ref e rr ed to Ibrah i m as my m en tor. I wou l d h el p hi m better u n der stan d Tu rkey an d th e Isl ami c movemen ts i n Tu rkey. Bef or e w e part ed. l eavi n g th e oth ers asi de. H e i n vi ted me an d my f ri en ds over t o di n n er. To tal k more co mfortabl y. Hi s fl u en cy i n En gli sh made ev en Ame ri can s admi re hi m. we h eaded to a n i ce pl ace by a l ake. Wh at do y ou mean by Isl ami c movemen ts? On l y poli tical on es? If so. It i s a cu stom f or me to pay vi si ts to Mu sli m sch ol ars. No Isl ami c movem en ts fr om Tu rke y we re i n cl u ded. bu t I wou l d li ke to meet y o u an d I am h er e n o w. atten di n g man y semi n ars. con f e ren c es an d oth e r ev en ts wi th him. Thi s was a tu rn i n g poin t i n ou r fri en dshi p. n on e of th em a re men ti on ed i n th e book. I w a tch ed h i m cl osel y. repl yin g: “Wait for me th e re . Ibrah i m frequ en tl y in vi ted me to th e US an d h e pl ayed a key rol e i n my assi gn men t as vi si tin g profe sso r at Ha rtfo rd Semi n ary. Th i s was odd to m e an d I deci ded to l et hi m kn ow. I w rote to hi m: “You r boo k i s great. On th e ph on e . s ayi ng: “I kn ow i t i s Su n day. h i s most promi n en t featu re. h e gav e m e an au tograph ed cop y of h i s book . I starte d readi n g i t th at ni gh t. it i s n ot easy to gi ve l ectu res an d be come su cc ess fu l i n a di fferen t pl ace. He sai d h e agreed wi th most o f my c ri ti ci sm an d h u mbl y tol d me th at h e did n ot kn ow Tu rk ey wel l .

h e was abl e to embra ce all th ese di ffer en t an d di vers e c ol ors th rou gh h i s cri ti cal approach . “I m et wi th a li vi n g Mu sli m l eader cl osel y an d I n ow . but I too k th e of fe r u pon h i s in si sten ce. I beca me famili ar wi th hi m. Du ri n g hi s stay i n İstan bul . He mad e su r e th at I atten ded semi n ars an d l ectu res on th es e su bj ects i n n earby u n i versi ti es. ran gi n g from radi cal grou ps to S u fi s. h e di d more . h e acc epted wi th n o h esi tati on . I can be partl y con si dered an Ottoman .hi s assi gn men t as th e edi tor. du ri n g whi ch ou r f ri en dshi p tu rn ed i nto broth erh ood. wh o gav e h im Tu rki sh l esson s. He tol d me th at h e wou l d l ove to se e F eth ull ah Gülen wh en h e got ba c k to th e US. I bette r u n de rsto od th e pl u rali stic comp osi ti on of th e Ameri can soci ety th rou gh con ve rsati on s an d di scu ssi on s wi th h er. At thi s ti me. He tau gh t me abou t th e En gl i sh l an gu age an d academi c wri tin g. Hi n du s. Th i s re qu est was forwa rded to Gü l en bu t th e state of h i s h eal th was n ot su i tabl e for th i s meet i n g. Fo r th i s reason . hi s famil y and hi s fri en ds. I t ol d hi m i t woul d be best for h i m to get to kn ow oth e r Ri sal e -i Nu r grou ps an d h e a greed wi th me. Vi cky was of th e l atter grou p. Du ri n g thi s peri od. I wa s h esi tant at th e begin ni n g. He wel com ed all . h e met w i th fi gu res wh o kn ew Sa i d Nu rsi well an d h e asked th em qu esti on s an d took n otes. We staye d togeth er fo r si x mon th s. I b ecame acqu ai n ted wi th di fferen t c ol ors of th e Isl ami c worl d th rou gh Ibrah i m. Ib rah i m was pretty h appy as h e tol d me ov e r th e ph on e. dedi cati n g hi s ti me an d en ergy t o i n trodu cin g th em to th e worl d for th e r e st of h i s li fe. He h ad man y f ri en ds fr om di ffer en t backgrou n ds. Ch r i sti an s. Actu ally. h e became famili ar with Said Nu rsi an d th e Ri sal e -i Nu r commu ni ty. h e l oved hi m an d th ei r works .i n. He l eft h i s h ou se to me an d h eaded to İstan bu l wi th hi s wi fe. Th ey di d en d u p meeti n g l ater. Bu ddhi sts an d even th ose wh o wo rsh i p goddess es . Tu rkey an d th e Tu rks we re di ffer en t. Bu t fo r Ib rah i m. He l ov ed sayi n g: “My gran dma was an Ottoman . Th rou gh ou t hi s li fe h e ma in tai n ed hi s fri en dshi p wi th Fari s K aya. Wh en I tol d hi m h e sh ou l d take l esson s from TÖM ER. My gran dpa met h er on hi s way back to Pal esti n e from th e Sarı kamı ş Battl e an d th en th ey got marri ed. He al so w el comed m e i n to hi s h o me an d h e off er ed m e a pl ace to stay. H e h ad a speci al in terest i n Tu rks. I b ecam e part of h i s famil y.chi ef of Th e Mu sl i m Worl d jou rn al . Jews . ren ti n g an apartment in Üskü dar. Howev er .” On e of h is desi res was t o l earn Tu rki sh an d foll ow Tu rki sh literatu re.

We h av e to p rom ote h i s case. At thi s poi n t. Th e best i ndi cator for th i s was th e presti gi ou s Th e Mu sli m Worl d j ou rn al . Gü l en an d th e Departmen t of Rel i gi ou s Affai rs i n Tu rkey. Th e pu bl i cati on s of Th e Mu sli m Worl d. i n clu di n g i ssu es pu bli sh ed on Nu rsi .chief. Th e n u mber of arti cl es au th ored by Mu sli m i ntell ectu al s an d sch ol ars was o n a con stan t ri se du rin g thi s peri od. Let me fi rst state th i s: I n eve r wi tn esse d a materi al dimen sion of th i s rel ati on shi p. Ibrah im expe cted n o mat e ri al gain ou t of th es e i n vi tati on s.better u n der stan d h im.i n. I pe rson al l y wi tn essed t h e rol e Ibrah i m pl ayed i n thi s proce ss. Hi s effo rts to better kn ow Tu rkey . on ce a l eadi ng pu bli cati on for mi ssi on ari es an d Ori en tali sts. Ibrah i m sai d: “He dedi cated hi msel f to Isl am an d h e h ad to go th r ou gh so mu c h in hi s stru ggl e. res er ved g reate r ro om fo r Mu sl i ms u n der h i s admini strati on . He pu bli sh ed speci al i ssu es focu si n g on th e Isl ami c movem en ts i n Tu rkey.based c oop erati on betwe en Mu sli ms an d Ch ri sti an s. He h ad n o ch il dren or f ami l y th at woul d prom ote h i s cau se. Wh at mattered to h i m were Sai d Nu rsi an d hi s cau se. I wou l d like to t ell th e sec ret th at Ibrah i m h ad align ed hi msel f wi th th e Nu r c ommu n i ty an d hi s dedi cati on to fu l fillin g th ei r requ est s.” Learn ing from Fet hull ah Gü len He b eli eved th at th e Isl ami c movemen ts i n th e Arab wo rl d h ave a l ot to l earn from th e expe ri en ce an d acti on s of Gü l en . H e was i mpr ess ed by Nu rsi ’s dedi cati on an d stru ggl e. Th e n oti on of e xil e bore spe ci al meani ng for a Pal esti nian wh os e cou n try was oc cu pi ed by Is r ael an d wh ose r el atives w e re still li vin g in refu ge e camps. wh i ch h as been sh o wn great atten ti on in li brari es an d u ni versi ti es in th e US and Eu rop e si n ce i ts fo u n dati on in 1911. We al l are h i s h ei rs an d ch ildren . After h e l earn e d abou t Nu rsi . reach ed ou t t o l arge mass es. h e al so tol d me th at h e fel t h e was i n exil e in the Ame ri can . wh ere h e s er ved as edi tor . I still remembe r h o w h e deal t wi th some boa rd memb ers of th e j ou rn al wh o argu ed th at th e j ou rn al h ad fall en un der th e c on trol of Mu sli ms an d h ow h e emph asi z ed th e n eed f or kn owl edge . In addi ti on .” Nu r si ’s life i n exil e an d hi s commen ts on bei n g exil ed wer e parti cu larl y i mpressi ve to h i m. Th e j ou rn al . Ibrah i m did n ot even fi n d thi s su ffi ci en t. th e Isl ami c movem en ts i n Tu rke y an d Mu sli m in tell ectu al s in flu en ced hi s sch ol arl y works as wel l .

and strengthening genuine faith in God through the English translations of the Risale-i Nur Collection authored by world renowned scholar Bediuzzaman Said Nursi. Sh e repeat e d th e Isl ami c testi mon y of fai th . For al l th ese rea son s. Ph. He n eve r tu rn e d down an y call or i n vitati on on thi s matter. and various European countries. h e pa i d parti cular atten ti on Sai d Nu rsi an d hi s work s. Nur Publishers prints and distributes the English translation of the Risale-i Nur books not only for the United States but also for other countries such as Canada. and Dr. . i n clu din g servi n g as edi tor i n th e pu bli cati on of work s an d bo oks on Nu rsi i n th e West ern w orl d. Ibrah i m fi n ally wen t to h i s h omel an d. Dr. May h e r est i n peac e! *İbrahim Özdemir is the President of Gazikent University. Mehmet Firinci. Turkey. He then continued his education at the University in Istanbul completing his PhD in electrical engineering in 1974. H e di ed i n a h otel room i n Amman . its printing division. wh ere h e w orki n g on con tri bu ti on s to th i s cau se. Osman Birgeoglu. Mustafa Sungur. Dr. 1993 where they currently reside and operate the Risale-i Nur Institute of America. PLEASE VISIT US to see more books in English of the Risale-i Nur Collection: http://nurpublishers. h e travel ed ar ou n d. Tahiri Mutlu. About Welcome to the official Risale-i Nur Institute of America fanpage developed and run by Osman Birgeoglu. Words we re i n su ffi cien t wh en I fi n all y got h er on th e ph on e. He atten ded ev en ts organ i z ed on thi s parti cul ar su bj ect all arou n d th e wo rl d. England and Australia. We will introduce treasures of the Qur'an through the Risale-i Nur Collection authored by Bediuzzaman Said Nursi. I cou l d n ot reach h i s wi fe Fatma for s ev eral days afte r h e di ed. All al on e! Fari s tol d me th e n ew s o f h i s death . developing. the Nursi School of Theology. niece of Mehmet Firinci and Sukran Vahide. Mebruke. Sadullah Nutku. wh ere h e w as bu ri ed wi th praye rs f rom fri en ds from all fai th s an d backgrou n ds all aro u n d th e worl d. Description This fanpage was developed and is run by Dr. He d i d everyth i n g. Sh e tol d me th at Ibrah i m frequ en tl y sai d th at th ey wou l d move to İstan b u l to spen d th ei r reti remen t. Abdullah Yegin. Dr. Birgeoglu and his wife continued the Risale-i Nur service in California until they moved to Phoenix Arizona in August. I wi tn essed th at th es e words a ctu all y comforted h er pai n an d sorr ow. gi vin g l ectu res i n th e most pr esti gi ou s u ni versi ti es i n th e worl d. Osman Birgeoglu in 1976 married his wife. During his university years. S h e h ad l eft Can ada to get to h i m. Pal esti n e. Birgeoglu was introduced to Risale-i Nur in 1965 at the age of 17.soci ety despi te th e 25 year s h e h ad sp e n t i n th e cou n try. Five years later. I read som e exc erpts fr om h adi th s an d Qu ran ve rs es th at an y Mu slim sh ou l d recall at su ch a ti me. Dr. Nur Publishers and the newest branch. Li ke Mal col m X.com/ Mission Changing people‘s lives and benefiting humanity by discovering. including Zubeyir Gunduzalp. Bayram Yuksel. H e e ven pr es en ted thi s as a paper i n a symposi u m. Osman Birgeoglu began his continued learning of the Risale-i Nur under the esteemed tutelage of several of Bediuzzaman Said Nursi‘s top students. Birgeoglu was born in Balikesir.D. He left home at age 12 to attend boarding school. founder and director of Risale-i Nur Institute of America with its branches of Nur Publishers and the Nursi School of Theology.

Kuala Lumpur Mengenai Kami Projek Dialog adalah suatu projek kemajuan sosial yang ingin memajukan debat dan persefahaman antara pelbagai suku kaum dan agama di Malaysia. Phoenix. In the worst of times. Tokong ini mempunyai senibina traditional Cina yang cantik dengan lantai yang dihiasi lukisan bungai teratai iaitu simbol suci agama Buddha. Jalan Raja Bot.com ‗Dharma‘ sebagai kod etika Uthaya Sankar SB (Arabic) Theory of Quranic Unity by Muslim Scholars and its Role in Islamic Thought. Pada tahun 1950an-toking ini telah dibina khas untuk penganut agama Buddha. Address: Risale-i Nur Institute of America/Nur Publishers/Nursi School of Theology PO Box 8577. Dengan menggunakan pelbagai platform dan media. Projek Dialog membolehkan para sederhana dan toleransi untuk menyuarakan dan membincang isu-isu terkini. his wife and the Risale-i Nur Institute of America staff continue to address the ongoing worldwide inquiries for the English versions of the Risale-i Nur works. 58A. kesejahteraan dan lain-lain lagi. kekayaan. No. Kami juga menyebarkan maklumat melalui teknologi inovatif. languages.com Telephone: 602-595-1453 Fax: 602-493-0978 A review of 'Homosexuality. violence. or more worryingly. seperti projek pemetaan AR. AZ 85066 E-mail: info@nurpublishers. Kelas agama dan pemberian makanan hidangan vegetarian disediakan kepada penganut 2 kali sebulan. all this can mutate into a politics of petty threats and race baiting. Sifu-sifu yang berpelajaran ilmu agama akan dijemput hadir untuk bacaan doa 2 kali sebulan untuk meminta keagamaan. Right or Crime'? — Ahmad Fuad Rahmat Versi BM belum disediakan] By Ahmad Fuad Rahmat Malaysia is a complex nation of ethnicities. Projek Dialog boleh dihubungi di editor@projekdialog.Birgeoglu. as we are all too often reminded. . In the best of times. religions and cultures. Projek Dialog disokong dan terdiri daripada beberapa organisasi yang progresif dalam pengendalian isuisu sosial di Malaysia. this wealth of character can be a source of great pride — an actual demonstration of how it can be possible that a society comprised of communities with different values can exist with relatively little to no threat of confrontation. Untuk sebarang pertanyaan.

table of contents and abstract of thesis) Allah. Tafaaseer. Suras. Islamabad Session 2002 Subject Islam Number of Pages 505 Keywords (Extracted from title. the life in this world would be meaningless.Author(s) Amir Faisal Fath Institute/University/Department Details International Islamic University. studied this theory of Quranic unity in various ways. Allah SWT created this universe on the basis of unity. Allah SWT who has revealed the Quran. Quran. Imam AI-Razi. Prophet Muhammad PBUH. Ulama. the small universe. the greatest miracle of Prophet Muhammad PBUH and inimitable in all aspects. Saeed Hawwa and others are some of the leading Ulama who focused on this issue. In their tafaaseer (commentaries) we find how they realized the multi-dimensional links among verses and suras. Thematic methodology. Muhammad Rashid Ridha. Imam Abu Hayyan. with all its parts interwoven with each other. So it is impossible and unthinkable that it should be in disarray. it is undoubtedly the best word. Imam AI-Biqa'ie. has declared that this book is a united whole with all its parts . In the human body. contradictory and piled together in a haphazard manner. In specialized books on Ulum al-Qur'an. As the Quran is the word of Allah. Many "Ulama" ( Muslim scholars) in the past and the present. Without this unity. AI-Maraghi. Muslims thinker Abstract The theory of unity of the Quran is one of the glaring manifestations of the sunnah of Allah. All parts of the body are joined to each other. we find both Al-Zarkashy and AI-Suyuti presenting a special topic of interrelation of verses and suras. we can easily find this unity. Verses. All these efforts indicate that Ulama have realized the existence of this theory and its importance in Quranic studies.

AI-mutlaq wa al-Muqayyad etc. in the light of Quranic teachings. This. time and again to arrange it in an orderly manner. If we study for example Muhammad Abduh. political. and contradictory. He tries by all possible means to revise his speech or writing. If this is what one likes his speech or writing to be. we see that the Modem Muslim Thinkers have emphasized this theory. disunited. and utilized it as a means for concept of reviving the Muslim Ummah. in there thought. despite the fact that His speech is the best of speeches as He is the real Knower and All-Wise. making it as a basis of their contributions to the field of Islamic Thought. social. Similarly. The present Quranic order is God-revealed like its wording and expressions. is based on the theory that the Quranic topics are interwoven and interlinked with each other. there are various topics relating to Tafseer and Ulum al-Quran which are based on the theory of Quranic unity. Abul Ala AI-Maududi. complementing each other as one unity. we would find that they frequently refer to the theory of the Quranic unity. On the basis of this understanding. mentioning all of them together. Therefore. interrelationship among verses and suras. because the Quran does not distinguish between what relates to the ritual. Going deeper we find that our Ulama paid a great attention to this theory. We also see that in the field of Tafseer and Ulum al-Qur'an. and Muhammad Al-Ghazali. They assert that all the topics of the Quran are offshoots of the fundamental belief of Tawheed (there is no god only Allah).supplementing and complementing each other and without any contradictions or anomalies. which is the real theme of the Quran. Al-Aam wa al-khas. economic and other aspects of life. All these aspects according to the Quranic teachings are interrelated. All these studies indicate that theory of Unity of the Quran has played a leading role in these fields. and with more focus on it they think that the real message and objective of the Holy Quran can be more easily grasped. reflects the basic principles that all the Quranic teachings must be implemented in toto. Sayyed Qutb. No man worth the name wishes that his speech or writing be incoherent. they emphasize that if we really believe in the Quran. In Ulum al-Quran we find so many studies based on this theory. such as. For example. we must grasp this Quranic teaching about the unity . how can one assume that Allah's words could be in disorder. it is out of question that this book should be in disarray. the thematic methodology in Tafseer.

memandangkan ajaran agama Hindu dan ajaran Dharmasastra samasama membimbing manusia ke arah kebaikan. Seorang individu yang menghayati konsep ―dharma‖ pasti tidak akan melakukan apa -apa perkara yang bertentangan dengan nilai dalam keluarga. Pemahaman. ajaran ―dharma‖ secara langsung atau tidak langsung diterapkan juga dalam ajaran mana-mana agama utama dunia. Sebaliknya. Secondly. . Hal ini tidaklah menghairankan kerana setiap agama memang membimbing para penganut ke arah ―dharma‖. ajaran agama Hindu turut digelar Sanatana Dharma iaitu ―agama yang abadi‖ atau ―agama yang tiada permulaan dan tiada kesudahan‖. contrary to those who take the Quranic verses in parts. Pada waktu sama. Therefore. confirming its inimitability and miraculous nature. as we see with Jabrites and Qadrites. it is absurd to differentiate between Quranic teachings on various subjects. maka ramai yang berpandangan bahawa Dharmasastra adalah sebahagian daripada konsep keagamaan Hindu. sebenarnya. konsep ―dharma‖ tidak terikat pada ajaran satu-satu agama. This theory becomes important for two reasons: First. and refuting the ill-founded doubts and suspicions of the enemies of Islam. Sebaliknya. and at the same time ignoring others or refusing them outright. in its comprehensiveness and in grasping its message in the best possible way. it helps in proper understanding of the Holy Quran. the enemies of Islam raise doubts about the order and sequence of the Quran to prove that the Holy Quran is a human works in its source and composition. it becomes clear that the Holy Quran is well arranged. Seperti yang saya huraikan minggu lalu. kod etika pekerjaan dan norma dalam masyarakat. Namun. With this theory. The latter methodology can easily lead to apparent contradictions in its verses. clinging to some. Kebenaran hakikat ini akan diperakui sekiranya setiap individu memahami ajaran sebenar agama anutan masing-masing. konsep ―dharma‖ dalam budaya India bukan tuntutan agama Hindu semata-mata. penghayatan dan kepatuhan kaum India terhadap segala ajaran yang terkandung dalam teks-teks berkaitan ‗Dharmasastra‘ mampu menyumbang ke arah usaha mengatasi pelbagai masalah dalam masyarakat. Satu lagi gelaran yang digunakan adalah Vaidika Dharma iaitu ―agama menurut kitab-kitab veda‖. Konsep ―dharma‖ merujuk pada himpunan ajaran yang membimbing seseorang individu menjadi insan yang berhemah.of our life.

hak dan sebagainya yang membimbing seseorang individu menjadi insan yang berhemah dalam keluarga dan masyarakat. perselisihan mengenai persempadanan. hubungan suami-isteri serta pembahagian harta. menculik wanita. Kod etika Untuk mencapai kesejahteraan dari aspek duniawi dan rohani. norma. Amalan positif berdasarkan kod etika (sadacara) menyumbang kepada kehidupan yang bahagia. Sebaliknya. moral. Secara lebih khusus. Veda adalah kitab suci yang menjadi panduan dalam kehidupan masyarakat India beragama Hindu. urusan jual-beli. ‗vyavahara‘ merujuk pada tingkah laku dalam masyarakat atau norma dalam hidup bermasyarakat. Konsep ‗acara‘ merujuk pada tingkah-laku umum serta nilai-nilai murni yang menjadi amalan serta pegangan seseorang. Sebanyak 18 perkara utama dibicarakan dalam bahagian ini. peraturan. Dharmasutra pula koleksi teks-teks yang ditulis kemudian untuk menyampaikan ajaran veda secara lebih mudah. hubungannya dengan keluarga serta hubungan dengan Tuhan. himpunan ―dharma‖ ini dikategorikan sebagai Dharmasastra iaitu teks -teks yang mengandungi ajaran mengenai ―dharma‖. para pemikir agung pada masa lampau telah menghasilkan smrti yang mengungkapkan konsep ―dharma‖ dengan bahasa yang mudah dan berirama. melanggar surat perjanjian. rompakan. Dalam budaya India. Secara umum. dharmasutra. Nibandha merujuk pada ensiklopedia atau teks-teks rujukan mengenai ―dharma‖ yang disusun secara penuh sistematik. purana dan epik. Setiap individu perlu memelihara diri secara zahir dan batin supaya dapat menjalani hidup yang sempurna dan bersih daripada sebarang noda.Konsep ―dharma‖ merujuk pada himpunan ajaran. tanggungjawab. aspek kebajikan spiritual dan rohani (nissreyasa) turut diberi perhatian. Sumber bagi kod etika yang disebutkan ini diambil daripada ajaran yang terkandung dalam veda. Manakala purana merujuk pada cerita-cerita mengenai dewa-dewi yang menerapkan ajaran ―dharma‖. Memandangkan karya-karya dharmasutra masih sukar difahami dan diingat. Dalam budaya India. etika. . nilai murni. kemajuan dan kesejahteraan hidup seorang individu bukan hanya dipandang dari aspek duniawi (abhyudaya). Topik -topik yang dibicarakan dalam teks Dharmasastra terbahagi pada tiga kumpulan utama iaitu acara. nibandha. seorang individu dikatakan perlu patuh pada ‗acara‘ iaitu semacam kod etika dalam kehidupan seharian. Antaranya adalah isu berkaitan hutang. vyavahara dan prayascitta. perbalahan antara majikan dan pekerja. perkongsian dalam perniagaan. serangan. Saya pernah menghuraikan perkara ini menerusi sebuah makalah di majalah Dewan Budaya (Oktober 2004). manakala pelanggaran kod etika (duracara) mengakibatkan kesengsaraan dan kedukaan. smrti. vyavahara turut melibatkan perihal undang-undang sivil dan undang-undang jenayah. Kod etika atau ‗acara‘ yang ditegaskan di atas meliputi diri individu terbabit. Tanggungjawab melayan tetamu turut dijelaskan dalam kod etika ini dan ternyata masih sesuai dijadikan pegangan.

hukuman mati mungkin dikenakan. membunuh binatang dan mencuri. Apa yang cukup mengkagumkan adalah bahawa kebanyakan ajaran dalam Dharmasastra masih sesuai dijadikan amalan. memberi hadiah. atau pesalah diminta membunuh diri. Demikian cara ―dharma‖ dipelihara. . Dosa besar Istilah ‗prayascitta‘ merujuk pada perbuatan menebus dosa atau bertaubat. Konsep ―dharma‖ bukan hanya dibicarakan oleh masyarakat India beragama Hindu. Maka. Contoh dosa besar dalam budaya India adalah meminum arak. etika. Raja yang bertindak sebagai hakim akan dibantu oleh sejumlah penasihat yang berilmu dan disegani. Pelanggaran kod etika atau perbuatan dosa disebut ‗pataka‘. istana menjadi dewan perundangan. mengikut konsep ‗prayascitta‘. Malah. Dalam teks -teks Dharmasastra. diterangkan jenis-jenis dosa atau perbuatan yang melanggar kod etika (vyavahara) serta apa yang perlu dilakukan untuk menebus dosa berkenaan. norma dalam masyarakat. konsep ―dharma‖ menekankan aspek nilai murni. Bagi dosa besar pula. dipegang dan dipertahankan pada masa lalu. melakukan upacara pemujaan khas dan memohon maaf. para pemikir agung yang menghasilkan teks-teks Dharmasastra ribuan tahun lalu sudah menegaskan bahawa mana-mana peraturan atau ―dharma‖ yang kurang relevan harus diubah suai mengikut peredaran zaman. Antara hukuman yang biasa bagi dosa-dosa kecil adalah berpuasa. Terdapat dosa besar (mahapataka) dan dosa kecil (upapataka). Terdapat banyak saranan hukuman dan denda yang diterangkan dalam Dharmasastra secara terperinci. Mungkin ada perkara yang terkandung dalam konsep ―dharma‖ kurang sesuai dengan masa kini. konsep ―dharma‖ terdapat dalam semua masyarakat yang mengakui kelompoknya bertamadun. Konsep yang sama turut terdapat dalam ajaran agama Buddha. menebang pokok. ia sentiasa mengalami perubahan dan bersifat progresif. Konsep ―dharma‖ dalam budaya India sejak ribuan tahun dahulu tidak pernah menafikan hakikat bahawa manusia tidak terlepas daripada melakukan kesilapan. Malah. individu yang melakukan kesalahan perlu diberi peluang untuk menebus dosa dan bertaubat. Bagi mempastikan kestabilan dan keseimbangan dalam masyarakat berkekalan serta untuk memastikan norma (norms) dipatuhi. membunuh dan sumbang mahram. Saya pernah bertugas sebagai pensyarah subjek Pendidikan Moral di beberapa kolej swasta (1999-2007) dan perkara-perkara yang terkandung dalam konsep ―dharma‖ masih terdapat dalam sukatan pelajaran – secara langsung atau tidak langsung. Malah. Antara dosa kecil pula perbuatan tidak membayar hutang.Mungkin sukar dipercayai tetapi hakikatnya adalah bahawa perkara-perkara di atas memang sudah diperkatakan dalam ‗Dharmasastra‘ yang ditulis ribuan tahun dahulu di India. Sebaliknya. Hukuman yang dikenakan (prayascitta) pasti berbeza antara dosa besar dan dosa kecil. Konsep ―dharma‖ dalam budaya India menyedari serta mengakui bahawa norma dalam masyarakat adalah tidak statik. tanggangjawab dan hak individu. keharmonian keluarga. membuktikan bahawa ―dharma‖ hidup sepanjang zaman. Apatah lagi.

Dengan menggunakan kandungan dalam buku ini sebagai rujukan. politik dan sosioekonomi. Right or Crime'? — Ahmad Fuad Rahmat … ―unnatural offenses‖ ―against the order of nature‖ is outdated given that we live in the 21st century. sesungguhnya konsep ―dharma‖ seperti yang diterangkan ini terus menjadi amalan dalam masyarakat India khasnya dan masyarakat seluruh dunia amnya.my A review of 'Homosexuality. Read more on The Malaysian Insider 2012 Pulitzer winners in journalism and arts News staff for its enterprising coverage of a deadly tornado.blogspot. Ia mengandungi beberapa pandangan. sastera. data dan informasi yang boleh dijadikan renungan serta rujukan. Uthaya Sankar SB memblog di www. budaya. England. using social media as well as traditional reporting to provide real-time updates. fakta. Powers offers us vampires as muses and troubled artists who pay in blood for the inspiration to … Read more on Menyurat Kepada Sahabat: Warkah-warkah Peribadi 1975-2002 Buku ini merupakan genre yang jarang-jarang muncul dalam sejarah penerbitan tanah air.uthayasb. It should also be reminded that this was a British law of the Victorian era instituted by the British colonial powers in their time in Malaysia.Walaupun mungkin istilah ―dharma‖ tidak digunakan sebagai rujukan. Surat-surat peribadi 1975-2002 Anwar Ridhwan dalam buku ini membicarakan pelbagai isu bahasa. help locate missing people and produce in-depth print accounts even after power disruption forced the paper … Read more on Review: Hide Me Among the Graves by Tim Powers Where they would look for fanging and banging. kita akan mengetahui beberapa kemelut masa lampau. penerbitan.com dan boleh dihubungi melalui emel uthayasb@yahoo.com. Powers offers complex and conflicted relationships and unwholesome creatures with unnatural appetites. help locate missing people and produce in-depth print accounts even after power disruption forced the paper … Read more on Huffington Post 2012 Pulitzer winners in journalism and arts News staff for its enterprising coverage of a deadly tornado. termasuk yang ditulisnya ketika bermukim beberapa ketika di London. using social media as well as traditional reporting to provide real-time updates. Author: Anwar Ridhwan Publisher: Strategic Information and Research Development Centre (SIRD) Year: 2012 ISBN: 9789675832475 . dan akan menyedari seaneka perubahan berbanding apa yang telah berlaku lebih tiga dekad yang lalu.

] .284 Pages RM30.00pm Tempat: KL Selangor Chinese Assembly Hall Anjuran: Strategic Information and Research Development Centre (SIRD) diikuti dengan Forum [. Budaya dan Institusi disunting oleh Haris Zuan dan Rizal Hamdan dilancarkan oleh Sen.00/S$19..50 Majlis Pelancaran Buku – Wacana Baru Politik Malaysia Dengan hormatnya dijemput menghadiri Majlis Pelancaran Buku Wacana Baru Politik Malaysia: Perspektif Ruang Awam. Dr. Syed Husin Ali Tarikh: 26 Mei 2012 (Sabtu) Masa: 2..

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