Analecta Indoscythica I Author(s): H. W.

Bailey Reviewed work(s): Source: Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, No. 3/4 (Oct., 1953), pp. 95-116 Published by: Cambridge University Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25222646 . Accessed: 04/12/2012 08:03
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Analecta
By

Indoscythica
H. W. I. BAILEY vista

I

of the Iranianx advancing knowledge has of it Sakas Khotan, proved possible WITH connectiions of several words hitherto misunderstood some words which have been confused.
1. bista

language of the to establish the and to separate

The meaning of bista- (in later spelling also baista-2) iswell known. " I invite The use in E 2.50 hamtsa bistyau balysu vd nimandraimd the Buddha E 25.431 ssdrsaku with hamtsa E 2.58 hamtsa bistyau balysa; disciples", E 25.498 arahamdd bdstd sa vd bistyau trvllei; sa mude jattavana P 2928.4 srrdvasta ksirai his

jsinda; " he dwelt in the city of Sravasti in the Jetavana baistyau hatca " v 3 and 7 Hedin with his disciples ; bisamgdm hird jye hamtsa " the possessions of the Bhiksusanghas bistyau jsa perished together with the pupils ", can be compared with parallel phrases in Bud. texts: 150.23 srdvakaih Sansk. sdrdham and Divyavadana 409 ananta-sisya-gana-suvinlta-, Mahavyutpatti Digha-Nikaya 3 Gotama-sdvaka-samgha. Similarly Suvarnabhdsa bofysynym
vlra renders Sansk. srdvakesu.* Khot. bista then

1164 bistdm
to

corresponds " to be ordered, taught, trained ", and this conception Sansk. iisya" of the pupil is expressed also by the Tibetan slob-ma to be taught, 1 Without

Indo-Iranian studies must of Iranian, limp along. Neglect always " " note the omission the Indianist: of Ossetic salmon impoverishes lasdg rrasa-, NPers. raxs, and Armen. (salmon are fished in the Caspian sea), and of Khot. erasx used of a dark colour in P. Thieme's loan-word of Old Ind. laksa discussion and laksa in Zeits. vgl. Sprachf. 69 (1951), 209 ff., and in M. Mayrhofer's reference Iranian zur indogerm. to that study in Studien tion of Old Ind. brahman- with Greek Iranian evidence " Old hare in discussing sahaKhot. (P. Thieme, Ind. sasaGrundsprache, fiop^rj would surely the a connec 1952, 45. Similarly be excluded by using the be profitable 127) ? It would Iranian Paraci sahok and 1.287; IIFL., were in noted may have : cqmaida

ZDMG.y 102, 1952, " " to consider hare

JRAS., 2As been

see M. Mayrhofer, 1951, 193-5. often in Later Khotanese

", see JRAS., 1831, 424, loc. cit., 27 ff. Three

and G. Morgenstierne, similar deficiencies

i, since ai is put for Turkish badaikd for Camil baliq. 3 64 v 3. 4For the oisruti, importance JRAS. OCTOBER 1953. 7

i is replaced by ai. The sound %in, for example, Stael-Holstein

intended Roll 22

bahusruta,

see J. Przyluski,

Rocznik

Orient.

8.15.

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and srdvaka. training actively employed." the forts. pari-ves" " " for work karmane vesdya in hendiadys with kardo ".4 bhimo vivesaTayudhebhir esdm?dpdmsi visvd ndrydni vidvan?indrah puro jdrhrsdno vi dudhod?vi vdjrahasto " mahind jaghdna. for example. that is.for which Khot. passed to present past.109.21.* qualified of this It is not necessary to be disturbed by the scanty attestation " to Iran.228 on Tue. wait upon ". Serindia. veso?-) " occurs also vesana-m The verb is used of the activity of working ". That Vedic gives for frequent the base *bis. " be active. In bista. work. be active in idea is active work " " service to attend. Besides " " vesa-s (whose more usual meaning is dress. Stein. bista.83.(both in Pali and Bud. how little is found from dam1The Jaschke's adari phrase bphags-pa bilig Dictionary. but the word is not used in the phrases quoted above with sisya. " " is given in the venerable preceptors slob-pa-rnams a occurs ary-a of Or 8212. Indra in the Rigveda 7. Konow. Sanskrit) from " " " and vdsawithin dwelling ". baxsi.It occurs in the phrase .particularly in texts. " ? extensible ". Indra. has shaken power. The main meaning " " " : to be active. destroy ".is thus connected with vais" " serve in contrast to the teacher. Note. has got rid by his weapons of theirs. If Khot. bhuta" = = sense in the active Greek become . stretched still the potential raros being " Similarly " Avestan haxtasurviving in Khot. A. The Khotanese of Vedic ves-2 is established by many passages. parte. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. effect. NTS. the in relation to the teacher the disciple acarya. 3 See Sten 11. fiercely excited. was used. vais. the disciple who learns from the slob-fa or slob-dpon.I propose to trace the Iranian equivalent of the verb ves-: vis. the fearful one. work. Carrying the bolt he has shattered them by his " In Rigveda 4. vais-. 4 Dec 2012 08:03:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . PW. isdon-pa plate 2Full references can be found in. guise and is widely as in Khot. being " " been in such intransitive usages in Old Ind.96 analecta INDOSCYTHICA trained ".5 also dhim vdjrena sdvasd~dvivesih by force you vesa has of bolt rid the with ". your got serpent developed meaning " " " to deal with. in reference to to from be active about " the act usually denoted by hanstrike.from Old Iran.: vis-. remove ". it can be translated by being occurs -taThe under ".168.1 From his position antar bista- could also be called antevdsin.46 In the Uigur colophon see the facsimile in M. hiyaa-.: bis. tiikattig clxv. gatagone ". skilled in all heroic works.72. used in Central Asia in that meaning vaisa-.22.

12 7. 91. The " Tibetan writers tell the same story. Reallexikon der indoger. " It will be servant ". i. Anklesaria In Avestan we have Y 68. Zor. 6Bahman ed. which to Avestan vaesa-. ha.19. just *vaisa-) vesyd and are vesaa way of derived in from attested Such vaisyaprativesa. This vaesa-. dialects (Gazi " artan to grind ". In 42. also. p. Indo-Aryan.and is derived slob-ma show.228 on Tue. " vrddhi form from ha-. bhdra at.with would the " " as or a value of hahvabeside 2. Khot. Pahlavi with the " as case in the of the hdvist % For ". Pahl.8 The times. Tib. Below. ZDMG. good ". an-.either of two explanations suit: 1. however. Avestan breath ".121. Saka Studies. In the " " second case one would charioteer compare Old Ind. sarathi" from sardtha. its equivalents concept sisya.occurs in Av. Texts. pist Iranian grind " " drue he grinds ". The word is then fellow-worker ". bisenter ". havistanqmfa aedrapaitinqmca aeOryanqmta. but in " " flour Old Indian is found only in attaand in (in the Lexicons) New and others. The word avistai calamitous situation " 1 Jdtaka-stava 21 v 4. 4 P. haiqmda This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. 5 See 0. dda.107 . hakurdna". Altertumskunde.* a servant is well for in basic The known.22. naming example oiKerrjs.* " " two from survives Avestan The base paisforms in apart pound " " " common flour ". bezdrt he ground ". Lit. drr-. Thomas.7 With 2. avistai of the only in E 25. forms.389 in a description after the practice of the Law has declined and the monks have fought bitterly together even to bloodshed. occurs ii. " in Old Indian and Old Iranian " " to make and : no verbal are common. flr"n 2 3 N.72. corresponds " " as an adj.3 They may have thought of Khot. from the word vishouse (or from not as from the verb in Indian Old vais-.of Avestan hdvista " of priests' guild ". Thieme. surviving member in Zor." it is said. 115. Kalasa The Old Ind. has uysamdi you breathed ". whereas The base an in " is rare in Iranian :Khot. 4 Dec 2012 08:03:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Schrader-A. " " are and Avestan boiwraisolated.. bista-1 now propose to connect the -vista.5 as in bistais that of training. meaning disciple Pisyddn* the ha. hvdin hatogether ". Sogd. co-operation 8 F. fight " breathe " E. " 7A similar ha. 115. The word aris in NPers.and in Pamir languages).ANALECTA INDOSCYTHICA 97 build Khot. 464. Leumann's bisa- padam- vadam- seen therefore that I have not been satisfied by " " 2 nor Gewohnte reference to an by Sten Konow's " assumed Khot. E it is the tale of Dusprasava. Nehring. W.and sdpatndof a rival ".168. Yast. 125. 102.

*dyoz (line 154) and pty'wz. Both "wystk and pty'wzw " are used to render Chin. and propose to see in it another derivative but in a meaning which has developed from the primary " " " " to be active be in travail ". 4 Dec 2012 08:03:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 5 a miswriting had suspected W. 42) wrongly visti (Zeits. Thieme.5 " evidently is unequal took to the its meaning situation from in the " rendering durchdrungen " " and from vispenetrate Kali Age. agree in meaning need not be robbed of the word. distracted ". 3.*patyoz.2 are easily found : in English Parallels to the change of meaning " " is used of painful bodily and mental labour labour.1 distracted disturbed.3 and similar meanings pain " " me to come of avistaaenables distracted This interpretation clear visti-kardrditdh to the rescue of a Bud. with forced labour " " " turn ". ffL luan confusion ".I therefore recognize a meaning afflicted. the vara. see Sogdica 51. Weller.188. pp.13081 nirvisesd janapadds " of all the peoples thus tormented by the masters forced labour ". compared Wackernagel " " " " turn in Lat." The Khotanese passage is ttdna hdrna Ssdsani hdrstdyd panaste kald-yuggdna vastdtd avistai ttlyd 1' Thereby the doctrine will truly perish. many Aranyaka-parva 3 J.98 ANALECTA INDOSCYTHICA will retrograde E 25.108. The distress caused by this infliction tatha in Mahabharata (Calc. then it becomes Kali Age.of vdra-yosit courtesan does not mean Similarly regularity. Leumann's dvista- and context. " " " are found with and travail ". This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.4 It occurs in a context like those of "ywz. 60-4. meaning of distress The meaning of compulsory and therefore distressful labour is " " in the Old Indian Epic use of vistiand attested forced labour " " " master of forced labour and visti-karmd labourer "." the by " In avistaa. other variants. Sogdian word "wystk in the Vimala-kirti nirdesa-sutra 148. 2The Poona has adopted and provides edition Critical nardvrstibhir arditah. 4Fr. of vais-. or of distress.389 :? " and will become evil. Vim.168. Sansk. Sprachf. see P. vgl. It is not a matter of the vievicissim.(SCE 244).72. Henning of *dyo$tak. B.70-1. 91. vistikara" ntikais forced work ".228 on Tue. no. Zum sogd. 67 (1942). ZDMG. Hence *dwestak (or *dwistak) vocabulary and avistaaThe Sogdian 1E. The full passage APZY 'thrmnw reads KZNH 'wy p*z*ny sym H "wystk fiwt 'ymn " so that terror and confusion is in the mind of Ahriman ". whence be in a state and confusion ".) 3.

but that can be seen in buta-. which in turn can be more " surely claimed as an Iranian loan-word. has recently been The 3rd sing. ". "wystk. ". 11. Leumann and Sten Konow traced this word to bis5 11. Bud. samu in E 23. There is also bukafood ".265 ff. 4 Both E. there studies E. NTS.70. vstaberakan ".69. Armen. suffering The three words dvistaa-. For this word earlier etymologies were offered by Sten Konow. and bej. " " connected with food ".(or vi-) axta. present bijsdnaon are Ind. It Old Iran. and vist are mutual support. baijs-.4 " In the Siddhasdra 124 v 2 kasdrn? jsa amga bijsynd the limbs are " to be poured upon with a decoction it possible to expect a makes " " and this can be recognized in passive parte. which Benveniste. bista " " text of the Siddha-sara a word bijspour over in several passages 2 in the parte.6 In the medical 4. A derivative I suffer ".168. hatdrro ni ni ju hd bista cu bendd like just when one has once filled it one does not pour into it what runs over ". Texts 34. loan-word vizel is connected with water. E 14. 3.228 on Tue. B. Hubschmann. buhaja 7 Saka Studies 125. 6. BSOAS. by Fr. pain vstagin compounds causing " severe "-1 vstamber vstdmber . and by H.416 bissd blya hunejsa kho ye raksaysa " daitd all covered (poured over) with blood. and is vstanam " " are afflicted ".7 but the WZKM.was proposed Ind. Adjarian. The adj. bejs-. 1 Connection with visti.72.. Diet. " 6 Khot.(Old veg-) by " " flow The Armen. basta In addition assigned to bista verbal to the base vais-: forms in two other passages were " " visenter by Sten Konow.110 kho bdrandi recognized paddni kvl ye hamberdte " an overflowing vessel. an can to the traced be from base.717. 1945. 515. .v.5 who accepting a meaning "smeared" gave abi. as a raksasa looks ". 75. present.means parte. " to bussdistribute ". and " " with that the Khot. Etym.indicate 3BSOS. Phil. blyapoured over E 21. Henning. Soc. Gram. 2Variants -i-. 6. I had " earlier thought of baxtashared ".268 Armen. Trans.104 butaja. . vist. of this meaning A further confirmation " vist SSvvrj. s. Muller.31 hind jsa blya and 25. bijspour agrees. On Avestan see W.analecta indoscythica 99 is to be seen in Armen. With that belongs bujsanafeasting ". " voiyna " " enter steward famine ". hitherto misunderstood.3 vaig. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. repeated by H. Kwhvvos ". 4 Dec 2012 08:03:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . of necessity is attested -ana-.

This means " as when one gets rid of the fester. 2E. vazrun. E.which rather apparently changed " belongs to bays-. 4 Dec 2012 08:03:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . but without all to of the the word beiHtd facts. that is.be bound ". 2 have Meantime is transitive. removes ". Texts of E . This was preceded in verse 16 by cm ye dliva nitcana mdd samvi ttamdu " when one puts ointment on the outside. tta b 82 2 hvatamdd thatau is in Tibetan basta Sanghata-stitra men ran hence the is "the run". into the royal prison ". I attempted " to identify beiHtd with baittd from bad.228 on Tue. Sten Konow " must is bound ".168. 119. This new text reads in Later Khotanese " habu beHta harbesa dcha jiya." Sten Konow's the reference took second bandha to Susruta gave the solution. In the convey. In bastumd that I went ban[d]o quickly rrvlya " come ". go in " vehicle ". all pain ceases for him ". Henning.* Hence translation Bud. NTS. ignoring that.) gets rid of the fester. 3P 4099. another This text 3 has been found which to dismiss the shows that beiHtd with the : sa khu hve a man (hve.18 samu kho hambuvu beiHtd harbissi dchaijiye. This base occurs three times in E for run.72. beHta gets rid of. with baittd identified beiHtd if " to to bound" this meaning attempted by referring justify " to and bandha references Susruta's anointing" dlepana " bandaging". and Sten 1Printed b\a]sta. Here the Tibetan has phyin-pa form was 5. B. my own I incline to trace here the note in BSOS. He be intrans. 4On Sogdian M see W. all pain ceases. suffices identification intrans. but he " as the stage here stage bandaging" " whereas it was the next stage suddhi mentioned cleaning away ". wrongly taking " it as transitive in turn rightly saw that binds ". ride.100 ANALECTA INDOSCYTHICA * from basta. But. explanation interpret occurring in E 6. baittd. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. just as when nom. 9. " This gives a verb beiHtd. fly ". Konow. brgyugs-te "having meaning " a cu so 6 83 ". bishealing attested is bisaz-. Leumann in his 11. Leumann had rightly seen that the subscript hook indicated the former presence of -s-.134-5 in Khot. it is only an hamdrgya alleviation ".69. but the verb with Av. to which the verse referred. not simply bis-. sing. bei'tta Three attempts successful already been made.73. Sogdica 43. Connection " " would have been possible. be conveyed. Old Iran. " growing of flesh over the preceding the fourth stage vrana-ropana wound ".

drdzra-. 3Pali 219 tirafykudyam tirahprakaram.228 on Tue. The changes were -aisa-. pouru-. beyttd can be traced -aiy(a)to -ei*-.would be possible. p. The passage refers to the power of rddhi to pass " unhindered he passes through through walls. which and ha? frais"send". vistaspa " " as the man elicited bistadisciple foregoing " " the word dvistaa under training and in service (vais-. be^tta.17. cadward-.431. vais-: be active vis. " " " " " I send from heiHd he sends ".3 It could be rendered walls .s " of colour as first hu-. tiropdkara. NTS. stands in the first part of the famous royal name Vistdspa-. -dtd\ -aittd. does this group of words help to a solution of this problem ? I think it does.are made with or of 1. Sten Konow. and the verb beiHtd from vaisati. I note first that in the Avesta compounds with -aspa. Leumann to trace bindet ". 2. or (" spare first number present component either 1 Above. inevitably ask. Vajr. hook pointed clearly subscript case of *vaisati omitted. that -aisati became -eiHd. proposed gave " a form of badbetta from If the subscript hook's absence thrust ". We know The form of bei'ttd. kwdsa verbal aurvat-. kadrva-. adj. xsviwra-. dsu-. aurusa. good qualities ?). That is the meaning required for "ves in the Rigveda passages 4.4 Here in betittd the 6.7 trsu ydd anna vevisad vitisthase (Agni) spread out. destroyed.meaning distracted ". devouring foods ".38 : avacchoda tslndi ttaura vasta vranl may be concealed ndstd cu bettd. in -antpourusa-. there is no wound upon him which affects him ". 2E 80 b 2 . Mahavy. 96. hei'md beside hdtd? he sends " come from ma we send ". a name The notes have known both from the oldest Zoroastrian One must books and the Achsemenian inscriptions. 43 a 2.72. to -s-. deal with. beHta requires a brief explanation. 117 a 2.5 dhim vdjrena sdvasbTdviveslh by the serpent with your bolt 'V force you dealt with. and conceive it in the following way. 7. Sanghdta-sutra " " occurs beside kei'ta. to *vaisati. of frlna-. " from dvista-ka. Similarly 18.and take it in the meaning about. think kd'ta 2nd plur. " 4E.analecta indoscythica 101 " same Old Iran. A word vista-.27. Another the hook may be Occasionally in E 5. 25. a derivative This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. as ardjat-.168.22. hazanra-. separates of bad. 4 Dec 2012 08:03:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . parte. of which the meaning has long been sought. remove ". components vlra-. Hence beiHtd. vista-). " when greedily you and 10.91. haittd 2 "he sends ".

similarly many gaura-. ranjat-. prsat-. p. showing " gratitude". See Personennamen. Bartholomae. 9. Kdrndmak forms with vi. addrdto.and see the same word isolated above in Avestan hd-vista. bista-.168. in -a-.and now identified in Khot. colour names syava-. paying " later. jita-. Veda and " a the same type. 4 Dec 2012 08:03:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Datastdn i denik 36. or as of such Greek to epithets haixdannros applied Lydia by 1 See A. I would seek a meaning of vais. . The sphere of meaning should have been " " within that of hita-.73. aburt-framdnih not obeying orders ". yugjoin "). 7. making " vindsihd for sins ". asva-krmila-. 4Of the two Avestan This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. has kart-spds fulfilling duty ". giving : the person The meaning of this type of compound is distinctive as the agent.attested " " 27 had done. and yaug-: that the not. forms dravat-. bound ".82. as C.1 krtd-brahmanmaking " " an brahman and rdtd-havyaoblation ".17. " " not Zor.22 .9 119. If we now apply this interpretation to the Av. excludes this word from necessarily liked to find more of it. vinita-. Ind. 30.". pad-visafetter ". 117. and parte. 111. certainly have also BSOS.since later the name became Gustdsp. yuxta. or ravat-.tkaesarespecting the teacher ". ueik. thematic as first form component.3 The Old Indian. " 5 I had in JRAS. Pahl.72.we have (ha-: " " hibind ". by -taand parte. fraoOat-. Parth.2 drwxt-myhr " an toxt kart-dmdrih account". Turning in vista-5 to vistdspa. possessor Similarly " vinltdsvahe who has trained horses ". tried to find a word vista" in Lat.and " " he who has put horses into harness yuxta. The compounds with -ta. having created a brahman.Pers.parte. sveta-.aspa-.and vi. The person is interested in attested the action.228 on Tue. merely of horses which have been harnessed. from the base 1939. 2 BSOS. but one would Indo-Iranian.aspa. as as in vazdspa-. is.4 I would separate vista-aspa. baro. as in Eigveda 2. aburt-snohr breaking agreement ". Hilka. hitdspa-. in -ta-. 3Datastdfi l Die denik altindischen 4A . vincire and Old Ind. see below. 15.102 ANALECTA INDOSCYTHICA haecat-. drdhawith harita-1. On Mid. -anthita-. can be understood as in the type " inAv.I accept that with vi. occur hari-. In Old Indian aruna-. I do not think this solitary to bind for visevidence ZAIW.25. yuxtaharnessing ". gyst.suitable to a nomadic people. Mid. and barariding ".aspa-. to whom the epithet is applied is conceived Thus " " a means krtd-brahmanwith created brahmanbeing associated " in usage having been the creator of. rohita-. hitdspa.

NTS.the parte. sought meaning compound Mid. or the Ittttojv iXarrjp of Bacchylides. Szemerenyi.52.1 (K 35. Pazand vasadai occurs in Skand 43 " node is in Tibetan de " he ". Pers. OrBd. here -axv. Konow. Sogd. 1. Henning. vista. gumdnik 6 83 a 6 sa Sanghdta-sutra Saka Studies 158.229.5. ba'tai In view of the discussions of vi-sdyadd here a passage from the Khotanese Bodhisattva the jaws of " to open ". B. which in turn also corresponds to hve> man ". " 6" skyes-bu being " ".2 " a in vistafrom the bold deduced ". The Jdtaka-stava casts himself into to secure one a raksasa :? sloka of saving words ~* uysdnd dlstai gara ttraikhana styna ni himye pvg:nd khu dyai bbVtai tturrd "he threw himself from the peak of a mountain. " " Here in bbVtai open we have a Khot. be maintained. ". x from This is to differ from the interpretation of E. " In the sense of we have in E 6. Benveniste the same reference to Sogd. and rendered priately " thus he who has trained horses ". he had no fear when he saw the open mouth ". References apud Sten 2 Beitrdge This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. a Persian in iEschylus.168. 7. "wysik. Persse 33.means being active about" " can intrans. Morgenstierne. it is desirable to 9 v 1. 3.228 on Tue. wsyoVxw.72. 4 Dec 2012 08:03:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . be appro vistdspabeing training " he who has been active about horses ". but for " " a meaning bold it would seem to be necessarily in association " with mind ". v 16). Sogdica 4 G. nrta The Khotanese word nadaun. 1J A. 233 Zatspram viddr 16. 3 W.Pahl.165 ff.5 II. corresponding to tuhlklh.with vistdxv confident" cannot. fremissant the more recent explanation who by 0.230 to " connect *dvista. open may be supported by Pasto wit open ".2 :? hero cu bdratd pyustu kye arihd samu ttamdya pamjsa nadaune 1936. 12. 5 1. zur Namenforschung 2. open-minded gusddah-dil. form of visdtaka. wsHk'm. like NPers.corresponds in meaning to Tib. Such a *vista " " 4" freed. in view of the and from above interpretation of dvistaa-. Hence under ". 9. " or From vais.attested " elsewhere in Zor. 264. but with a proposed meaning " " " distracted ").ANALECTA INDOSCYTHICA 103 and to Athens by Sophocles. visdtaklh void ". The attempt I made in BSOS. (where the meaning was rather agite.3 and related words.

1 Other Buddhist princes of the Mahabharata sources know the name. OPers. 7.165.3 referring is reference tonga "the to Pandu of a poem from Agni have survived Fragments " wdl ".104 " ANALECTA INDOSCYTHICA that is. Uigurica 250. potency (plur. to Kasyarl ii 24-6. Johnston occurs also in 4. 81. Texts 45 . That Av. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. Brockelmann. possessor of (Rigveda) In Khotanese rtd-. 45). Studien Salemann. ".2 . 6. Manichaische i 13-27 .9 1 Sten five " the Kafiri the p. C. P. 213. naddm Later Khotanese vaska. He knew it also in proper names. was enlarged Ind.45. (in Khot. 2801. Thieme. H.168.65 brriye kaina pawndd " was split into for love Pandu's forehead hauda-piskala2 ttdragvdstd seven pieces. group " " " " 2 section that ". 57. 4 Dec 2012 08:03:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Sprachreste " 5F. Liiders. Pandu 4Tocharische 134 and 135." Here he is cited as an example of the calamity caused by amorous passion. audacious in the Rama Sahasrabahu story. P 2834.23 P 2957. E 14. Rama Konow. only ysamihauna " " E 21. pp. Bud. what you have heard in the Bharata. ness ". Acta Orient. Jdtaka-stava 8C. The name of Pandu himself in Khotanese P 2956. " Konow. arddv8. NP nadaune.141. The name of the Pandus was used for the number Brahman 110. AblS nadaundna. G. K. and in Old Indian rtdvanof truth ". nadaun-? A similar meaning hero. 13 r 2. ttdra is piskala may be another " " " " to split. From GS nadaund. Varuna 9H. whose main subject is the five (Pandu) heroes.. and perhaps 3 ed.228 on Tue. BSOAS. 35.4 In the Uigur story there king Pandu " " to Arcuni the hero Arjuna and Bimbasini tonga " " hero ". W. word therefore -dvan-: nade from Old Iran -as). G. Mid. In Pali the names Ajjuno Nakulo Bhimaseno Yudhitthilo Sahadevo occur in Jataka 536. Here hero Bhimasena the Uigur tonga " to Khot. 14. E. 21. According tonga meant Miiller. The Khotanese of NVS Iran.45. tiger ". separate "." Here the reference to the five Pandava is unmistakable. NTS. Morgenstierne. Index. just as he is cited in Asvaghosa's ita. asdun-.367. 7 Sten text six 158 . BSOAS. cord forehead . where node is used of Parasu before the palace. Saka Studies 10. Pers.7 challenging inflexion of Older Khot. P 2834.13.72. asaon-.(with -e of an Old is a representative such as Mid.17. and Saundarananda 7. 38 . Biihler. had a consonant stem nadaun.6 nadaunis known in NVS is found Buddha-car corresponds " man is attested Rama The nade. 7.79.34. we have in arddy. (a)rtdvan-. Among speakers Palaeographie. 6P 10. in ending asavan-: -dun-. times.77 . VP nadaunyau. gvays". BSOAS. to seven. we can quote NS nada and GS nadau hlya. dark form of piskala . beings who have been born Parth.5) shows the same suffix with -a-.

line 14 wlty^c. Khot. *hvrtaSo. vicinity vardl].we therefore have a derivative of nar-. as hardtaleft" from *fra-rixta-. 24 a 3 rendering Bud. *suerto-)." nwaraz from Wakhi Pasto .2 gen.4). Indo-Aryan 2025. 12. wrty'z.in kddagdna " " " from *krta-.one could therefore accept -ada. kunlr " follows. badge. p.168. Morgenstierne.12 "strength". nerd large beside " male ".. gad. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. also or in the -ada- second a base syllable with of a trisyllable Indo-Eur. NPers. bartaka. 5 ttu = Tib. Similarly in pacadaparyaya. bada. NPers. carried off. nerdk i 44. Khowar berti. n. 1 = Sansk. ndjsadu 6 Vajr. vartikd and others. 2. " 4 So in Asia axes ". vaspuda- trodden ". E 25.285 ustardndd. 1.233. ii 38. beside which we have Hstldd = Ukhet7 and 3rd plur. i insc. 8Siddhasdra 103 v. Mid Parth. 12G.as the origin of the first syllable in nadaun-? In nadaun. p. Yidya IIFL.72. 54 . With velar can be quoted kdda. 2.. hvada-. P Sudhandvaddna unmdrgi. too. bardah . Konow.ANALECTA INDOSCYTHICA 105 The first part of the Khot. guda-. traced the word to *nartavan-. Pers.228 on Tue. vardta-. asumuda or is comparison with rtavan.or represent -art-. may we be have either *patitrta-. n. -adain a disyllable may nadaunOld is historically Iran. Note pade Major. captured ".s. ydda-. Zor. Voc. Etym. 3 See G. quail galtte from gart-. Osset. Bud. 96. wolc. the parte. *us-trta-.265. in IIFL. and oihvarin pyada-s " to eat "reversed" ". Sansk.of Rigveda sunfta. " 3 tcada. Texts 15.in 3rd plur. Sansk.and with the -nrta. sing. Pashto. -rdor may -h-. line 12 . 10For rare verbal bases see above. or *hvarta (Indo-Eur. "lazy".n " strong. Av. muda- dead ". from But in ustadi "he wiped away"6 stand 3rd sing.10 as Yidya nar 1 nar in compounds "male".which induces me to choose nrta. vartaka. method Thus badaand ndjsada"method"5 we can trace *paticartaand nicarta-. gaddre they " " from *vartikd-. or -rtaof since a base represent in -ar. yudamade " " buda" " uncounted third case. -arta- ambiguous. " Khot. dper-na. translating Sansk. with labial evil act ". 9 Sten Saka Studies 158. 7Siddhasdra 148 v 5. In hambada" Here -bada. fidhpuhr 2 Siddhasdra 17 r 3.contrasts with pddawith reared".Pahl. 11G. NTS. borne ".276.(or *carata. Nep. fdrat. " " *carta. hudagiven ". With the dental n.s. " shortened vowel. " " " we have the filled ".1 " " lie beside 3rd sing. In Iranian this It base survives rather scantily. Morgenstierne.in Asia Major. Paraci nar- " be able ". battdi.from -arta -rta-.548.114. IIFL Morgenstierne. Tib. 4 Dec 2012 08:03:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . prdmuncat. valaj. NPers.

ndrst swell ".3 do base be likely " " ner-: the Mukri Kurd.8 of the Maruts. as in the force of used exhibiting in all the 7. senses " * indrato forceful ".1 in a fragmentary hymn in the phrase " mn hndym and the strong mind. Usas is called in Rigveda dsva-sunrte of horses ".we find " 5. Dumezil. strong ". verb wnyr-. Das iran.4 dpdmsi visvd ndrydni vidvan "skilled Rigveda of (human) power". B. de Philologie. forceful in the possession " " The word indriydshould be traced to a word faculty. " 3 The is wyn*r-." Revue This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.72. rajdna iva tvesdsamdrso ndrah gods : Rigveda " like rulers ".79. not direct to indra.85. " 7 such procedure we are warned Maiestas Against by G. 1943. wynyr.Pers. 4 See BSOS.Pahl. 70. from ndrd-myazda" " or making 1939.4 take pendrtMid.228 on Tue. ' seems The Mid. 26 (1952) 7 ff. and ndri" woman ".is used of men as of 1.Pers. nairyaboth heroes manly ".168.2. 22.7 For the human of assigning too primitive context the evidence is strong.5 In nar-. Thus nar-. see JRAS. K.the god. placed". ndl male man. ndrsun. the essence mnwhmyd cyhrg " " 2: hence *nar limbs strong ". 116. Akad. nara. J. Mededeelingen 6JRAS. wynyrbe fortunate' a derivative same to of I not the nar-. R. Scheftelowitz's hardly comparison " seems suitable. Osset. works In sunfta. Av.5 possessing "or conveying force ".and sundra. Gabri Dialect. strong 2The study of the Hymn Cycles. Boyce's in has kindly The text is paraphrased allowed me to quote her interpretation. base I. but ultimately nrin verbal have may meaning ndrd-myazdanaadj. however. nyrwg'wnd from *naryava-ka-. although the word was clearly specialized to denote the force of a man. Reitzenstein's p. 1 et Gravitas.343 and W. nard and send present whether " " can belong here or not. " " snernoose with the Indo-Eur. " " " " " fat ".Pers. Digor nard nyrwg. nar" men of of virile person also the divine and (used yazata Haoma.21. probably a risk " " ameaning to the word. There is. " " " and persons in general).106 ANALECTA INDOSCYTHICA Mid. Kuiper's recent Ndipom ^aA/oS. 4 Dec 2012 08:03:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . prosperity"6 Mid. Erlosungsmysterium.and in Ossetic. 1951. 8. 5 d. nr occurs 'wd nr of my most see at Yazdi We are fortunate in possessing a study of the Old Indian material in F. sufficient " trace of a less specialized in remains increase. transitive-causative " to derive from well understood be which could be establish". p. Iwanow. Similarly ndrya heroes with terrifying countenance " " a man is of the deeds of Indra. Ned. vindrtan to arrange. and she hymn will be edited in Miss M.Pers. . form Zor.

6Hessen's ii 149.applied to Parasu Rama and the five Pandavas.72.228 on Tue. 167. .168. 4 See for Etudes example J. Nart seemed there to " connote the man of heroic mould. cit. has survived independent G. "military strength" " In early Welsh poetry ner lord ". neredd are frequent.6 nrmnani Rigveda accomplishing of The collocation 1. Le Monde Oriental 25. Kuiper.emboldens me to venture on a very show wide hotly As debated problem."act of strength" " . indoeuropeens. nard is still more In Khot. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. B. formed like rtdtruth ". where we have the equation with Turkish tonga. Bud. Williams. force". 24.15 nrmndm. celtiques 3.237. loc. 170.3 Rigveda qjamsi indicates the sphere of activity of nar-.of Indra show that heroic force especially " " It is this same meaning of that we find heroic force intended. This general sense has been accepted by modern students of the name. Charpentier. . titan or giant ".and nrmnd. of the name of the god Indra. J. krdtum. Canu Aneirin. " The corresponding Irish word ner means boar ". ner-. Dumezil's scheme of the devdnam the base nar-. But the problem has not been fully worked out and the following note may be justified. In is Indra Indo-European gods equated can be quoted with "Force". 4 Dec 2012 08:03:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . It is possible indo. am. the use of the word Nart in the borrowing languages cited below shows the essence of the name. strength". Loki. the hero.5 Welsh nerth "force. p. ayr. 2Les dieux p.33.existed. so and that in 1948 it could be re-affirmed that probably the name nart was connected 7with the Indo-Eur. 5 I. Nerto-maros* Irish nert and strength and "host". 1 J. This interpretation of nadaun. the name of the Narts in Caucasian tales. Armen. it the force of wife express " as husband ". 59. " " a man. nrtamano acts of 5.ANALECTA INDOSCYTHICA 107 that in the Buddhist phrase Pali sakko sakro devdndm indrah. Dumezil.80. plur. Italic neriosus are well known. nyr.2 For nrmnd. p. The Celtic has retained old " " values in Gaulish nerto-. Vendryes. in Khot. Even in the small part of the vocabulary are attested which we can reach by comparisons several derivatives the word to It became particularly distribution. after H. The use of with ksumdai restricted. In Old Iranian as " in Old Indian a word nrtd.1 ff. 3F. Irish Dictionary 7G. Phrygian avap. an old meaning. nadaun. Jacobi.1 Outside Indo-Iranian the Greek dvrjp.6 The preceding certain that a verb oner-: dnr evidence makes existed in Indo-European. contrasting was ndrya. Sansk.

" 4Both Asica ". I. ZDMO. used beside bumberaz-i Blake. 25. An equivalent " our form nartwd (-wd= -o) is in an Armavir song ti-nartwd huxem " " nartdx? passed to the Nart riders ". Jazyk 277 nartdxwd. obliq. 60.108 ANALECTA INDOSCYTHICA xhere are Osset. Caucasica 8Sbornik Mat. 1945. jeu ndrton " one Nart". song no. Rklickij.9 The Kabard name of maize forms are nart In Ubyx Abaza. ndrf. narto in a Xakuci " translated by the Russian molodec brave man ". gutondzyn ii 37.. Bouda. i nartmd. 6 i 304.72. Kavkaza. adj. " : nart traced to *nartama-. 24 ff. The obliq. 4 Dec 2012 08:03:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . p. 1939. 3. by a social class. I. printed by A. Osset. Fidiuseg V. 94 (1940) 237. The Nart family was with 1Others are quoted sur les Nartes Les Legendes p. kujti nartd " " a 'rta nartdn to the three Uryzmdg. K. M. 5. cecemmd " " to the Cecens ". ndrtdxer. Dumezil. Abaev. From an Ossetic friend and ndtxor Selected Iron nart. plur. 3 s. 2Osset. urusmd to the Russians ". as an epithet champion inquiries Vaxtang Gorgaslan.228 on Tue. maize ".13. Iz oset. 16 (1942-3) 236. 11G. Iron ndrtxor. 26. I. 11-12 explanations quelques mots 1930. Bouda. dogs of Narts ". s.v. Pamiatniki and V. p. a connection with the ancient i nartskix skazaniax.v. P. sur 22 (1921) 252 Remarques of the name are N. Abaev.7 The adj. used as name of an " ancient tribe. see 5R. 9 tc. V. nartaa. Trans. 5.11 Abkhaz a collective plur. Jazyk Worterb. 12V. narti Sirdon. Byzantion (Arabic mubdriz) " of the legendary ". Trubetskoy. Jazyk Svanetian tales on all Nart Abaev. eposa 32. Diet. Digor and important we ustur i Thus find nartd. Oset. I. MSL. and V. Topuria. ZDMO. Trubetzkoy. 258.3 In a compound " food of the Narts. My have failed to find whence this word is quoted. Here also t= 10 K. Digor and Iron have plur. explained reviewed Nairi land.5 Svanetian has nart (t= tc) hero ". The inflexion gave nartmd " as in the collective plurals kasdgmd to the Circassians ". ustur Digor. Tybylty.12 In the language of the emigrant occur collect.10 the name is ndtuf. La langue des Oubykhs. who Oset. Jazyk Abaev. all the Nart people ". Soc. Oset. agds ndrton dddm " " to the Narts ". 93 (1939). line 6. -ta. It is important to note that the form nart and the inflexion nartmd exclude an explana tion by the plural suffix -ta. -tdmd* = From the neighbouring tf) languages we have Georgian nart-i (t " " titan ". V. and the phrases dgds narti dddm. Sanidze 7 11.2 has also nartd.6 Circassian has ndrty-'qdbdr Nart tales ". forms of the name informant I recorded nart collective plur. Dumezil. who K voprosy proposed o nartax (1927) 64-5. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. collective 21. i 316. A. reports subjects. plur. 38. i FoVklor i 316. Recent by G. Termin Nart iraniens B. narti ndrton zdrond Uoruzmdg.168. ndrtc-na. Narty occurs Digor nartixuar. ndrton. Ubyx plur. Alborov ". wftxer occurs text8 "the Narts". 2. line 3. N. is nartdm. Oset. Narts ". 28 . by A. Abaev. Phil.

is discussed sur les Nartes.ANALECTA INDOSCYTHICA 109 " a certain Nart" was expressed by za-ndrf called ndrf-Xapq and " the Avar has nart eastern For Caucasians the gwara. La langue des Oubykhs. in Ossetic t.6or such words as Osseticfiddltdl' &apvo " " art fire ". a If by this examination can be found he will probably pause before plausible interpretation an for further seeking origin involving irregular transmission. 108. " " " " " 6 Osset. 2L. mdrdd inherited eases : mard scheme. and ejective interchange easily than the aspirate and the ejective. and uinun to see ". 4 as one of the names occurs Soslan of the second husband of Tamara.72. how to apply his tools to ever. any the The story of the Alan princess Sat'inik queen of the twelfth Georgian century. historians.4 treated of already. p.8 Iran.instead of likely that in disyllables to -a.228 on Tue. r. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. 7 tc.168.1 giant in " tales ". pp. 4 Dec 2012 08:03:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 115. the Ossetes and a stable mythological their neighbours. Oset.and in the deriva is Osset.as in monosyllables. In Caucasian The t is aspirated three series exist: U. Kavkaza 14. 5 See above.5 Poets. beura . 167 ff. fortunate horse ".2 It is used as a singular : nartasul roqosa from the Nart's house ". The name Nart has been much probably of considerable antiquity. 159. I. -dfs many Digor farnug V. We sistently stable to see if a more start with attested consonants the form of the word both n. still a chance for the plain grammaticus acceptable and more firmly established be possible. which The became -rt in nart excludes Ossetic -rd. the following Note " " death in compound mdrd-sintd (from *mrti-) 1G. p.is found. vyos or Baiopao"nos .3 The efforts of Caucasian scholars have now made the Nart stories famous outside the narrow circle of their creators. Slovar' 2irkov. Jazyk i 164 .1 The vowel and nart. I. that is. 3 Sbornik Mat. 120. such a name as the problem fathers''. Avaro-Russkij (1936) p. 89 : skazoSnyj velikan. without dialectical interference and without confusion of meanings or forms by association with other words.had been preserved as -a. He can approach the word nart as he interpretation would approach. Dumezil. with confidence and certain result. Dumezil. languages aspirated voiced P. to " the . he can accept it as part of the Ossetic linguistic heritage and can attempt to find out its normal if it has been handed down like most other words. The aspirate and the voiced more d. There is. created would derivatives then be passing Newly regulated according " dead body dead. 136. tive ndrton connection the usual with Old -a. It is amply and con in the borrowed words with -a. 46. -rt-. Abaev. and ethnographers have offered their explanation with no cogent result. They constitute cycle. See . 8 It is the older -a. Les Legendes by G. connections. mythologists.

and 12. 6On see now K. 5 Outside other words are cited inWalde-Pokorny. words It needs therefore connection with Avestan and Old Indian words. fdrnug. Worterb. 4 Dec 2012 08:03:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . that " na. G. Morgenstierne. farn Iron farndzyn. Oset.of Greek ovlvrjfju to benefit ". La Legende Przyluski. 217. hatha. Indo-Iranian Vergl. i 260 ff. for which the parallel Chinese text8 has fg tp " " In Digor farnd. although a hero the meaning against incidentally may protect. pudra-. " name defensive garb ". I. " shield vdrddman-. furt.7 of monsters . vartlk. dl. Barr. " " translation 8J.268. Zor.397). of atar. Pazand of Av. 172. " trousers ". Acolca. the but Iron found. 3rS *dr0.protective mail. in 67. protect ". p. Dumezil.Pahl. But such a meaning.110 ANALECTA INDOSCYTHICA can at once set beside nart other Ossetic words with identical " " " and uart shield ".the base explained as art is. vahagn Armen. " " so in <f>ovpr son in the Zelencuk attested inscription ascribed to the eleventh-twelfth the modern century. 401.7 now and the Pahlavi -yh for yk. Festskrift til L. Jazyk Abaev. 43.273. Zoroast. Bud. gurtlk destroyer " hero ". and also Kusan A 0^0 yur < *drt. There is a large group of words " varderived from Indo-Iran. Digor jam. gurd. form from dtar. 126. vrtrd-. fars . 13. gurt " To those words must now be added Khot. Problems 7 with Written 109. plur. 3. where strength or violence 3 : nart is not meant such as befits either a hero or a giant just a " benefactor ". 1952. by the Ce6 ns. 2042.as in Avestan. Para6I dr. earlier fravaSiZoroast. plur. " in The second word uart has already been quoted shield" If nart were first have fravasi-6. as the Avestan " vdrdOra-. L.1 The -Br. 35 . ". 2.72. Menbk has gurdi. Sogd. Av. cited Problems. vardda-.14.168. sing.228 on Tue. vdrdOman-. " ond. from a *n&Qra. Yaghnabi 2V. weir ". farnd j and the adj. % Xrat p. obliq. Yidya developments and NSogd.2 We is. 1For other IIFL. militates is deduced from the contexts of nart. side ". ndihdassister ". bird ". The history of art is well syllable in art fire established. cover. 4As and VrOragna. mary are abl.in Ossetic as regularly. col.4 some brief examination. mdryta .5 Some long been Old varti-k? known. p. Morgenstierne. i 280 ff. Renou. Benveniste Vrtra p. p. 3The names of the to the giants Arxstuaj principal Nart heroes are transferred " bier " and Loki. Iron fdrnyg have -a-. and L. Ind. vahan vdrutha-.would recall Old. in E. see G. NTS. NPers. as also in the compound fdrndgun. fdrstd. " cuirass (E 25. It is from older *dOra(h). keep off. Hammerich. see OrBd. loan of a vdrtraInd.see G. and the assistance.has been replaced by -rt. de Vempereur in Taisho Issaikyo This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.

Henning.5 To it I would now add the Armen. etymology 7The -g. hasdgerd. hasd.7 again. Grigor 13. Khot. " a knot similar *grdya. 1945. Benveniste. pdttard pajslthyi " pdtra-clvaram pratisdmya pddau praksalya having arranged bowl and robe.umlaut8 *pati-gar6-ya-th. hngysttraced. sdgird.kept after pat. hatha-. 394 . Zum altiran.v. 4 b 2.as in Av. a verbal base as -dtawith from usual *pajslthdta-. by Sten Konow and A. spin ". 8 in paltcimphdkd " chedaka " in the JRAS. is necessary -Iby to assume from -ya-a-. for example. i 593. Soc. G. parte. y. In pajslthyi feet". 2 see Mid. th mailed k(ai-kia. given p.kept. required "to fasten again. W. 4 Dec 2012 08:03:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Pers. OCTOBER 1953.umlaut two consonants before 27 v 5. IIFL.1 both words meaning Khot. granth-. Phil. E. Index des termes en moyen-iranien. (later represents " " true is Old Iran. To Osset. attested corresponding " to Old Ind. p.Sansk which renders pajslthyi? clvard in cliche the pratisdmya pd haysndtd. join" the word has here the " back ". Hoernle Vajr.is absent. batha. Morgenstierne. Etym. 69-70. replaced by -ya-. ". hs'krt. could not and Jeroboam recover his power" It may be taken as after defeat by Abijah.2 So also E pathuta. gild dlxync\ dlxij. 1899. Wrong readings in Manuscript The aksara Remains Literature. the from is such examples of Khot. 3 are ad loc. i.in Zor. 8 Similar Suvarnabhdsa -i. " 4 See Asica ". No decisive is offered in H. Phil. p. 38 . Etym. or 0 older contact in with Thus haththar. p."burnt" <*pati-0uta " " beside E hamthutaburnt from which -i. 377. C. asakert. 4 . Worterb.228 on Tue.Pahl. Vergl.the Mid.in. thy was of Buddhist not recognized but it is quits clear. Xalat<eanc<. patkar-.in place of -gar6-). Armen."mail" to an Old Iran.. hasiya-. 10. Sansk.Mnac<-ordac<-. Ormuri </a^e& (from *yar6-) twist. s.168. This is the garO-. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. haiOya Khot. Soc. B.Walde-Pokorny. R. F. hngysyh-.20. With thth and *vr6a- th it is possible to trace (or possibly *varda-) as in 1 kcai is used in the Mahdvyutpatti 6073 for varma-samndha-. and patgam.72. Armen. Texts i 236. to replace" (with js replacing g *pati-gard-yaafter -i-. Ghilain. 241.Pers.comes the to explain -rd-. Trans. in but -i.ANALECTA INDOSCYTHICA 111 " armour ". Dictionary. Adjarian. A longer note to explain Bud. hs'grt *hasdkart. 5 in A. ed. Trans. meaning put together. Pashto. get It Khot. Voc. 1945. roll up ". NPers. having washed I see the parte. Chron. Mid. nyastel " up ". Worterb.Pers. or from / of -jard. NPers. Bartholomae. loan-word patgarhel attested only once 6: eu occ kareacc patgarhel Yeroboam from the " Greek koi ovk eax^v lo*xvv 'hpofiodp.. *hadya. ydrdl roll up ". From "fasten *pati-garO-.and -g. i. 62 in Girk<. grath" " to wrap Pasto yardl to twist.* " " to fetter has been gys-. " in to fasten ". patkan-. passive. girih. haksa-) and OPers. as -k. gyst.

the sounds note that explained by intention ". JRAS. .in stir up ".and Old Ind.168.comes from -6. mary bird ". That be*sa.has been noted " Av. 6. from uz-manO-. vdrdBrayna. Av. urdug upright " " 5 -t. A propos de ".^ The -rt. " " : it can be satisfactorily We return now to Oss. 6.in urz finger ". etiudy i 30-4. 14.with loss of the first -r-. " 7 H. stard driven out ". " son of Eltdyan belongs also the giant Kucyjifyrt Eltayan.3 The Armen.which.268.3 (now with military " arrows. loan-words vaha in vahan and vahagn were noted above (p. Oset. pp.as it does -Br. no. in Khotanese. indicates the weapon. vaga. Old.and v. Gregoire. be'sa. Old Ind. To the note on Kharosthi The third replacement by g. the grammaticus 1Tn a Hedin be'sa " Old Iran. " -r. 2BSOAS.in art suits fire ".112 ANALECTA INDOSCYTHICA Avestan vardBa. Osset. (Indo-Eur. as in Av. 6Vs. Mund. Ind. hardBra- elsewhere. take care of them ". -tra-. Av. fatdn as mamthin Khotanese. Old Ind. Old.228 on Tue. "whirlpool" " " " : we should then have a double suffix from varIn be*sashield protect" : -o-. -iha-. Morgenstierne. uktha-. 4 Dec 2012 08:03:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . if it can be trusted. -tes-ts-tes-tsa. Rapson's vaka.and v. but dary ". urs " " Mittelir. The suffix is well known in OPers.422. manth-. dargalong " " Iron qarm hot from Old Iran. from *rdua.as well as " -ar-. Both b. with " rautahriver ". Dumezil.can have replaced " " " -rB. " protection". Ind. can add four points. dbei^sa*vartsa-. 112).kalm dead ".may In the context best be taken as shield ". Vdrddrayna Melanges This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. *vrBra-. vrtrahan-.can represent both b. NTS.5 but the meaning shield the suffix -Bra-. uxSaword ". To his demonstration occurs pumna document the printer) 21.of Old Iran. *ursan-. paOana-. cardk&rdBra side ". srotas-. Oraotah-.2 For -Bra " active " has been explained from spindle *varta8ra. uart shield same the For Old Iran. The sufhx to express the instrument and action is rather -Bra-. 1905. *vrBra-. spears. mard -I. garma-. udddrt -arreplaces sense. 8G.from gives as we have bePsa-. with fars " " " snake and OPers. 790-1. from tale. -h-). note b. Bartholomae. usually " result of an action."turn". and in azmdntun wide ". as " in Oss.1 The problem in. J. from the verb vart. seems to refer to a But the sufhx -da-.72. 223-6. " " " 4But before stallion from and after u we have ur.is also known hu'std in E. is outdone by the Nart. an is Iron The ". which leads to *vrBra-.7 name out that the conceal the Old may pointed Scythian equivalent rather Here of Av. Old Ind.(contra C.from Indo-Eur. The mythica who side has already been admirably explored by 6.an Old Iran. add the baga of the coin legend baga-vharnapaper. of Khot. Hence I propose to find in batha. ttydm va ddara yanirau " be^sa. Miller.7). 12.6 He known giant opponent of Kucyg a Sozryqo. with golden scalp.

Digor uezdon " " noble ".32 dmbal jezdon is rendered by tovarisc blagorodnyj.is a Cyrillic way of writing ie-.is represented by -on in both dialects (in with very close o). Digor tdran. I hope to write on its connections with Av. The nistaudn. The final -an causes difficulty in several words.4 The sound -an occurs in a number of Ossetic words. Jazyk 284.ANALECTA INDOSCYTHICA 113 e. Oset. corresponds Syrtan is the equiva lent of Sirdon.replacing ue. Iron udzdan. Digor and Iron " " mattress wool-sack ". V. from pari. Sosdg. uezdon. say sagdan.2. The Cecen form of the name is Soska Solsa with -a but without the nasal. has and -an. sweet-wort to the ".228 on Tue. I. In the third syllable we have a replacement of -yna-. sing. quoted by V. and sb. The -It. or be secondary in an originally closed syllable -agn-. vdrdBrdjandm.. 4 See sur les Nartes. Miller.later. the secon '\farstan dary older form of a common Digor -audn. I. Iron gdrtam bribe ".) ". the father's name. " Thus Digor gdrtan. -an. and the Cecen Sirtta has retained the vowel -a after losing the nasal. Abaev. nystuan task.which may derive from older ud-. i 269. " from Old Iran. GIP. Kabard 3. 115. Iron bdydmsar bare-headed from *bagna-sdra-. 2 In Pamiatniki This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. but it differs in having -a. clear. pret. pp. and -an cud-an arises " we in the went 1st plural an " we " we asked are " from ".not -a-.168. An older stage Digor is shown in words borrowed by other languages. 8Soska is gen. as suffix Iron has dntuan -nan corresponding " Bierwiirze. 3 Vs. The nart name Soslan ". in -a from the name in Oss. 7V. to don Oss. Dictionary gives this word is printed erdzen in the Iron Adajmag Sfaldystad. as in fdl. Jazyk a-g?aban.72. G.111. Oset.(common elsewhere in contact with The initial from krmi-)."around" The -ayan may have its first -a.from -rBr shows an -I. Iron tram Kabard horse ".from -a-. Les Legendes p. -dvana-.8 of Eltayan The linguistic with evidence at least permits the identification " in dntaudn. Dumezil. testament -an of Soslan is explained as a survival and compared with the -an 7 of the Zelencuk but the conditions are not inscription Anapalane. " " A parallel occurs in Digor bdydnsar. Old Iran. 1 5. ozddn in Eltdyan noble (adj. 4 ff.6 In *asmahi. 6 Iron differs : cydystam. " Iron udzddn. Jazyk Abaev.from older ud-: Digor jezdon. VdrdBrayna-.1 In one case we find ie.2 Hence we have ie. 4 Dec 2012 08:03:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . arising in the inflected forms as Av. I. Oset.replacement of -r. Abaev. thus the Ossetic and Iron jerdzen (Digor dzegen) "reed-mat".109. kalm "snake" -i-.. farstam. Thus sakdan. Ossetisch. vazd.5 bardan goban Oss. 2. 5 Abkhaz i 314.

eposa. p.beside gen. Thus we read mugd mugkag (adj. 4 Dec 2012 08:03:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . tuppur kurgan Indo-Eur.7 and " " four Iron from -6uin also cyppar cuppar. See for example Hittite 7 See V.base Phil. Iron guryn 6 -unas. praise and ". in Prak.to suit the active meaning. " " 8Oss. p. now families". derivation. " flax from *kana-.1 The Narts in the tales are a group of such violent men. family ". The Dictionary gintd* translated into Russian as " " " I 613 has Digor guppur gin famous . 8.(or -bp) is a spelling to indicate unaspirated has and non-ejective -p-. found 1952. Dumezil.sing. p.9 The connection with kur. where Greek Abaev. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. to old myths 2. uart with men (or gods conceived as men). -pp. teu. Iz oset. " staoOwana-ppana-. wkwr. tumulus. (Vedic) since -tvana -uerand Romani was -mn. in Narts des La G. and Iron guppyrsar famous " sa with the khdldtdzyn nobility quotation narty guppyrsartd badtysty " the Nart nobles sat upon their backed chairs ". a derivative from kur. I.114 ANALECTA INDOSCYTHICA If it is. wk?wr *wikur " kinsmen ". -uar.seems to me now to be preferable. taken as we must postulate in *nrdra-. developed Digor of -uar.Pahl. as from *tau-0uarto the can be explained tomb. also in Lat. That is to claim guppur as from *kurduar-.with double suffix -t-uer-. 9Trans. -t-uen(surviving as in Av. " among the great Narts there were two bardgddr adtdj duud mugkagi most distinguished The older word in Ossetic. as proposed above. Soc.. 1Batradz sur les Nartes 2Pamiatniki 3 but I had are traced thought at first of comparing of gods by G.is that of vigorous or violent We can now turn to nart. which survived " the great Narts ". The word then may be " " as a noun either of rendered by war-force actively exhibiting action or of agent.alternate in early Indo-European.72.493. 14.228 on Tue.25 : narti guppurgintd Bestaui barga dramburddnca and semuncd kafuncd narti guppurgintd. Digor traces the word BSOAS. In guppur I see -ur as a replacement " can initial g. They form " a word now used for this group is mukkag.8 The < *ca6udra(h). Zor. Dumezil. who Gershevitch.6 The Oss. Les Legendes and Soslan 178 ff. comparable with -0ra. " be born ". with which I would compare archaic. 63. -pen). This activity of nar. 4Pamiatniki bdrzondmd 2. Langue occurring Oubykhs. Iron gdn hemp. badantyl 5 In this guppur I see a cognate of Sogd. 5 See I. " one family of in Ubyx zd-laxwa (with Cerkes Xdpq) Similarly ndrt<-\apq-n9 " 136.3 in the phrase narti guppur guppur. Old Ind. also in Oss. The Ossetic " 2 ustur i nartmd from seed ").in place of kbe compared with gdnd.168. tttt was used.5. igurun.

ANALECTA INDOSCYTHICA 115 yws from *gaudra-. A base kur. hdkurdnaco-operation the Pahl. Qdliqald. NPers. young man ". " " we have the derivative in Zor. kur aka.from pari.168. By tracing kur. get a good meaning if they are derived from this same base kur-.2 " ass the of ". Worterbuch 234 . young of horse. Problems. puer young. The explanation of the g. script the city of Karin (qdli < karni). Zum altiran. Worterb. that -I. kwer-. yws is in W. lamb ". The Sogd.72. distinct from gotrd perhaps originally " family 17 .is represented by mainis p.1 and postulating *gau Ouar-.Pahl. 6 text BSOAS. But in Avestan the expected would have been *kaurv-. Zor.228 on Tue. and in Geldn if this is from *varnya-. and camel" the suffix -aka.Pers. " " be produced The recognition of this kurof offers a means " " in (so explained explaining Gathic Av. H. krnoti is also traced.in hdkurdna Possibly is a secondary form from *kar-u-. as " in Zor. loan-word ".Pahl.Pers.3 kurrakdn I xar Pazand Greater Bundahisn young " is kurrah offers kurah. Dhabhar. gohr. putrd. " 5 See Zoroast. -y-. " " 7Lith. 4 Dec 2012 08:03:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . NPers."son". N. Cited from a Khotanese 14.z The -rr.and other words. Gr. kwlk From kurbe born in the The word occurs miswritten and kwlg *kurrak "foal".here 7we should as in Zoroast. i Gdhdnbdr 21 (top) . with note p. translation hamkartdrlh). zahak child ". berns It may be intimated here that the -kula of the names Ysarkula-6 and Mihirakula-. Sogd. 89. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.can be traced to an Mid. 5. Got.resulted.. barn ". older -rn-. p. B. Old Norse kund-r "son". 376. barn child child. 1Rather " tarrak.of guppur from y. Lett. It may be due to the presence In Ossetic -l occurs in fat. Afrinaghdn " line 3. as we find tar-u-. Dialektaufzeichnungen. Junker. gotrd " is probably the same word. embryo. Mid. NPers. Lat. long vowel in the name of Erzerum Problems 230). the name of the Huna king. for Mid. 4 -rn. Without with the diminutive -aka-. 3 Iranische Andreas-Barr.in ddlman. zhg " animal Armen.would have been more difficult. child ". pullus "young of animal". For the note Got. Henning. Sogdica 2 C.Pahl. ass. For the meaning young of animals " " " element Lat. followed by -I. It is hoped to discuss that problem later in a wider context. kur. NPers.Parth. tt&Xos.Kurdish has kurr. 95.and varrak. fula "foal". cattle-stall". and " " Lit. p.seems preferable. Problems. than *gavadra-. Zor. since Old Ind. kur and well attested. 307. 83.4 Hence we have here *kur-na. kurti Vergl. p.Pahl. Avestan zardnu in Arabic (see Zoroast. zdq young dzag.not -r. Old Saxon kind Sansk. B. Zand-i Khurtak Avistdk. of -i-. Ein Bruchstuek der Bartholomae. 20.427. tarrah herbs ". to build is cited inWalde-Pokorny. bernas child ". i 518 kuriii. barrah " " can be compared *kur-na-ka-. 155. " " " -nafrom gen-. under and form igurun to which Old Ind.

12. and need not be considered less certain. Nyberg.Parth. Rel. Rev. Eliade. The Ossetic evidence shows that in the Old Scythian period there existed VrBragna(Eltayan) " " shield and *vrBra(uart). . law. A lies the mythology.(attested in Khot. A. bind ". iii 260 ff. 1-18. 6A. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.1 The analysis of nart leading back to an Old Iran. Further support for the base kur. " service pastaun. p. Benveniste " " to binder ". nart The of Indra in his fight with Vrtra-. Dumezil's studies. de Menasce (Vorotfrayna) was pro as a reward for his defeat and to the rank of Amahraspand moted The nart in conflict with the ielt. rite.is the Old capture of Ahriman.) uses neither Veda Creation 1942. W. " ed. Renou. Hillebrandt. La promotion 158 ff. p. treated Mythologie 117 (1938). N. (JAOS. Der arische Kriegsgott. Rel. Myth of the Rig nor G. and A. H.228 on Tue. vavrvdmsam.has " " fathers leads proceeded just as the analysis of Oss.2 The study of the Armen. 66. Lommel. Vedic Macdonell.(a rime word the " to *vrBra-) to express the activities of heroes (and gods) who attacked who was *vrBra. and thence the meaning have of assis "producing tance could easily be derived. Beyond little may be gained for that also. Vahagn by G. 133.4 An Iranian parallel to the Vahagn myth was later pointed 5 in which Bahrain out by P. explained 46 ff. nadaun-) the Scythians made a word *nrBra. Beside the Old Iran.does not mean vrtra. however. inscription. of Vrtra. the linguistic discussion. See also H. *nrta.72. Vedische Mythology. 5Rev. " producing ". J. pastdn " vteuan Mid. and the fight with Indra. Vrtra et Vrdragna.168. Scythian contribution to the same mythology. Brown. Digoxfiddltd back to pitar-. *kuravan-: This may kurdun represent religion".16. Renou's E.as a 134 (1948). custom. Hist. but var. ndrydni the Scythian parallel personified. god) myth grandiose " or or a active whether resister" defender" envelopment by indicated defence.7 vftrdm Rigveda 3Revue de VHistoire des 4 In E. Vala.in Eltayan) (or who were) probably to This is the dpdmsi . -6n also The -dvan survives in the loan-word in vtauan. M. dvanis found from *paristdvan-. Benveniste and as -aun.116 ANALECTA INDOSCYTHICA " in common ". Ost og Vest. Hist. *nrBra. (if Iranian loan-word) an Iran. (" hero ") fights not an " " " " or to suit the resistance abstract (quite insufficient covering " a cosmos-creating a of but warder off. . de Bahram. in the Hajjiabad wPwny 2 4. order. Religions L. bowshot".. Dumezil3 was richer than the linguistic study alone could that the mythology show. 4 Dec 2012 08:03:26 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .(ielta.) 1 Iran. S. 85 ff.6 (To be continued. and L.can also be found in the " krdn Armen.

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