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two surfaces come in contact a stress forms at that point. This even true when you have just “point” or “line” contact for curved surfaces since the load deforms the two bodies turning the point/line into an contact area. This situation regularly shows up in such things as bearings, wheels and mating parts like gears. For given set of conditions met these stresses and related parameters can be calculated using Hertz’s formulation, hence the name Hertzian contact stress. Introduction In order to apply the Hertz theory and subsequent equations to analyzing stresses in contact points we have to make sure our system meets a set of conditions. These conditions are as follows: the load force is normal and the induced contact area is small compared to radii of the two bodies, additionally they are inhomogeneous, their yield strengths are not exceeded and are in rest (equilibrium). In the case you have tangential force and the parts are moving past one another then you to use another formulation called Smith-Lui Equations. Assuming these are met, we have two general cases of contacts: point contact (two convex spheres, convex/concave spheres or sphere and a plane ) and line contact (two externally touching cylinders, one cylinder inside another or a cylinder and a plane). For the plane we set its diameter in the equation to infinity and for the concave/internal surface we set its diameter as a negative value. For point contact case consider the following set up:
Fig1: Point Contact
max is on z-axis) and determine the shear stress. a.49a (inside the bodies). The max shear stress occurs on the z-axis at z=.Then the radius. For the line contact we have a similar situation. This is where many experts say fractures form that go to the surface and cause the part to fail. We can also take the principle stresses (along the 3-axis. of the contact area is given as This can be rewritten in terms of effective radius and contact (effective) modulus: 1/r=1/r1+1/r2 and 1/E=[(1-ν1)/E1]+[(1-ν1)/E1] respectively The maximum pressure called the Hertz (compressive) stress occurs at the center and is given by: and the mean pressure over the area is pavg=(2/3)pmax The maximum deflection is δmax=a2/r. Here we have a rectangular contact area with length l (the size of the cylinder) and half width b.2: Line Contact . In the same fashion the Hertzian equations are as follows: Fig. it is approximately τmax≈(1/3)pmax .
Conclusion For curved surfaces in contact the Hertzian model through its equations lets us quickly calculate some important parameters. Granted for this to work certain conditions have to be obeyed. An example problem for steel bearing on an aluminum plane is given in the appendix. Richard Gordon Budynas.and the mean pressure over the area is pavg=(π/4)pmax Max shear occurs at center of contact area at z=. Mischke. max deflection. These parameters include contact area. “Mechanical EngineeringDesign” . Reference Joseph Edward Shigley. max and average compressive stress. but these are easily met in a lot of situations. Charles R. and max shear stress along with its location.79a where again τmax≈(1/3)pmax.