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What is ?

Advertising …
… A process through which companies go to create persuasive messages directed to consumers; it uses channels to convey their messages, and aims at building brand images and pushing consumers to buy

Marketing …
… is principally based on customers (and potential consumers) needs and expectations; and is aimed at designing messages that are specific to targeted audiences ; its main goal is to push consumers to buy

Clutter …
… or noise, refers to the idea that when consumers are submerged with advertising messages, they have difficulties to differentiate between all of them; consumers have hard time focusing their attention on one single advertising message, which, in turn, won’t be totally got by the audience

Stimulus Codability …
… the specific cultural codes or interests related to populations that some advertising campaigns, or messages are based on. These messages try to attract the attention of the targeted audience by appealing at some specificities of their culture, or at some of their specific interests

Corporate Logo …
… is the symbol (or image) that represents a brand and helps conveying the its values, objectives, and general idea

Salience …
… is achieved by a brand when the consumers that tried a product of it had a positive experience, and starts to informally promote it around him or her; salience can be viewed as closely related to word-of-mouth advertising as it is not coordinated by the brand and only depends on the consumer’s intention

Brand Equity …

… refers to the specific attributes, benefits and other characteristics that contribute to the building of the brand’s unique image

Market Segmentation …
… happens when starting a marketing campaign as the target audience must be defined; advertisers and marketers take into consideration a specific segment of the population and design the campaign according to their needs and characteristics; most common market segments are: men, women, kids, business people, seniors…

Behaviographics …
… help to determine the targeted audience and to know about their lifestyle and buying habits, as well as their values and beliefs; psychographics are however also very useful for this type of information

Positioning …
… happens when a brand wants to differentiate itself from other brands by presenting the specificities that makes it singular in the market; positioning is a must in competitive markets as each and every brand needs to clearly state its uniqueness

Over Positioning
… happens when a brand decides to extensively use one of its characteristics to position itself; the major risk with this practice is to lose an important number of consumers or potential customers

Under Positioning …
… happens when a brand doesn’t use a clear and consistent positioning statement; the major risk here is that the brand will not be clearly differentiated from its competitors and fail in attracting consumers’ attention

Consumer Processing Model …
... Is based on the assumption that consumers make their buying choices and other consumer related decisions in accordance with their cognitive, logic, and rational abilities; therefore, advertising messaged based on CPM have chances to be more effective on consumers that fall in this category

Hedonic Experiential Model …
… is based on the idea that consumers make their buying decisions and other consumer based decisions on whether the advertising messages they are exposed to appeal to their emotions or not; in fact consumers that fall into this category tend to buy depending on their emotions-related perceptions

The Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory … … states that all individuals’ needs can be categorized depending on their importance and implications; this theory is represented by a pyramid with people’s basic needs at the bottom (physiological needs) and goes up self-actualization needs, passing through safety needs, belonging needs, and esteem needs

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Self-actualization needs Esteem needs Social needs
Safety needs

Physiological needs

Hierarchy of Marcom Effects …
… is based on a pyramidal model which different levels are: unawareness, awareness, expectation, and trial; once the consumers attains trial, his or her attitude towards the products might be positively or negatively reinforced; if the experience is positive the consumer might become loyal to the brand

Hierarchy of Marcom Effects
Brand Loyalty (if belief or attitude reinforcement)

Trial Expectations
Awareness

Unawareness

Iconoclastic Names …

… might be used by some brands that decided to use an image or other visual representation to represent itself; one of the best examples is Apple