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Classication of 2d Systems: b : T = a + d, D = ad bc, p() = 2 T + D x = Ax, A = a cd Case A: T 2 4D > 0 real distinct eigenvalues 1,2 = (T T 2 4D )/2

General Solution: (v1 , v2: eigenvectors)

H v

y

2+

2v

H1+ 2v v

1 1

x

v1

x

v2 2v v1

v2 2v H

2 2

H1

2 t

Half line trajectories: if c2 = 0 x(t) = c1 e1tv1 trajectory is half line H1+ = {x = v1 | > 0} if c1 > 0 H1 = {x = v1 | < 0} if c1 < 0 Same for H2 if c1 = 0, c2 > 0 or < 0 The 4 half line trajectories separate 4 regions of R2

1 t

Phase portrait: Sketch trajectories. Indicate direction of motion by arrows pointing in the direction of increasing t Direction of Motion on Half Line Trajectories: If 1 > 0 then x(t) = c1 e1tv1 moves out to for t (outwards arrow on H1+ ) approaches 0 for t If 1 < 0 then x(t) = c1 e1tv1 approaches 0 for t (inwards arrow on H1+ ) moves out to for t

1

Half line trajectories

L2

y

Half line trajectories

L2

y

Half line trajectories

L2

y

fast

x

fast

x x

slow

L

1

slow

Generic Trajectories

y

Generic Trajectories

L2

y

Generic Trajectories

L

2

y

L

x

L1

L1

2

Phase Portraits and Time Plots for Cases A (pplane6) Nodal Sink Nodal Source Saddle

Ex.: A = 1 4 2 1 Ex.: A = 3 1 1 3 Ex.: A = 3 1 1 3

x=x+4y, y=2xy

5

x=3x+y, y=x+3y

5

x=3xy, y=x3y

5

y

5 0 5

5 5

5 5 0 5

30 20 10

20

20

x

y x and y

x y

x and y

x y

15

15

x and y

10

10

10 20 30 0.5 0 0.5 1 5 5

4D T 2/2

complex eigenvector v = u + iw complex no half line solutions General Solution: x(t) = et[c1 (u cos t w sin t) + c2(u sin t + w cos t)]

x(t) periodic trajectories are closed curves

y

growing oscillations trajectories are outgoing spirals

y

decaying oscillations trajectories are ingoing spirals

y

x x

Borderline Case: Center ( = 0) is border between spiral source ( > 0) and spiral sink ( < 0).

4

Phase Portraits and Time Plots for Cases B (pplane6) Center Spiral Source Spiral Sink

Ex.: A = 4 10 2 4 2+i 1 Ex.: A = 0.2 1 1 0.2 1 i Ex.: A = 0.2 1 1 0.2 1 i

= 2i v =

= 0.2 + i v =

x=0.2x+y, y=x+0.2y

1

= 0.2 + i v =

x=0.2x+y, y=x0.2y

1

x=4x10y, y=2x4y

2 0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

5 4 3 2

3 2 1

x y

x and y

3 2 1 0 1

x y

x and y

x and y

1 0 1 2 3 4 5 5 0 5

0 1 2 3

2 20 15 10 5 0 5

4 5 0 5 10 15 20

Degenerate Node: Borderline Case Spiral/Node Assume T 2 4D = 0 single eigenvalue = T /2 Assume generic case: (A I ) = 0 single eigenvector v Let (A I )w = v General solution:

only two half line solutions on straight line generated by v Degenerate Nodal Source: T >0

borderline case

y

borderline case

y

SaddleNode: Borderline Case Node/Saddle Assume D = 0, T = 0 eigenvalues 1 = 0, 2 = T Let v1, v2 be the eigenvectors General solution:

line of equilibrium points generated by v1 innitely many half line solutions on straight lines parallel to line generated by v2 Unstable SaddleNode: T >0

borderline case

y

borderline case

y

2>0

2<0

1=0

1=0

9.4: The (T, D)Plane: = T/2 T 2 4D/2 Five Generic Cases: D=T2/4 D if D < 0 saddle degenerate degenerate nodal source nodal sink if D > 0 and spiral spiral T >0 source source sink T <0 sink center nodal nodal T 2 > 4D node source sink 2 T < 4D spiral T Borderline Cases: unstable saddle stable saddlenode saddlenode if T = 0 and D > 0 center 8 5 if D = 0, T = 0 saddle-node Ex.: A = D = 6 10 7 if T > 0 unstable saddle if T < 0 stable D = 2, T = 3 2 0 Ex.: A = 1 1 T 2 4D = 1 if T 2 = 4D, A = (T /2)I , and nodal sink T > 0 d. nodal source 10 25 D = 25 T < 0 d. nodal sink Ex.: A =

5 10 T =0 Other Special Case: A = I , = 0 center only half line solutions from origin c = 5 > 0 counterclockwise unstable >0 direction of rotation Name: star if 8 stable <0

a b , classify the type of phase portrait. c d In the case of centers and spirals you may also be asked to determine the direction of rotation. 1. Given a matrix A = 2. Given a matrix A = a b , sketch the phase portrait. c d The sketch should show all special trajectories and a few generic trajectories. At each trajectory the direction of motion should be indicated by an arrow. In the case of centers, sketch a few closed trajectories with the right direction of rotation. For spirals, one generic trajectory is sucient. In the case of saddles or nodes, the sketch should include all half line trajectories and a generic trajectory in each of the four regions separated by the half line trajectories. The half line trajectories should be sketched correctly, that is, you have to compute eigenvalues as well as eigenvectors. In the case of nodes you should also distinguish between fast (double arrow) and slow (single arrow) motions (see p.2). 3. Given A, nd the general solution (or a solution to an IVP), classify the phase portrait, and sketch the phase portrait.

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