IvoceedIngs o¡ Syn¡osIa In A¡¡IIed LatLenatIcs

A TaIk on Quantun CryµtograµLy
or
Hov AIIco OutvIts Evo
Samuol J. Lomonaco, Ji.
Ais+i\c+. Alico und !ob vish fo connunicufo vifhouf fho uichvilluinoss
!vo ouvosdiopping on fhoii convoisufion. Alico, docidos fo fulo fvo collogo
couisos, ono in ciypfogiuphy, fho ofhoi in guunfun nochunics. Ðuiing fho
couisos, sho discovois sho cun uso vhuf sho hus jusf louinod fo doviso u ciyp-
fogiuphic connunicufion sysfon fhuf uufonuficully dofocfs vhofhoi oi nof
!vo is up fo hoi villuinous ouvosdiopping. Sono of fho fopics discussod uio
Hoisonboig`s !ncoifuinfy ¡iinciplo, fho \oinun ciphoi, fho !!S1 und !92
ciypfogiuphic piofocols. Tho full onds vifh u discussion of sono of !vo`s
possiblo ouvosdiopping sfiufogios, opuguo ouvosdiopping, fiunsluconf ouvos-
diopping, und fiunsluconf ouvosdiopping vifh onfunglononf.
CcN+rN+s
1. Suhidfh
1.1. 1ho Uniquo ConliiLulion of Quanlum Ciyplogiaphy
1.2. A Nolo lo lho Ioaooi
2. Lqwurgxfwlrq
8. D Frxuvh rq Fodvvlfdo Fu|swrjudsk|
8.1. Alico`s onlhusiaslic oocision
8.2. Ilainloxl, ciphoiloxl, koy, ano ... Calch 22
2000 1uI|onuI:ov Euh]ooI C|uvv:]ouI:on. ¡iinuiy Sl¡6S, 91A60,Sl-02; Soconduiy Sl\S0,
6S¡2õ .
1o¸ uo·Jv unJ ¡|·uvov. Quunfun ciypfogiuphy, ciypfogiuphy, guunfun sociocy, guunfun
connunicufion, guunfun infoinufion, gubif, ouvosdiopping, infiusion dofocfion, uufhonficufion,
onfunglononf, guunfun nochunics.
¡uifiully suppoifod by Ainy !osouich !uboiufoiy (A!!) Confiucf ¸ÐAA!0l-9õ-¡-lSS1,
by Ainy !osouich Ohco (A!O) Ciunf ¸¡-SSS01-¡H-QC, by fho Nufionul ¡nsfifufo of Sfunduids
und Tochnology (N¡ST), by fho Ðofonso Advuncod !osouich ¡iojocfs Agoncy (ÐA!¡A) und Aii
¡oico Mufoiiol Connund !SA¡ undoi ugioononf nunboi ¡S0602-0l-0õ22, und by fho !-O-O-¡
¡und. This pupoi is u iovisod voision of u pupoi publishod in Coding Thooiy, und Ciypfogiuphy:
¡ionCohoinschoinschioiboi und !nignu fo Quunfun Thooiy,' (odifod by Ðuvid Joynoi), !ocfuio
Nofos in Conpufoi Scionco und !nginooiing, Spiingoi-\oilug, l999 (pp. l11-l71). ¡f hus boon
iopioducod vifh fho poinission of Spiingoi-\oilug. (Copyiighf 2000.)
c ?uuuu {co¡yvIgLt LoIdev)
4
5 VDPXHO M1 ORPRQDFR/ MU1
8.8. Iiaclical Sociocy
8.4. Ioifocl Sociocy
8.ò. Compulalional Socuiily
4. D Frxuvh rq Txdqwxp Phfkdqlfv
4.1. Alico`s Ioluclanl Docision
4.2. 1ho Classical Woilo Inliooucing lho Shannon Lil
4.8. 1ho Quanlum Woilo Inliooucing lho QuLil
4.4. Whoio oo quLils livo´
4.ò. Somo Diiac nolalion Inliooucing kols
4.6. Finally, a oolnilion of a quLil
4.7. Moio Diiac nolalion Inliooucing Lias ano Lia-c-kols
4.8. Aclivilios in lho quanlum woilo Unilaiy liansfoimalions
4.0. OLsoivaLlos in quanlum mochanics Hoimilian opoialois
4.10. 1ho HoisonLoig uncoilainly piinciplo A limilalion on whal wo can
aclually oLsoivo
4.11. Young`s lwo slil oxpoiimonl An oxamplo of HoisonLoig`s uncoilainly
piinciplo
ò. Wkh Ehjlqqlqjv ri Txdqwxp Fu|swrjudsk|
ò.1. Alico has an iooa
ò.2. Quanlum sociocy 1ho LL84 piolocol wilhoul noiso
ò.8. Quanlum sociocy 1ho LL84 piolocol wilh noiso
6. Wkh E<5 txdqwxp fu|swrjudsklf surwrfro
7. Wkhuh duh pdq| rwkhu txdqwxp fu|swrjudsklf surwrfrov
8. D frpsdulvrq ri txdqwxp fu|swrjudsk| zlwk fodvvlfdo dqg
sxeolf nh| fu|swrjudsk|
0. Hdyhvgursslqj vwudwhjlhv dqg frxqwhu phdvxuhv
0.1. Opaquo oavosoiopping
0.2. 1iansluconl oavosoiopping wilhoul onlanglomonl
0.8. 1iansluconl oavosoiopping wilh onlanglomonl
0.4. Lavosoiopping Lasoo on implomonlalion woaknossos
10. Lpsohphqwdwlrqv
11. Frqfoxvlrq
12. Dfnqrzohgjhphqw
Iofoioncos
TXDQWXP FU\SWRJUDSK\ 6
41 Suhidfh
4141 Wkh Xqltxh Frqwulexwlrq ri Txdqwxp Fu|swrjudsk|1 Lofoio
Loginning oui sloiy, I`o liko lo slalo piocisoly whal is lho uniquo conliiLulion of
quanlum ciyplogiaphy.
Quanlum ciyplogiaphy piovioos a now mochanism onaLling lho pailios
communicaling wilh ono anolhoi lo:
Aulomalically Dolocl Lavosoiopping
Consoquonlly, il piovioos a moans foi ooloimining whon an onciyploo
communicalion has Loon compiomisoo.
4151 D Qrwh wr wkh Uhdghu1
1his papoi is Lasoo on an inviloo lalk givon al lho Confoionco on Cooing
lhooiy, Ciyplology, ano NumLoi 1hooiy holo al lho US Naval Acaoomy in An-
napolis, Maiylano in OcloLoi of 1008. Il was also givon as an inviloo lalk al lho
Quanlum Compulalional Scionco Woikshop holo in conjunclion wilh lho Fionliois
in Compuling Confoionco in Annapolis, Maiylano in FoLiuaiy of 1000, al a Loll
LaLs Colloquium in Muiiay Hill, Now Joisoy in Apiil of 1000, al lho Socuiily ano
1ochnology Division Colloquium of NIS1 in GailhoisLuig, Maiylano, ano al lho
Quanlum Compulalion Sominai al lho U.S. Naval Iosoaich LaLs in Washinglon,
DC.
My oLjoclivo in cioaling lhis papoi was lo wiilo il oxaclly as I hao givon lho
lalk. Lul ... Shoilly afloi slailing lhis manusciipl, I succumLoo lo lho lomplalion
of gioally omLollishing lho sloiy lhal hao Loon wovon inlo lho oiiginal lalk. I loavo
il lo lho ioaooi lo oocioo wholhoi oi nol lhis ooliacls fiom oi onhancos lho papoi.
51 Lqwurgxfwlrq
Wo Login oui ciyplo oiama wilh lho inlioouclion of lwo of lho main chaiaclois,
Dolfh 'ano' Ere, iopiosonling iospoclivoly lho vhqghu ano lho uhfhlyhu. As in
ovoiy oiama, lhoio is a liianglo. 1ho liianglo is comploloo wilh lho inlioouclion of
lho lhiio main chaiacloi, lho aichvillainoss Hyh, iopiosonling lho hdyhvgursshu.
Oui sloiy Logins wilh Alico ano LoL allonoing lwo oiloionl univoisilios which
aio unfoilunaloly sopaialoo Ly a gioal oislanco. Alico woulo liko lo communicalo
wilh LoL wilhoul lho ovoi vigilanl Lvo oavosoiopping on lhoii convoisalion. In
olhoi woios, how can Alico lalk wilh LoL whilo al lho samo limo piovonling lho
ovil Lvo fiom lisloning in on lhoii convoisalion´
61 D Frxuvh rq Fodvvlfdo Fu|swrjudsk|
6141 Dolfh*v hqwkxvldvwlf ghflvlrq1 Hoping lo lno somo way oul of hoi
oilomma, Alico olocls lo lako a couiso on ciyplogiaphy, Ciyplo 8ò1 laughl Ly
Iiofossoi Shannon wilh guosl locluiois Dimo, Iivosl, Shamii, ano Aoloman. Alico
lhinks lo hoisolf, Coilainly lhis is a wiso choico. Il is a voiy applioo couiso, ano
suioly iolovanl lo lho ioal woilo. MayLo I will loain onough lo oulwil Lvo´"
7 VDPXHO M1 ORPRQDFR/ MU1
6151 Sodlqwh{w/ flskhuwh{w/ nh|/ dqg 111 Fdwfk 551 Iiofossoi Shannon
Logins lho couiso wilh a oosciiplion of classical ciyplogiaphic communicalion sys-
loms, as illuslialoo in Fig. 1. Alico, lho sonooi, onciypls hoi sodlqwh{w 1 inlo
flskhuwh{w C using a vhfuhw nh| 1 which sho shaios only wilh LoL, ano sonos
lho ciphoiloxl C ovoi an lqvhfxuh fkdqqho on which lho ovil Lvo is ovoi vigilanlly
oavosoiopping. LoL, lho iocoivoi, iocoivos lho ciphoiloxl C, ano usos lho sociol
koy 1, shaioo Ly him ano Alico only, lo oociypl lho ciphoiloxl C inlo plainloxl 1.
Iljxuh 41 D fodvvlfdo fu|swrjudsklf frppxqlfdwlrq v|vwhp1
Whal is usually nol monlionoo in lho oosciiplion of a classical ciyplogiaphic
communicalion syslom is lhal Alico ano LoL musl lisl communicalo ovoi a vhfxuh
fkdqqho lo oslaLlish a sociol koy 1 shaioo only Ly Alico ano LoL Lofoio lhoy can
communicalo in sociol ovoi lho insocuio channol. Such a channol coulo consisl,
foi oxamplo, of a liusloo couiioi, woaiing a lionch coal ano oaik sunglassos, lians-
poiling fiom Alico lo LoL a lockoo Liiofcaso chainoo lo his wiisl. In olhoi woios,
wo havo lho famous Calch 22 of classical ciyplogiaphy, namoly:
Fdwfk 551 1hoio aio poifoclly gooo ways lo communicalo in sociol,
pioviooo wo can communicalo in sociol ...
Iiofossoi Shannon lhon goos on lo oiscuss lho oiloionl lypos of classical com-
municalion socuiily.
6161 Sudfwlfdo Vhfuhf|1 A ciyplogiaphic communicalion syslom is sudf0
wlfdoo| vhfxuh if lho onciyplion schomo can Lo Liokon afloi A yoais, whoio A is
ooloiminoo Ly ono`s socuiily nooos ano Ly oxisling lochnology. Iiaclically socuio
ciyplogiaphic sysloms havo oxisloo sinco anliquily. Ono oxamplo woulo Lo lho
Caosai ciphoi usoo Ly Julius Caosai ouiing lho ouiing lho Gallic wais, a ciphoi
lhal was oimcull foi his oppononls lo Lioak al lhal limo, Lul oasily LioakaLlo Ly
looay`s slanoaios. A moooin oay oxamplo of a piaclically socuio classical ciyp-
logiaphic syslom is lho oigilal onciyplion slanoaio (DLS) which has jusl ioconlly
Loon Liokon
4
. Foi lhis ano many olhoi ioasons, DLS is lo Lo ioplacoo Ly a moio
4
Tin O`!oilly und fho !locfionic ¡ionfioi ¡oundufion huvo consfiucfod u conpufing dovico
foi $2õ0,000 vhich doos un oxhuusfivo loy souich on Ð!S in 1.õ duys[24[. Soo ulso [3[ und [1B[.
As fui us ¡ lnov, fiiplo Ð!S hus nof boon biolon.
TXDQWXP FU\SWRJUDSK\ 8
piaclically socuio classical onciyplion syslom, lho Aovancoo Lnciyplion Slanoaio
(ALS). In luin, ALS will Lo ioplacoo Ly an ovon moio socuio ciyplogiaphic syslom
shoulo lho aovancos in lochnology ovoi challongo ils socuiily.
6171 Shuihfw Vhfuhf|1 A ciyplogiaphic communicalion is saio lo Lo shu0
ihfwo| vhfxuh if lho ciphoiloxl C givos no infoimalion whalsoovoi aLoul lho plain-
loxl 1, ovon whon lho oosign of lho ciyplogiaphic syslom is known. In malhomal-
ical loims, lhis can Lo slaloo succinclly wilh lho oqualion:
11O1(1 [ C) = 11O1(1).
In olhoi woios, lho pioLaLilily of plainloxl 1 givon ciphoiloxl C, wiillon 11O1(1[C),
is oqual lo lho pioLaLilily of lho plainloxl 1.
An oxamplo of a poifoclly socuio classical ciyplogiaphic syslom is lho Yhu0
qdp Flskhu, Lolloi known as lho Rqh0Wlph0Sdg. 1ho plainloxl 1 is a Linaiy
soquonco of zoioos ano onos, i.o.,
1 = 1
4
, 1
5
, 1
6
, . . . 1
q
, . . .
1ho sociol koy 1 consisls of a lolally ianoom Linaiy soquonco of lho samo longlh,
i.o.,
1 = 1
4
, 1
5
, 1
6
, . . . , 1
q
, . . .
1ho ciphoiloxl C is lho Linaiy soquonco
C = C
4
, C
5
, C
6
, . . . C
q
, . . .
oLlainoo Ly aooing lho soquoncos 1 ano 1 Lilwiso mooulo 2, i.o.,
C
l
= 1
l
÷1
l
moo2 foi i = 1, 2, 8, . . .
Foi oxamplo,
1 = 0110 0101 1101
1 = 1010 1110 0100
C = 1 ¸1 = 1100 1011 1001
1his ciphoi is poifoclly socuio if koy 1 is lolally ianoom ano shaioo only Ly
Alico ano LoL. Il is oasy lo oncooo wilh lho koy 1. If, howovoi, ono succumLs lo
lho lomplalion of using lho samo koy 1 lo oncooo lwo oiloionl plainloxls 1
+4,
ano
1
+5,
inlo ciphoiloxls C
+4,
ano C
+5,
, lhon lho ciphoi syslom immooialoly changos
fiom a poifoclly socuio ciphoi lo ono lhal is oasily Liokon Ly ovon lho mosl amaloui
ciyplanalysl. Foi, C
+4,
¸ C
+5,
= 1
+4,
¸ 1
+5,
is oasily LioakaLlo Locauso of lho
ioounoancy lhal is usually piosonl in plainloxl.
1ho only pioLlom wilh lho ono-limo-pao is lhal long Lil soquoncos musl Lo
sonl ovoi a socuio channol Lofoio il can Lo usoo. 1his onco again loaos us lo lho
Calch 22 of classical ciyplogiaphy, i.o.,
Fdwfk 551 1hoio aio poifoclly gooo ways lo communicalo in sociol,
pioviooo wo can communicalo in sociol ...
... ano lo lho:
9 VDPXHO M1 ORPRQDFR/ MU1
« Nh| Sureohp 41 Fdwfk 55: A socuio moans of communicaling koy is
nooooo.
5
Finally, lhoio aio lwo olhoi koy pioLloms in classical ciyplogiaphy in nooo of
a solulion, namoly:
« Nh| Sureohp 51 Dxwkhqwlfdwlrq: Alico nooos lo ooloimino wilh coi-
lainly lhal sho is aclually lalking lo LoL, ano nol lo an imposloi such as
Lvo.
« Nh| Sureohp 61 Lqwuxvlrq Ghwhfwlrq: Alico nooos a moans of ooloi-
mining wholhoi oi nol Lvo is oavosoiopping.
In summaiy, wo havo lho following chocklisl foi classical ciyplogiaphic sysloms:
Fkhfn Olvw foi Classical Ciyplo Sysloms
Calch 22 Solvoo´ QR
Aulhonlicalion´ QR
Inliusion Doloclion´ QR
6181 Frpsxwdwlrqdo Vhfxulw|1
Iolalivoly ioconlly in lho hisloiy of ciyplogiaphy, Dimo ano Hollman [;[, [<[
suggosloo a now lypo ciyplogiaphic sociocy. A ciphoi is saio lo Lo frpsxwdwlrq0
doo| vhfxuh if lho compulalional iosouicos ioquiioo lo Lioak il oxcooo anylhing
possiLlo now ano inlo lho fuluio. Foi oxamplo, a ciphoi woulo Lo compulalionally
socuio if lho numLoi of Lils of compuloi momoiy ioquiioo lo Lioak il woio gioaloi
lhan lho numLoi of aloms in lho univoiso, oi if lho compulalional limo ioquiioo lo
Lioak il oxcooooo lho ago of lho univoiso. Ciyplogiaphic sysloms can Lo cioaloo in
such a way lhal il is compulalionally infoasiLlo lo lno lho oociyplion koy 1 ovon
whon lho onciyplion koy 1 is known. 1o cioalo such a ciyplogiaphic syslom, all
ono woulo nooo is a liap-oooi funclion ).
ÐrriNi+icN 1. D ixqfwlrq ) lv d wuds0grru ixqfwlrq li
1) ) lv hdv| wr frpsxwh/ l1h1/ sro|qrpldo wlph frpsxwdeoh/ dqg
2) Jlyhq wkh ixqfwlrq )/ wkh lqyhuvh ixqfwlrq )
4
fdq qrw eh frpsxwhg iurp
) lq sro|qrpldo wlph/ l1h1/ vxfk d frpsxwdwlrq lv vxshusro|qrpldo wlph/
lqwudfwdeoh/ ru zruvh1
5
Hiiod fionch coufs uio oxoibifunfly oxponsivo und fino consuning.
TXDQWXP FU\SWRJUDSK\ :
Iljxuh 51 D sxeolf nh| fu|swrjudsklf frppxqlfdwlrq v|vwhp
A liap-oooi funclion 1 can Lo usoo lo cioalo a sxeolf nh| fu|swrjudsklf
v|vwhp as illuslialoo in Fig.2. All pailios who wish lo communicalo in sociol
shoulo chooso lhoii own liap-oooi funclion 1 ano placo il in a sxeolf gluhfwru|,
lho |hoorz sdjhv," foi all lho woilo lo soo. Lul lhoy shoulo koop lhoii oociyplion
koy 1 = 1
4
sociol. Sinco 1 is a liap-oooi funclion, il is compulalionally
infoasiLlo foi anyono lo uso lho puLlicly known 1 lo lno lho oociyplion koy 1. So
1 is socuio in spilo of lho facl lhal ils invoiso 1 is puLlicly known.
If Alico wishos lo sono a sociol communicalion lo LoL, sho lisl looks up in
lho yollow pagos LoL`s onciyplion koy 1
E
, onciypls hoi plainloxl 1 wilh LoL`s
onciyplion koy 1
E
lo pioouco ciphoiloxl C = 1
E
(1), ano lhon sonos lho ciphoiloxl
C ovoi a puLlic channol. LoL iocoivos lho ciphoiloxl C, ano oociypls il Lack inlo
plainloxl 1 = 1
E
(C) using his sociol oociyplion koy 1
E
.
Alico can ovon oo moio lhan lhis. Sho can aulhonlicalo, i.o., sign hoi onciyploo
communicalion lo LoL so lhal LoL knows wilh coililuoo lhal lho mossago ho io-
coivoo aclually camo fiom Alico ano nol fiom an Lvo masquoiaoing as Alico. Alico
can oo lhis Ly onciypling hoi signaluio //J(c using hoi sociol oociyplion koy 1
D
inlo 1
D
(//J(c). Sho lhon onciypls plainloxl 1 plus hoi signaluio 1
D
(//J(c)
using LoL`s puLlicly known onciyplion koy 1
E
lo pioouco lho signoo ciphoiloxl
C
V
= 1
E
(1 ÷ 1
D
(//J(c)), ano lhon sonos hoi signoo ciphoiloxl C
V
ovoi lho
puLlic channol lo LoL. LoL can lhon oociypl lho mossago as ho oio Lofoio lo
pioouco lho signoo plainloxl 1 ÷1
D
(//J(c). LoL can voiify Alico`s oigilal sig-
naluio 1
D
(//J(c) Ly looking up Alico`s onciyplion koy 1
D
in lho yollow pagos,"
ano using il lo lno hoi signaluio 1
D
(1
D
(//J(c)) = //J(c. In lhis way, ho au-
lhonlicalos lhal Alico aclually sonl lho mossago Locauso only sho knows hoi sociol
oociyplion koy. Honco, only sho coulo havo signoo lho plainloxl.
6
1ho ISA ciyplogiaphic syslom is Loliovoo lo Lo ono oxamplo of a puLlic koy
ciyplogiaphic syslom. 1hoio aio many puLlic soflwaio implomonlalions of ISA,
o.g., IGS (Iiolly Gooo Socuiily).
6
!ocuuso of fho nood foi biovify, vo huvo nof discussod ull fho subflofios involvod vifh digiful
signufuios. ¡oi oxunplo, foi noio socuiify, Alico should udd u fino sfunp und sono iundon
synbols fo hoi signufuio. ¡oi noio infoinufion on digiful signufuios, plouso iofoi fo ono of fho
sfunduid iofoioncos such us [22[.
; VDPXHO M1 ORPRQDFR/ MU1
1hus, Losioos solving lho aulhonlicalion pioLlom foi ciyplogiaphy, puLlic koy
ciyplogiaphic sysloms appoai also lo solvo lho Calch 22 of ciyplogiaphy. Howovoi,
fioquonlly lho onciyplion ano oociyplion koys of a puLlic koy ciyplogiaphic syslom
aio managoo Ly a conlial koy Lank. In lhis caso, lho Calch 22 pioLlom is slill
lhoio. Foi lhal ioason, wo havo onloioo MAYLL` in lho summaiy givon Lolow.
Fkhfn Olvw foi IKS
Calch 22 Solvoo´ PD\EH
Aulhonlicalion´ \HV
Inliusion Doloclion´ QR
71 D Frxuvh rq Txdqwxp Phfkdqlfv
7141 Dolfh*v Uhoxfwdqw Ghflvlrq1 In spilo of Alico`s many inlonso oloils lo
avoio laking a couiso in quanlum mochanics, sho was lnally foicoo Ly hoi univoi-
sily`s Gonoial Loucalion Ioquiiomonls (GLIs) lo iogisloi foi lho couiso Quanlum
817, laughl Ly Iiofossoi Diiac wilh guosl locluiois Foynman, Lonnoll, ano Lias-
saio. Sho oio so ioluclanlly. Afloi all," sho lhoughl, Coilainly lhis is an insano
ioquiiomonl. Quanlum mochanics is nol applioo. Il`s loo lhooiolical lo Lo iolovanl
lo lho ioal woilo. Ugh! Lul I oo wanl lo giaoualo."
7151 Wkh Fodvvlfdo Zruog ~ Lqwurgxflqj wkh Vkdqqrq Elw1 Iiofossoi
Diiac Logan lho couiso wilh a Liiof inlioouclion lo lho classical woilo of infoima-
lion. In pailiculai, Alico was inliooucoo lo lho classical Shannon Lil, ano shown
lhal ho¸sho¸il is a voiy oocisivo inoivioual. 1ho Shannon Lil is oilhoi 0 oi 1, Lul
Ly no moans Lolh al lho samo limo.
Hmm ... ," sho lhoughl, I Lol lhal almosl ovoiyono I know is gainfully
omployoo Locauso of lho Shannon Lil."
1ho piofossoi onooo his Liiof oiscussion of lho Shannon Lil Ly monlioning lhal
lhoio is ono of ils piopoilios lhal wo lako foi gianloo. I.o., il can Lo copioo.
7161 Wkh Txdqwxp Zruog ~ Lqwurgxflqj wkh Txelw1 Noxl Iiofossoi
Diiac swilchoo lo lho mysloiious woilo of lho quanlum. Ho Logan Ly inliooucing
lho iunl of lho Lil clan, i.o., lho Quanlum Lil, nicknamoo Txelw. Ho Logan Ly
showing lho class a small ool, i.o., a quanlum ool. In facl il was so small lhal
Alico coulon`l soo il al all. Ho piomplly pulloo oul a micioscopo
7
, ano piojocloo
a laigo imago on a scioon foi lho onliio class lo viow.
Iiofossoi Diiac wonl on lo say, In conliasl lo lho oocisivo classical Shannon
Lil, lho QuLil is a voiy inoocisivo inoivioual. Il is Lolh 0 ano 1 al lho samo limo!
Moioovoi, unliko lho Shannon Lil, lho QuLil cannol Lo copioo Locauso of lho no
cloning lhooiom of Dioks, Woollois, ano Zuiok[:[[66[. QuLils aio voiy slippoiy
chaiaclois, oxcoooingly oimcull lo ooal wilh."
7
This is u nosf unusuul nicioscopo!
TXDQWXP FU\SWRJUDSK\ <
Ono oxamplo of a quLil is a spin
4
5
pailiclo which can Lo in a spin-up slalo
[1¸ which wo laLol as 1, in a spin-oown slalo [0¸ which wo laLol as 0, oi in a
vxshusrvlwlrq of lhoso slalos, which wo inloipiol as Loing Lolh 0 ano 1 al lho
samo limo." (1ho loim supoiposilion" will Lo oxplainoo shoilly.)
Anolhoi oxamplo of a quLil is lho polaiizalion slalo of a pholon. A pholon
can Lo in a voilically polaiizoo slalo [|¸. Wo assign a laLol of 1 lo lhis slalo. Il
can Lo in a hoiizonlally polaiizoo slalo [÷¸. Wo assign a laLol of 0 lo lhis slalo.
Oi, il can Lo in a supoiposilion of lhoso slalos. In lhis caso, wo inloipiol ils slalo
as iopiosonling Lolh 0 ano 1 al lho samo limo."
Anyono who has woin polaiizoo sunglassos shoulo Lo familiai wilh lho polai-
izalion slalos of lho pholon. Iolaiizoo sunglassos oliminalo glaio Locauso lhoy lol
lhiough only voilically polaiizoo lighl whilo llloiing oul lho hoiizonlally polaiizoo
lighl lhal is iolocloo fiom lho ioao."
7171 Zkhuh gr txelwv olyhB Lul whoio oo quLils livo´ 1hoy livo in a
HilLoil spaco H. Ly a HilLoil spaco, wo moan:
ÐrriNi+icN 2. D Kloehuw Vsdfh lv d yhfwru vsdfh ryhu wkh frpsoh{ qxpehuv
F wrjhwkhu zlwk dq lqqhu surgxfw
¸ , ¸ : HH ÷÷F
vxfk wkdw
1) ¸n
4
÷n
5
, ·¸ = ¸n
4
, ·¸ ÷¸n
5
, ·¸ iru doo n
4
, n
5
, · ¸ H
2) ¸n, `·¸ = ¸`n, ·¸ iru doo n, · ¸ H dqg ` ¸ F
8) ¸n, ·¸

= ¸·, n¸ iru doo n, · ¸ H / zkhuh wkh vxshuvfulsw c+* ghqrwhv frpsoh{
frqmxjdwlrq1
4) Iru hyhu| Fdxfk| vhtxhqfh n
4
, n
5
, n
6
, . . . lq H/
lim
q$4
n
q
h{lvwv dqg olhv lq H
In olhoi woios, a HilLoil spaco is a vocloi spaco ovoi lho complox numLois F
wilh a soquilinoai innoi piooucl in which soquoncos lhal shoulo convoigo aclually
oo convoigo lo poinls in lho spaco.
7181 Vrph Gludf qrwdwlrq ~ Lqwurgxflqj nhwv1 1ho olomonls of H aio
calloo nhwv, ano will Lo oonoloo Ly
[|a/c|¸ ,
whoio [` ano ` aio lofl ano iighl oolimilois, ano |a/c|` oonolos any laLol, i.o.,
namo, wo wish lo assign lo a kol.
43 VDPXHO M1 ORPRQDFR/ MU1
7191 Ilqdoo|/ d ghqlwlrq ri d txelw1 So lnally, wo can oolno whal is
moanl Ly a quLil.
ÐrriNi+icN 8. D txelw lv d nhw +vwdwh, lq d wzr glphqvlrqdo Kloehuw vsdfh H1
1hus, if wo lol [0¸ ano [1¸ oonolo an aiLiliaiy oilhonoimal Lasis of a lwo
oimonsional HilLoil spaco H, lhon oach quLil in H can Lo wiillon in lho foim
[¡n/it¸ = c
3
[0¸ ÷c
4
[0¸
whoio c
3
, c
4
¸ F. Sinco any scalai mulliplo of a kol iopiosonls lho samo slalo of
an isolaloo quanlum syslom, wo can assumo, wilhoul loss of gonoialily, lhal [¡n/it¸
is a kol of unil longlh, i.o., lhal
[c
3
[
5
÷[c
4
[
5
= 1
1ho aLovo quLil is saio lo Lo in a vxshusrvlwlrq of lho slalos [0¸ ano [1¸. 1his
is whal wo moan whon wo say lhal a quLil can Lo simullanoously Lolh 0 ano 1.
Howovoi, if lho quLil is oLsoivoo il immooialoly makos a oocision." Il oocioos"
lo Lo 0 wilh pioLaLilily [c
3
[
5
ano 1 wilh pioLaLilily [c
4
[
5
. Somo physicisls call
lhis lho _froodsvh% of lho wavo funclion
8
.
71:1 Pruh Gludf qrwdwlrq ~ Lqwurgxflqj eudv dqg eud0f0nhwv1 Givon
a HilLoil spaco H, lol
H

= Ho:(H, F)
oonolo lho sol of all linoai maps fiom H lo F. 1hon H

is aclually a HilLoil spaco,
calloo lho gxdo HilLoil spaco of H, wilh scalai piooucl ano vocloi sum oolnoo Ly:
;
?
=
(` )) ([w¸) = `()([w¸)) , foi all ` ¸ F ano foi all ) ¸ H

()
4
÷)
5
) ([w¸) = )
4
([w¸) ÷)
5
([w¸) , foi all )
4
, )
5
¸ H

Wo call lho olomonls of H

eud`s, ano oonolo lhom as:
¸|a/c|[
Wo can now oolno a Lilinoai map
H

H ÷÷F
Ly
(¸w
4
[) ([w
5
¸) ¸ F
sinco Lia ¸w
4
[ is a complox valuoo funclion of kols. Wo oonolo lhis piooucl moio
simply as
¸w
4
[ w
5
¸
ano call il lho Eud0f0Nhw (oi eudfnhw) of Lia ¸w
4
[ ano kol [w
5
¸.
Finally, lho Liackol inoucos a oual coiiosponoonco
9
Lolwoon H ano H

, i.o.,
[w
5
¸
G=F=
÷÷¸w
4
[
8
¡f is voiy dihculf, if nof inpossiblo, fo hnd fvo physicisfs vho ugioo on fho subjocf of
guunfun nousuiononf. Tho phiuso collupso of fho vuvo funcfion' innodiufoly ongondois u
vui ciy' in nosf physicisfs. ¡oi fhuf iouson, collupso' is onclosod in guofos.
9
This is fiuo foi hnifo dinonsionul Hilboif spucos. ¡f is noio subflo foi inhnifo dinonsionul
Hilboif spucos.
TXDQWXP FU\SWRJUDSK\ 44
71;1 Dfwlylwlhv lq wkh txdqwxp zruog ~ Xqlwdu| wudqvirupdwlrqv1 All
aclivilios" in lho quanlum woilo aio linoai liansfoimalions
l : H ÷÷H
fiom lho HilLoil spaco Hinlo ilsolf, calloo xqlwdu| wudqvirupdwlrqv (oi, xqlwdu|
rshudwruv). If wo lhink of linoai liansfoimalions as maliicos, lhon a xqlwdu|
wudqvirupdwlrq l is a squaio maliix of complox numLois such lhal
l
W
l = 1 = ll
W
whoio l
W
oonolos lho maliix oLlainoo fiom l Ly conjugaling all ils onliios ano
lhon liansposing lho maliix. Wo oonolo l
W
Ly l
|
, ano iofoi lo il as lho dgmrlqw
of l.
1hus, an aclivily" in lho quanlum woilo woulo Lo, foi oxamplo, a unilaiy
liansfoimalion l lhal caiiios a slalo kol [w
3
¸ al limo t = 0 lo a slalo kol [w
4
¸ al
limo t = 1, i.o.,
l : [w
3
¸ ÷÷[w
4
¸
71<1 Revhuydeohv lq txdqwxp phfkdqlfv ~ Khuplwldq rshudwruv1 In
quanlum mochanics, whal ooos an oLsoivoi oLsoivo´
All revhuydeohv in lho quanlum woilo aio linoai liansfoimalions
O : H ÷÷H
fiom lho HilLoil spaco Hinlo ilsolf, calloo Khuplwldq rshudwruv (oi, vhoi0dgmrlqw
rshudwruv). If wo lhink of linoai liansfoimalions as maliicos, lhon a Khuplwldq
rshudwru O is a squaio maliix of complox numLois such lhal
O
W
= O
whoio O
W
again oonolos lho maliix oLlainoo fiom O Ly conjugaling all ils onliios,
ano lhon liansposing lho maliix. As Lofoio, wo oonolo O
W
Ly O
|
, ano iofoi lo il
as lho dgmrlqw of O.
Lol [,
l
¸ oonolo lho oigonvoclois, calloo hljhqnhwv, of an oLsoivaLlo O, ano lol
a
l
oonolo lho coiiosponoing oigonvaluo, i.o.,
O : [,
l
¸ = a
l
[,
l
¸
In lho casos wo consiooi in lhis lalk, lho oigonkols foim an oilhonoimal Lasis of
lho unooilying HilLoil spaco H.
Finally, wo can answoi oui oiiginal quoslion, i.o.,
Whal ooos an oLsoivoi oLsoivo´
Lol us supposo lhal wo havo a physical oovico ` lhal is so consliucloo lhal
il moasuios an oLsoivaLlo O, ano lhal wo wish lo uso ` lo moasuio a quanlum
syslom which jusl happons lo Lo in a quanlum slalo [w¸. Wo assumo [w¸ is a kol
of unil longlh. 1ho quanlum slalo [w¸ can Lo wiillon as a linoai comLinalion of
lho oigonkols of O, i.o.,
[w¸ =
[
c
l
[,
l
¸
45 VDPXHO M1 ORPRQDFR/ MU1
Whon wo uso lho oovico ` lo moasuio [w¸, wo oLsoivo lho oigonvaluo a
l
wilh
pioLaLilily j
l
= [c
l
[
5
, ano in aooilion, afloi lho moasuiomonl lho quanlum syslom
has collapsoo" inlo lho slalo [,
l
¸. 1hus, lho oulcomo of a moasuiomonl is usually
ianoom, ano usually has a lasling impacl on lho slalo of lho quanlum syslom.
Wo can uso Diiac nolalion lo wiilo oown an oxpiossion foi lho avoiago oL-
soivoo valuo. Namoly, lho dyhudjhg revhuyhg ydoxh is givon Ly lho oxpiossion
¸w[ (O[w¸), which is wiillon moio succinclly as ¸w[ O[w¸, oi simply as ¸O¸.
71431 Wkh Khlvhqehuj xqfhuwdlqw| sulqflsoh ~ D olplwdwlrq rq zkdw
zh fdq dfwxdoo| revhuyh1 1hoio is, suipiisingly onough, a limilalion of whal
can Lo oLsoivoo in quanlum mochanics.
1wo oLsoivaLlos ¹ ano 1 aio saio lo Lo frpsdwleoh if lhoy commulo, i.o., if
¹1 = 1¹.
Olhoiwiso, lhoy aio saio lo Lo lqfrpsdwleoh.
Lol [¹, 1[, calloo lho frppxwdwru of ¹ ano 1, oonolo lho oxpiossion
[¹, 1[ = ¹1 ÷1¹
In lhis nolalion, lwo opoialois ¹ ano 1 aio compaliLlo if ano only if [¹, 1[ = 0.
Finally, lol
.¹ = ¹÷¸¹¸
1ho following piinciplo is ono oxpiossion of how quanlum mochanics placos
limils on whal can Lo oLsoivoo:
Khlvhqehuj*v Xqfhuwdlqw| Sulqflsoh
:
G
(.¹)
5
HG
(.1)
5
H
_
1
4
|¸[¹, 1[¸|
5
whoio
G
(.¹)
5
H
= ¸w[ (.¹)
5
[w¸ is lho phdq vtxduhg vwdqgdug ghyldwlrq of
lho oLsoivoo oigonvaluo, wiillon in Diiac nolalion. Il is a moasuio of lho uncoilainly
in ¹.
1his if ¹ ano 1 aio incompaliLlo, i.o., oo nol commulo, lhon, Ly moasuiing ¹
moio piocisoly, wo aio foicoo lo moasuio 1 loss piocisoly, ano vico voisa. Wo can
nol simullanoously moasuio Lolh ¹ ano 1 lo lo unlimiloo piocision. Moasuiomonl
of ¹ somohow has an impacl on lho moasuiomonl of 1.
:
\o huvo ussunod unifs huvo boon choson such fhuf { = l.
TXDQWXP FU\SWRJUDSK\ 46
71441 \rxqj*v wzr volw h{shulphqw ~ Dq h{dpsoh ri Khlvhqehuj*v xq0
fhuwdlqw| sulqflsoh1
Foi lho puiposo of illuslialing HoisonLoig`s Uncoilainly Iiinciplo, Iiofossoi
Diiac whooloo oul inlo lho classioom a oovico lo oomonslialo Young`s lwo slil
oxpoiimonl. 1ho oovico consisloo of an oloclion gun which spowoo oul oloclions
;
in lho oiioclion of a wall wilh lwo slils. 1ho oloclions lhal managoo lo pass
lhiough lho lwo slils lhon impacloo on a Lackslop which consisloo of a 16001200
ioclangulai lallico of oxliomoly small counlois. Fiom lho Lack of lho Lackslop,
all of lho 1,020,000 liny counlois on lho Lackslop woio inoivioually connocloo lo a
IC Ly a caLlo consisling of a oonso Lunolo of llamonls.
Iiofossoi Diiac poinloo lo lho IC, ano oxplainoo lhal lho IC was solup lo
oisplay on lho CI1`s 1600 1200 pixol scioon lho inoivioual iunning lolal counls
of all lho Lackslop counlois . Ho wonl on lo say lhal lho inlonsily 1 (i, ¸) of pixol
(i, ¸) on lho scioon was piopoilional lo lho lolal numLoi of oloclions counloo so fai
Ly lho counloi al posilion (i, ¸) in lho Lackslop.
Iiofossoi Diiac piocooooo lo oomonslialo whal lho oovico coulo aclually oo.
Ho luinoo on lho oloclion gun, ano luinoo oown ils inlonsily so low lhal lho
pioLaLilily of moio lhan lwo oloclions Loing omilloo al lho samo limo was nogligiLly
small.
His lisl oxpoiimonl wilh lho oovico was lo covoi slil 2, allowing lho incoming
oloclions lo pass only lhiough slil 1. Ho iosol all lho counlois on lho Lackslop lo
zoio, ano lhon sloppoo Lack lo lol lho sluoonls in his class viow lho scioon.
Inilially nolhing coulo Lo soon on lho scioon Lul Llacknoss. Howovoi, giaoually
an inlonsily palloin Logan lo foim on lho scioon. Al lisl lho oisplayoo palloin
was inoiscoiniLlo. Lul ovonlually il Logan lo look liko lho inlonsily palloin of
a classical lwo oimonsional Gaussian oisliiLulion. Ho lhon piossoo a koy on his
compuloi lo show a lhioo oimonsional plol of lho inlonsily 1 (i, ¸) as a suifaco in
8-spaco. 1hon wilh lho click of a mouso, ho oisplayoo a plol of lho inlonsily 1 (i, ¸)
along lho voilical lino ¸ = 800 going oown lho conloi of lho scioon. 1ho plol was
lhal of lho Loll shapoo classical ono oimonsional Gaussian oisliiLulion cuivo 1
4
,
as shown in Fig. 8a. 1his was a cloai inoicalion lhal lho ianoom impacls on lho
Lackslop woio oLoying lho classical Gaussian oisliiLulion.
Whon ho iopoaloo lho oxpoiimonl wilh lho slil 1 insloao of slil 2 covoioo, ox-
aclly lho samo palloin of a classical lwo oimonsional Gaussian oisliiLulion palloin
was soon, Lul only lhis limo shifloo voilically oown a shoil oislanco on lho scioon.
A plol of lho inlonsily 1 (i, ¸) of along lho voilical lino ¸ = 800 going oown lho
conloi of lho scioon is inoicaloo Ly cuivo 1
5
shown in Fig. 8a.
;
Tho oiiginul Young`s fvo slif oxpoiinonf usod phofons iufhoi fhun olocfions.
47 VDPXHO M1 ORPRQDFR/ MU1
Iljxuh 6d1 \rxqj*v wzr volw h{shulphqw zlwk rqh volw forvhg1
Iiofossoi Diiac lhon askoo lho sluoonls in lho class whal palloin lhoy lhoughl
woulo appoai if ho lofl Lolh of lho slils uncovoioo. Mosl of lho class iosponooo Ly
saying lhal lho iosulling lighl palloin woulo simply Lo lho sum of lho lwo palloins,
i.o., lho Loll shapoo cuivo 1
4
÷ 1
5
, as illuslialoo in Fig. 8c Ly lho cuivo laLoloo
1
3
45
. Mosl of lho class was convincoo lhal lho lwo classical pioLaLilily oisliiLulions
woulo simply aoo, as many of lhom hao loainoo in lho pioLaLilily couiso IioL 828.
1ho iomainooi of lho class slaloo quilo omphalically lhal lhoy oio nol caio
whal happonoo. Whal was Loing illuslialoo was fai fiom an applioo aioa, ano
honco nol iolovanl lo lhoii ioal woilo. Oi so lhoy lhoughl ...
Iiofossoi Diiac smiloo, ano lhon piocooooo lo uncovoi Lolh slils. Whal ap-
poaioo on lho scioon lo almosl ovoiyono`s suipiiso was nol lho palloin wilh lho
Loll shapo 1
4
÷1
5
. Il was insloao a lighl palloin wilh a wavy Loll shapoo cuivo,
as illuslialoo Ly lho cuivo 1
45
in Fig. 8L.
Iljxuh 6e1 \rxqj*v wzr volw h{shulphqw zlwk erwk volwv rshq1
Iiofossoi Diiac oxplainoo, Somolhing non-classical hao occuiioo. Unliko
classical pioLaLililios, lho quanlum pioLaLililios (oi moio coiioclly slaloo, lho
quanlum ampliluoos) hao inloifoioo wilh ono anolhoi lo pioouco an inloifoionco
palloin. In lho oaik aioas, ono lnos oosliuclivo inloifoionco. In lho Liighl aioas,
ono lnos consliuclivo inloifoionco."
Inoooo, somolhing non-classical is happoning hoio."
TXDQWXP FU\SWRJUDSK\ 48
Sliangoly onough, quanlum mochanics is lolling us lhal oach oloclion is ac-
lually passing lhiough Lolh slils simullanoously! Il is as if oach oloclion woio a
wavo ano nol a pailiclo."
Lul whal happons whon wo aclually liy lo oLsoivo lhiough which slil oach
oloclion passos´"
Iiofossoi Diiac pulloo oul his liusly micioscopo
<
lo oLsoivo which of lho lwo
slils oach oloclion passoo lhiough. Ho iosol all lho Lackslop counlois lo zoio,
luinoo on lho oovico, ano Logan oLsoiving lhiough which slil oach oloclion passoo
lhiough. 1ho class was much suipiisoo lo lno lhal lho wavy inloifoionco palloin
oio nol appoai on lho scioon lhis limo. Insloao, whal appoaioo was lho classical
inlonsily palloin all hao inilially oxpocloo lo soo in lho lisl placo, i.o., lho inlonsily
palloin of lho Loll shapoo cuivo 1
45
= 1
4
÷1
5
, as shown in Fig. 8c.
"So wo soo lhal, whon oLsoivoo, lho oloclions acl as pailiclos ano nol as wavos!"
Iljxuh 6f1 \rxqj*v 5 volw h{shulphqw zkhq wkh volw wkurxjk zklfk wkh
hohfwurq sdvvhv lv ghwhuplqhg e| revhuydwlrq1
Afloi a Liiof pauso, Iiofossoi Diiac saio, 1his is aclually an oxamplo of lho
HoisonLoig Uncoilainly Iiinciplo. Wo can soo lhis as follows:"
In lho oxpoiimonl, wo aio oloclivoly oLsoiving lwo incompaliLlo oLsoivaLlos,
lho posilion opoialoi A (i.o., which slil oach oloclion passos lhiough) ano lho
momonlum opoialoi 1 (i.o., lho momonlum wilh which oach oloclion loavos lho
slilloo wall.) Whon wo oLsoivo lho momonlum 1, lho inloifoionco palloin is
piosonl. Lul whon wo oLsoivo lho posilion A, lho inloifoionco palloin vanishos.
Wo can nol oLsoivo posilion wilhoul oisluiLing momonlum, ano vico voisa."
81 Wkh Ehjlqqlqjv ri Txdqwxp Fu|swrjudsk|
8141 Dolfh kdv dq lghd1 Afloi class on hoi way Lack lo hoi ooim ioom,
Alico Logan onco again lo iuminalo ovoi hoi oilomma in iogaio lo LoL ano Lvo.
If only hoi mossago lo LoL woio liko lho inloifoionco palloin in Young`s lwo
slil oxpoiimonl. 1hon, if lho piying Lvo woio lo oLsoivo which of lho lwo slils oach
of lho oloclions omoigoo fiom (i.o., lislon in`), LoL woulo know of hoi piosonco.
Foi, if Lvo woio oLsoiving lho inoivioual oloclions as lhoy lofl lho slils, lho palloin
on lho scioon woulo Lo oisloiloo fiom lho Loauliful wavy inloifoionco palloin in a
<
This is u nosf unusuul nicioscopo.
49 VDPXHO M1 ORPRQDFR/ MU1
oiioclion lowaio lho oull ugly Gaussian oisliiLulion palloin. LoL woulo soo lhis
oisloilion, ano lhoioLy Lo aLlo lo suimiso lhal Lvo was oavosoiopping."
Iljxuh 7d1 Ere vhhv dq lqwhuihuhqfh sdwwhuq zkhq Hyh lv qrw
hdyhvgursslqj1
Iljxuh 7e1 Ere vhhv qr lqwhuihuhqfh sdwwhuq zkhq Hyh lv hdyhvgursslqj1
1his iooa has possiLililios. MayLo quanlum mochanics is iolovanl afloi all!"
Hoi mino Logan lo iaco. Ioihaps somolhing liko Young`s lwo slil oxpoiimonl
coulo Lo usoo lo communicalo ianoom koy 1´ 1hon LoL coulo loll which koy hao
Loon compiomisoo Ly an inliuooi such as Lvo. Lul mosl impoilanlly, ho coulo also
suimiso which koy hao nol Loon compiomisoo. LoL coulo lhon communicalo lo
mo ovoi lho phono (oi ovon ovoi any puLlic channol availaLlo also lo Lvo) wholhoi
oi nol lho koy hao Loon compiomisoo, wilhoul, of couiso, iovoaling lho koy ilsolf.
Any uncompiomisoo koy coulo lhon Lo omployoo lo sono LoL a mossago Ly using
lho ono-limo-pao lhal was monlionoo yosloioay in Ciyplo 8ò1."
1ho Loauly of lhis appioach is lhal lho ono-limo-pao is poifoclly socuio.
1hoio is no way whalsoovoi lhal Lvo coulo gol any infoimalion aLoul oui con-
voisalion. 1his woulo Lo liuo ovon if I usoo lho campus iaoio slalion lo sono my
onciyploo mossago."
1ho ovil Lvo is foiloo! Luioka! Conliaiy lo sluoonl convonlional wisoom,
Lolh ciyplogiaphy ano quanlum mochanics aio iolovanl lo lho ioal woilo!"
I havo oiscovoioo a now kino of sociocy, i.o., quanlum sociocy, which has Luill-
in ooloclion of oavosoiopping Lasoo on lho piinciplos of quanlum mochanics. I can
haioly wail lo loll Iiofossoi Diiac. Sho ian immooialoly lo his omco."
TXDQWXP FU\SWRJUDSK\ 4:
Afloi lisloning lo Alico`s oxciloo impiomplu, ano al limos oisjoinloo, oxplana-
lion, Iiofossoi Diiac suggosloo lhal sho piosonl hoi nowly founo oiscovoiios in his
noxl class. Alico happily agiooo lo oo so.
8151 Txdqwxp vhfuhf| ~ Wkh EE;7 surwrfro zlwkrxw qrlvh1 1wo oays
laloi, afloi lwo slooploss Lul pioouclivo nighls of woik, Alico was piopaioo foi hoi
piosonlalion. Sho walkoo in lho classioom foi Quanlum 817 caiiying an ovoihoao
piojocloi ano a sizaLlo Lunolo of lianspaioncios.
Afloi Iiofossoi Diiac hao luinoo lho laigo locluio hall ovoi lo hoi, sho Logan
as follows:
Lol us supposo lhal I (Alico) woulo liko lo liansmil a sociol koy 1 lo LoL.
Lol us also supposo lhal somoono Ly lho namo of Lvo inlonos lo mako ovoiy oloil
lo oavosoiop on lho liansmission ano loain lho sociol koy."
Woulon`l you know il. Lvo jusl so happons lo Lo silling in lho classioom!
My oLjoclivo looay is lo show you how lho piinciplos of quanlum mochanics
can Lo usoo lo Luilo a ciyplogiaphic communicalion syslom in such a way lhal
lho syslom oolocls if Lvo is oavosoiopping, ano which also givos a guaianloo of no
inliusion if Lvo is nol oavosoiopping."
A oiagiammalic oullino of lho syslom I`m aLoul lo oosciiLo is shown on lho
scioon. (Iloaso iofoi lo Fig. ò.) Iloaso nolo lhal lho syslom consisls of lwo
communicalion channols. Ono is a non-classical ono-way quanlum communica-
lion channol, which I will soon oosciiLo. 1ho olhoi is an oioinaiy iun-of lho-mill
classical lwo-way puLlic channol, such as a lwo-way iaoio communicalion syslom.
I omphasizo lhal lhis classical lwo-way channol is puLlic, ano opon lo whomovoi
woulo liko lo lislon in. Foi lho limo Loing, I will assumo lhal lho lwo-way puLlic
channol is noiso fioo."
Iljxuh 81 D txdqwxp fu|swrjudsklf frppxqlfdwlrq v|vwhp1
I will now oosciiLo how lho polaiizalion slalos of lho pholon can Lo usoo lo
consliucl a quanlum ono-way communicalion channol
43
."
43
Any fvo dinonsionul guunfun sysfon such us u spin
1
2
puificlo could bo usod.
4; VDPXHO M1 ORPRQDFR/ MU1
Fiom Iiofossoi Diiac`s lasl locluio, wo know lhal lho polaiizalion slalos of a
pholon lio in a lwo oimonsional HilLoil spaco H. Foi lhis spaco, lhoio aio many
oilhonoimal Lasos. Wo will uso only lwo foi oui quanlum channol."
1ho lisl is lho Lasis consisling of lho voilical ano hoiizonlal polaiizalion
slalos, i.o., lho kols [|¸ ano [÷¸, iospoclivoly. Wo will iofoi lo lhis oilhonoimal
Lasis as lho yhuwlfdo2krul}rqwdo +Y2K, edvlv, ano oonolo lhis Lasis wilh lho
symLol .` "
1ho socono oilhonoimal Lasis consisls of lho polaiizalion slalos [¸¸ ano [¸¸,
which coiiospono lo polaiizalions oiioclions foimoo iospoclivoly Ly 4ò/ clockwiso
ano counloi-clockwiso iolalions ol fiom lho voilical. Wo call lhis lho reoltxh
edvlv, ano oonolo lhis Lasis wilh lho symLol .` "
If I (Alico) oocioo lo uso lho VH Lasis on lho quanlum channol, lhon I will
uso lho following txdqwxp doskdehw:
;
?
=
1" = [|¸
0" = [÷¸
In olhoi woios, if I uso lhis quanlum alphaLol on lho quanlum channol, I will
liansmil a 1" lo LoL simply Ly sonoing a pholon in lho polaiizalion slalo [|¸.,
ano I will liansmil a 0" Ly sonoing a pholon in lho polaiizalion slalo [÷¸."
On lho olhoi hano, if I (Alico) oocioo lo uso lho oLliquo Lasis , lhon I will
uso lho following txdqwxp doskdehw:
;
?
=
1" = [¸¸
0" = [¸¸
,
sonoing a 1" as a pholon in lho polaiizalion slalo [¸¸, ano sonoing a 0" as a
pholon in lho polaiizalion slalo [¸¸."
I havo choson lhoso lwo Lasos Locauso lho HoisonLoig Uncoilainly Iiinciplo
implios lhal oLsoivalions wilh iospocl lo lho Lasis aio incompaliLlo wilh oLsoi-
valions wilh iospocl lo lho Lasis. Wo will soon soo how lhis incompaliLilily can
Lo lianslaloo inlo inliusion ooloclion."
Alico
| ¸ ¸ ¸ | ¸ ÷ ¸ ÷ ¸
1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1
[ [ [ [
+ + + +
[ [ [ [
LoL
1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
¸
Iaw Koy= 0 1 1 0 0 0
Fig. 0a. Jhc LL84 proíocol wiíhoní Lvc prcscní (No noisc)
TXDQWXP FU\SWRJUDSK\ 4<
Alico ano LoL now communicalo wilh ono anolhoi using a lwo slago piolocol,
calloo lho EE;7 surwrfro[B[. (Iloaso iofoi lo Figs. 6a ano 6L.)
In slago 1, Alico cioalos a ianoom soquonco of Lils, which sho sonos lo LoL
ovoi lho quanlum channol using lho following piolocol:
Vwdjh 4 surwrfro= Frppxqlfdwlrq ryhu d txdqwxp fkdqqho
Slop 1. Alico lips a faii coin lo gonoialo a ianoom soquonco o
Dolfh
of zoioos ano
onos. 1his soquonco will Lo usoo lo consliucl a sociol koy shaioo only Ly
Alico ano LoL.
Slop 2. Foi oach Lil of lho ianoom soquonco, Alico lips a faii coin again lo chooso
al ianoom ono of lho lwo quanlum alphaLols. Sho lhon liansmils lho
Lil as a polaiizoo pholon accoioing lo lho choson alphaLol.
Slop 8. Lach limo LoL iocoivos a pholon sonl Ly Alico, ho has no way of knowing
which quanlum alphaLol was choson Ly Alico. So ho simply usos lho
lip of a faii coin lo solocl ono of lho lwo alphaLols ano makos his moa-
suiomonl accoioingly. Half of lho limo ho will Lo lucky ano chooso lho
samo quanlum alphaLol as Lvo. In lhis caso, lho Lil iosulling fiom his
moasuiomonl will agioo wilh lho Lil sonl Ly Alico. Howovoi, lho olhoi
half of lho limo ho will Lo unlucky ano chooso lho alphaLol nol usoo Ly
Alico. In lhis caso, lho Lil iosulling fiom his moasuiomonl will agioo wilh
lho Lil sonl Ly Alico only ò0/ of lho limo. Afloi all lhoso moasuiomonls,
LoL now has in hano a Linaiy soquonco o
Ere
.
Alico ano LoL now piocooo lo communicalo ovoi lho puLlic lwo-way channol
using lho following slago 2 piolocol:
Vwdjh 5 surwrfro= Frppxqlfdwlrq ryhu d sxeolf fkdqqho
Skdvh 41 Udz nh| h{wudfwlrq
Slop 1. Ovoi lho puLlic channol, LoL communicalos lo Alico which quanlum al-
phaLol ho usoo foi oach of his moasuiomonls.
Slop 2. In iosponso, Alico communicalos lo LoL ovoi lho puLlic channol which of
his moasuiomonls woio maoo wilh lho coiiocl alphaLol.
Slop 8. Alico ano LoL lhon oololo all Lils foi which lhoy usoo incompaliLlo quan-
lum alphaLols lo pioouco lhoii iosulling udz nh|v. If Lvo has nol
oavosoioppoo, lhon lhoii iosulling iaw koys will Lo lho samo. If Lvo has
oavosoioppoo, lhoii iosulling iaw koys will nol Lo in lolal agioomonl.
Skdvh 51 Huuru hvwlpdwlrq
Slop 1. Ovoi lho puLlic channol, Alico ano LoL compaio small poilions of lhoii
iaw koys lo oslimalo lho oiioi-ialo 1, ano lhon oololo lho oisclosoo Lils
fiom lhoii iaw koys lo pioouco lhoii whqwdwlyh qdo nh|v. If lhiough
lhoii puLlic oisclosuios, Alico ano LoL lno no oiiois (i.o., 1 = 0), lhon
lhoy know lhal Lvo was nol oavosoiopping ano lhal lhoii lonlalivo koys
musl Lo lho samo qdo nh|. If lhoy oiscovoi al loasl ono oiioi ouiing
53 VDPXHO M1 ORPRQDFR/ MU1
lhoii puLlic oisclosuios (i.o., 1 0), lhon lhoy know lhal Lvo has Loon
oavosoiopping. In lhis caso, lhoy oiscaio lhoii lonlalivo lnal koys ano
slail all ovoi again
44
.
Alico
| ¸ ¸ ¸ | ¸ ÷ ¸ ÷ ¸
1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1
Lvo
1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0
LoL
1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0
+ 0 + 1 1 1 1 + 0 +
L L
Fig 0¦. Jhc LL84 wiíh Lvc prcscní (No noisc)
8161 Txdqwxp vhfuhf| ~ Wkh EE;7 surwrfro zlwk qrlvh1
Alico conlinuos hoi piosonlalion Ly aooiossing lho issuo of noiso.
So fai wo havo assumoo lhal oui ciyplogiaphic communicalion syslom is noiso
fioo. Lul ovoiy ioalislic communicalion syslom has noiso piosonl. Consoquonlly,
wo now nooo lo mooify oui quanlum piolocol lo allow foi lho piosonco of noiso."
Wo musl assumo lhal LoL`s iaw koy is noisy. Sinco LoL can nol oislinguish
Lolwoon oiiois causoo Ly noiso ano Ly lhoso causoo Ly Lvo`s inliusion, lho only
piaclical woiking assumplion ho can aoopl is lhal all oiiois aio causoo Ly Lvo`s
oavosoiopping. Unooi lhis woiking assumplion, Lvo is always assumoo lo havo
somo infoimalion aLoul Lils liansmilloo fiom Alico lo LoL. 1hus, iaw koy is
always only sduwldoo| vhfuhw."
Whal is nooooo is a molhoo lo oislill a smalloi sociol koy fiom a laigoi pailially
sociol koy. Wo call lhis sulydf| dpsolfdwlrq. Wo will now cioalo fiom lho
olo piolocol a now piolocol lhal allows foi lho piosonco of noiso, a piolocol lhal
incluoos piivacy amplilcalion."
Vwdjh 4 surwrfro= Frppxqlfdwlrq ryhu d txdqwxp fkdqqho
1his slago is oxaclly lho samo as Lofoio, oxcopl lhal oiiois aio now also inoucoo
Ly noiso.
Vwdjh 5 surwrfro= Frppxqlfdwlrq ryhu d sxeolf fkdqqho
Skdvh 4 surwrfro= Udz nh| h{wudfwlrq1
44
¡f !vo voio fo infoicopf ouch gubif iocoivod fion Alico, fo nousuio if, und fhon fo
nusguiudo us Alico by sonding on fo !ob u gubif in fho sfufo sho nousuiod, fhon !vo vould
bo infioducing u 2õ% oiioi iufo in !ob`s iuv loy. This nofhod of ouvosdiopping is cullod
opaque eavesdvoppIng. \o vill discuss fhis ouvosdiopping sfiufogy us voll us ofhois uf u lufoi
fino.
TXDQWXP FU\SWRJUDSK\ 54
1his phaso is oxaclly lho samo as in lho noiso-fioo piolocol, oxcopl lhal Alico
ano LoL also oololo lhoso Lil localions al which LoL shoulo havo iocoivoo Lul
oio nol iocoivo a Lil. Such non-iocoplions" coulo Lo causoo Ly Lvo`s inliusion
oi Ly gdun frxqwv in LoL`s ooloclion oovico. 1ho localion of oaik counls aio
communicaloo Ly LoL lo Alico ovoi lho puLlic channol.
Skdvh 5 surwrfro= Huuru hvwlpdwlrq1
Ovoi lho puLlic channol, Alico ano LoL compaio small poilions of lhoii iaw
koys lo oslimalo lho oiioi-ialo 1, ano lhon oololo lho oisclosoo Lils fiom lhoii iaw
koy lo pioouco lhoii whqwdwlyh qdo nh|v. If 1 oxcooos a coilain lhiosholo 1
Pd{
,
lhon piivacy amplilcalion is nol possiLlo If so, Alico ano LoL ioluin lo slago 1 lo
slail ovoi. On lho olhoi hano, if 1 _ 1
Pd{
, lhon Alico ano LoL piocooo lo phaso
8.
Skdvh 6 surwrfro= H{wudfwlrq ri uhfrqflohg nh|
45
1
In lhis phaso
46
, Alico ano LoL iomovo all oiiois fiom whal iomains of iaw koy
lo pioouco a common oiioi-fioo koy, calloo uhfrqflohg nh|.
Slop 1. Alico ano LoL puLlicly agioo upon a ianoom poimulalion, ano apply il lo
whal iomains of lhoii iospoclivo iaw koys. Noxl Alico ano LoL paililion
lho iomnanl iaw koy inlo Llocks of longlh /, whoio lho longlh / is choson
so lhal Llocks of lhal longlh aio unlikoly lo havo moio lhan ono oiioi. Foi
oach of lhoso Llocks, Alico ano LoL puLlicly compaio ovoiall paiily chocks,
making suio oach limo lo oiscaio lho lasl Lil of oach compaioo Llock.
Lach limo an ovoiall paiily chock ooos nol agioo, Alico ano LoL inilialo
a Linaiy soaich foi lho oiioi, i.o., Lisocling lho Llock inlo lwo suLLlocks,
puLlicly compaiing lho paiilios foi oach of lhoso suLLlocks, oiscaioing lho
iighl mosl Lil of oach suLLlock. 1hoy conlinuo lhoii Lisoclivo soaich on
lho suLLlock foi which lhoii paiilios aio nol in agioomonl. 1his Lisoclivo
soaich conlinuos unlil lho oiionoous Lil is localoo ano oololoo. 1hoy lhon
conlinuo lo lho noxl /-Llock.
1his slop is iopoaloo, i.o., a ianoom poimulalion is choson, a iomnanl
iaw koy is paililionoo inlo Llocks of longlh /, paiilios aio compaioo, olc..
1his is oono unlil il Locomos inomcionl lo conlinuo in lhis fashion.
Slop 2. Alico ano LoL puLlicly solocl ianoomly choson suLsols of iomnanl iaw
koy, puLlicly compaio paiilios, oach limo oiscaioing an agiooo upon Lil
fiom lhoii choson koy samplo. If a paiily shoulo nol agioo, lhoy omploy
lho Linaiy soaich slialogy of Slop 1 lo localo ano oololo lho oiioi.
45
Thoio uio noio ohcionf und ologunf piocoduios fhun fho piocoduio doscibod in Sfugo 2
¡huso S. Soo [1ô[ foi iofoioncos.
46
Tho piocoduio givon in Sfugo 2 ¡huso S is only ono of nuny dihoionf possiblo piocoduios.
¡n fucf, fhoio uio nuch noio ohcionf und ologunf piocoduios fhun fho ono dosciibod hoioin.
55 VDPXHO M1 ORPRQDFR/ MU1
« Finally, whon, foi somo lxoo numLoi · of consoculivo iopolilions of Slop
2, no oiioi is founo, Alico ano LoL assumo lhal lo a high pioLaLilily,
lho iomnanl iaw koy is wilhoul oiioi. Alico ano LoL now ionamo lho
iomnanl iaw koy uhfrqflohg nh|, ano piocooo lo lho noxl phaso.
Skdvh 7= Sulydf| dpsolfdwlrq
Alico ano LoL now havo a common ioconciloo koy which lhoy know is only
pailially sociol fiom Lvo. 1hoy now Login lho piocoss of sulydf| dpsolfdwlrq,
which is lho oxliaclion of a sociol koy fiom a pailially sociol ono.
Slop 1. Alico ano LoL compulo fiom lho oiioi-ialo 1 oLlainoo in Ihaso 2 of Slago
2 an uppoi Louno / of lho numLoi of Lils of ioconciloo koy known Ly Lvo.
Lol : oonolo lho numLoi of Lils in ioconciloo koy, ano lol - Lo a vhfxulw|
sdudphwhu lo Lo aojusloo as ioquiioo.
Slop 2. Alico ano LoL puLlicly solocl : ÷/ ÷- ianoom suLsols of ioconciloo koy,
wilhoul iovoaling lhoii conlonls. 1ho unoisclosoo paiilios of lhoso suLsols
Locomo lho lnal sociol koy.
Il can Lo shown lhal Lvo`s avoiago infoimalion aLoul lho lnal sociol koy is
loss lhan 2
v
¸ ln2 Lils.
1ho Loll iang, inoicaling lho ono of lho poiioo. 1ho onliio class wilh lwo
oxcoplions, immooialoly iacoo oul of lho locluio hall, almosl knocking Alico oown
as lhoy passoo Ly. Iiofossoi Diiac lhankoo Alico foi an oxcollonl piosonlalion.
As Alico lofl, sho saw Lvo in ono of lho oaik iocossos of lho laigo locluio hall
wilh hoi hoao iosling on lho palm of hoi hano as if in ooop lhoughl. Sho hao a
fiown on hoi faco. Alico lofl wilh a Lioao smilo on hoi faco.
91 Wkh E<5 txdqwxp fu|swrjudsklf surwrfro
In lho noxl class, Alico conlinuoo hoi lasl piosonlalion.
In lhinking aLoul lho LL84 piolocol lhis wookono, I was suipiisoo lo lno lhal
il aclually is possiLlo lo Luilo a oiloionl quanlum piolocol lhal usos only ono
quanlum alphaLol insloao of lwo. I`ll call lhis now quanlum piolocol E<5."
As Lofoio, wo will oosciiLo lho piolocol in loims of lho polaiizalion slalos of
lho pholon
47
."
As oui quanlum alphaLol, wo chooso
;
?
=
1" = [0
.
¸
0" = [0

¸
,
whoio [0
.
¸ ano [0

¸ oonolo iospoclivoly lho polaiizalion slalos of a pholon linoaily
polaiizoo al anglos 0 ano ÷0 wilh iospocl lo lho voilical, whoio 0 < 0 <

7
."
47
Any fvo dinonsionul guunfun sysfon such us u spin
1
2
puificlo could bo usod.
TXDQWXP FU\SWRJUDSK\ 56
Wo assumo lhal LoL`s quanlum iocoivoi, calloo a SRYP uhfhlyhu[7[, is Laso
on lho following oLsoivaLlos
48
:
;
A
A
A
A
A
?
A
A
A
A
A
=
¹
.
=
4 m

lk

m
4 . k.ml
¹

=
4 m
.
lk
.
m
4 . k.ml
¹
B
= 1 ÷¹
.
÷¹

,
whoio ¹
.
is lho oLsoivaLlo foi [0
.
¸, ¹

lho oLsoivaLlo foi [0

¸ ano ¹
B
is lho
oLsoivaLlos foi inconclusivo iocoplions."
1ho E<5 quanlum piolocol is as follows:
Slago 1 piolocol. Communicalion ovoi a quanlum channol.
Slop 1. 1ho samo as in lho LL84 piolocol. Alico lips a faii coin lo gonoialo a
ianoom soquonco o
Dolfh
of zoioos ano onos. 1his soquonco will Lo usoo lo consliucl
a sociol koy shaioo only Ly Alico ano LoL.
Slop 2. 1ho samo as in lho piovious piolocol, oxcopl lhis limo Alico usos only
ono alphaLol, lho ono aLovo. So sho ooos nol havo lo lip a coin lo chooso an
alphaLol.
Slop 8. LoL usos his IOVM iocoivoi lo moasuio pholons iocoivoo fiom Alico.
Slago 2. Communicalion in foui phasos ovoi a puLlic channol.
1his slago is lho samo as in lho LL84 piolocol, oxcopl lhal in phaso 1, LoL
puLlicly infoims Alico as lo which limo slols ho iocoivoo non-oiasuios. 1ho Lils in
lhoso limo slols Locomo Alico`s ano LoL`s iaw koys.
Alico comploloo hoi oiscussion of lho L02 piolocol wilh,
Lvo`s piosonco is again oolocloo Ly an unusual oiioi ialo in LoL`s iaw koy.
Moioovoi, foi somo Lul nol all oavosoiopping slialogios, Lvo can also Lo oolocloo
Ly an unusual oiasuio ialo foi LoL."
Alico lhon sloppoo oown fiom lho locluio hall pooium ano ioluinoo lo hoi soal.
:1 Wkhuh duh pdq| rwkhu txdqwxp fu|swrjudsklf surwrfrov
Lofoio conlinuing oui sloiy aLoul Alico, LoL, ano Lvo, lhoio aio a fow poinls
lhal nooo lo Lo maoo:
1hoio aio many olhoi quanlum ciyplogiaphic piolocols. Quanlum piolocols
showing lho gioalosl piomiso foi socuiily aio lhoso Lasoo on LII paiis. Unfoi-
lunaloly, lho lochnology foi implomonling such piolocols is nol yol availaLlo. Foi
iofoioncos on vaiious piolocols, ploaso iofoi lo [49[.
48
Tho obsoivublos
M
.
,
M

, und
?
foin u posfivo opoiufoi vuluo nousuio (¡O\M).
57 VDPXHO M1 ORPRQDFR/ MU1
;1 D frpsdulvrq ri txdqwxp fu|swrjudsk| zlwk fodvvlfdo dqg sxeolf
nh| fu|swrjudsk|
Quanlum ciyplogiaphy`s uniquo conliiLulion is lhal il piovioos a mochanism
foi oavosoiopping ooloclion. 1his is an onliioly now conliiLulion lo ciyplogiaphy.
On lho olhoi hano, ono of lho main oiawLacks of quanlum ciyplogiaphy is lhal il
piovioos no mochanism foi aulhonlicalion, i.o., foi oolocling wholhoi oi nol Alico
ano LoL aio aclually communicaling wilh oach olhoi, ano nol wilh an inloimooialo
Lvo masquoiaoing as oach of lhom. 1hus, lho Calch 22 pioLlom is nol solvoo Ly
quanlum ciyplogiaphy. Lofoio Alico ano LoL can Login lhoii quanlum piolocol,
lhoy lisl nooo lo sono an aulhonlicalion koy ovoi a socuio channol.
1hus, quanlum ciyplogiaphy`s uniquo conliiLulion is lo piovioo a moans of
oxpanoing oxisling socuio koy. Quanlum piolocols aio socuio koy oxpanoois. Fiisl
a small aulhonlicalion koy is oxchangoo ovoi a socuio channol. 1hon lhal koy can
Lo ampliloo lo an aiLiliaiy longlh lhiough quanlum ciyplogiaphy.
Fkhfn Olvw foi Q. Ciyplo. Sys.
Calch 22 Solvoo´ \HV ) QR
Aulhonlicalion´ QR
Inliusion Doloclion´ \HV
<1 Hdyhvgursslqj vwudwhjlhv dqg frxqwhu phdvxuhv
Now lol us iosumo oui sloiy:
Nol a splil socono afloi Alico hao soaloo hoisolf, Lvo iaisoo hoi hano ano askoo
foi poimission lo mako hoi own piosonlalion lo lho class. Iiofossoi Diiac yiolooo
lho pooium, nol knowing oxaclly whal lo oxpocl, Lul nonolholoss olaloo lhal his
usually phlogmalic class was Loginning lo show signs of somolhing ho hao nol soon
foi somo limo, class pailicipalion ano inilialivo.
Lvo Logan, In lho lasl lwo classos, Alico has suggosloo lhal I (Lvo) mighl Lo
oagoi lo oavosoiop on hoi convoisalions wilh my 'closo' fiiono 'LoL'. I assuio
you lhal lhal simply is in no way liuo."
Lul such innuonoo ioally ooosn`l Lolhoi mo."
<141 Rsdtxh hdyhvgursslqj1 Whal ioally iiks mo is lhal Alico suggosls
lhal, if I woio lo oavosoiop (which novoi woulo happon), lhon I (Lvo) woulo uso
rsdtxh hdyhvgursslqj. Ly rsdtxh hdyhvgursslqj, I moan lhal I (Lvo) woulo
inloicopl ano oLsoivo (moasuio) Alico`s pholons, ano lhon masquoiaoo as Alico Ly
sonoing pholons in lho slalos I hao moasuioo on lo LoL."
I assuio you lhal, if I ovoi wanloo lo oavosoiop (which will novoi Lo lho caso),
I woulo nol uso such a simplislic foim of inliusion."
TXDQWXP FU\SWRJUDSK\ 58
Lvo ioally wanloo lo uso lho aojoclivo slupio` insloao of simplislic,` Lul io-
sliainoo hoisolf.
Lvo lhon saio inoignanlly, If I ovoi woio lo oavosoiop (which woulo novoi hap-
pon), I woulo uso moio sophislicaloo, moio inlolligonl, ano yos ... , moio ooliciously
oovious schomos!"
<151 Wudqvoxfhqw hdyhvgursslqj zlwkrxw hqwdqjohphqw1 I (Lvo) coulo
foi oxamplo mako my pioLo inloiacl unilaiily wilh lho infoimalion caiiioi fiom
Alico, ano lhon lol il piocooo on lo LoL in a slighlly mooiloo slalo. Foi lho L02
piolocol, lho inloiaclion is givon Ly:
;
?
=
[0
.
¸ [c¸ ÷÷l [0
.
¸ [c¸ =

0
3
.

[c
.
¸
[0

¸ [c¸ ÷÷l [0

¸ [c¸ =

0
3

[c

¸
,
whoio [c¸ ano [c

¸ oonolo iospoclivoly lho slalo of my (Lvo`s) pioLo Lofoio ano
afloi lho inloiaclion ano whoio [0

¸ ano

0
3

oonolo iospoclivoly lho slalo of Alico`s
pholon Lofoio ano afloi lho inloiaclion."
<161 Wudqvoxfhqw hdyhvgursslqj zlwk hqwdqjohphqw1 Anolhoi ap-
pioach, ono of lho mosl sophislicaloo, woulo Lo foi mo (LVL) lo onlanglo my
pioLo wilh lho infoimalion caiiioi fiom Alico, ano lhon lol il piocooo on lo LoL.
Foi lho L02 piolocol, lho inloiaclion is givon Ly:
;
?
=
[0
.
¸ [c¸ ÷÷l [0
.
¸ [c¸ = a

0
3
.

[c
.
¸ ÷/

0
3

[c
.
¸
[0

¸ [c¸ ÷÷l [0

¸ [c¸ = /

0
3
.

[c

¸ ÷a

0
3

[c

¸
,
whoio [c¸ ano [c

¸ oonolo iospoclivoly lho slalo of my (Lvo`s) pioLo Lofoio ano
afloi lho onlanglomonl ano whoio [0

¸ ano

0
3

oonolo iospoclivoly lho slalo of
Alico`s pholon Lofoio ano afloi lho onlanglomonl."
<171 Hdyhvgursslqj edvhg rq lpsohphqwdwlrq zhdnqhvvhv1
On lho olhoi hano, I coulo also lako aovanlago of implomonlalion woaknossos."
Ono of lho gioal oimcullios wilh quanlum ciyplogiaphy is lhal lochnology
has nol quilo caughl up wilh il. Many oovicos, such as lasois, oo nol omil a
singlo quanlum, Lul many quanla al oach omission limo. 1ho implomonlalion of
quanlum piolocols ioally ioquiios singlo-quanlum omillois. Such singlo-quanlum
omillois aio now unooi oovolopmonl. Unlil such omillois Locomo availaLlo, lho
quanlum piolocols can only Lo appioximaloly implomonloo."
Foi oxamplo, foi many oplical implomonlalions of quanlum piolocols, lho
lasoi inlonsily is luinoo oown so lhal on lho avoiago only ono pholon is piooucoo
ovoiy 10 pulsos. 1hus, if anylhing is omilloo al all (ono chanco oul of 10), lhon lho
pioLaLilily lhal il is a singlo pholon is oxliomoly high. Howovoi, whon lhoio is an
omission, lhon lhoio is a pioLaLilily of
4
533
lhal moio lhan ono pholon is omilloo.
So il is concoivaLlo lhal I (Lvo) coulo Luilo an oavosoiopping oovico lhal woulo
oolocl mulliplo pholon liansmissions, ano, whon so oolocloo, woulo oivoil ono of
lho pholons foi moasuiomonl. In lhis way, I (Lvo) coulo concoivaLly ioao
4
533
of
Alico`s liansmission wilhoul Loing oolocloo. Ono way of counloiing lhis lypo of
59 VDPXHO M1 ORPRQDFR/ MU1
lhioal is lo allow foi il ouiing piivacy amplilcalion. Anolhoi is lo oovolop oovicos
which aclually liuly omil ono quanla al a limo."
Finally, ooponoing on Alico`s implomonlalion, il mighl also Lo possiLlo foi mo
(Lvo) lo gain infoimalion simply Ly oLsoiving Alico`s liansmilloi wilhoul moasui-
ing ils oulpul. 1his may oi may nol Lo fai folchoo."
Lvo lhon ioluinoo lo hoi soal. Hoi faco was lil up wilh a sinisloi giin of
salisfaclion.
431 Lpsohphqwdwlrqv
Lofoio conlinuing oui sloiy, wo shoulo monlion lhal quanlum ciyplogiaphic
piolocols havo Loon implomonloo ovoi moio lhan 80 kilomolois of lLoi oplic caLlo,
[58[,[5;[,[63[, [64[, ano mosl amazingly, ovoi moio lhan a kilomoloi of fioo spaco [8[,
[9[, [46[,[43[, [45[ in lho piosonco of amLionl sunlighl. 1hoio havo Loon a numLoi
of amLilious pioposals lo oomonslialo lho foasiLilily of quanlum ciyplogiaphy in
oailh lo salollilo communicalions. Ano as monlionoo oailioi, lhoio is a cloai nooo
foi lho oovolopmonl of singlo-quanlum omilling oovicos.
441 Frqfoxvlrq
Much iomains lo Lo oono. 1hoio has Loon somo woik on lho oovolopmonl of
mulliplo-usoi quanlum ciyplogiaphic piolocols foi communicalion nolwoiks [65[,
[5<[. 1ho 1iojan Hoiso allack is oiscussoo in [48[. 1hoio also havo Loon al loasl
lwo inooponoonl claims of lho pioof of ullimalo socuiily, i.o., a pioof lhal quanlum
ciyplogiaphic piolocols aio impoivious lo all possiLlo oavosoiopping slialogios [48[,
[4<[, [53[, [54[, [5[, [59[. Foi somo ioconl oxpoiimonlal oovolopmonls, ploaso iofoi
lo [47[, [56[, [5:[.
Oui sloiy conlinuos:
As Alico sal in hoi soal, sho happonoo lo spy in lho coinoi of hoi oyo an aLiupl
chango in Lvo`s oomoanoi. Lvo suooonly Locamo agilaloo, lil up wilh oxcilomonl,
ano slailoo lo fianlically wiilo on hoi nolopao. 1ho Loll iang. Lvo immooialoly
jumpoo up, ano iacoo oul of lho locluio hall, Loing pushoo along Ly lho usual
fianlic mass of sluoonls, oqually oagoi lo gol oul of lho classioom.
As Lvo whiskoo pasl, Alico caughl jusl a looling glimpso of Lvo`s nolopao. All
Alico was aLlo lo oiscoin in lhal Liiof momonl was an illogiLlo jumLlo of oqualions
ano ... yos, ... lho acionym IOVM."
Alico lhoughl lo hoisolf, Oh, woll! ... Foigol il! I lhink I`ll jusl visil LoL lhis
wookono."
AO, ,#
49
49
Any iosonblunco of fho chuiucfois in fhis nunusciipf fo individuuls living oi doud is puioly
coincidonful.
TXDQWXP FU\SWRJUDSK\ 5:
451 Dfnqrzohgjhphqw
I woulo liko lo lhank Howaio Lianol, Lov Giovoi, ano Hoi-Kwong Lo foi lhoii
holpful suggoslions. I woulo also liko lo lhank lho inoiviouals who allonooo my
lalk. 1hoii many commonls ano insighls woio of invaluaLlo holp in wiiling lhis
papoi. 1hanks aio also ouo lo lho Nalional Inslilulo foi Slanoaios ano 1ochnology
(NIS1) foi piovioing an oncouiaging onviionmonl in which lhis papoi coulo Lo
comploloo.
Uhihuhqfhv
[l[ !onnoff, Chuilos H., und Cillos !iussuid, Quantun cvyptogvapLy: PuLIIc key dIstvILu-
tIon and coIn tossIng, ¡nfoinufionul Confoionco on Conpufois, Sysfons & Signul ¡iocossing,
!uguloio, ¡ndiu, Ðoconboi l0-l2, l9S1, pp l7õ - l79.
[2[ !onnoff, Chuilos H., und ¡ofoi Shoi, Scionco, 2S1, (l999), 717.
[S[ !ihun, !li, und Adi Shunii, LIBeventIaI CvytanaIysIs oI tLe Lata EncvyptIon Stan-
davd,' Spiingoi-\oilug (l99S).
[1[ !iundf, Hovuid !., John M. Moyois, And Sunuol J. !ononuco,Ji., Aspects oI entangIed
tvansIucent eavesdvoppIng In quantun cvyptogvapLy, ¡hys. !ov. A, \ol. õ6, No. 6,
Ðoconboi l997, pp. 11õ6 - 116õ.
[õ[ !uffloi, \.T., !.J. Hughos, S.K. !unoiouux, C.!. Moigun, J.!. Noidholf, C.C. ¡ofoi-
son, LayIIgLt quantun key dIstvILutIon ovev 1.ô kn, hffp:¸¸xxx.lunl.gov¸ubs¸guunf-
ph¸000l0SS.
[6[ !uffloi, \.T., !.J. Hughos, ¡.C. Kviuf, C.C. !ufhoi, C.!. Moigun, J.!. Noidholf, C.C.
¡ofoison, und C.M. Sinnons, Yvee-space quantun ket dIstvILutIon, ¡hys. !ov. A ,(l99S).
(hffp:¸¸xxx.lunl.gov¸ubs¸guunf-ph¸9S0l006).
[7[ Ðiols, Ð., ¡hys. !off., u2, (l9S2), p 27l.
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¡nfoinufion Thooiy, 22 (l976), pp 611 - 6õ1.
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Jouinul of Modoin Opfics, \ol. 1l, No. l2, l991, pp 2S9l - 2S96.
[ll[ Coffosnun, Ðuniol, und Hoi-Kvong !o, Yvon quantun cLeatIng to quantun secuvIty,
PLysIcs 3oday, \ol. õS, ¡ss. ll, (2000), p22.
[l2[ Hughos, !ichuid J., \illiun T. !uffloi, ¡uul C. Kviuf, Sfovo K. !unoiouux, Cooigo !.
Moigun, Juno !. Noidholf, C. C. ¡ofoison, PvactIcaI quantun cvyptogvapLy Iov secuve
Ivee-space connunIcatIons, ¡!! (2000). (hffp:¸¸xxx.lunl.gov¸ubs¸guunf-ph¸990õ009).
[lS[ Jucobs, !.C. und J.Ð. ¡iunson, Quantun cvyptogvapLy In Ivee space, Opfics !offois,
\ol. 2l, Novonboi lõ, l996, plSõ1 - lSõ6.
[l1[ Jonnovoin, Thonus, Chiisfoph Sinon, Ciogoi \oihs, Huiuld \oinfuifoi, und Anfon
Zoilingoi, Quantun CvyptogvapLy vItL EntangIed PLotons, ¡hys. !ov. !off.,\ol. S1,
20, Muy lõ, 2000, pp. 1729-17S2.
[lõ[ !o, H.-K, und H.¡. Chuu, Quantun conputevs vendev quantun key dIstvILutIon
uncondItIonaIIy secuve ovev avLItvavIIy Iong dIstance, Scionco, 2SS, (l999), 20õ0.
(hffp:¸¸xxx.lunl.gov¸ubs¸guunf-ph¸9S0S006)
[l6[ !ononuco, Sunuol J., A quIck gIance at quantun cvyptogvapLy, Ciypfologiu, \ol. 2S,
No. l, Junuuiy, l999, ppl-1l. (hffp:¸¸xxx.lunl.gov¸ubs¸guunf-ph¸9Sll0õ6)
[l7[ !ononuco, Sunuol J., Ji., A taIk on quantun cvyptogvapLy, ov Hov AIIce outvIts
Eve, in ^CodIng 3Leovy, and CvyptogvapLy: Yvon CeLeInscLeInscLveILev and
EnIgna to Quantun 3Leovy,' (odifod by Ðuvid Joynoi), !ocfuio Nofos in Conpufoi
Scionco und !nginooiing, Spiingoi-\oilug, (l999), pp. l11-l71.
[lS[ Mufsui, Mifsuiu, LIneav cvytanaIysIs netLod Iov LES cIpLev, !ocfuio Nofos in Con-
pufoi Scionco, vol. 76õ, odifod by T. Hollosofh, Spiingoi-\oilug (l991), ppSS6-S97.
[l9[ Muyois, Ðoninic, Ciypfo`96, pS1S.
5; VDPXHO M1 ORPRQDFR/ MU1
[20[ Muyois, Ðoninic, und Andiov Yuo, Quantun cvyptogvapLy vItL InpevIect appavatus,
hffp:¸¸xxx.lunl.gov¸ubs¸guunf-ph¸9S090S9.
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hffp:¸¸xxx.lunl.gov¸ubs¸guunf-ph¸9S0202õ.
[22[ Monozos, Alfiod J., ¡uul C. vun Ooischof, und Scoff A. \unsfono, Hundbool of Appliod
Ciypfogiuphy,' C!C ¡ioss (l977).
[2S[ Nuil, Ð.S., C. C. ¡ofoison, A. C. \hifo, A. J. !oiglund, und ¡. C. Kviuf, EntangIed
State Quantun CvyptogvapLy: EavesdvoppIng on tLe Ekevt PvotocoI, ¡hys. !ov.
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(272 pugos) hffp:¸¸vvv.oiu.con¸cufulog¸ciucldos¸
[2õ[ ¡hoonix, Sinon J., und ¡uul Ð. Tovnsond, Quantun cvyptogvapLy: Lov to Leat tLe
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[26[ Shoi, ¡ofoi \., und John ¡ioslill, ¡hys. !ov. !off., Sõ, (2000), 11l.
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[2S[ Tovnsond, ¡.Ð., Secuve key dIstvILutIon systen Lased on quantun cvyptogvapLy,
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[29[ Tovnsond, ¡uul, Opficul ¡ibois Tochnology 1, S1õ (l99S).
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(l9S2), pp9S2-9SS.
!NiVrisi+. cr ^\i.i\ND I\i+i:cir CcUN+., I\i+i:cir, ^Ð 2l2¯0
1-nu:| uJJ·ovv: LoæonacoouMßC.EDu
111: http:77uuu.csee.uæhc.edu7¯1oæonaco

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