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Fundamentals of Metal Forming Processes

Amr Shehata Fayed, Ph.D.


Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering Materials Engineering Department Faculty of Engineering Zagazig University

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed

Forming and Shaping

Forming: means changing the shape of an existing solid body. Ex. The metal body for a car (sheet metal forming)

Shaping: usually involves molding and casting. Ex. The white ceramic insulator for a spark plug of a car body for a car (clay molding, drying and firing)

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed

Metal Forming Processes

Metal Forming includes a large group of manufacturing processes in which plastic deformation is used to change the shape of metal work-pieces. Deformation results from the use of a tool, usually a die in metal forming, which applies stresses that exceed the yield strength of the metal.
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Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed

(a) (b) (c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

Hammer forging two connecting rods; (a) bar stock; after (b) fullering, (c) rolling, (d) blocking, (e) finishing, (f) trimming; (g) the flash; (h) the forging dies.
Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed

Metal Forming Processes


Sheet Metal-working:
Also called Press-working. Cold working processes. Use set of punch and die. Performed on metal sheets, strips and coils. Surface area / volume is large.
Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed

Bulk Deformation:
Compressive deformation force. Significant deformations. Massive shape changes. Starting work shapes include
billets and rectangular bars.

Surface area / volume is small.

Metal Forming Processes


Sheet Metalworking Bending operations Shearing processes Deep or Cup drawing
Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed

Bulk Deformation
Surface Area / Volume is small

Surface Area / Volume is large

Rolling Forging Extrusion Wire and Bar drawing

Bulk Deformation Processes


Rolling: A compressive deformation process in
which the thickness of slab or plate is reduced by two opposing tools rolls. They rotate to draw the work piece into the gap between them and squeeze it.

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed

Bulk Deformation Processes


Forging: The work-piece is compressed between two
opposing dies so that the die shapes are imparted to work. It is traditionally hot working process however many types of forging are performed cold.

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed

Bulk Deformation Processes


Extrusion: A compressive deformation process in
which the work metal is forced to flow through a die opening to produce a desired cross-sectional shape.

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed

Bulk Deformation Processes


Drawing: The work metal is being pulled through a
die opening to reduce the diameter of a wire or a bar. See Fig. Wire Drawing.

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed

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Examples of Precision Cold Forged Products

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed

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Precision Hot Forging of Complex Shapes

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed

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Precision Hot Forging of Complex Shapes

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed

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Sheet Metalworking Processes


Bending: It involves straining of metal sheet or plate
to take an angle along a (usually) straight axis.

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed

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Sheet Metalworking Processes Drawing: (Cup or deep drawing) Forming of a flat


metal sheet into a hollow or concave shape, such as cup, by stretching the metal. A blank holder is used to hold down the blank while the punch pushes into the sheet metal.

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed

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Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed

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Sheet Metalworking Processes Shearing: It involves cutting rather than forming of


a metal. A shearing operation cuts the work using a punch and die.

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed

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Importance of Metal Forming in Manufacturing Engineering


Net Shape or Close to Net Shape High Production Rate High Profit Margin Low Scrap Rate Improving Material Properties

Dr. Amr Shehata Fayed

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Applications and Products of Metal forming in Macro Scale


Automotive Aerospace Appliance Cookware

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Current Issues of Metal Forming Industry


Lack of Experienced Metal Forming Engineer Short Product Life Cycle New Metallic Materials Developing New Hybrid Process High Accuracy and Small Feature Products

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Skills Needed for Metal Forming Engineering


Mechanics Material Science Manufacturing Process Design and Control Machinery Computer Skills FEA
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Students Need
To know the current and future needs of metal forming industry. To be taught on a series of classes to meet challenges of current and future metal forming industry.

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Homework
Is metal forming the most cost effective manufacturing process? Why metal forming is the best process for mass production? According to your imagination, what is the best process to make beverage can?

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