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QUARK AND LEPTON PROPERTIES ASSIGNED VIA A CUBOCTAHEDRON

J. S. Markovitch 1/30/2007

SYMMETRIES OF THE CUBOCTAHEDRON
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Each of its four rings contains three quarks and three leptons.

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Each of its six squares has absolute values for Q that sum to 2. Each of its four rings has generations G of { −1, −1, 0, 0, +1, +1 }. Each of its eight triangles has values for R that sum to 6. _________________________________________ The values for Q in each generation are { 0, −⅓, +⅔, −1 }. The values for Q and G allow each particle to couple via a W± to just one other particle (except in cases of mixing arising from the assumption that ν x = ν x ).

STRONG FORCE
Particle = { Quark, Lepton }

ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE
Electric Charge Q = { 0, −⅓, +⅔, −1 }

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M ( ∆ R , ∆ T ) = 4 .1
∆R m

×3 ×

1 m

1 10 ∆T

m = 1 for heavy particles. m = 2 for light particles. ∆T = 0 ∆T = 0 ∆T = −1 ∆T = 0

WEAK FORCE
Generation G = { −1, 0, +1 }

GRAVITATIONAL FORCE Values for R = { 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5 }
Valid for:

m(τ ) m(e ) m(ν 3 ) m(ν 1 )

m(µ ) m(e ) m(ν 2 ) m(ν 1 )

m(t ) m(c ) m(s ) m(u )

m(b ) m(c ) m(d ) m(u )

WEAK COUPLING RULE: Particles may couple via a W± only if they possess electric charges Q that differ by 1 and generations G that sum to 0.

T = 1 for b-, c-, u-, and d-quarks. T = 0 otherwise.

QUARK AND LEPTON ASSIGNMENTS USING FOUR INTERLOCKING RINGS

JM-PH-2007-67h 1/29/2007

RING SYMMETRIES
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The values for T are assigned symmetrically.

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Quarks are opposed by quarks, and leptons by leptons, where to say particles are “opposed” means they are symmetrical about the center point. All heavy particles (m = 1) are opposed by light particles (m = 2).

STRONG FORCE
Particle = { Quark, Lepton }

ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE
Electric Charge Q = { 0, −⅓, +⅔, −1 }

Opposing particles have values for Q that differ by 1. Opposing particles have the same values for R. ________________________________________ For heavy particles the sum of the lepton charges minus three times the sum of the quark charges equals 0 For light particles the sum of the lepton charges minus three times the sum of the quark charges equals 0.

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WEAK FORCE Generation G = { −1, 0, +1 }

GRAVITATIONAL FORCE Values for R = { 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5 }

Prepared by J. S. Markovitch

QUARK AND LEPTON PROPERTIES ASSIGNED VIA A CUBE
2

JM-PH-2007-67h 2/1/2007

Each of the cube’s nine orthogonal slices has absolute values for Q that sum to 2.

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T = 1 for b-, c-, u-, and d-quarks. T = 0 otherwise. STRONG FORCE
Particle = { Quark, Leton }

Each of the cube’s eight corners has values for R that sum to 6.

ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE
Electric Charge Q = { 0, −⅓, +⅔, −1 }

The location of the four hexagonal rings of the cuboctahedron.

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WEAK FORCE
Generation G = { −1, 0, +1 }

GRAVITATIONAL FORCE
Values for R = { 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5 }
Prepared by J. S. Markovitch

QUARK AND LEPTON PROPERTIES ASSIGNED VIA A CUBOCTAHEDRON

JM-PH-2007-67g 2/1/2007

Particles are “opposed” if they are symmetrical about a if they are Particles are opposed line passing through the center of line passing symmetrical about athe cube’s top (the the center of the center through red square) and thecuboctaof the cube’s bottom.

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hedron’s “top” (the red square) and the center of the cuboctahedron’s “bottom” (the green square).

Opposing particles have values for Q that differ by 1.
2

STRONG FORCE
Particle = { Quark, Lepton }

ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE
Electric Charge Q = { 0, −⅓, +⅔, −1 }

=

Opposing particles have values for m that differ by 1, where m = 1 for heavy particles, and m = 2 for light particles. Note that quarks oppose quarks, and leptons oppose leptons.

Opposing particles have the same values for R.

WEAK FORCE Generation G = { −1, 0, +1 }

GRAVITATIONAL FORCE Values for R = { 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5 }
Prepared by J. S. Markovitch

QUARK AND LEPTON PROPERTIES ASSIGNED VIA A CUBE

JM-PH-2007-67g 2/1/2007

Particles are “opposed” if they are symmetrical about a if they are Particles are opposed line passing through the center of line passing symmetrical about athe cube’s top (the the center and the center through red square) of the cube’s of the cube’s bottom.

=

top (the red square) and the center of the cube’s bottom (the green square).

2

Opposing particles have values for Q that differ by 1.

STRONG FORCE
Particle = { Quark, Lepton }

ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE
Electric Charge Q = { 0, −⅓, +⅔, −1 }

=

Opposing particles have values for m that differ by 1, where m = 1 for heavy particles, and m = 2 for light particles. Note that quarks oppose quarks, and leptons oppose leptons.

Opposing particles have the same values for R.

WEAK FORCE Generation G = { −1, 0, +1 }

GRAVITATIONAL FORCE Values for R = { 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5 }
Prepared by J. S. Markovitch

QUARK AND LEPTON PROPERTIES ASSIGNED VIA A CUBE

JM-PH-2007-67d 2/1/2007

Each of the cube’s nine orthogonal slices has absolute values for Q that sum to 2.

=

2

STRONG FORCE
Particle = { Quark, Lepton }

ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE
Electric Charge Q = { 0, −⅓, +⅔, −1 }

=

Each of the cube’s eight corners has values for R that sum to 6.

WEAK FORCE Generation G = { −1, 0, +1 }

GRAVITATIONAL FORCE Values for R = { 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5 }
Prepared by J. S. Markovitch

QUARK AND LEPTON RINGS

JM-PH-2007-67h 2/1/2007

2

STRONG FORCE
Particle = { Quark, Lepton }

ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE
Electric Charge Q = { 0, −⅓, +⅔, −1 }

WEAK FORCE
Generation G = { −1, 0, +1 }
Prepared by J. S. Markovitch

GRAVITATIONAL FORCE Values for R = { 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5 }

QUARK AND LEPTON PROPERTIES ASSIGNED VIA A CUBE QUARK AND LEPTON RINGS AND CIRCLES

JM-PH-2007-67h 2/1/2007

2

STRONG FORCE
Particle = { Quark, Lepton }

ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE
Electric Charge Q = { 0, −⅓, +⅔, −1 }

WEAK FORCE Generation G = { −1, 0, +1 }

GRAVITATIONAL FORCE Values for R = { 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5 }
Prepared by J. S. Markovitch

QUARK AND LEPTON PROPERTIES ASSIGNED VIA A CUBE QUARK AND LEPTON RINGS

JM-PH-2007-67h 2/1/2007

2

STRONG FORCE
Particle = { Quark, Lepton }

ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE
Electric Charge Q = { 0, −⅓, +⅔, −1 }

WEAK FORCE Generation G = { −1, 0, +1 }

GRAVITATIONAL FORCE Values for R = { 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5 }
Prepared by J. S. Markovitch