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CE-318 GIS/RS Application to Civil Engineering Spring 2012

Engr. Faisal ur Rehman Lecture 05: Sources of GIS Data

Primary Sources

TypicalexamplesofprimaryGISsourcesinclude:
1.rasterIRS,SPOTandIKONOSEarthsatellite images, 2.vectorbuildingsurveymeasurementscapturedusing atotalsurveystation.

Secondary Sources

Secondarysourcesarethosethatwereoriginally capturedforanotherpurposeandneedtobe convertedintoaformsuitableforuseinaGIS project. Typicalsecondarysourcesinclude:

rasterscannedcoloraerialphotographsofurban areas: USGSandIGNpapermapsthatcanbescannedand vectorized.

Data Collection Work-Flow

Image Resolution

Image(scene)sizesvaryquitewidelybetween sensorstypicalrangesinclude1000by1000to 3000by3000pixels. Satelliteremotesensingsystemstypicallyprovide datawithpixelsizesintherange1meter1km. Thecamerasusedforcapturingaerialphotographs usuallyrangefrom0.1meter5meters. Thetotalcoverageofremotesensingimagesis usuallyintherange10by10200by200km.

Image Color

infrared panchromatic(blackandwhite) multispectralcameras/sensorsoperatinginthenon visiblepartsoftheelectromagneticspectrum

Vector Data Capture

Surveying GPS

Secondary Geographic Data Capture

Secondarysourcesistheprocessofcreatingraster andvectorfilesanddatabasesfrommapsand otherhardcopydocuments. Scanningisusedtocapturerasterdata. Tabledigitizing,headsupdigitizing,stereo photogrammetry,andCOGOdataentryareused forvectordata.

Secondary Geographic Data Capture

FlatbedscannerAcommonPCperipheral,itis smallandinaccurate. RotatingdrumscannerItisexpensiveandslow butaccurate. Largeformatfeedscannermostsuitablefor capturingdatainGIS.Itisquicker,cheaperand accurate.

Precautions for map scanning in GIS

OutputQuality Resolution Accuracy Georeferencing Vectorization

Digitizing

COGO

COGOdataentry:COGO,acontractionoftheterm coordinategeometry, Itisamethodologyforcapturingandrepresenting geographicdata. COGOusessurveystylebearingsanddistancesto defineeachpartofanobject. TheCOGOsystemiswidelyusedinNorth Americatorepresentlandrecordsandproperty parcels(alsocalledlots)

QnA