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SOME ASPECTS OF CONNECTED SPEECH

Connected Speech is an expression used to refer to spoken language when analysed as a continuous sequence, as in utterances and conversations spoken at natural speed in everyday situations of life. WEAK FORMS: in conversation, many function words are not usually made prominent. The weak form is the usual pronunciation but the strong form is usually used when the word is: -prominent -said on its own -at the end of a sentence ELISION: When a sound is elided it is .............................................. 1. 2. 3. 4. Elision of ..................... Elision of ..................... Elision of ..................... Elision of ..................... She wants ten pounds of butter lamp post six students lettuce salad

fried chicken I saw him half an hour ago.

ELLIPSIS AND NEAR ELLIPSIS: Ellipsis is the deletion of words in connected speech, when they are obvious from the context. When only a sound from the ommited word is left behind, we may refer to this as near ellipsis. Examples: 1. personal subject + be/have: I'm not sure. ............................................................................. 2. it before is/has: It's really hot. .............................................................................................. 3. BE: Is that Ken? .................................................................................................................. 4. auxiliary verb or BE + subject: Have you seen my keys?........................................................ 5. The verbs be/have between question word and subject in wh-questions: What are you doing?
...............................................................................................................................................

6. wh- word + does: What does he do?............................................................................


ASSIMILATION: This means a) that a sound changes to be... b) that two sounds This makes articulation easier. But notice that the change from one consonant sound to another should not interfere seriously with comprehension because the resulting sounds are quite similar to the original ones.

a) Anticipatory assimilation of place of articulation The alveolar consonants /n/ /t/ /d/ /s/ and /z/ can change to become more like the following sound. It is a question of making things easier for the speaker. For instance, if you are going to close your lips for /p/, then it is easier to close them for the preceding nasal /n/, so /n/ assimilates into /m/. Assimilation of /n/ /t/ /d/ before bilabial ............................. /p/ /b/ That boy Third person becomes bilabial /m/ Examples Susan played tennis last Monday

Assimilation of /n/ /t/ /d/

before velar ..............................

becomes velar / / / / / /

Examples Ten girls That girl Third girl

Assimilation of /s/

before palato-alveolar /./ /./

becomes palato- alveolar / /

Examples This shop; this chapter; this judge

/z/

//

Cheese shop; those churches; has she? / /

b) Coalescent assimilation 1. If a word ends in / / and the following word begins with / sounds may coalesce to become / / 2. / 3. / 4. / / + / / +/ / +/ /= / / = / / = / / / / /, both Examples Cant you Could you Is this yours? Hes your brother

ELISION GIVING RISE TO ASSIMILATION In certain utterances, assimilation takes place because elision has already occurred. Examples: Tim and Patricia; I cant pay /lie.zn/ LIASION is the insertion of an extra phoneme in order to facilitate articulation 1. Linking / r/ The /r/ sound is heard connecting two words when Examples: Peter and Tom; far away, more ice 2. Intrusive /r/ In many words ending with the written consonant R, the final vowel sound is one of the following: / / teacher, harbour, actor / / four, door / / car, far No doubt, as a result of this, there is a tendency to insert an intrusive / r / when a word ends in one of these vowels, even when no written R exists. Many people consider that intrusive / r / is sub-standard, and certainly not to be imitated. Examples: America and Asia; Asia and America; law and order; vainilla ice-cream; I saw it 3. /w/: rounded vowel to vowel When a word ends in a rounded vowel ( // /a/ /u:/) there is a /w/ link. For example: too old; Andrew is taller 4. /j/: spread vowel to vowel When a word ends in /i:/ or one of the diphthongs ending in /I/ (...............................), there a /j/ link. For example: Yes, I am; very often; my uncle

Bibliography: Gimson, A.C. and Alan Cruttenden. Gimsons Pronunciation of English. Humphries, Shellene. Connected Speech. http://www.britishcouncil.org/vietnam-english-selection-of-4th-workshoppapers.htm

Kelly, Gerald. How to Teach Pronunciation. Longman. 2000. Rhymes and Rhythm. Roach, Peter. English Phonetics and Phonology. CUP. 1993