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(The source material that inspired Jesus)
c. 9th century to 8th century BCE (900-700 BCE) Exodus: 22:25: “If you lend money to my people, to the poor among you, you shall not deal with them as a creditor. You shall not exact interest from them.” [E Source] (see Gospel of Thomas 95:1-2, Matthew 5:42b, Luke 6:34-35a) 23:4-5: “When you come upon your enemy’s ox or donkey going astray, you shall bring it back. When you see the donkey of one who hates you lying under its burden and you would hold back from setting it free, you must help to set it free.” [E Source] (see Matthew 5:44, Luke 6:27-28) c. 727-698 BCE (late 8th century BCE) (Reign of King Hezekiah of Judah) Leviticus: 19:2b: “You shall be holy, for I the Lord your God am holy.” [P Source] (see Luke 6:36, Matthew 5:48) 19:17: “You shall not hate in your heart any one of your kin. You shall reason frankly with your neighbor, or you will incur guilt yourself.” [P Source] (see Gospel of Thomas 26:1-2, Matthew 7:3-5, Luke 6:41-42) 19:18: “You shall not take vengeance or bear a grudge against any of your people, but you shall love your neighbor as yourself.” [P Source] (see Matthew 5:44, Luke 6:27-28) 19:34: “The alien who resides with you shall be to you as the citizen among you. You shall love the alien as yourself, for you were aliens in the land of Egypt.” [P Source] (see Matthew 5:44, Luke 6:27-28) First Isaiah: 25:6: “On this mountain the Lord of hosts will make for all peoples a feast of rich food, a feast of well-aged wines, of rich food filled with marrow, of well-aged wines strained clear.” (see Luke 6:21a, Matthew 5:6, Gospel of Thomas 69:2) 25:8: “Then the Lord God will wipe away the tears from all faces, and the disgrace of his people he will take away from all the earth.” (see Luke 6:21b, Matthew 5:4) Hosea: 6:6: “For I desire steadfast love and not sacrifice, the knowledge of God rather than burnt offerings.” (see Matthew 5:44, Luke 6:2728) Micah: 6:8: “He has told you, O mortal, what is good; and what does the Lord require of you but to do justice, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with your God?” (see Luke 6:36, Matthew 5:48) Proverbs: 14:21: “Those who despise their neighbors are sinners, but happy are those who are kind to the poor.” (see Luke 6:20, Matthew 5:3, Gospel of Thomas 54) 22:22-23a: “Do not rob the poor because they are poor, or crush the afflicted at the gate; for the Lord pleads their cause.” (see Luke 6:20, Matthew 5:3, Gospel of Thomas 54) 23:4-5: “Do not wear yourself out to get rich. Be wise enough to desist. When your eyes light upon it, it is gone, for suddenly it takes wings to itself, flying like an eagle toward heaven.” (see Matthew 6:19-21, Luke 12:33-34, Gospel of Thomas 76:3) 24:17: “Do not rejoice when your enemies fall, and do not let your heart be glad when they stumble.” (see Matthew 5:44, Luke 6:2728) 25:21: “If your enemies are hungry, give them bread to eat. And if they are thirsty, give them water to drink.” (see Matthew 5:44, Luke 6:27-28) 29:13: “The poor and the oppressor have this in common: the Lord gives light to the eyes of both.” (see Matthew 5:45b, Luke 6:35d) c. 639-609 BCE (late 7th century BCE) (Reign of King Josiah of Judah) Deuteronomy: 4:31a: “Because the Lord your God is a merciful God, he will neither abandon you nor destroy you.” (see Luke 6:36, Matthew 5:48) 15:11b: “I command you: Open your hand to the poor and needy neighbor in your land.” (see Luke 6:30a, Matthew 5:42a) 2 Samuel: 14:14: “We must all die; we are like water spilled on the ground, which cannot be gathered up. But God will not take away a life; he will devise plans so as not to keep an outcast banished forever from his presence.” (see Luke 6:36, Matthew 5:48)
c. 6th century BCE (600-500 BCE)
Second Isaiah: 42:6-7: “I have given you as a … light to the nations, to open the eyes that are blind, to bring out the prisoners from the dungeons, from the prison those who sit in darkness.” (see Matthew 5:15, Luke 8:16, Luke 11:33, Mark 4:21, Gospel of Thomas 33:2-3) 44:22: “I have swept away your offenses like a cloud, your sins like the morning mist. Return to me for I have redeemed you.” (see Luke 6:37c, Matthew 6:14-15, Mark 11:25) 49:15: “Can a woman forget her nursing child, or show no compassion for the child of her womb? Even these may forget, yet I will not forget you.” (see Matthew 7:9-11, Luke 11:11-13)
50:6: “I gave my back to those who struck me, and my cheeks to those who pulled out the beard. I did not hide my face from insult and spitting.” (see Luke 6:29, Matthew 5:39-40) 51:8: “For the moth will eat them up like a garment, and the worm will eat them like wool.” (see Matthew 6:19-21, Luke 12:33-34, Gospel of Thomas 76:3) 55:1: “Ho, everyone who thirsts, come to the waters. And you who have no money, come, buy and eat! Come, buy wine and milk without money and without price.” (see Luke 6:21a, Matthew 5:6, Gospel of Thomas 69:2) Jeremiah: 29:13: “When you search for me you will find me, if you seek me with all your heart.” (see Matthew 7:7-8, Luke 11:9-10, Gospel of Thomas 94:1-2) 31:33b-34: “I have put my truth in your innermost mind, and I have written it in your heart. No longer does a person need to teach his sister or brother about God. For all of you know Me, from the most ignorant to the most learned, from the poorest to the most powerful. I will forgive your iniquities, and remember your sins no more.” (see Luke 6:37c, Matthew 6:14-15, Mark 11:25) Ezekiel: 33:11: “As I live, says the Lord God, I have no pleasure in the death of the wicked, but prefer that they turn from their ways and live.” (see Luke 6:36, Matthew 5:48) Lamentations: 3:22: “The steadfast love of the Lord never ceases, his mercies never come to an end.” (see Luke 6:36, Matthew 5:48) 3:27 & 30: “It is good for one to bear the yoke in youth … to give one’s cheek to the smiter, and be filled with insults.” (see Luke 6:29, Matthew 5:39-40)
c. 5th century BCE (500-400 BCE)
Third Isaiah: 61:1-2: “He’s sent me to bring good news to the oppressed, to bind up the broken-hearted, to proclaim liberty to captives and release to prisoners, to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor, and the day of God’s vengeance, to comfort all who mourn.” (see Luke 6:20, Matthew 5:3, Gospel of Thomas 54) 65:1: “I was ready to be sought out by those who did not ask, to be found by those who did not seek me. I said, ‘Here I am, here I am,’ to a nation that did not call on my name.” (see Matthew 7:7-8, Luke 11:9-10, Gospel of Thomas 94:1-2) 66:13a: “As a mother comforts her child, so I will comfort you.” (see Matthew 7:9-11, Luke 11:11-13) Zechariah: 7:9-10: “Thus says the Lord: Render true judgments, show kindness and mercy to one another; do not oppress the widow, the orphan, the alien, or the poor; and do not devise evil in your hearts against one another.” (see Luke 6:36, Matthew 5:48) Malachi: 2:10a: “Have we not all one father? Has not one God created us all?” (see Luke 11:2b, Matthew 6:9b-10a) Job: 6:6: “Can that which is tasteless be eaten without salt, or is there any flavor in the juice of mallows?” (see Luke 14:34-35, Matthew 5:13, Mark 9:50a) 12:7-9: “Ask the animals, they’ll teach you. Ask the birds of the air, they’ll tell you. Ask the plants of the earth, they’ll teach you. And the fish of the sea will declare to you. Who among all these does not know that the hand of the Lord has done this?” (see Matthew 6:2530, Luke 12:22-28, Gospel of Thomas 36:1-2) 25:3: “Is there any number to his armies? Upon whom does his light not arise? (Matthew 5:45b, Luke 6:35d) 38:41: “Who provides for the raven its prey, when its young ones cry to God, and wander about for lack of food?” (see Matthew 6:2530, Luke 12:22-28, Gospel of Thomas 36:1-2)
c. 4th century BCE (400-300 BCE)
Psalms: 41:1: “Happy are those who consider the poor; the Lord delivers them in the day of trouble.” (see Luke 6:20, Matthew 5:3, Gospel of Thomas 54) 82:6: “I say: You are gods, children of the Most High, all of you.” (see Luke 11:2b, Matthew 6:9b-10a) 126:5: “May those who sow in tears reap with shouts of joy.” (see Luke 6:21b, Matthew 5:4) 145:9: “The Lord is good to all and his compassion is over all that he has made.” (see Matthew 5:45b, Luke 6:35d) 147:3: “The Lord heals the brokenhearted, and binds up their wounds.” (see Luke 6:21b, Matthew 5:4) 147:9: “The Lord gives to the animals their food, and to the young ravens when they cry.” (see Matthew 6:25-30, Luke 12:22-28, Gospel of Thomas 36:1-2) Ecclesiastes: 9:2: “The same fate comes to all, to the righteous and the wicked, to the good and the evil, to the clean and the unclean, to those who sacrifice and those who do not sacrifice. As are the good, so are the sinners; those who swear are like those who shun an oath.” (see Matthew 5:45b, Luke 6:35d)
Compiled by Charlie Kraybill on behalf of the Marginal Mennonite Society. Visit the “Marginal Mennonite Society” page on Facebook, and “like” us. E-mail Charlie: firstname.lastname@example.org Revised: April 28, 2013
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