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Works Cited Lee, Sharon. The Effects Of Music On Student Psychology. Online Submission (2011): ERIC Web. 24 Mar.


In this article, the author is explaining how music affects people as they go about their daily lives. Music is an important part of our culture and it can influence some of the decisions that we make regarding our everyday routines, especially those of students in school. The author argues that the different types of music can cause different reactions in students whether they are good or bad. Since music can manipulate a students mood, it can influence the way that they act. If a student is sad about a failed test, they may listen to a song that may cheer them up or a song that will make them even more upset. She also argues that the music can be beneficial to a student as well as distracting when trying to complete tasks. Lee states, Research in these areas has shown that certain elements of music, especially tempo and loudness, have significant effects on tasks in various areas (Lee, 1). Throughout the article, Lee gives examples of studies where music is introduced in the classrooms and analyzed the results of students performance with music.Sharon Lee conducts several tests and analyzes the physical, social, and psychological effects of music on students in school. She is trying to get the reader to understand the technical processes that happen within the body that allows a person, a student in this case, to act a certain way under the influence of music. Lee discusses how the psychological processes are mostly affected because of how the music manipulates their mood. And once the mood is altered then ones actions or course of action may change. Sometimes we cannot even control the way music makes us feel or react.

In this article, she included several studies that provide information about how music has an effect on the mind and body. Lee refers to laws that regulate music education and theories that provide evidence of her claims. One thing that I wanted to know about with this article was which types of music provoke what emotions, actions, and/or behaviors. The article talks about the effects of background, but I wonder about the effects of music if it was direct contact instead of out loud with other noises blended in. I am looking for research in which I find out whether the lyrical content as well as the beat of the music contributes to the performance of a student in school especially in African American students. I will use this source to lay the foundation of my research. I will first find out how music affects the body and the mind before I find out how it can influence a student to do something that a stereotype suggests. This article goes into detail about brain waves and arousal levels that give me a bit of background knowledge that will help me better understand how music really affects adolescents in school. The article tells me about music and psychological processes that are being affected by music especially in our culture and society today. In an 1991 article, Giles states that Intervention programs for children at risk could use music to help them relax, build their self-esteem, and help them with their emotional problems (3). Adolescents naturally seem to use music to monitor and manipulate mood, motivation, and task completion, but understanding the effects of music could enable them to make appropriate decision (1). Also important are the effects of music we do not choose, but are subjected through our environment choices such as restaurants and stores (1).

(ED) Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast, et al. "Reducing Stereotype Threat In Classrooms: A Review Of Social-Psychological Intervention Studies On Improving The Achievement Of Black Students. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-076." Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast (2009): ERIC. Web. 24 Mar. 2013.

In this report, the authors discuss the threat that stereotypes have on Black students and how these stereotypes affect their intellectual ability in school. They have conducted research and have come up with strategies to reduce this threat as well as narrow the achievement gap between White and Black students. Some of the strategies that they use are socio-psychological strategies. They 1) reinforce for the students that intelligence is expandable and, like a muscle, grows stringer when worked, 2) teach students that their difficulties in school are often part of a normal learning curve or adjustment process, rather than something unique to them or their racial group, 3) help students reflect on other values in their lives beyond school that are sources of self-worth for them (ii). Some students feel that because a stereotype says that they perform lower than the nonminority students, they have a fear of failing and living up to that stereotype. This report is trying to fix this issue by introducing social psychological interventions to reduce stereotype threat while increasing Black students academic ability. Most minority students, especially Black students are aware of the stereotypes of their culture, so in knowing that they may not be able perform to the best of their ability because they will have that pressure on them not to support that stereotype. With all this pressure on the students, it can take a toll on their performance in the classroom.

The authors and researchers are conducting studies that will find ways to reduce the stress of negatively reinforced stereotypes. Since the Black racial group faces many negative stereotypes already, it is hard to not focus on those while trying to perform at the best of their ability along side of the rest of society reinforcing them as well. The author of this article helped me figure out what black students face in the classroom but it didnt really talk about other factors that affect them or that have an impact on them in the classrooms. It also didnt tell me about the exact stereotypes that they faced in school or didnt include quotes from actual Black students struggling in school. They included a lot of graphs and charts that didnt enhance my inquiry. It was more of comparing studies of one group to those of another. Then, they compared the results to find what works and what doesnt. I chose this report because this tells about stereotypes presented in the classroom of Black students. I need to know how these minority students are viewed before I can assess how other factors play into why they are viewed this way. Stereotype threat arises from a fear among members of a group of reinforcing negative stereotypes about the intellectual ability of the group (1). In a society where economic opportunity depends heavily on scholastic success, even a partial narrowing of the achievement gap would lead to a positive change in the lives of academically at-risk children (1). It was hypothesized that Black students in this condition would worry that performing poorly could confirm a stereotype about their racial groups intellectual ability (2).

Brown, Veda. "Guiding The Influence Of Hip-Hop Music On Middle-School Students' Feelings, Thinking, And Behaving." Negro Educational Review, The 57.1-2 (2006): 49-68. ERIC. Web. 25 Mar. 2013.

The article discusses how hip hop music affects middle-school students psychological being and how teachers can use the consumption of hip hop to help in the academic field as well as in the classroom. Brown talks about how adolescents follow trends introduced through music and shows how they are greatly influenced by this music. She asks questions as to why they are so easily influenced by the music industry and why they are targeted for this type of market. She goes into detail about what exactly about the music appeals to these students and what emotions or behaviors this evokes. The teachers or instructors hope to take these same types of appeal from music and implement them in the classroom setting.Veda Brown breaks down her research into a couple points. She wants to explore how motivational music is to the middle school students, how the music appeals to them (ie. marketing strategies), and how the teachers and parents of these students can use these strategies to make learning appealing to students. She wants to see how meaningless lyrics and catchy beats affect the students behavior in the way they approach subjects or scenarios and why they take to them. Most of the middle school children listen to hip hop or just music in general to evoke emotion or as a form of release to lifes problems. This article really touched on two aspects of my inquiry question: music and African Americans. It explained the effects of hip-hop music on middle school children and the way they think and behave. The article mainly focuses on hip- hop music but Im wondering if a different

genre of music will give the same effect or if it will even have an effect on these students as far as education. Unlike the other articles, this article tells about a questionnaire that gives student input on the types of music that the listen to. The author really answered most of my questions and the article was easy to navigate because of the subheadings with key information that helped with my inquiry. This article will help me in my inquiry paper because it focuses on the mind of students and how it affects their behavior and psychological status. It also focuses on a specific group of students; Im not sure of what ethnic group but I am assuming African American students because they mention hip hop. I am using the information found in this article to prove or to illustrate how music and the how the rhetoric in music can change or significantly affect a student in the academic field and why this happens. Adolescents' attitudes about school, material success, appreciation of themselves and others seem to be shaped to a large extent by the music they listen to (49). Well meaning adults have often complained that the popular music of today seems to have a detrimental effect on children's thought and subsequent behavioral patterns. Particularly, many adults believe that the lyrics of some celebrated musical artists such as Fifty-Cent, Nelly, Foxy Brown, Marilyn Manson, Lil' Kim, and Eminem have often undercut the very attributes, skills, and values of emotional intelligence that form the basis for pro-social behavior(51). In contrast, children who lack pro-social skills associated with stable emotional intelligence tend to be easily influenced by various environmental factors such as peers and media. Some adults believe that this emotional weakness in children may leave them

vulnerable to ideas of violence, sexual promiscuity, and other forms of anti-social behavior that are often portrayed in some popular hip-hop songs and videos(51).

Hagood, Margaret C, Donna E. Alvermann, and Alison Heron-Hruby. Bring It to Class: Unpacking Pop Culture in Literacy Learning. New York: Teachers College Press, 2010. Print.

This book is about how pop culture introduced in the classrooms can be beneficial to the students and the teachers who are using pop culture texts or materials in their instruction. It also discusses research that was conducted to find out how pop culture can connect to the students identities, social networks, belief systems, and their literacy learning. This book is serving somewhat as a guide to other teachers and those in the profession of education who want to try to get through to students as far as learning new material or connecting to the pop culture of modern day. From the perspective of the reader, the authors writes this book to help steer teachers, whether they are new teachers or experienced, to assess how much text is used by different types of people in different fields. The authors write from different points of view and show how the textual day changes for everyone. By finding out how much text is used or not used, you can then assess how the students are being influenced by other sources of information and then incorporate that in educational practices. They use quotes and cite things from people who have used these methods or they have included dialogues from students and teachers about certain problems in the classroom. Including this kind of information, you can see how students think about certain topics regarding education and they way they learn. I chose this book because it gives a different viewpoint other than what the students think. It shows what the teachers think and how this study can help them assess how students

learn with the accompaniment of pop culture (music, social media, TV, etc). With teachers involved, I can show how music not only benefits the students, but the teachers in which they teach these students. They also include pop culture texts, which are mass-generated print and nonprint texts (e.g., comics, anime, TV shows, movies, videos, young adult books, music lyrics) that use multiple modes (e.g., linguistic, visual, aural, performative) to entice audiences to use them (2). While some educators easily incorporate pop culture texts into instruction, others find it difficult because pop culture texts often fall outside the definition of textual practices used at school (3). The challenge for educators is to determine how pop culture is connected to, addressed, included, and excluded in classrooms. Instruction must provide opportunities for students to think critically and to develop their facility with 21st-century texts (26).

Hill, Marc L. Beats, Rhymes, and Classroom Life: Hip-hop Pedagogy and the Politics of Identity. New York: Teachers College Press, 2009. Print.

This book discusses how a hip-hop culture will enhance the curriculum and tells the results of what happens when you bring hip hop into the classroom. Teachers integrate hip hop and literature to learn about how a student learns. They are trying to find out if this type of pop culture will improve the students motivation, critical thinking and media literacy in schools. Also they want to know if introducing this type of music to urban youth will make learning more favorable and appealing to them. The author explains that in the urban youth areas, these students are around hip-hop a lot and it appeals to them. Hill wants to use take something in pop culture that appeals to the students and apply that to education to see if that will appeal to them as well. He tells about an instructor who combines the two and teaches a Hip Hop Lit course to test this notion that he has. Throughout this course, he sees the different identities that emerge from the students taking this course. I chose this book because it directly integrates music and the hip hop culture that African Americans are familiar with and it shows how it affects students of this race in education. Given the salience of hip-hop culture in the lives of many urban American youth, the educational community has begun to pay considerable attention to the pedagogical possibilities of hip-hop culture within formal schooling contexts (2).

In particular, scholars have shown how the elements of hip-hop and other forms of popular culturerap music, turntablism, break dancing, graffiti culture, fashion, and languagecan be used within classrooms to improve students motivation, teach critical media literacy, foster critical consciousness, and transmit disciplinary knowledge (2).

As a result, scholars gained considerable insight into the extent to which hip-hop does things to young people, yet very little was learned about the motivations, processes, or nonclinical consequences of youth engagements with hip-hop (4).