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A low-input, high-yield, nature-healing way of growing food.
SCALE AND COMPLEXITY Energy is captured most efficiently on the smallest scale Complex biological systems are stable and productive Chinmay Soman .
TOWARDS ‘NATURAL’ A natural farm Is a complex. designed ecosystem. Contains a large variety of interdependent plants. animals. birds and microorganisms Requires no chemical inputs and minimal physical intervention Utilizes and enriches local natural resources Produces high yields with minimal inputs Chinmay Soman . self-regulating. insects.
ORIGINS Natural Farming Masanobu Fukuoka Japanese plant pathologist “How about not doing this? How about not doing that?” Developed during 1945-1975 Permaculture Bill Mollison Australian naturalist Design “food forests” with interacting components Developed during the ‘70s Chinmay Soman .
The reason that man's improved techniques seem to be necessary is that the natural balance has been so badly upset beforehand by those same techniques and the land has become dependent on them.NATURAL FARMING When you get right down to it. in ‘The One Straw Revolution’ No Tilling No Fertilizers No Sowing Chinmay Soman No Pesticides . there are few agricultural practices that are really necessary. -Masanobu Fukuoka.
and time Prevents nutrient leeching and soil erosion Reduced CO2 and NOx emissions Weeds can’t take hold Soil is loosened. energy.NO TILLING Saves labor. aerated and mixed by organisms Permanent ground cover improves soil quality Heavy equipment is avoided the soil stays loose naturally Chinmay Soman .
NUTRIENT REPLENISHMENT Conventional farming continuously removes nutrients from the soil Permanent ground cover of white clover fixes nitrogen All organic matter is returned to the field to decompose naturally (no active composting) Animal and bird manure is used as a supplement Chinmay Soman .
BROADCAST SEEDING Sowing protects seeds from birds etc. Cover crop and straw provide protection . compost. seeds. seeds can be enclosed in ‘Seed Balls’. water) Chinmay Soman . (Red clay.seeds can be simply broadcast by hand on the field For extra protection.
opening up more opportunities for insect population explosion The variety of plants (including a few weeds) promote predator and food diversity The absence of toxins enables natural predators to exist.CONTROL LIFE WITH LIFE Monoculture has many unoccupied niches where weeds and insects thrive Insecticides kill natural predators. and control insect population Ground cover and straw hold weeds in check Fungal infections are rare in the healthy ecosystem Chinmay Soman .
OTHER TECHNIQUES Summer rice/Winter wheat system Crop rotation to further replenish soil nutrients No pruning of fruit trees Orchards also have leguminous ground cover Vegetables and shrubs under trees Chinmay Soman .
Natural farming has been adapted and practiced successfully in various regions. Due to the extremely low labor and capital requirements. including the temperate zone and the tropics. profitability is much higher than conventional farming.PERFORMANCE Fukuoka consistently got yields equal or better than those on chemical farms. Chinmay Soman .
paraphrased from ‘Permaculture: A Designer’s Manual’ Chinmay Soman . and strategic components in a pattern which functions to benefit life in all its forms. material. .Bill Mollison. and serve the needs and accept the products of other components. and should produce a net surplus of energy over its lifetime. The mature system should require the least possible maintenance. Each component should function in many ways.PERMACULTURE Permaculture design is a method of assembling conceptual.
DESIGN PRINCIPLES Goals Observation Resources Patterns Cycles Connections Diversity Stability Chinmay Soman .
not in the soil ‘Weed’ plants continuously mulched to provide nutrients A variety of plants to occupy all niches and harvest maximum sunlight Small animals control pests.UTILIZING RESOURCES Small earthworks to trap and store water Fertility is in the biomass. and produce extra food Chinmay Soman . provide fertilizers.
OCCUPYING ALL NICHES Chinmay Soman .
Beehives Semi Wild.THE ZONE SYSTEM 0 2 4 The Home Orchard. Foraging 1 3 5 Chinmay Soman Vegetables Garden Commercial Crop Wilderness .
PERFORMANCE Has been demonstrated in all climates Increasingly popular sustainable land use method Permaculture Centers are being established all over the world to train more people Academic and quantitative reports are required Chinmay Soman .
not popular academically Requires experimentation to optimize for local conditions Non-control Chinmay Soman .WHY STILL UNPOPULAR? Inertia Commercial force behind input-heavy traditional methods Eschews reductionism .
F. E. so that when the wind comes we can catch it. Schumacher Small Is Beautiful Chinmay Soman .Perhaps we cannot raise the winds. But each of us can put up the sail.
The original work is available by request. as well as attribute the components used to this author. Björn Hermans.com The following people created the Creative Commons licensed photos/ graphics used in this presentation: Slide 1: Permaculture Research Institute.0 Unported License. Jeff DelViscio. and released it under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3. Youthkee Slide 3: Gene Wilburn. Youthkee. IRRI. visit the blog at sustainable-farming. This means that you are free to use and adapt components of this presentation for noncommercial purposes.blogspot. For more resources and current information. but are required to release resulting work with a similar license. Autan Slide 5: Permaculture Research Institute Slide 7: Ecoagriculture Partners Slide 8: Hideyuki Kamon.CREDITS Chinmay Soman has created this presentation in iWork ’09. Kasper Manz Slide 9: Andrea Bellamy Slide 10: Parrhesiastes. Stavros Markopoulos Slide 11: DreamingKayaker Slide 14: Permaculture Research Institute Slide 15: Graham Burnett (via Wikimedia Commons) Slide 16: Cecilia Macaulay Chinmay Soman . DreamingKayaker Slide 2: Hideyuki Kamon. Andrea Bellamy.