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Water Wave Mechanics, Spring 2012 Carlos Serrano Moreno

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2.1 Consider the following transition section:

(a) The flow from left to right is constant at Q =12 m
3
/s. What is the total acceleration of a
water particle in the x direction at x=5 m? Assume that water is incompressible and that the
X component of velocity is uniform across each cross section.

Since the discharge and the area are known the velocity can be easily determined:

u x ( )=
Q
A
=
1 2t
t 3 0.1 5 x ( )
2

Acceleration is defined as the derivative of velocity over time then:

d u
d t
=
cu
ct
+
cu
cx
cx
ct
=
cu
ct
+u
cu
cx

Since the flow is constant:

cu
ct
= 0 and the variation of velocity along the horizontal axis is due to
the truncated conical section:

du
dt
x
( )
=
12
3 0.15 x
( )
2

24 0.15
3 0.15 x
( )
3
=
12 24 0.15
3 0.15 x
( )
5
du
dt
5
( )
=
12 24 0.15
3 0.15 5
( )
5
=
43.2
57.67
= 0.749~ 0.75m s
2

(b) The flow of water from right to left in given by:

Q t ( )= t t
2

Calculate the total acceleration at x=5m for t=2s. Make the same assumptions as before.

Since the flow is going from right to left, the velocity can be now defined as:

u x, t
( )
=
Q
A
=
t t
2
t 30.1 5 x
( )
2

Water Wave Mechanics, Spring 2012 Carlos Serrano Moreno
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following the same procedure as before, but taking into account that this time it is not possible to
neglect the partial derivative of velocity over time, the acceleration will be:

du
dt
x,t
( )
=
2 t
30.15 x
( )
2

t
2
30.15 x
( )
2

2 t
2
0.15
( )
30.15 x
( )
2
=
2 t
30.15 x
( )
2
+
2t
4
0.15
30.15 x
( )
5

( )
( ) ( )
2
5
4
2
707 . 0
5 15 . 0 3
15 . 0 2 2
5 15 . 0 3
2 2
2 , 5 s m
dt
du
=

+

=

2.4 If the water (assumed inviscid) in the U-tive is displaced from its equilibrium position, it
will oscillate about this position with its natural period. Assume that the displacement of the
surface is:

q t
( )
= A cos
2t
T
t
|
\

|
.
|
where the amplitude A = 10 cm and the natural period T is 8s. What will be the pressure at a
distance 20cm below the instantaneous water surface for q= +10, 0, and -10cm?
Assume that g=980cm/s
2
and =1g/cm
3
.

As the displacement of the water surface is know the expressions for velocity and acceleration can
be easily obtained:

w t ( )= A
2t
T
sin
2t
T
t
|
\

|
.
|
dw
dt
t
( )
= A
2t
T
|
\

|
.
|
2
cos
2t
T
t
|
\

|
.
|
The fluid is known to be inviscid, then all the shear stress tensions can be neglected and Eulers
Equation can be applied:
Water Wave Mechanics, Spring 2012 Carlos Serrano Moreno
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dw
dt
t
( )
=
cw
ct
t
( )
+ w
cw
cz
t
( )
=
1

cp
cz
g

cp
cz
= g + A
2t
T
|
\

|
.
|
2
cos
2t
T
t
|
\

|
.
|
= g +
2t
T
|
\

|
.
|
2
q t
( )
cp
cz
dz
z
0
q
}
= g +
2t
T
|
\

|
.
|
2
q t
( )
dz
z
0
q
}
= g +
2t
T
|
\

|
.
|
2
q t
( )
|
\

|
.
|
|
q z
0
( )
p q
( )
p z
0
( )
= g +
2t
T
|
\

|
.
|
2
q t
( )
|
\

|
.
|
|
q z
0
( )
0 p z
0
( )
= g +
2t
T
|
\

|
.
|
2
q t
( )
|
\

|
.
|
|
q z
0
( )

Since =1g/cm
3
, g=980cm/s
2
, A = 10cm, T is 8s and

q z
0
( )=20cm and assuming that there is no
pressure in the free surface,

p q
( )
= 0.
Finally, the pressure at the desired points can be easily obtained:

q

pq20cm
( )
10 cm

19476 .62
g
cm s
2
1947.662
N
m
2

0 cm

19600
g
cms
2
1960
N
m
2

-10 cm

19723 .37
g
cm s
2
1972.337
N
m
2

2.6 Derive the following equation for an inviscid fluid and a non divergent steady flow:

cp
cz
g =
cuw
cx
|
\

|
.
|
+
cvw
cy
|
\

|
.
|
+
cw
2
cz
|
\

|
.
|
Again, if the fluid is inviscid, shear stress terms can be neglected. Taking a look to Eulers
equation:

Dw
Dt
=
1

cp
cz
g
Dw
Dz
=
cw
ct
+u
cw
cx
+v
cw
cy
+w
cw
cz
=
1

cp
cz
g
As the fluid is non divergent:

cu
cx
+
cv
cy
+
cw
cz
= 0. Playing with the equation above:

cw
ct
+u
cw
cx
+v
cw
cy
+w
cw
cz
+w
cu
cx
+
cv
cy
+
cw
cz
|
\

|
.
|
=
1

cp
cz
g
Assuming that the fluid is steady and reorganizing the terms and applying the chain rule of
derivatives:
Water Wave Mechanics, Spring 2012 Carlos Serrano Moreno
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u
cw
cx
+ w
cu
cx
|
\

|
.
|
+ v
cw
cy
+ w
cv
cx
|
\

|
.
|
+ w
cw
cz
+ w
cw
cz
|
\

|
.
|
=
1

cp
cz
g
cuw
cx
|
\

|
.
|
+
cvw
cy
|
\

|
.
|
+
cw
2
cz
|
\

|
.
| =
1

cp
cz
g

2.9 For a particular fluid flow, the velocity components u,v and 2 in the x, y and z directivons
respectively are:

u = x +8 y +6 t z +t
4
v =8 x 7 y +6 z
w=12 x +6 y +12 z cos
2 t t
T
|
\

|
.
| +t
2

a) Are there any times for which the flow is non divergent? If so, when?
If the flow is non divergent:

cu
cx
+
cv
cy
+
cw
cz
= 0

cu
cx
=1,
cv
cy
= 7,
cw
cz
=12 cos
2 t t
T
|
\

|
.
|

1 7+12 cos
2 t t
T
|
\

|
.
| = 0 cos
2 t t
T
|
\

|
.
| =
1
2

2 t t
T
=
t
3
t =
T
6

However, since the solution comes from a cosinus: t = T/6 + kT, (k = 1,2,...) is also valid.
b) Are there any times for which the flow is irrotational? If so, when?

If the flow is irrorational:

i

j

k
c
cx
c
cy
c
cz
u v w
= 0 =
cw
cy

cv
cz
,
cu
cz

cw
cx
,
cv
cx

cu
cy
|
\

|
.
|
= 6 6, 6 t 12,88
( )
Then t=2s.
c) Develop the expression for the pressure gradient in the vertical (z) direction as a function
of space and time.

Dw
Dz
=
cw
ct
+ u
cw
cx
+ v
cw
cy
+ w
cw
cz
=
1

cp
cz
g
cp
cz
= g
cw
ct
+ u
cw
cx
+ v
cw
cy
+ w
cw
cz
|
\

|
.
|

since

cw
ct
=
24t
T
zsi n
2tt
T
|
\

|
.
|
+2t,
cw
cx
=12,
cw
cy
=6,
cw
cz
=12 cos
2tt
T
|
\

|
.
|

cp
cz
= g
24 t
T
z s i n
2 t t
T
|
\

|
.
| +2 t +12 u +6 v +12 cos
2 t t
T
|
\

|
.
| w
|
\

|
.
|
substituting the velocity values:
Water Wave Mechanics, Spring 2012 Carlos Serrano Moreno
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cp
cz
= g

24 t
T
z si n
2 t t
T
|
\

|
.
|
+2 t +12 x +8 y +6 t z +t
4
( )
+ 6 8 x 7 y +6 z
( )
+
12 cos
2 t t
T
|
\

|
.
| 12 x +6 y +12 z cos
2 t t
T
|
\

|
.
| + t
2
|
\

|
.
|
|
\

|
.
|
|
|
|

2.12 The pressures

p
A
t
( )
and

p
B
t
( )
act on the massless pistons containingg the inviscid,
incompressible fluid in the horizontal tube shown below. Develope an expression for the
velocity of the fluid as a function of time = 1 gm/cm
3
.

Note:

p
A
t
()
=C
A
sinot
( )
and p
B
t
()
=C
B
sinot+o
( )
where:

t
2
, C
A
=C
B
=10dyn cm
3

Once again, since the fluid is inviscid, shear stress terms can be neglected. Eulers equation
along the x-axis:

Du
Dt
=
1

cp
cx

Du
Dz
=
cu
ct
+u
cu
cx
+v
cv
cy
+w
cv
cz
=
1

cp
cx

Pressure just depends on time. All convective acceleration terms can be neglected. Then:

cu
ct
=
1

cp
cx

cp
cx
=
p
B
p
A
100
=
10si n 0.5 t +
t
2
|
\

|
.
|
+10si n 0.5 t
( )
100

cu
ct
=
1
1
10si n0.5 t +
t
2
|
\

|
.
|
10si n0.5 t
( )
100
=
1
10
si n0.5 t +
t
2
|
\

|
.
|
+si n0.5 t
( )
|
\

|
.
|

u t
( )
=
1
10 0.5
cos 0.5 t +
t
2
|
\

|
.
|
cos 0.5 t
( )
|
\

|
.
|
+C

If t = 0

u 0 ( )=
1
5
cos
t
2
|
\

|
.
| cos 0.5 0 ( )
|
\

|
.
|
+C = 0C=
1
5

u t ( )=
1
5
cos 0.5 t +
t
2
|
\

|
.
| cos 0.5 t ( )
|
\

|
.
|
+
1
5
cm s