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Journal of Materials Processing Technology

j our nal homepage: www. el sevi er . com/ l ocat e/ j mat pr ot ec

The effects of rolling method changes on productivity in thick

plate rolling process

C.H. Moon

a

, Y. Lee

b,∗

a

Rolling Technology & Process Control Group, POSCO Technical Research Laboratories, Pohang 790-785, Republic of Korea

b

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756, Republic of Korea

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 11 February 2010

Received in revised form 27 May 2010

Accepted 27 June 2010

Keywords:

Productivity

Rolling method changes

Reduction ratio model

Thick plate rolling

Draft schedule

a b s t r a c t

We present a draft schedule scheme to estimate the productivity in thick plate rolling process. Depen-

dency of design force, design torque and maximum bite angle of a rolling mill on the reduction ratio

models were fully considered in the draft schedule scheme. Roll force and torque equations used in the

reduction ratio models were veriﬁed by comparing the measurements with the predictions. Using the

draft schedule scheme, we examined the inﬂuence of rolling method changes on the productivity (i)

material position after the broadside passes, (ii) material position after the longitudinal passes and (iii)

the number of turn, i.e., number of times that slab (material) is rotated by 90 degree, before the broad-

side and/or longitudinal passes begin. Results reveal that the number of turn gives the major inﬂuence

on productivity. Rolling time can be minimized if material positions after the broadside and longitudinal

passes are not ﬁxed in advance.

© 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

In comparison with strip, shape and structural section rolling,

plate rolling is quite different from viewpoint of rolling method. In

plate rolling, slab (material) undergoes the forward and backward

journeywithnocoilingwhileits thickness is decreasedstepbystep.

To secure the dimensions (width and length) of ﬁnal plate product,

material is rotated 90 degree toward its thickness direction before

rollingbegins. Inaddition, material canbepositionedinfront or rear

of a stand to measure the material width during rolling process.

Here ‘stand’ implies a unit machine with work rolls and back-up

rolls. Sometimes, ‘stand’ indicates ‘rolling mill’.

It has been interesting for plate rolling process designers to

know quantitatively the effects of the rolling method changes on

rolling time since the rolling time is directly related to the produc-

tivity. The rolling time indicates the total time elapsed from the

moment that a slab is discharged from the reheating furnace to its

completion as a plate with a speciﬁed target thickness and width.

Hence, shorter rolling time increases the number of plate products

manufactured per unit time and reduces heat loss during rolling.

There have been some studies of rolling time in strip rolling

process. Liberatore (1989) studied rolling time in roughing mill in

a hot strip mill using a constraint that the length of strip deformed

at the ﬁnal pass was limited. Due to this single constraint, he could

∗

Corresponding author. Tel.: +82 2 820 5256; fax: +82 2 814 9496.

E-mail address: ysl@cau.ac.kr (Y. Lee).

not fully take into account the capacity of a rolling mill. Pataro and

Helman(1999) proposedanapproachtodetermineadraft schedule

which minimizes rolling time in a hot strip mill using a fuzzy logic.

This logic was obtained from a power curve model and actual data

froma hot strip mill. This approach, however, is only suitable when

mill data are available to calibrate the draft schedule. Reddy and

Suryanarayana (2001) developeda draft schedule for a tandemcold

rolling mill to minimize rolling time by distributing the strip thick-

nesses ina harmonic series, but total pass number was always ﬁxed.

Pospiech (2002) suggested a draft schedule to minimize the total

pass number and optimize drafts in cold strip rolling. He used the

principle of constancy of roll forces in all passes which were always

less than allowable force of a rolling mill, but roll torque model

was not included in his approach. Pires et al. (2006) presented a

case study of a four stand tandem cold mill in Cosipa plant, Brazil.

Using a set-up optimization system, they calculated reduction for

each stand and demonstrated productivity improvement following

the comparison of rolling power and speed to nominal values. Note

that total pass number in tandemhot or cold strip rolling is equal to

total stand number but total pass number in plate rolling depends

on rolling method, i.e., how we distribute the pass-by-pass reduc-

tion ratios fromthe ﬁrst pass to the ﬁnal pass within the bounds of

the design force, design torque and maximumbite angle of a rolling

mill. Thus, productivity inplate rolling is inﬂuencedsigniﬁcantly by

draft scheduling method.

Tomaximize throughput inplate rolling process, Huet al. (2006)

proposed a draft scheduling method that the total pass number is

determined by adjusting a maximum permissible reduction ratio

0924-0136/$ – see front matter © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2010.06.018

C.H. Moon, Y. Lee / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 210 (2010) 1844–1851 1845

Fig. 1. (a) Schematic conﬁguration of a plate mill and (b) plate rolling process composed of the broadside passes and longitudinal passes. Here, Ls and Ws stand for the slab

length and width. Lp and Wp indicate the plate length and width.

iteratively from an initially guessed reduction ratio. But he did not

embrace the permissible force of a rolling mill and a constraint, i.e.,

limiting values of bite angle.

In this study, we propose a draft scheduling scheme which

consists of the roll force, torque and reduction ratio model. The

reduction ratio models fully take into account the constraints of a

rolling mill such as design force of a rolling mill and design torque

of a drive motor and maximum bite angle at each pass. The advan-

tage of the reduction ratio model proposed in this study is that

the permissible force, torque and maximum bite angle of a rolling

mill was expressed as a function of a single reduction ratio, not

multiple ones. This leads to the reduction ratio be expressed in a

compact form. The reduction ratio at each pass is calculated easily

once the permissible force and torque of a rolling mill are given.

This drastically reduces the computational time for determining

total pass number and consequently rolling time since no iteration

is necessary.

Roll force and torque equations used inthe reductionratio mod-

els wereveriﬁedbycomparingtheroll forces andtorques measured

in an actual plate mill (POSCONo. 2 plate mill) with the predictions.

With the proposed draft schedule scheme, we have examined the

effects of rolling method changes on the rolling time. The rolling

method changes considered were (i) change of material position

after the broadside passes, (ii) change of material position after the

longitudinal passes and (iii) the number of turn, i.e., the number of

times that slab (material) is rotated by 90 degree, before the broad-

side and/or longitudinal passes begin. Each of these was examined

in turn, explaining their characteristics.

2. Rolling methods in plate rolling processes

In plate rolling, slabs (250–300mm in thickness, 1570–

2200mm in width and 2500–4200mm in length) are processed

into plates (thickness of 6–120mm and width of 1400–4600mm)

with acceptable dimensional tolerance as the slabs repetitively go

through one or two stands.

Fig. 1(a) shows a schematic of the plate rolling process. After a

slab is discharged from the reheating furnace, it is rolled to a plate

with speciﬁed target dimensions (thickness and width) through a

rolling stand. Roller tables in front or behind the stand turn the

material 90 degrees before rolling begins. Material rolled out of the

stand goes through an accelerated cooling device and becomes a

ﬁnal product following a leveling process. Hereafter once the slab

is rolled, it is referred to as material. In plate rolling, material or

slabarealways rotated90degrees, if necessary. Hence, inthis study,

‘turning’ or ‘turn’ denotes that material or slab is rotated 90 degrees

toward its thickness direction.

Fig. 1(b) illustrates the plate rollingthat is dividedintotwotypes

of roll passes, i.e., the broadside passes and the longitudinal passes.

In the broadside passes, a slab is rolled until the width of the mate-

rial reaches a speciﬁed target width. Meanwhile the longitudinal

passes elongate the material to the longitudinal direction until the

material thickness reaches its target. The target dimensions of the

longitudinal passes become the dimensions of the plate product. In

what follows we describe three different rolling methods in plate

rolling, which give an inﬂuence on the rolling time.

2.1. Material position after the broadside passes end

Fig. 2 illustrates two possible cases for the material position

when the broadside passes are ﬁnished. The initial material width

and length in the broadside passes become L

s

and W

s

since the

slab is horizontally turned. Fig. 2(a) shows a case that material is

located in front of the stand. If a measuring device for material

width is installed at the rear of the stand, one pass must be added

to the broadside passes to measure the material width before the

longitudinal rolling process starts. This leads to increase of rolling

time and decrease of the average reduction ratio in the broadside

passes. Fig. 2(b) demonstrates another case in which the ﬁnal pass

of broadside passes is ﬁnished at the rear of the stand.

2.2. Material position after the longitudinal passes end

Following the broadside passes, the material is turned again

beforethelongitudinal passes begin. Fig. 3illustrates other twopos-

sible cases for the material position when the longitudinal passes

are ﬁnished. If bending at the head and tail of material occurs in

the previous pass, the material is placed in front of the stand, as

shown in Fig. 3(a). The material with downward bending impacts

continuously the transportation rolls and gives damage on trans-

portation system. Upward bending of material makes the cooling

difﬁcult after the longitudinal passes. The bending can be removed

by skin pass rolling which simply ﬂattens out the material. This

implies that one pass is added to the longitudinal passes before the

material is delivered to accelerated cooling process.

Meanwhile, in case that bending at the head and tail of material

occurs in the previous pass and the material is positioned at the

rear of the stand at the same time (Fig. 3(b)), two extra passes for

a realignment of material and a skin pass rolling are added to the

longitudinal passes. These deﬁnitely increase the rolling time. Note

1846 C.H. Moon, Y. Lee / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 210 (2010) 1844–1851

Fig. 2. Material position after the broadside passes ﬁnish. (a) Material is positioned

in front of the stand. (b) Material is positioned at the rear of the stand. Here, Ls and

Ws stand for the slab length and width. Wp indicates the plate width.

if no bending occurred at the head and tail of material in the previ-

ous passes and material is placed in rear of the stand, no additional

pass is added the longitudinal passes.

2.3. Number of turn before the width or longitudinal passes begin

Fig. 4 illustrates a rolling method dependent on the number of

turn before the broadside or longitudinal passes begin. Fig. 4(a) is a

common rolling method to produce plate products. Aslab is turned

before the broadside passes begin. The pass numbers and rolling

time depend on the ratio of the plate width over the slab width

since the slab width W

s

is elongated to the plate width W

p

by the

broadside passes and the slab length L

s

becomes the plate length

L

p

during the longitudinal passes. In Fig. 4(b), slab is not rotated at

all before it undergoes the broadside passes. In this case, the pass

numbers androlling time are determinedfromthe ratio of the plate

width over the slab length because the slab length L

s

is elongated

to plate width W

p

during the broadside passes and the slab width

W

s

becomes the plate length L

p

during the longitudinal passes.

3. Problem formulation

To calculate the rolling time required to manufacture a plate

with a speciﬁed target thickness and width from a slab, we should

determine the total pass number. Determining the total pass num-

ber is dependent on how the reduction ratio is established at each

pass. The reduction ratio at each pass is determined using a rela-

tionship between roll force and material thickness as shown in

Fig. 5. Note that the reduction ratio at each pass is inﬂuenced by

the constraints of a rolling mill. Therefore, the relationship should

Fig. 3. Material position after the longitudinal passes ﬁnish. (a) Material is posi-

tioned in front of the stand. (b) Material is positioned at the rear of the stand. Circles

marked with black color indicate roll pass with some draft (reduction) and ones

with empty circles stands for roll pass with no draft. Here, Ls denotes slab length. Lp

and Wp represent plate length and width.

be attained by examining constraints such as the design force of a

rolling mill and the design torque of a drive motor and the maxi-

mumbite angle of work rolls. In the following sections, we describe

three reduction ratio models, determination of the total pass num-

ber and ﬁnally calculation of rolling time.

3.1. Reduction ratio models

(i) r

F

: Reduction ratio restricted by permissible force.

In Fig. 5(a), the permissible force F

p

is determined fromthe rela-

tion, F

p

=sF

m

. Here, s means the safety factor determined by mill

operators for stable operation. F

m

represents the design force of a

rolling mill. Generally, F

m

is related to the elastic deformation limit

of the rolling mill structure such as mill housing, rolls and chocks,

pressure block and screw down device.

To derive r

F

, we use the roll force equation proposed by Moon

and Lee (2008). Note that the roll force is expressed a function of a

single reduction ratio, not multiple ones.

Hence we can compute the reduction ratio in a given pass

in a non-iterative manner once those parameters in Eq. (1) are

expressed as follows

F = Br

n

_

R

f

R

(1)

B =

o

W

√

RH

_

V

√

RH

_

l

exp

_

f

1

+

T

o

T

_

(1-a)

C.H. Moon, Y. Lee / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 210 (2010) 1844–1851 1847

Fig. 4. Turning of the slab or material before rolling begins. (a) The ﬁrst turning occurs before the broadside passes start and the second turning before the longitudinal passes

begin. (b) The ﬁrst turning only occurs before the longitudinal passes begin. Ls and Ws denote slab length and width. Lp and Wp represent the plate length and width.

andf

1

= 0.00032H −0.985 +0.382

_

R

H

+

_

0.046864

_

R

H

−0.51

_

R

H

2

(1-b)

andn = 0.163 +0.20735

_

R

H

−0.00113

_

R

H

_

2

+

0.1

H

_

R

H

_

1.5

−

1354.2

H

3

+0.42[%C], (1-c)

where %C, W and r stand for carbon contents of material, mate-

rial width and reduction ratio, respectively. R

f

is the deformed

radius of the work roll calculated using Hitchcock’s formulae (see

Underwood, 1950). BinEq. (1-a) is expressedas amixtureof theref-

erencestrength

o

of material, incomingthickness H, radius of work

roll R, roll speed V and temperature T of the material calculated

at each pass. l is material constants calculated through regressing

the roll forces data measured in an actual plate mill. T

o

designates

a reference temperature for the reference strength

o

. Meanwhile

variable ‘n’ plays a role as a kindof hardening coefﬁcient of roll force

when reduction ratio varies. Derivation procedure of the variable n

is given in detail in Ref. (Moon and Lee, 2008).

Replacing the force F and reduction ratio r in Eq. (1) with F

p

and

r

F

gives a reduction ratio restricted by permissible force

r

F

=

H

F

H

=

_

F

p

B

_

R

f

/R

_

1/n

(2)

(ii) r

G

: Reduction ratio restricted by permissible torque.

The permissible torque G

p

is determined fromrelation G

p

=sG

m

.

G

m

represents the design torque of the drive motor. Generally, G

m

is related to the motor power and roll speed. Similar to Eq. (1), the

roll torque in plate rolling is expressed as follows

G = Br

m

k

G

(3)

where k

G

= 2

√

RHexp(f

2

) (3-a)

andf

2

= 1.5686 −0.003947R −

0.4386 −0.000763H

2

H

−

0.03R −10.1H

H

3

R +

_

0.004 −

71.94 −0.18R

H

−0.1

_

R

H

_

0.5

−0.03

_

R

H

_

1.5

+0.0013

_

R

H

_

2

_

_

R

H

(3-b)

andm = 0.8485 −

_

0.5344 −0.05468

_

R

H

_

+0.0055

_

R

H

_

1.5

_

×

_

R

H

+

1

H

_

136.9 −59.9

_

R

H

_

0.5

+5.975

_

R

H

_

−0.107

_

R

H

_

1.5

_

+n (3-c)

Following replacing the roll torque, G and reduction ratio r in

Eq. (3) with G

p

and r

G

, we have a reduction ratio restricted by

1848 C.H. Moon, Y. Lee / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 210 (2010) 1844–1851

Fig. 5. (a) Reduction restricted by constraints (permissible force of rolling mill, per-

missibletorqueandmaximumbiteangle) at anarbitrarypass. (b) Schematic diagram

which decides the total pass number for a starting thickness to reach a target thick-

ness. Characters in ‘·’ means a pass number. The amount of reduction at the jth pass

is determined by H

j

=H

j

−h

j

.

permissible torque as follows

r

G

=

H

G

H

=

_

G

p

Bk

G

_

1/m

(4)

Assembling Eq. (4) into Eq. (1) yields the roll force calculated

from permissible torque

F

G

= B

(m−n)/m

_

G

p

2

√

RHexp(f

2

)

_

n/m

_

R

f

R

(5)

The force F

G

in Eq. (5) can be interpreted as a roll force at a pass

if torque limit is used to compute it. Due to

√

H in Eq. (5), the force

at each pass under this condition increases as material thickness

decreases as shown in Fig. 5(a).

(iii) r

b

: Reduction ratio restricted by the maximumbite angle of

work rolls.

The maximum draft H

b

in a given pass can be determined by

multiplying the theoretical maximumbite angle

2

R by a damping

parameter C

b

H

b

= C

b

2

R, (6)

where is the Coulomb frictional coefﬁcient at interface between

thematerial andworkrolls. Ris theradius of theworkroll. Thevalue

of damping parameter, less than 1.0, is decided from operators’

experience of a plate mill. Therefore, reduction ratio restricted by

the maximum bite angle in a pass is expressed as followings

r

b

=

H

b

H

(7)

where ‘H’ indicates the incoming material thickness at a pass. Sub-

stituting Eq. (7) into Eq. (1) gives the force calculated from the

maximum bite angle

F

b

= B

_

H

b

H

_n

_

R

f

R

(8)

F

b

inEq. (8) canbe interpretedas a roll force whenmaximumreduc-

tionis usedtodetermine the reductionratio. The line shape for H

b

at each pass in Fig. 5 is similar to that of G

p

since material thickness

in Eq. (8) is inversely proportional to the roll force. However, its

slope in Fig. 5(a) is stiffer than that of the line, F

G

.

It should be mentioned that the equation for F

G

is a non-linear

function of thickness. The term ‘line’ has been used to enhance

understanding. However, the shape of the curve F

G

is similar to

a line as material thickness decreases. It can be explained for the

curve F

b

in the same way.

3.2. Determination of the total pass number and calculation of

rolling time

To maintain a stable rolling operation and prevent the over-

loading of roll force and roll torque at each pass, the smallest

value among three reduction ratios (Eqs. (2), (4) and (7)) should be

selected. Hence, reductionratior andoutgoing thickness hina pass,

i.e., incoming material thickness at the next pass are determined by

r = min(r

F

, r

G

, r

b

) (9)

h = H(1 −r) (10)

Using Eq. (10), material thickness at each pass is calculated by

a consecutive scheme with increasing pass number. Fig. 5(b) illus-

trates this scheme. The variables such as B, n, R

f

, k

G

and min Eqs. (1)

and(3) at thecurrent pass areupdatedusingknownvalues fromthe

previous pass. If outgoing material thickness, h

N

in the Nth pass is

thinner thanthe target thickness, the iterationis stopped. ‘N’ is then

assigned as the total pass number. Hence, the total pass number N

and rolling time t

N

can be expressed as follows

h

N

= H

1

(1 −r

1

)(1 −r

2

)· · ·(1 −r

N

) ≤ H

t

(11)

t

N

= t

f

+

N

j=1

L

1

V

j

(1 −r

1

)· · ·(1 −r

j

)

+t

p

(N −1) (12)

where subscript (1,2, . . ., N and j) means the pass number. t

f

indi-

cates the time elapsed for preparing rolling. For the broadside

passes, it is a transportation time that the slab moves from the

reheating furnace to the stand and turns in front of the stand. For

longitudinal passes, it is the time required for turning material

after the broadside passes end. t

p

and H

t

are the pass-to-pass time

(travel time) and a target thickness. L

1

and V

j

are the initial mate-

rial length and roll speed at each pass. r

j

is reduction ratio at each

pass.

3.3. Veriﬁcation of roll force and torque models

Since the accuracy of the reduction ratio restricted by permis-

sible force is completely dependent on the roll force model, the

accuracy of the roll force model should be veriﬁed. We applied the

roll force model and roll torque model to the POSCO No. 2 plate

mill. In Fig. 6(a), the roll forces computed by roll force model of Eq.

(1) are compared with 65,000-actual data sets measured at POSCO

No. 2 Plate Mill.

Accuracy (error deﬁned as the ratio of absolute difference

between measurements and calculations over measurements) is

5.4% on the average and the standard deviation of the accuracy

is 4.7%. The roll forces calculated by Eq. (1) are in good overall

agreement with measured ones.

C.H. Moon, Y. Lee / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 210 (2010) 1844–1851 1849

Fig. 6. (a) Roll forces calculated by the roll force model (Eq. (1)) are compared with

the measurements. (b) Roll torque calculated by the roll torque model (Eq. (3)) are

compared with the measurements. Both comparisons are made for the POSCO No.

2 Plate Mill.

Since the correctness of this reduction ratio restricted by per-

missible torque is also dependent on the roll torque model (Eq. (3)),

we applied the roll torque model to the POSCO No. 2 plate mill as

well. Fig. 6(b) illustrates that the accuracy of roll torque is 6.3% on

the average and the standard deviation of accuracy is 5.2%. In over-

all, good agreement is noted between the measurements and the

predictions.

In Fig. 6, the data measured shows the shape of a cone. It can

be explained as follows. First the units on the x-axis and y-axis

are [MN] and [MN-m]. Thus absolute difference between measure-

ments and predictions increases even though relative difference

between them, which is usually expressed by percentage, remains

unchanged. For example, suppose we have ±10% error. Absolute

difference for 20 [MN] is ±2[MN]. But the absolute difference for

40 [MN] is ±4[MN]. Hence we have the shape of a cone as the data

measuredincreases. Second, at therangeof higher forceandtorque,

measurement error was reducedsomehow. It might be attributable

to that the equation for material’s constitutive equation which

works well inthehigher reductionratioor lower temperaturerange

was used in computing the force and torque.

Fig. 7. (a) Variations of reduction ratio at each pass on MPB (b) Variations of the

rolling time in terms of MPB. The abbreviation ‘MPB’ indicates material’s position

after the broadside passes in front of or behind the stand. The concept of MPB is

applicable to the broadside passes only (see Fig. 2).

4. Results and discussion

We combined Eqs. (1)–(12) properly and code them into a For-

tranprogramso that we couldcompute the rolling time of anactual

plate mill with three rolling methods. Table 1 lists the material

dimensions, capacities of a rolling mill and parameters used in the

analysis of plate rolling. In the following, we examine the reduction

ratio and rolling time variations caused by modiﬁcations to rolling

methods including (i) the material position after the broadside

passes end, (ii) the material position after the longitudinal passes

end and (iii) the number of turn before the width or longitudinal

passes begin.

4.1. Effect of material position after broadside passes

Fig. 7(a) shows the variation of reduction ratio per pass in

terms of incoming material thickness at each pass when ‘MPB’ is

determined in advance and when it is not. The abbreviation ‘MPB’

indicates the material position after the completion of the broad-

Table 1

Material and slab dimensions, rolling mill capacity and rolling parameters used in this study.

Material and slab dimensions - Carbon-manganese steel (0.175% C-Mn steel)

- Discharging temperature from reheating furnace =1190

◦

C

- Slab dimensions

Thickness, H

S

=0.302m, Width, W

S

=2.2m, Length, L

S

=3.539m

- Target dimensions of plate

Thickness, Hp =0.08732m, Width, Wp =4.106m, Length, Lp =6.558m

Rolling mill capacity - Design force, Fm =64.68MN

- Design torque, Gm =6.74MN-m

- Safety factor, s =0.9

Rolling parameters - Radius of work roll, R=0.5825m

- Roll speed, V=2.1m/s

- Bite angle limit, H

b

=0.04m

1850 C.H. Moon, Y. Lee / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 210 (2010) 1844–1851

Fig. 8. (a) Variations of reduction ratio at each pass on MPL. (b) Variations of the

rolling time on MPL where MPB is determined in advance. The abbreviation ‘MPL’

indicates the material position after the longitudinal passes. The concept of MPL can

be applicable to the longitudinal passes only (see Fig. 3).

side passes in front of or behind the stand (see Fig. 2). Whether

MPB is determined in advance or not, a target thickness after the

broadside passes end, i.e., initial material thickness before the lon-

gitudinal passes begin, is not changed. If a device measuring the

material width after the broadside passes is installed in front of

the stand only, the material should be positioned in front of the

stand. This situation corresponds to the case where MPB is deter-

minedbeforehand. Note if the device measuring the material width

is installed both in front of and in the rear of the stand, one need

not to determine MPB. If MPB is not determined in advance, mate-

rial can be turned at any position. Therefore, the average reduction

ratio for the broadside passes increases from 9.8% to 11.6%. As a

result, the total number of the broadside passes decreases fromsix

to ﬁve, as shown in Fig. 7(a).

The rolling time for the broadside passes includes the time that

the slab discharged out of the reheating furnace translates to the

stand and the one that the slab turns before rolling begins and the

rolling time required for the broadside passes. In this study, the

times for the slab to translate and turn are set as 50s and 30s,

respectively. Fig. 7(b) illustrates that if MPB is not determined,

the rolling time for the broadside passes decreases from 116.9s

to 109.5s. This is because the total number of the broadside passes

decreases. Results demonstrate that we can decrease the rolling

time by 4.1% if we do not decide MPB in advance.

4.2. Effect of material position after longitudinal passes

After the longitudinal passes, material canbe positioned infront

of or behind the stand (see Fig. 3). Fig. 8(a) illustrates the depen-

dency of the reduction ratio on MPL. The abbreviation ‘MPL’ stands

for material position after the longitudinal passes.

The deﬁnition of MPL is applicable to the longitudinal passes

only. Hence, thevariationinreductionratiofor thebroadsidepasses

is not affected by MPL at all. In the case where MPL is not deter-

mined, material can be placed at any position, i.e., in front of or

in the rear of the stand. This results in an increase of the average

reduction ratio for the longitudinal passes from 14.3% to 18.7%. As

shown in Fig. 8(b), the rolling time for the longitudinal passes is

reduced from 65.5s to 60.4s. This outcome indicates that if MPL is

not determined in advance, we can a give heavy reduction in the

longitudinal passes and thus reduce the rolling time by 2.8%.

4.3. Effect of the number of turn

The total reduction during rolling depends on NT (number of

turn, i.e., that slab (material) is rotated by 90 degree, before the

broadside and/or longitudinal passes begin) and the ratio of the

plate width over the slab width (or length) since the slab length is

different from its width. Plate rolling simulation using the dimen-

sions of slab and plate given in Table 1 yields the ratio as follows;

The ratio of the plate width to the slab width is 1.87 when NT is 2

(Fig. 4 (a)) and the ratio of the plate width to the slab length is 1.16

when NT is 1 (Fig. 4 (b)). If this ratio is high, much more reduction

during the broadside passes is required for the material to reach

the plate width and leads to the decrease of total reduction during

the longitudinal passes.

Fig. 9shows that the reductionratioper pass andthe rollingtime

are affected by NT. Fig. 9(a) illustrates that the total pass number

in both the broadside and longitudinal passes decreases from 10

to 8 when NT is changed from 2 to 1. This is because the material

thickness to be reduced, i.e. (H

s

−H

1

), in the broadside passes is

139.5mm for NT=2 and 39.3mm for NT=1. H

s

and H

1

denote the

slab thickness and material thickness just before the longitudinal

passes begin. Hence, only two passes are required in the broad-

side passes when NT=1. Meanwhile, the material thickness to be

reduced, i.e. (H

1

−H

p

), in the longitudinal passes is 75.2mm for

NT=2 and 175.4mm for NT=1. H

p

refers to the target thickness of

plate. For this reason, six passes are required in the longitudinal

passes when NT=1.

Fig. 9. (a) Variations of reduction ratio for the broadside passes and the longitudinal

passes when NT=1 or 2. (b) Effect of NT on the rolling time. The abbreviation ‘NT’

indicates the number of turn, i.e., the number of times that slab (material) is rotated

by 90 degree, before the broadside and/or longitudinal passes begin (see Fig. 4).

C.H. Moon, Y. Lee / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 210 (2010) 1844–1851 1851

Fig. 9(b) illustrates that when NT is changed from 2 to 1, the

rolling time for the broadside passes decreases from 116.9s to

57.8s. Meanwhile, rolling time for the longitudinal passes increases

from 65.5s to 78.5s. Note that cutbacks in rolling time for the

broadside passes are signiﬁcant incomparisonwiththe rolling time

for the longitudinal passes. This is because the time for turning the

material is reduced by 30s. Thus, the total rolling time is reduced

from182.4s to 136.3s. Consequently it can be said that the produc-

tivity in Fig. 4(b) is better than that in Fig. 4(a) by 25.2%. If the ratio

of the plate width over the slab width increases, rolling method in

Fig. 4(b) has the advantage of the productivity.

5. Concluding remarks

This work presents a draft schedule scheme for determining

the total number of pass in plate rolling, which is non-iterative in

computation and its effect on rolling time, i.e., productivity. Three

reduction ratio models were proposed and coupled with the draft

schedule scheme. The validity of roll force and torque models used

in the reduction ratio models was veriﬁed through comparing the

measured roll forces and torques with the predictions. The pro-

posed draft schedule scheme has been applied to the POSCO No. 2

plate mill and the rolling time, i.e., productivity variations depen-

dent on the rolling method was investigated. Conclusions are as

follows.

(1) The productivity can be improved about 4.1% if MPB (Mate-

rial Position after the Broadside passes) is not determined in

advance and 2.8% if MPL (Material Position after the Longitudi-

nal passes) is not determined in advance.

(2) Productivity is inﬂuenced by NT (Number of Turn, i.e., the num-

ber of times that material is rotated by 90 degree, before the

broadside and/or longitudinal passes begin). Eliminating a step

for turning the slab before rolling (NT=1) increases productiv-

ity by about 25.2%. Hence, NTis the most dominant factor which

inﬂuences the rolling time.

(3) The proposed draft schedule scheme linked with the reduction

ratio models may be useful for the plate mill designers to esti-

mate the basic plate mill speciﬁcation if a revamping of a plate

mill is taken into consideration.

References

Hu, X.L., Zhang, Q.S., Zhao, Z., Tian, Y., Liu, X.H., Wang, G.D., 2006. Application of

approximation full-load distribution method to pass scheduling on plate mill

with hydro-bending system. J. Iron Steel Res. Int. 13, 22–26.

Liberatore, R.L., 1989. Hot rolling mill optimization. Model. Comp. Ind. Eng. 17,

130–135.

Moon, C.H., Lee, Y., 2008. Approximate model for predicting roll force and torque in

plate rolling with peening effect considered. ISIJ Int. 48, 1409–1418.

Pataro, C.D.M., Helman, H., 1999. Direct determination of sequences of passes for

the strip rolling process by means of fuzzy logic rules. In: Proceedings of 2nd

International ConferenceonIntelligent ProcessingandManufacturingMaterials,

pp. 549–554.

Pires, C.T.A., Ferreira, H.C., Sales, R.M., Silva, M.A., 2006. Set-up optimization

for tandem cold mills: a case study. J. Mater. Proc. Technol. 173, 368–

375.

Pospiech, J., 2002. Method of planning draughts for a cold-rolled strip. J. Mater. Proc.

Technol. 124, 120–125.

Reddy, N.V., Suryanarayana, G., 2001. A Set-up model for tandem cold rolling mills.

J. Mater. Proc. Technol. 116, 269–277.

Underwood, L.R., 1950. The Rolling of Metals. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., NewYork, pp.

286–296.

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