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Rachel Pilkington 4/1/13 1 Annotated Bibliography

Works Cited McDermott, Peter J., and Diana Hulse, Ed.D. "Focus on Training: Corrective Feedback in Police Work." FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (2012): n. pag. Federal Bureau of Investigation, June 2012. Web. 27 Mar. 2013. This article details the curriculum for the average Police Academy in the United States. The differences between a college education and a Police Academy education are highlighted. In the Police Academy, new recruits learn in areas such as; tactical skills, communication, human interactions, and proper documentation skills. New recruits have to take what they learn in the classroom and in training and be able to use it and perform well on the job. They use their education for everyday things such as motor vehicle stops and criminal investigations. The article focuses on Corrective Feedback which is used by Field Training Officers (FTOs) as a way to train new recruits and critique their performance in a positive way. This source is definitely credible because it is published by the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin which is a very well-known source. The FBI has the most credible statistics regarding law enforcement and law enforcement training. This author of this article does a good job of analyzing how new recruits are taught in the academy, how they apply what they learn, and how it differs from a criminal justice education. He details each aspect of the Training Academy, from the Physical Training in the beginning to the preparation for graduation and for the job during the last weeks. He also shows how recruits take what they learn and apply it. For example, they learn tactical skills, and he explains how they take that to the street if they have to fight. He also explains how recruits learn from their mistakes because their FTOs give them effective Corrective Feedback. This article is very good for looking at some of the distinct differences between a Police Academy education and a Criminal Justice education in a college setting. I chose this article because it shows exactly how new officers are taught. The focus of this article is Corrective Feedback given by training officers to the trainee. The focus on Corrective Feedback is actually good because it shows one of the teaching techniques of the Academy which can be compared to that of a Criminal Justice degree in a college.

Buerger, Michael. "Educating And Training The Future Police Officer." FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 73.1 (2004): 26. MasterFILE Complete. Web. 27 Mar. 2013. This article emphasizes the importance of college education and Police training working together. If the two work together and communicate then it would make for more rounded and cohesive education. The author hits on the point that in a perfect system, the college education would prepare individuals and the college education would feed into the Police Academy education. This article also addresses the issue of whether or not a college degree (Criminal

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Justice) is really necessary. A quote from the article actually says that a 4-year Bachelors degree is becoming a necessary job requirement. The issue of how a degree directly relates, and what a Police Officer might do with or use a degree in his/her career is addressed. The author says that experiential learning in the Police Academy is the best way for a Police Officer to learn. The last point that the author made is that of the struggle that the Criminal Justice discipline has had. Even today the field of Criminal Justice is looked down upon as unnecessary and simple. The reason that the degree in the Criminal Justice degree has seemed rather useless is because of a major lack of communication and cooperation. Students learn a variety of things in their college education and then go and learn some of the same things in the Police Academy. At the same time some of the vital things that a new recruit should learn are left out, sometimes because it is assumed that they have learned those things in college. The author wonders whether or not a college education is really necessary. If the college education isnt a requirement, then we wouldnt have to worry about a lack of communication. Police Academies could increase their curriculum and students would definitely learn everything they need and they wouldnt have to pay for a costly degree. Why would anyone want to get a degree that they dont really need? The issue of the validity of the Criminal Justice degree in the College environment is addressed. People sometimes see Criminal Justice as a useless field. It goes back to the beginning when colleges offered Handcuffing 101 as a class for Criminal Justice majors. Sometimes people look at those in this field and wonder why one would spend so much money on a degree when they are going to learn a lot of the same things in the Academy. This article is a very good source because it addresses almost all of the questions that I have. I can use this article to show why people still get a Criminal Justice degree, but also, why it isnt really that necessary. This article is also one of the very few that analyze how people in other professions view Criminal Justice. This is a very interesting thing to look at as well as the main issues. Tenney, Charles W., Jr. Higher Education Programs in Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice. Washington, D.C.: NILE & CJ, U.S. Department of Justice, 1971. Print. The author says that the reason for education is to help an individual execute his functions in the most efficient manner. However, the author says that this education should be left up to the law enforcement agencies. The author believes that law enforcement agencies could provide enough education in their training programs to be as effective as a college education in Criminal Justice. This publication explains the balance between college educations and the Police Academy. It explains how we need both yet it also shows how both can be rolled into one to be more efficient and cheaper for the student. This publication is heavily opinionated. The author wastes no time letting the reader know that he thinks that there should only be one training/education program that Police Officers have to complete. He thinks that a Criminal

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Justice degree and Academy education should be combined into a training course that represents both aspects. This is yet another example of the balance between these two types of education. This is the second source that I have found that shows how both the college education and the Police Academy training can be one. I can analyze how the process of the two becoming one works. Harris, Richard N. The Police Academy: An Inside View. N.p.: John Wiley & Sons, 1973. Print. This book gives an inside view to the Police Academy and the training that new recruits receive there. The author goes through the Academy documenting (with the approval of the Police chief) everything that happens along the way. He describes everything from the first day and how the recruits dress to what they learn to what the Police commissioner says at graduation. He discusses some of the problems with the Police Department and their training practices as well. All Police Academy programs are regulated by the state. The state regulates all of the training that the recruits go through in the Academy. Some Academies (such as the CharlotteMecklenburg Police Academy in Charlotte, NC) add to the minimum requirements to better train their recruits. The book details the process that applicants have to go through before they are even chosen to go into the Academy. They have to take a competitive civil service exam, a physical fitness test, a physical/medical exam, and they have to submit to a background investigation. The author says that most of the recruits time in training is spent in the classroom listening to lectures just like in college. One of the most important things that recruits learn in the Academy is how to use that Departments reporting system. Every Police Department has their own reporting system. This is something that cannot be taught in a college because of how many different kinds of reporting systems there are. I can use a lot of the information contained in this book to contrast the Academy training with the Criminal Justice education. There are some great details about what is learned in the Police Academy and how it is learned. The process that the recruits have to go through before even going to the Academy is rigorous and nothing at all like getting a college degree. According to this book, recruits spend a great amount of time in the classroom listening to lectures. This is very similar to college; therefore I am looking at the necessity of learning the same material in a classroom twice. Morn, Frank. Academic Politics and the History of Criminal Justice Education. N.p.: Greenwood, 1995. Print. This book covers the history and evolution of the Criminal Justice education system. It details the start of a Criminal Justice education and who the supporters are and who the skeptics are. The field of Criminal Justice used to have a bad reputation for being unnecessary. People

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looked down upon it and it wasnt respected field of study. Those who were Police Officers didnt think of police work as a career but a job that kept food on the table. Today, Criminal Justice is a respected and noble field of study. This book shows how far this field has come. The Criminal Justice field of study was basically forced. In the 1960s-1970s there was a dramatic increase in crime. Chiefs of Police didnt know what to do and citizens were fearful. Until this point, the Police were not respected and they didnt have a big role in society and they were certainly not trusted members of society. People looked to the Police to help them stop this increase in crime. Therefore, departments implemented new training programs. This was the start of Police/Law Enforcement training as we know it today. I will be able to use this information to compare the history of the Criminal Justice degree to the history of the Police Academy training programs. The Police Academy took off about the same time that the Criminal Justice field of study did.