Mälardalen University Press Licentiate Theses No.

88

OPTIMAL PIN FIN HEAT EXCHANGER SURFACE

Hamid Nabati 2008

School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology

Copyright © Hamid Nabati, 2008 ISSN 1651-9256 ISBN 978-91-85485-95-6 Printed by Arkitektkopia, Västerås, Sweden

Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface

H. Nabati

Abstract
This research presents the results of numerical study of heat transfer and pressure drop in a heat exchanger that is designed with different shape pin fins. The heat exchanger used for this research consists of a rectangular duct fitted with different shape pin fins, and is heated from the lower plate. The pin shape and the compact heat exchanger (CHE) configuration were numerically studied to maximize the heat transfer and minimize the pressure drop across the heat exchanger. A three dimensional finite volume based numerical model using FLUENT© was used to analyze the heat transfer characteristics of various pin fin heat exchangers. The simulation applied to estimate the heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop for a wide range of Reynolds numbers with different pin fins. Circular pin configuration variations included changes in pin spacing, axial pitch and pin height ratio. Rectangular and drop-shaped pin variations also included changes in length and aspect ratio. Correlations for Nusselt number and friction factor were developed. The optimum drop shaped pin array was shown to match the heat transfer rates obtained by the optimum circular pin configuration while incurring less than one third the specific fluid friction power losses. The data and conclusions of this study can be applied to the optimization of different heat exchangers which are used in industry, especially oil cooler in power transformers which are currently working with low cooling efficiency. It can also be used in the design of electronic components, turbine blade cooling or in other high heat flux dissipation applications requiring a low-profile, high area-density based micro-heat exchanger design. This study also shows that numerical models backed with experimental analysis can reduce both the time and money required to create and evaluate engineering concepts, especially those that deal with fluid flow and heat transfer. In the following chapters, first the problems which are encountered by power transformer suppliers are described. Then pin fin technology is studied with more details as a novel solution to the oil cooling problem. Some studies on behavior of power transformer coolers are also conducted to make their problems more clear. Available experimental data in the Iran Transfo company have been used for validation of these studies. They are presented as separated papers at the end of thesis. Finally the results of pin fin studies are presented and horizontal continuous casting (HCC) is explained as a manufacturing method for pin fins production. A separate paper which is based on experimental study on HCC is also included at the end of thesis.

1

Värmeväxlaren består av ett rektangulärt kanal utrustat med olika former av Kylflänsar och är uppvärmd underifrån. HCC-studien presenteras som en separat artikel inkluderad sist i avhandlingen. speciellt oljekylda högspänningstransformatorer som har låg effektivitet i kylningen. Studien visar att kombinationen av numeriska modeller som valideras genom experiment kan reducera både tid och kostnad vid utveckling och utvärdering av ingenjörsverktyg. En tredimensionell finit volym baserad på en numerisk modell i FLUENT© användes för att analysera värmeöverföringsegenskaper för olika Kylflänsar konfigurationer. kylning av turbinblad eller andra komponenter med högt värmeflöde där låg profil. I följande kapitel beskrivs först problem som identifierats av tillverkare av högspänningstransformatorer. Kylflänsar studeras i detalj som en ny lösning till de identifierade problemen med oljekylning. Avslutningsvis presenteras resultat från studierna av Kylflänsar och en horisontell kontinuerlig gjutprocess (HCC) för tillverkning av Kylflänsar. Cirkulära Kylflänsar konfigurationer inkluderar variation av avstånd mellan Kylflänsar. Data och slutsatser från studien kan användas inom för optimering av värmeväxlare använda i industrin. Resultaten kan även användas inom design av elektronikkomponenter. Genom simuleringar uppskattades värmegenomgångstalet och tryckfallet för olika Reynolds tal och Kylflänsar konfigureringar. speciellt inom fluidmekanik och värmeöverföring.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. 2 . Rektangulära och droppformade Kylflänsar inkluderade även variation för längd och aspekt förhållande. Kylflänsar forma och den kompakta värmeväxlarens utformning är studerade numeriskt för att maximera värmeöverföringen och minimera tryckfallet över värmeväxlaren. Nabati Sammanfattning Forskningen presenterad är ett resultat av en numerisk studie av värmeöverföring och tryckfall i en värmeväxlare designad med olika former av Kylflänsar. Tillgängliga data från Iran Transfo company har använts för validering av resultat från studierna. och stor ytdensitet behövs. Några studier har genomförts för att ytterligare belysa problemen kring högspänningstransformatorers kylning. Optimal matris för hur droppformade Kylflänsar placerades visades överensstämma med optimal överföring för cirkulära Kylflänsar men bara med en tredjedel av friktionsförlusterna för fluiden. Korrelation mellan Nusselts tal och friktionsfaktor utvecklades. Studierna presenteras som separata artiklar i slutet av avhandlingen. och förhållandet mellan axiellt avstånd och höjd.

I would like to thanks Tommy Larsson and Örjan Danielsson for their efforts in reviewing my thesis and putting valuable comments on it 3 . Nabati Acknowledgements This thesis has been carried out at the School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. Västerås. Professor Jafar Mahmoudi who encouraged me to start this work and patiently supported me in many different aspects throughout this work. Mälardalen University. reviewing and ideas in articles and research methodologies. Also my special thanks go to Erik Dahlquist for his useful lectures and many hours of discussions on optimization. Special thanks to my friends and colleagues at MdH and the department of energy technology at KTH who have helped and been a supportive on both the technical and the social level. I would like to express my most sincere gratitude to my academic supervisor. And finally. I also wish to thank my wife Narges for her patience and support and also my parents for continuously encouraging me. Armita has been the light for my way. My lovely kid. Sweden as licentiate thesis.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H.

• Nabati H. April-June 2006. Nabati List of Publications This thesis is based on the following five papers and technical report: Papers • Nabati H. Number 2. Mahmoudi J. 4 . "Numerical Study of Thermal Performance of Different Pin Fin Morphologies with Air Impingement through CFD Modeling”. February 8 – 10. the Fifth International IMACS Symposium on Mathematical Modeling(5th MATHMOD).. • Nabati H. Vienna. PP. "Numerical Study of Thermal Performance of Different Pin-Fin Morphologies". To be published in the Journal of Applied Energy. Mahmoudi J. Trondheim. Report • Hamid Nabati and Jafar Mahmoudi. Volume 3.. Nabati H. 185-189. "Optimal Pin Fin Heat Exchanger Surface for Pulp and Paper Industry".. "Simulation of Power Transformer’ Cooling System in ONAN State". MdH/IST (2005).Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. International Journal of Green Energy. Austria.. 2006. • Mahmoudi J.... Mahmoudi J. "An Experimental Study on Productivity and Quality Improvement of Horizontal Continuous Casting Process ".. Vienna University of Technology. 46th Conference on Simulation and Modeling (SIMS 2005).. To be published in the Journal of Applied Energy. Mahmoudi J.. Norway. 2005. • Nabati H. "Numerical Modeling of a Plane Radiator Used in a Power Transformer Cooling System".

s] kinematics viscosity [m2/s] Θ non-dimensional temperature means temperature [K] density [kg/m3] θ ρ 5 .K] pin fin height [m] turbulent kinetic energy [m2/s2] mass flow rate [kg/s] Nusselt number based on Dh pressure [pa] Prandtl number rate of heat transfer [W] thermal resistance [K/W] Reynolds number based on D temperature [K] heat source temperature [K] NuD P Pr Q.K] circular and drop-shaped fin diameter.U.q R ReD T TH u. Rectangular fin width [m] hydraulic diameter [m] friction coefficient (Total pressure loss coefficient) convective heat transfer coefficient [W/m2. Nabati Nomenclature Latin Letters A CP D Dh f h H k & m surface area [m2] specific heat capacity [j/kg.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H.K] molecular viscosity [Pa.s] eddy viscosity [Pa. U velocity [m/s] Greek Letters DP α ε εf ηf λ µ µt ν pressure drop [pa] thermal diffusivity [m2/s] turbulent dissipation rate [m2/s3] fin effectiveness fin efficiency thermal conductivity [W/m.

................................................................................................................RESULTS AND DISCUSSION .....................................................2 6.....................3 Optimization ........................................................................1 3.............1 2.....................................................................................................3 Objectives .......................................................3 4............. 44 Friction factor .................................................................................Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H........................................................... 44 5.......................1 6...............................................................PROBLEM DESCRIPTION ..........................................3 Motivations ................ 21 CHAPTER 3 ................NUMERICAL SOLUTION PROCEDURE ......... 39 CHAPTER 5 .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 4.......................................................... 45 Heat transfer ..........................................1 1................................................................................................................................................ 31 4.................................................................................................................INTRODUCTION ................................................. 57 Horizontal continuous casting as a production method ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 34 Boundary conditions ........ 58 Future work.........................................................2 Basic fin theory and definitions ................ 66 6 ....................... 57 6................................... 20 Heat exchangers characteristics .....................................................GOVERNING EQUATIONS ..................................................................................... 23 The instantaneous equations ................................................................................................................................................... 23 3................................................................ 48 CHAPTER 6 ................................................................2 2........................................................................................................ 31 Pin-Fins' geometry .....................................3 Nusselt number ............ 11 CHAPTER 2 ...................................................... 11 Literature review ...................................................................................................... 37 Simulations .....................................................4 Model description ............... 20 The scope of this work ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 20 2............................................................................................CONCLUSION REMARKS...................................................................... Nabati Table of Contents CHAPTER 1 . 62 PAPERS SUMMARY .............................. 60 REFERENCES .................................................. 28 CHAPTER 4 ......... 10 Research approach .....................................................1 4........1 5.............................2 5........................................................2 1.................... 7 1...........................

These losses are transformed into heat which causes a temperature rise that can reach high levels and affects negatively the transformer performance which means an operational load and useful life reduction. In power transformers design. For example recently Mufuta and Van Den Bulck [51] studied the case of a winding disc-type transformer and they showed the influence of Re. This heat dissipation medium is not enough for transformer of average and high power. In the Iran Transfo power transformers. The oil circulation is due to free convection or combined free and forced convection. fins are added to plain tubes resulting in large external surface area and high heat transfer performance and smaller dimensions.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. especially in power distribution networks. One novel idea to overcome above transformer power loss problems is using the widthwise pin fins between radiators.1. A typical transformer which is assembled in Iran Transfo Company is shown in the figure 1. conventionally. it is in the interest of Iran Transfo to minimize the size of heat exchangers and internal cooling ducts. Figure 1. Iran Transfo Corporation is one of the leading Iranian manufacturers of single and three phase oil immersed distribution transformers since 1966 that produces distribution transformer with capacity of 12000 MVA and power rating up to 5000 kVA and 36 kV. Nabati Chapter 1 1 Introduction Transformers are widely used in the industry.Gr−1/2 on the flow structure and gave some correlations to calculate the heat transfer inside this kind of transformer. but no special paper with focus on the radiator were found in the literature. Most studies have focused on inside a power transformer. In the literature. To achieve better performance. few studies have been made on the heat transfer and the fluid flow outside the transformer. Heat transfer inside the channels and thermal behavior of the flow in a pipe with different boundary conditions are investigated widely in heat transfer texts. the cooling is provided through circulation of oil between ducts in the active parts and heat exchangers outside the transformer tank. The heat dissipation by means of natural convection through its own surface is enough in small transformers.2 shows some kind of usual fins used in different heat exchangers. 7 . The energy losses in these power transformers are proportional to the load. They are most valuable assets in power systems and it appears worthwhile to pay special attention to this key component to ensure stability in power systems. which require more elaborated methods of cooling and generated heat must be removed effectively [50].

high-pressure water and steam. Pin fin is suitable for numerous applications including processes using liquids and gasses. Several big and small companies are involved in producing and manufacturing such kinds of tubes. As mentioned above. Because of the highly conductive nature of copper.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. diesel. Nabati Figure 1.2 Some of the many varieties of finned tubes [1]. Pin Fin can be manufactured using a variety of base tube materials such as copper. copper/nickel.1 A typical power transformer equipped with auxiliary fans [52] Figure 1.3 shows one of the Pin-Fin heat sinks which is used in computers processor cooling. carbon steel and stainless steel.3 Pin-Fin heat sinks used by INTEL for processor cooling [3] 8 . aluminum/brass. Figure 1. this technology has become one of the major techniques in heat sinks design for electronics cooling. Figure 1. In recent years. brass. one of the most recent interesting methods in enhanced heat exchanger design is in pin-fin technology. oil. the copper heat sinks are getting more and more favorable.

Figure 1. However. Another company which uses this technology in its products is the Raypak company in the USA. e. large pressure loss and low total heat transfer efficiency. GREE THERMO-TECH CO. 3. Recently. rectangular and conical or semi conical. few companies have started to produce Pin-fin tubes and use it in heat exchangers' applications. 2. For example. in China produces the pin-fin tubes and recommends them for using in different types of heat exchangers (Figure 1. Some of the features are presented below [4]: 1. Boiling heat transfer coefficient is 2 to 5 times higher than that of the plane tube.4 Pin-finned tubes produced by GREE THERMO-TECH CO. The pin-fin tubes are widely used in the company's products. Therefore. no technical data are available in the company's home page (a possible explanation is that the pin fin technology is becoming attractive and leading companies are not interested in releasing the technical data). [4] 9 . Unique self-cleaning feature greatly reduces maintenance cost of heat exchangers. Nabati Pin-Fin technology has shown its excellent characteristic in heat transfer in electronics cooling and it seems that its time to use this technology in conventional heat exchangers used in industrial application. 4.5 to 6 times higher than that of the plane tube. Fins morphology has a great effect in heat transfer characteristics and manufacturing. it seems that the study of pin-fin's applicability in heat exchangers (like oil cooler in power transformers) and working on the different technical aspects of it could give attractive solutions in heat exchangers' field and produce more efficient and compact heat exchangers. especially in the boilers. i. Most of the used pin-fin has regular geometry such as cylindrical. Convection heat exchanging coefficient for single-phase fluid is 2.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. Its unique finned structure greatly increases heatexchanging area both inside and outside the tube with dramatically reduced thickness of boundary layers. The usage of this technology in tubes will overcome the problems that other heat transfer enhancement tubes could not solved for long time. Condensing heat transfer coefficient is 3 to 6 times higher than that of the plane tube.4).

Commonly. To reach this goal. As yet no detailed study on the performance of such finned tubes has been carried out. The pulp and paper industry consumes a noticeable portion of all the primary energy consumed in the industrial countries manufacturing. change of radiators dimensions and using the widthwise pin fins between radiators. Surface enhancement using pin fins could be a promising method to overcome the described problem as well as maintenance efforts. The goal of this research is to develop strategies for finding the optimal pin-fin geometry to use in external finned tubes. it seems attractive to use the pin fin technology inside or outside of these heat exchangers to enhance their efficiency. As pressure loss is 10 . The following studies could be carried out in order to improve heat transfer characteristic in radiators: change of oil flowing passage profile. The array is usually configured with cylindrical pins in either a staggered or in-line arrangement with the coolant flowing perpendicular to the pin axes. All of these proposals need a deep understanding of pin fins behaviour and their heat transfer characteristic. Also large numbers of different heat exchangers are used in vital industries like power plants. Pins can either be long with H/D greater than about 10. These components could be mounted directly on top of a microscale pin-fin array cooled by forced convection. especially in their steam boiler which is the heart of plant. that their performance is not sufficient to solve the overload conditions that take place in the hot seasons. As radiators used in power transformers are typical heat exchangers.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. Alternatively. a computational modeling of heat transfer phenomena has been done using commercial CFD software and through it the convective and conductive heat transfers in the model has been examined. or short with H/D on the order of unity.1 Motivations Lately compact heat exchangers (CHE) have been subject of extensive research. Fins are playing a vital role in such equipments to enhance their performance. because of their importance in a wide variety of engineering applications. power transformers and pulp and paper mills. the present research involves a numerical investigation of heat transfer characteristic of different shape finned tubes. The efficiency of the air-side heat transfer is a primary consideration when determining the best heat exchanger for a particular application. Nabati 1. these pin fin arrays could be used to cool integrated circuit chips in electronic equipment. pin-fin arrays are made up of a group of solid pins that span the end walls of an internal flow passage or duct.

Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. Different parameters are investigated and an optimum geometric configuration together with a pin shape is selected based on the overall heat exchanger performance." To test this hypothesis the following tasks have been performed. Chapman and Seri Lee paper [5]. effect of air flow bypass characteristics and flow field has been investigated too. They developed an elliptical pin fin heat sink with specific design parameters. The heat transfer and associated pressure drop behavior are characterized. A numerical study using FLUENT© has been conducted to select the optimum pin shape considering maximum heat transfer and minimum pressure drop across the heat exchanger. 1. cross-cut rectangular pins and elliptical shaped pins in low air flow environments. This literature review includes a discussion of current state-of-the-art issues and optimization techniques involved with thermal management in compact heat exchangers and e-cooling.3 Literature review This section presents a brief look at the research that has been conducted prior to the writing of this report. They used thermal resistance and 11 . 1. The approach taken in the paper was to compare this elliptical shaped heat sink with a conventional extruded fin heat sink of equal volume. maintaining large exposed surface area for heat transfer and minimizing vortex flow by incorporating an airfoil design. Finally a comparison between pressure drop and heat transfer is carried out. L. A numerical simulation has been investigated using three dimensional models of a compact heat exchanger consisting of a rectangular duct with inline arrays of three different shapes pin fins in a cross flow of air. Heat exchangers with drop shaped pin fins can obtain higher heat transfer characteristics with lower pressure drop. in addition to the thermal study.2 Research approach Hypothesis of this thesis: "Pin fin geometry highly affects the different heat exchangers efficiency. Nabati one of the important parameters in the systems. One of the most referenced works is that of C. They carried out comparative thermal tests using aluminum heat sinks made with extruded fin.

6 Experimental test setup [5] 12 .6 show the schematic diagram of different heat sinks that they used and their experimental test set-up. They found that there was 40% more air flowing through the rectangular pin design.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. yet the thermal resistances were virtually equal and the elliptical pin fin enhanced the heat transfer.5 Schematic diagrams of different heat sinks for tests [5] Figure 1. flow characteristics and pressure drop on heat sink performance. Figures 1.5 and 1. Nabati amount of flow bypass terms to measure the effects of different thermal conductivity. Figure 1.

Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. Nabati These results were in correlation with the basis of the elliptical pin fin design considerations. 13 . Moshfegh and R. Although their paper discusses various levels of numerical modeling of turbulent flow that are relevant to electronic cooling. This improvement is mainly due to the increased wetted surface area of the drop pins.9). their guidelines are very useful for similar works. vortex flow is reduced and boundary layer effects are eliminated. and the delay in the flow separation as it passes the more streamlined drop shaped pin fins. Figure 1. This thesis presents the results of a combined numerical and experimental study of heat transfer and pressure drop behavior in a CHE designed with drop-shaped pin fins (Figure 1. A numerical study using ANSYS was first conducted to select the optimum pin shape and configuration for the CHE.7). Nyierdy' paper [12]. i. The other work which is studied for current research is a master thesis [11].7 Staggered pin-fin array[11] One of the most recent published papers in the pin-fin field is B. This was followed by an experimental study to validate the numerical model. The results indicate that the drop shaped pin fins yield a considerable improvement in heat transfer compared to circular pin fins for the same pressure drop characteristics. Also surprisingly they found that extruded straight design performed significantly better than either of the two other designs over the flow range which they examined there.e. The model under consideration is a 3-D model of circular pin fin heat sinks in bypass flow conditions (Figure 1.

(a) (b) Figure 1. the pressure drop.9 Pin fin heat sink in bypass flow conditions [12].8 (a) Computational grid (b) Sample velocity profile for drop shaped pin fins [11] Figure 1. Nabati Three different inlet velocities have been considered corresponding to a channel Re = 5000 to 14500. as well as the influence of flow bypass. The mesh close to the pins is finer with a mesh distribution of 108×52×35. only half of the channel has been considered. The Gambit grid generation package is used to generate the 3-D unstructured grid. Results are presented for the base plate temperature. and the leakage from the interfin region to the bypass regions of the domain.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. The coarse grid has 360 333 hexahedral cells. 14 . Two grids of different density were used for computation of the test cases. Due to symmetry conditions in the span-wise direction.

Figure 1.11 shows some of their results. The mesh is non-conformal at the interface between fine and coarse region (Figure 1. Figure 1. The finer grid ensured that the wall nearest y+ is kept close to one near the walls and edges.10 Non-conformal (left) and conformal (right) grid structures are used for coarse and fine mesh respectively [12]. Nabati The Gambit grid generation package is used to generate the 3-D unstructured grid. The grid distribution for the coarse mesh has been effectively controlled by clustering the mesh towards the walls and edges in such a way that the wall function can be applied properly.11 The pressure. Two grids of different density were used for computation of the test cases. velocity and temperature field prediction [12]. The mesh close to the pins is finer with a mesh distribution of 108×52×35. 15 .e. Figure 1. the first numerical point was always located at y+>15(y+ is a nondimensional wall distance for a wall-bounded flow). The result shows that choosing the right turbulence model and near-wall treatments have a great influence on the heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop. i. Due to symmetry conditions in the span-wise direction.10). only half of the channel has been considered. The coarse grid has 360 333 hexahedral cells.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. The finer grid consists of 1 710 027 cells and is used for computation with the k-ω.

1999 [15]). (Kröger. Results of the above articles showed that any advancement in heat transfer was counter balanced by the pressure drop. 1994[14]) and conduction (Ranganayakulu et al. While investigating the heat transfer and friction properties for a parallel plate channel with staggered ribs. Several different configurations were studied to find the design with the least pressure drop. [22]. In an article by Firth and Meyer [20] the ribs of four different surfaces were evenly spaced and the heat transfer coefficients and friction factors were compared. Nabati Because of the various industry applications for finned tubes. There are several existing heat exchangers that already do this and it is the aim of this section to look at a couple of these heat exchangers. geometrically similar heat exchangers.. 1986 [13]) derived a method to present the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of finned-tube bundles. [21] used a parallel plate channel with staggered ribs to study the effects of compound turbulators on friction factors and heat transfer coefficients. It was found that ribs at a 45° angle of attack had better heat transfer characteristics than one with a 90° angle of attack for a given pressure drop.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. The research papers that are referred frequently in literatures are concerned with correlations (Kröger. convection (Hahne and Zhu. The purpose of the extended surface heat exchanger is to increase the heat transfer. Finding the best rib angle was the object of a paper by Han et al. Zhang et al. pin fins and micro fins: Roughened Surfaces • Heat transfer enhancement takes place through roughened surfaces by promoting turbulence [19]. It could be used to predict the performance characteristics of untested. To compare the performance of different types of finned-tubes. Internally Finned Tubes • 16 . Another correlation for finned-tubes was empirically derived by Idem et al. there are many different fields of research. (1987) [16]. offset strip fins. finned tubes. it was found that conduction in the channel walls contributed to the enhanced heat transfer. 1986 [13]). The literature study was limited to roughened surfaces. The effects of conduction were included in a study by Webb and Ramadhyani [23].

Nabati An internal finned tube is a round or rectangle tube with continuous fins inside the tube to enhance heat transfer. [28] and both were about mixed convection. These results were compared with experimental results and good correlation was found. fluid temperature and local heat flux with uniform outside wall temperature was numerically derived for finned and unfinned configurations. Kim and Webb [31]. The results also showed that the fins were a better transfer surface than the tube wall.’s [25] paper the distribution of fin temperature. The turbulent flow was analysed by Patankar et al. Several papers analysed laminar flow in internally finned tubes. The numerical analysis was based on the modified Grashof number. Other articles about laminar flow in internally finned tubes were done by Rustum and Soliman [27]. Renzoni and Prakash [26] derived flow and heat transfer characteristics for developing flow in the entrance region of an internally finned heat exchanger. [29]. The theoretical results showed the pressure drop and Nusselt number for the entrance regions as well as estimates for the hydrodynamic and thermal entrance lengths. Other conclusions were that the onset of free convective effects was delayed and that the enhancement of friction factor and Nusselt number was suppressed. The results found were compared with available experimental data.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. An advantage of internally finned tubes is that it is an easy and efficient way to enhance internal convection [24]. From the analysis. In internally finned tubes the flow can also be turbulent. friction factor and average Nusselt number were derived. For the analysis the Nusselt number and friction factor were derived. [29] used a mixing length model for analysing an internally finned tube. Patankar et al. Prandtl number. The design cases were: 17 . Webb and Scott [30]. An internally finned tube was analysed for three design cases by Webb and Scott [30]. axial velocity and temperature distribution. wall heat flux. The following articles derive equations for the heat transfer coefficients and friction factors of these configurations for laminar and turbulent flow. In Soliman et al. The results showed that the distribution of heat flux was dependent on the amount of fins and fin height and that the finned tube had better heat transfer characteristics surface that a smooth tube. The results showed that the free convection had a strong influence on heat transfer and approached the forced-convection predictions as the Rayleigh number decreased. Experimental results for the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics for laminar flow were showed in their first paper (1988). the secondary flow. number of fins and relative fin height.

Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H.30°. Finned Tubes • A finned tube heat exchanger consists of a tube with fins on the outer side of the tube. The fins cause a recirculating flow between two successive fins. · Reduced pumping power for equal heat transfer and length of heat exchanger tubing. Finnedtube heat exchangers are used in many applications such as industrial boilers. The results showed that although material savings were found using axial internal fins. Nabati · Reduced tube material volume for equal pumping power and heat transfer. much better savings were obtained when the fins had a helix angle (twisted).35 and 15. Micro fin heat exchangers are used in the refrigeration.9 mm [34]. Offset Strip Fins • Offset strip fins heat exchangers are used as evaporators in the refrigeration and air conditioning industry [32]. Micro fin tubes are popular because a large heat transfer enhancement can be achieved relative to the increase in 18 . Pin Fins • This kind of fins is introduced at the beginning of this chapter. commercial air furnaces and water heaters [16]. Because of the various industrial applications for finned tubes. · Increased heat transfer for equal pumping power and length of heat exchanger tubing. Micro Fins • A typical micro fin tube has tiny fins of triangular cross-section at a helix angle of between 8° . automotive and process industries because it enhances heat transfer by two to three times that of a plain tube [35]. there are many different fields of research. The friction factor and heat transfer equations were derived and predicted the Carnavos friction data within 10% and the Carnavos heat transfer data within 15% accuracy. Enhanced heat transfer is obtained due to the fins preventing the flow from becoming fully developed and the restarting of the boundary layer produces higher heat transfer [33]. The diameters of the tube varied between 6. A comparison with the empirical Carnavos correlations was made in the analytical model used by Kim and Webb [31] in their article about axial internal fin tubes.

heat transfer enhancement ratio and plate thickness optimization were investigated. Other types of enhanced heat exchanger are the plate. A generalized heat transfer coefficient and friction factor were proposed that were within 15% of the sample data. Based on these studies some optimal configuration will be proposed and using numerical procedures. the heat transfer coefficient increased as well because of the increase in nucleate boiling [37]. The paper concluded by stating that in the micro scale the shape and size effects should be taken into account in the design of heat exchangers. The results showed that the heat transfer enhancement ratio was approximately 2. A popular fin pattern for heat transfer enhancement is the wavy fin configuration [44]. One article found dealt with the size effects on thermal conductivity of channel and fin walls. Evaporation was investigated by Kuo and Wang [36] and compared to a smooth tube. Other enhancement • The above articles represent only a part of the different enhanced heat exchanger configurations. When the heat flux increased. Choking in micro fins. Mainly evaporation and condensation are investigated by researchers to find an optimal design for a specific application. This study shows that the subject of the proposed research is quite extensive and needs a comprehensive study on different subjects. the best one will be highlighted.2. This report focuses on numerical aspects which are involved in the current research. In this paper. Chou et al. 19 .Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H.fin arrangement and the louvered fin compact heat exchanger [40-43]. Finally experiments will be used to verify the numerical results. For example twisted tape inserts can be placed inside tubes [39] to increase the heat transfer. Other characteristics of micro fins that are investigated are heat transfer coefficients and the size effects of micro fins. [38] reported that size effects reduced the thermal conductivity and therefore the heat transfer rate as well. Nabati pressure drop. correlations for the airside performance of a wavy fin heat exchanger were derived using samples. Flow boiling heat transfer coefficients were experimentally found for R-134a in a micro fin tube.

ventilating and air-conditioning systems. Figure 2. generic flow cases with three different fin geometries that have the typical flow-heat transfer characteristics are investigated. The focus of this work is on the investigation of the effects of fin morphology in prediction of the flow and heat transfer in a typical heat exchanger passage. Also the study of the underlying physics of the flow-heat transfer processes in these cases is included.1 shows a typical passage including an in-line eight rectangular fin array. commercial. in a wide variety of industrial.2 Heat exchangers characteristics A heat exchanger is a complex device that provides the transfer of thermal energy between two or more fluids at deferent temperatures. Therefore. e. refrigeration. and household applications.g. Heat exchangers are used. in order to improve the heat transfer efficiency. Figure 2.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H.1 Typical studied passage including eight rectangular fins with in-line arrangement 2. Nabati Chapter 2 2 Problem Description 2.1 Objectives The final goal is to develop CFD-methods for realistic prediction of the overall heat transfer coefficient in a passage containing in-line array of pin fins. power 20 . either individually or as components of larger thermal systems.

2 Single-row fin-tube heat exchanger 2. Understanding these kinds of pin fins which are used widely in industry is believed to give a rich contribution to elucidation of the phenomena in normal and compact heat exchangers used in different application. chosen to investigate the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics in a channel containing three basic pin fins. There are a number of such studies available in the literature 21 . to improve the reliability and efficiency of thermal systems for the specific application. therefore. consequently. A typical single-row fin-tube compact heat exchanger is shown schematically in Figure 2. The complexity of these systems stems from their geometrical configuration. manufacturing and space industries. Since heat exchanger performance very often is a key factor in the overall thermal system design. It was. constant improvements in their modeling and simulation are definitely needed to increase the accuracy of their predictions and. and the large number of variables involved in their operation.2.3 The scope of this work The scope of this work has been limited to the flow and heat transfer in a rectangular duct fitted with three different shape pin fins. As a consequence of such complexity. Figure 2. namely rectangular fins. no analytical solutions entirely based on a first-principles approach are available. the physical phenomena present in the transfer of heat.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. circular fins. Nabati generation. as well as in environmental engineering. Although a wide variety of heat exchangers exists in the market. the present dissertation will concentrate in the commonly used compact heat exchanger. and drop shaped fins at both low and high Reynolds numbers. most calculations are based on empirical information from the manufacturers of these equipments. process like pulp and paper mills. This thesis is especially concerned with the enhancement in the steady state performance of pin finned-tube compact heat exchangers based on the concepts raised from new e-cooling technology.

1st order . Grid .Fluid + solid? Physics . There are few papers that studied the effect of different shape pin fins. It is therefore a challenge and of great interest to simulate such a flow with different pin fin morphologies using CFD-tools that are intended to be used for industrial applications.Isotheral . The study of fluid flow and heat transfer around pin fins in a rectangular channel having three dimensional complex fluid flows contributes also to the understanding of the flow and heat transfer mechanisms in industrial applications.3 illustrates that prior to a CFD-analysis. Figure 2.y+ . Nabati including the experimental studies of VanFossen [45] which investigated the heat transfer coefficients for staggered arrays of short pin fins.2nd order .Conjugate heat transfer Boundary Conditions Empirical Simulated Mapped Difference Scheme . Most of these studies investigated the cylindrical shaped pin fins.Thermal . Metzger et al [46] who studied the developing heat transfer in rectangular ducts with staggered arrays of short pin fins. Chyu and Goldstein [47] who used the mass transfer analogy to study the influence of an array of wallmounted cylinders. The objectives of this work are to explore the complex flow in this kind of channel and to evaluate and improve the methods for accurate prediction of flow and heat transfer characteristics in such generic cases for final use in more complex engineering applications.Mesh density .3rdorder Turbulence Model Reynolds-Averaged Approach Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Reynolds (Ensemble) Averaging Standard k-epsilon Model RNG k-epsilon Model Realizable k-epsilon Model Reynolds Stress Model Spalart-Allmaras Model Figure 2.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. several parameters should be considered and some decisions should be made.3 parameters to be considered and decisions to be taken and their inter-action prior to a CFD analysis 22 .

Figure 3-2 shows such fin with one dimensional characteristic. its temperature is assumed to be T∞. when the convective heat transfer coefficient is small. To show the essential features of fin behavior and introducing the basic definitions. The extended surface are classified as straight fins. Nabati Chapter 3 3 Governing Equations 3. Though this assumption is not very accurate. (a condition commonly encountered when the surrounding fluid is a gas) the rate of heat transfer can be increased appreciably by installing extended surface or fin on the surface.1 Different types of extended surfaces [9] Here we will focus on Pin-Fins which provide heat transfer augmentation via the repeated growth of laminar boundary layers. followed by dissipation in the wake regions. 23 . The convective heat transfer coefficient. h is supposed to be uniform along the whole length of the fin.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. we start with the analysis of a straight fin protruding from a wall. The temperature of the fin’s root is kept constant at T0. The fin body is cooled (or heated) by ambient air. annular or circumferential fins and spines or pin fins as shown in figure 3-1[9]. Figure 3.1 Basic fin theory and definitions Generally. we use it to formulate the fin behavior.

(T − T∞ ) x = 0 x +δx (3. Considering the negligible radiation heat transfer from fin surface and one dimensional conduction through the fin. x +δx dT dx + h . the energy balance on a thin differential element is performed as following: − kA.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. 24 . dT dx + kA.1) Which A is fins uniform cross-sectional area and P is its circumferential perimeter. Nabati Figure 3.( P.δ x).2 Analysis of one-dimensional fin [1] The temperature distribution along the fin is necessary to obtain its associated heat transfer.

6): 25 .2) (T − T ) ∞ x =0 = To − T∞ − kA d (T − T∞ ) dx = hL .(T − T∞ ) x = L x=L (3. A.e ± ( mL ) ξ which can be written in the following form to yield the general solution of equation (3. Nabati Rearranging the equation 3.4) To work with dimensionless parameters.Θ 2 dξ (3. then the Boundary conditions can be considered as: (T − T ) ∞ x =0 = To − T∞ − kA d (T − T∞ ) dx =0 x=L (3.1 yields: d 2 (T − T∞ ) h P = (T − T∞ ) dx 2 kA Boundary conditions for this equation are: (3.3) in these terms by multiplying it by L2/(To-T∞). (as it´s usual in fin literatures).5) h PL2 = mL kA We put equation (3.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. we use following substitutions: Θ= T − T∞ To − T∞ x L ξ= (3.3) For the case of negligible heat transfer at the fin tip( like an insulated tip).6) This equation is satisfied by Θ = C. The result is: d 2Θ = (mL) 2 .

the temperature drop along the axis of the fin becomes small. One of the most important design variables for a fin is the rate at which it removes (or delivers) heat the wall.10) εf = heat flux from the wall with the fin heat flux from the wall without the fin (3.e mLξ + C 2 .Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. But this 26 .5 is rearranged: L ) internal resisance in x direction kA (ml ) = = 1 gross external resistance ( ) h . Nabati Θ = C1 . are fin efficiency. εf [9]: actual heat transferred by a fin heat that would be transferred if the entire fin were at T = T0 ηf = (3. which are particularly useful in a fin design. To calculate this.( PL) ( 2 (3. ηf and fin effectiveness. It is obvious that the mL is a useful parameter in the analysis and design of fins. there is not a particular ηf which represents the best design.11) Though ηf provides some useful information on fin designing. If equation 3.7) C1 and C2 will be calculated according to boundary conditions and they are different in different cases. When it is small. Θ ξ =1 → 0 and tip convection can be neglected. On the other hand.9) x =0 Two other basic measures of fin performance. it seems that the effectiveness should be as high as possible which is always achievable by extending the length of the fin.8) When ( mL) 2 is big. the Fourier’s law for the heat flow into the base of the fin is written: Q = −kA d (T − T∞ ) dx (3.e − mLξ (3.

The last parameter that we are dealing with in this section is fin thermal resistance which is defined as the ratio of a temperature difference (as driving potential) to the corresponding heat transfer rate. we have [1]: Q= (To − T∞ ) ( kAh P . This might be a cost factor or it might be an important consideration in its own right. tanh(mL) for a straight fin (3.The weight of material added by the fin. flow velocity past the fin. 2.The pressure drop introduced by the fins”.The geometric configuration of the channel that the fin lies in. or other influences.13) 27 . For a straight fin with negligible heat transfer at its tip. subjected to many factors. 3.The influence of the fin (or fins) on the heat transfer coefficient. This means that the fin acts as a thermal resistance between the root and the surrounding ambient. 2. aluminum is more usual. as the fluid moves around it (or them). 5. because of its lower price and weight). when εf ≤ 2.Using fins in cases that the convection heat transfer coefficient (h) is low. however. Lienhard and Lienhard [1] have summarized some of them: “ 1. This is the reason for using thin fins in engineering applications. where h is less.T∞). The fin effectiveness can be increased by the following considerations: 1. tanh(mL)) −1 ≡ (To − T∞ ) Rt fin (3. For a reasonable design. 3.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. Nabati solution is a loosing proposition. 4.12) where: Rt fin = 1 kAh P . Fins are always used in the gas section. the cost and complexity of manufacturing fins. εf should be as big as possible and generally. h. Thus fin design is still an open-ended subject of optimizing.Selection of high conductive materials (such as copper and aluminum. there is no use for fins.The possible dependence of h on (T .Increase in the circumference to section area ratio.

The energy equation in the solid region is same as Eq. Based on these assumptions for steady state.16) ∂x j = α .h Rt fin = η f .Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. (3. incompressible turbulent flow.17) P is the modified kinematics pressure and u i′u ′j . the problem involves conjugate heat transfer and needs solution of the energy equations in the solid as well as the fluid regions.h = (3. Aroot . it is both due to conduction and convection. (3. Nabati Eq. The heat transfer in the fin and the base occurs due to conduction while in the fluid. Thus.∇ 2U i + (−u i′u ′j ) ∂x i ∂x j ∂ (−u ′ i θ ) ∂x j (3. The buoyancy effect is assumed to be negligible and the radiation heat transfer is not considered. Asurface .2 The instantaneous equations The governing equations and turbulence models used for analyzing the flow and heat transfer are introduced in the following section.17) except for the absence of convective terms.14) 3. 28 . the continuity.u i′θ constitute the Reynolds stresses and turbulent heat fluxes.∇ 2 T + (3. three dimensional. time averaged Navier-Stokes and energy equations are given by following correlations: ∂U ∂x ∂x j i i = 0 =− ∂P ∂ + ν .15) ∂ (U iU j ) ∂ (U j T ) (3.12) implies rate of the heat which the fin can remove from the wall. The relation between the fin thermal resistance and other fins parameter can be derived from foregoing equations as follows: 1 1 ε f . Theses two parameters should be modeled to close the system of equations.

5( ∂U i ∂U j ). and it is valid only when local isotropy in the turbulence field is assumed.19) u i′θ = − ν t ∂T σ t ∂x j In the above equations. ε is given by: ε =ν ∂u i′ ∂u i′ ∂x j ∂x j (3. vt=Cµk2ε−1.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. One important model is Two-equation model [12]. + ∂xi ∂x j In this category. (3. several models have been proposed to state the νt and therefore two unknowns u i′u ′j and u i′θ .18) (3.21) Thus. two-equation eddy-viscosity models require two additional transport equations for k and ε to solve the spatial and temporal variation of the local velocity scale and the length scale. l=k1. The most important models in this category are: Standard k-ε model Renormalization-group (RNG) k.5 . the turbulent eddy viscosity can be derived as. σt is the turbulent Pr number.S ij + δ ij k 3 (3. k is turbulent kinetic energy and S ij = 0. 29 . The Boussinesq assumption for u i′u ′j and u i′θ are given by: 2 u i′u ′j = −2ν t . In the first model the turbulent transport phenomenon is analogized to viscous transport and an eddy-viscosity for turbulence is introduced by Boussinesq assumption. νt is the eddy viscosity. This model implies that the length and velocity scales of the mean flow and of the turbulence are proportional and can be related by means of dimensional reasoning to turbulent kinetic energy (k) and its dissipation rate (ε): u=k0.20) Considering the above assumption. Nabati The most popular models to approximate u i′u ′j and u i′θ are the eddy-viscosity turbulence models and RSM (Reynolds Stress-Transport Model) [12].5ε−1.ε model Realizable k-ε model k-ω model • • • • More details about each model can be found in reference 18.

Rij ) ∂x j ∂U j ′ ∂u ′  νt  2 ∂U i 2 p′   ∂u i + j  = + . For non-isothermal 3-D turbulent flows.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. − ν δ ε ij ik jk ij  σk  ∂x k ∂x k 3 ρ    ∂x j ∂xi     (3.22) The ε is given by: ∂ (U j . Equation for the transport of Rij = u i′u ′j is given by: ∂ (U j . ∇ R − R R − . C R C = + ∇ − − ε 1 ik ε2  σε  k ∂x j k   (3. RSM is one of the most sophisticated tools currently used by engineers to predict turbulent flows with complex strain fields or significant body forces.ε ) ∂x k  νt  2 ∂U i ε ε2  ν ε . it is necessary to solve nine full partial differential transport equations for six unknown Reynolds stresses and three turbulent heat fluxes and one equation for transport of ε. 30 . Nabati The second model. RSM or a socalled second-moment model is based on modeled versions of the Reynolds stress transport equations. k is found by adding the three normal stresses.23) Also. The aim is to solve the two unknowns u i′u ′j and u i′θ when averaging NavierStokes equations. More details about the above model could be found in reference 18.

their generation and the boundary conditions associated with them. for rectangular pin-fin this parameter is considered as fin width). 10D as width and 10D as height. The heat exchanger domain consists of three connected channels: Entrance section. the streamwise pin spacing (∆) and the pin-tail length (Z). The chapter begins with description of the different pin-fin models and their geometry characteristics. The pin width (D) was kept constant at a value equal to 5 mm and was considered as a reference length scale.1. pin-fin section and exit section. The pin-fin section is composed of 8 solid pins that are attached to a solid rectangular volume which is considered as heat source. 31 . which are the subject of simulation presented in this thesis. Finally. the procedure used for simulation and other aspects of simulation are presented in the last section.2 and 4. The entrance section of the heat exchanger is composed of a rectangular duct having 40D as length. Three different pin-fin morphologies were investigated in this primary study. Nabati Chapter 4 4 Numerical Solution Procedure Chapter 4 presents the details of the different pin-fins. The main geometrical dimensions that characterize the heat exchanger are the pin height (H). rectangular and drop-shaped. 4.3 give more details on these parameters. This chapter also presents how a computational thermal model was developed and simulated for thermal analysis. The exit section is exactly the same as the entrance section. three models are considered. The pin-fin section consists eight rows of in-line pin-fins with axes perpendicular to the flow. Figures 4. Other sections introduce the different geometries. The total pin-fin area is equal for all pin-fins. the diameter of the cylindrical portion of the pin (D. as shown in Figure 4. Also the assumptions that were used to build the computational models are discussed here.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H.1 Model description In this thesis. Three different pin shapes are considered: cylindrical.

Drop-Shaped 32 .2 Studied morphologies: Cylindrical.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H.1 Heat exchanger domain D D D/2 L H H H Z Z Z Figure 4. Rectangular. Nabati 200mm Entrance Section 100mm Pin-Fin Section 50mm 50mm 200mm Exit Section Figure 4.

The model was constructed to study the sensitivity of different parameters on mesh quality. Drop-Shaped The entrance duct was constructed in front of the heat exchanger pin-fin section to ensure a fully developed laminar flow condition at the entrance to this section.4 First model for sensibility analysis 33 . Both the entrance and exit duct are assumed to be adiabatic. Figure 4.3 Studied morphologies: Cylindrical. An exit duct was also used to ensure well-mixed conditions at the exit plane.4 shows one of the initially studied models in this study. Rectangular.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. Figure 4. Nabati Z H Lo ∆ Lo Figure 4.

However. 4. This is shown in the presented study. This was impossible to do for the drop-shaped pin-fin due to practical matters. 34 . This ensured that the contact surface areas between fluid and fins were equal in all cases and the effect of fin morphology could be studied more easily. Nabati Most of the recent research has concentrated on circular pin fins.1 Cylindrical pin-fin The configuration of the pin is shown in Figure 4. This diameter was considered as a reference length scale. The cross section is a 5 mm circle. the surface area can easily calculated from the following formulas: Surface Area = Areas of top and bottom +Area of the side Surface Area = 2(Area of top) + (perimeter of top)* height Surface Area of cylindrical pin-fin = 2 × π × D2 + (π × D) . it is by no means clear that circular pin fins have the highest heat transfer or the lowest pressure drop. H 4 The calculated surface area was kept constant for all different fin morphologies. It is clear that cylinders with elliptic shaped cross section have lower resistance to the flow and lower friction factor than the circular ones. as well as a higher surface wetted area that can increase the heat transfer. 4. probably because they are easy to manufacture.5.2. Also the height of the pin (H) were kept constant for the rectangular pin-fin too.2. the details of different pin-fins' morphologies are as follows.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H.2 Pin-Fins' geometry Referring to figure 4. If we consider "H" as the height of the cylinder.

H + D.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H.5 Cylindrical pin-fin configurations 4. To calculate the steamwise dimension (Z). Surface Area of rectangular pin-fin = 2( D.Z + H .Z ) 35 . Nabati D H Figure 4. D and H respectively.2 Rectangular pin-fin The configuration of the pin is shown in Figure 4.6.e. the fin surface area was considered equal to cylindrical fin. i. Pin's width and height were considered with the same value of cylinder.2.

6 Rectangular pin-fin configuration 4. In addition. The distance between the center of the circle and the triangle apex is L. Similar to the previous case.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. The triangle edges are tangent to the circular arc. Its cross section consists of a circular leading edge that extends along 90+2×θ deg and a triangular trailing edge.3 Drop-shaped pin-fin The configuration of the pin is shown in Figure 4. Having the triangular portion of the pin will help increase the wetted surface area of the heat exchanger leading to a major increase in the heat transfer and the efficiency.2. the surface area is equal to the value of cylindrical pin-fin. Nabati Z D H Figure 4.7. 36 .

When a grid containing this type of wall zone is imported into FLUENT©.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H.3 Boundary conditions 4. H Figure 4. which helps decrease the friction factor and the flow resistance leading to a major decrease in the pressure loss. a "shadow" zone will automatically be 37 .1 Pins No special boundary condition was applied to pins.7 Drop-shaped pin-fin configuration 4. Since the each pin has a fluid on one side and the solid region on the other side.3. Nabati it delays the separation in comparison with the circular cross section. it is called a "two-sided wall".

4 Inlet The inlet air temperature was set to 290 K. which was set based on the wetted surface area.2 Bottom Wall The bottom wall was kept at a constant temperature of 420 K.3.3. 4. select the Coupled option under Thermal Conditions. Ux=Uy=Uz=0. Note that the resistance parameters you set for one side of the wall will automatically be assigned to its shadow wall zone. Nabati created so that each side of the wall is a distinct wall zone. Figure 4. 4. (This option will appear in the Wall panel only when the wall is a two-sided wall.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. because the solver will calculate heat transfer directly from the solution in the adjacent cells. The inlet and exit side walls have the same properties as the same properties as the pin-fin section ones.3 Side Walls The side walls were modeled to be adiabatic with zero heat flux. The no slip condition was applied and zero velocity in the tree direction (Ux=Uy=Uz=0) was used. To couple the two sides of the pin-fin. the shadow zone's name will be shown in the Shadow Face Zone field. In the Wall panel. 38 . Since it is a rigid boundary the no slip condition was applied leading to a zero velocity in the 3 directions. 4.3. The inlet velocity depends on the chosen Reynolds number.) No additional thermal boundary conditions are required.3. You couple the two zones (which is the default parameter.8 gives an idea of the boundary conditions implemented.5 Outlet The outlet boundary condition was set to out flow. when you open the panel for boundary condition). 4.

By keeping the pin-fin surface area at a constant value. the thermal equation. the resulting data can be easily evaluated by the Fluent postprocessor. The air then passes through the pin-fin section composed of 8 rows of pin fins.4 Simulations A commercial finite volume analysis package. Vx= Vy= Vz=0 Velocity Inlet Side Walls q = 0. was selected to perform numerical analysis on the model.2) software and the models data were passed to the FLUENT© software for various analyses. After the pin-fin section. The first part is a smooth entrance duct upstream of the pin-fin section having the same cross section as the test section and long enough to provide a fully developed flow condition at the entrance to the heat exchanger. three configurations could be investigated and the optimum configuration giving the highest heat transfer and the lowest 39 . air flows through a smooth exit section design to prevent boundary condition feedback into the test section.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. Once the analyses are completed. FLUENT©. Vx= Vy= Vz=0 TH = 420K Figure 4. The model is composed of three parts.1. Nabati Side Walls q = 0. The governing equations solved by Fluent are the Navier-Stokes equations combined with the continuity equation. and constitutive property relationships. The finite volume models were constructed using Gambit (Version 1.8 Model's view with boundary conditions Out flow 4.

as shown in Figure 4.2 Solution Technique All flows were specified as steady state and incompressible.9 Sample Model meshing 40 . This study can be extended easily by changing other parameters and studying the resulting effects. and also between the pins to capture the flow acceleration due to the decrease in the cross section area. Nabati pressure loss could be determined. Meshing was also refined in some critical areas to ensure coverage for satisfactory resolution.1 Numerical Mesh To mesh the model. 4.9. Grid independence was always verified. The Segregated 3D solver with an implicit formulation was set to solve the models Figure 4. It was refined near the no slip walls where velocity and temperature gradients were expected to be high. 4.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. hexahedral 8-node element spacing was specified along the boundary and swept later to cover the entire model volume. The standard k-ε turbulence model with standard wall function was set for each model. A result was considered valid if the model outlet temperature matched the calculated outlet temperature using an energy balance method to within 2%.4.4. Nodes were also concentrated around the pins to account for the change of the velocity and temperature gradient and pressure drop.

3.2 Characteristic Length The characteristic length was selected as the distance between the leading edge of pinfin section and the first met point of the first pin fin.2) 41 . Dh: xe ≅ 0.3.1 Model Validation Several checks were performed in order to verify the generated results.3). This could result in a diverging solution and was corrected by increasing the reference pressure and/or relaxing the modified inertia criteria. The conservation of mass was verified by comparing the inlet and outlet mass flow rate to ensure that the mass balance is achieved. The energy flow into and out of the system at the flow boundaries were ensured to be equal to the total energy added at the hot wall. 4. The result file generated by Fluent upon completion of each run was carefully examined and analyzed.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. refer to fig 4. a mass imbalance could occur.1) For turbulent flows.3 Entry Length If significant gradients are calculated near a boundary. The contour plots for velocity. Nabati 4.4.03 Re D [1] Dh Laminar flow (4. 4.4. when we move in Z direction(Lo. temperature and pressure were observed separately to ensure that the results satisfy the boundary conditions.4. this length can be calculated using the hydraulic diameter. Three orders of magnitude of convergence was maintained for each solution in order to ensure accuracy of the results. For laminar flow.3. this length is shorter [1].4. This is due to the implied condition of fully developed flow for a constant pressure boundary. Dh is defined as: Dh = 4 × cross − sectional area wetted perimeter (4. Computational errors both in pressure drop and heat transfer measurements were commonly encountered.3 Test Approach 4.

U .1000. A simple calculation of the outlet bulk temperature based on the energy balance was performed to verify the result obtained directly from FLUENT©. The outlet bulk temperature based on energy balance was determined as follows: Tbulk .m ρ.1 shows the test matrix that was used.4) 4. Rectangular. Drop-shaped 4.out = Tbulk .A Test Matrix (4. characteristic velocity.6 Data Analysis Crucial results like total heat transfer rate.C P m (4. Nabati 4.3.out + Q & .Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. Table 4.5) 42 .3.5 A range of studies was conducted based on the three-dimensional model of pin-fins with different morphologies.4.3. Variable ReD Fin Morphology Values 500.Dh µ (4.4.3000. Table 4. inlet and outlet bulk temperature. and hydraulic diameter.4.4 Reynolds Number The Reynolds number is defined in terms of the properties of the fluid.5000. The Nusselt number and friction factor of the pin-fins array were calculated using heat transfer relationships. The pins surface area for all computation simulations was kept constant with varying Reynolds number.3) Where : U = & . 10000. 50000 Cylinderical. The Reynolds number is defined as: Re D = ρ . pressure drop and mass flow rate were obtained from the FLUENT© output results.1 Test configurations.

D h 1 .out − Twall ) Tbulk .4.L 2 (4.in − Twall ) − (Tbulk .9) Where L is the overall streamwise length of the pin-fin array.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H.D h k (4.8 Friction Factor Calculation The friction factor in the array was calculated using the following definition: f = ∆Pfins .out − Twall (4.∆Tlm (4.3. 43 .4.7) And the log mean temperature difference: ∆Tlm = (Tbulk .8) 4.6) Where the heat transfer coefficient: h= Q A.ρ . Nabati 4.U 2 . The Nusselt number was defined as: Nu D = h .in − Twall ln( ) Tbulk .7 Nusselt Number Calculations The Nusselt number gives the ratio of actual heat transferred of the pin-fins array by the moving fluid to the equivalent heat transfer that would occur by conduction.3.

1).1 Nusselt number versus Reynolds number 44 .Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. 5. several key performance indicators were examined to understand the heat transfer characteristics and trends for each pin-fin configuration and Reynolds number. Nabati Chapter 5 5 Results and Discussion Upon completion of all the test runs. Figure 5.1 shows Nusselt number plotted against Reynolds number on a logarithmic scale for all pin-fin configurations. The graph in Figure 5. From this figure it was evident that Nusselt number could be correlated as a power law function such as Equation (5.1 Nusselt number The Nusselt number was calculated for each test configuration.

It can be readily 45 .(Re D − b) c Coefficient Data: a= b= c= Rectangular. it is also apparent that Nusselt number is sensitive for flow regime. from Figure 5. Turbulent flow regime: Shifted Power Fit: Nu D = a.3) Coefficient Data: a = -252. there is a sharp increase in NuD for all configurations.1) 4.63549 b = 33.b Re D .1. Turbulent flow regime: Logarithm Fit: Nu D = a + b.9120403 4946.2) Coefficient Data: a= b= c= 127. Nabati Moreover.041831821 7000 < Re < 60000 Drop-shaped.88763 1.0000086 -0.2 Friction factor The friction factor results have been plotted for three configurations in a similar manner. The rectangular is more sensitive than the others. The drop-shaped pin-fin has the minimum NuD among all morphologies. The correlation for Nusselt numbers were derived as follows: Cylindrical.29401445 7000 < Re < 60000 Hoerl Model: Nu D = a. These observations led to the conclusion that during the flow regime change.4338 0. Re D c (5.607692 5000 < Re < 60000 5.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. Turbulent flow regime: (5.2 shows friction factor plotted against Reynolds number. The graph in Figure 5. ln(Re D ) (5.

This increment is smoother for circular pins.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. It can be seen that for Drop-shaped pin-fins. Figure 5. all graphs tend to converge to a common value. It should be noted here that the H/D ratio for drop-shaped pin-fins is smaller than the other ones (but wetted surface area is equal for all). flow is accelerated in pin-fin section which could cause more friction and pressure drop. There is a sharp increase in friction factor for non circular morphologies during the changing of flow regime. This behavior can be reasoned by noticing the figure 5.3. Nabati seen that the friction factor varied greatly with changes in ReD and in the high Reynolds numbers.2 Friction factor 46 .

Turbulent flow regime: Modified Exponential: f = a. relationships for the behavior of friction factor as a function of Reynolds and morphologies were examined. Horizontal Surface.b Re D .Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. Turbulent flow regime: Hoerl Model: f = a. In order to derive such a model. there may be cases where a simpler mathematical model is desired for programming. Nabati Figyre 5. Y=75 mm) As with Nusselt number.e Coefficient Data: a= b= c= b Re D 0.29401445 Exponential: 5000 < Re < 60000 Modified y=a*e^(b/x) Rectangular. Re D Coefficient Data: c 47 . Cylindrical.025528048 6778.9745 0.3 Velocity contour (ReD = 10000.

It is evident that the pins are affecting this temperature 48 . Additionally. Ultimately. The pins improve heat transfer rate due to the addition of their own surface area. The first one implies the laminar flow regime and the second one shows the turbulent flow regime. As previously stated. pin-fins have been introduced in the planar duct in order to enhance overall heat transfer performance. These data provide opportunities to evaluate the relative contributions of both the pin-fin surface to the total heat transfer problem and identify other regions of interest.01874 b = 1. it is possible to observe the changes in heat transfer coefficient based on location on the pins. and also by increasing flow turbulence levels. Figure 5.b Re D .4 provides a contour plot indicating the contour of the heat transfer coefficient on the iso horizontal surface exactly choosed in the middle of pins body of the array as the flow moves from inlet to outlet. Nabati a= b= c= 544.0000214 c =-1.0000162 -0.25107 1. Re D C Coefficient Data: a = 697. Turbulent flow regime: Hoerl Model: f = a.0321644 3000 < Re < 60000 5.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. the numerical solution for the different configurations has been used to probe the local heat transfer behavior in the array in detail. In this section. these observations can lead to improve heat exchanger performance.3 Heat transfer One of the unique advantages of a numerical study is the ability to obtain detailed local heat transfer coefficient values at any point in the test array.97799842 3000 < Re < 60000 Drop-shaped. thereby giving rise to better transport rates. results for two different Reynolds number are presented: 1000 and 50000. In the current section.

but in a vertical surface. In addition. there is no difference between main base temperature and pin-fins' surface temperature which is an enhancing tool for heat transfer. Horizontal surface (ReD =1000. The heat transfer coefficient has the highest value in the drop-shaped pins and the lowest in the rectangular. Recirculation acts as a wall preventing the fresh air contributes in heat transfer. This recirculation reduced in the cylindrical and drop-shaped arrays. this clearly illustrates the beneficial effect that turbulence from the pins has on the base heat transfer performance. flow has reached the fully developed conditions more quickly than the others. The other important point is that because of high conductivity of copper.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. The reason is that there is strong recirculation flow between pins in the rectangular pin-fins.5 provides a temperature contour like the previous figure. Y= Cte) Figure 5. It is obvious that in the drop-shaped pin-fins. Here it is more clear that heat transfer coefficient is higher between drop-shaped pin-fin arrays. 49 .4 Temperature distribution. Figure 5. Nabati distribution.

Nabati Figure 5.8 consist of different plots showing the temperature distribution in different parts of solution. where there is a small difference between outlet temperatures. Vertical surface (ReD =1000. In the first plot.6 to 5.5 Temperature distribution. X= Cte) Figures 5.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. the temperature distribution seems nearly same for all three cases. The difference is less than 1°C. 50 .

6 Temperature distribution. Nabati Figure 5.7 Temperature distribution. Z= Cte) Figure 5. Z= Cte) 51 . Outlet surface (ReD =1000. First pin (ReD =1000.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H.

Z= Cte) Temperature distribution in surfaces cutting the first and last pins are illustrated in figures 5. but for different Reynolds number. In this case.8 Temperature distribution. 52 . One important point is that the fin temperature has the highest average value for the rectangular morphology and the lowest one for the drop-shaped morphology. The figures show that for drop-shaped fins the temperature distribution is much smoother.8.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. This means that temperature difference between fin surface and impingement air is larger in drop-shaped pins which gives better convection heat transfer. The following figures (5. last pin (ReD =1000.9-13) are drawn for the same morphologies. Nabati Figure 5. the flow regime is fully turbulence.7 and 5. obviously. air temperature levels are more higher at the last pin.

10 Temperature distribution. Vertical surface (ReD =50000. Horizontal surface (ReD =50000. Y= Cte) Figure 5.9 Temperature distribution. Y= Cte) 53 .Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. Nabati Figure 5.

Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. Z= Cte) 54 . First pin (ReD =50000. Nabati Figure 5. Z= Cte) Figure 5.11 Temperature distribution.12 Temperature distribution. Outlet surface (ReD =50000.

It is seen that the pressure loss is higher in the rectangular pins. But figures show that generated mesh needs more refining to have more reliable data. Z= Cte) Another interesting observation is that if we do not consider the pressure loss effects and just look for more cooled fins.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. The drop-shaped pin fins have the least pressure loss. Nabati Figure 5.13 Temperature distribution. 55 . the rectangular pins could be a good choice. The reason is that in this configuration flow particles follow a smoother path line. last pin (ReD =50000.

Outlet (ReD =50000.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H.14 Total pressure distribution. Z= Cte) 56 . Nabati Figure 5.

Nabati Chapter 6 6 Conclusion Remarks 6. Figure 6.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H.7mm was the least desirable. [17] various heat exchanger configurations can be readily evaluated and compared by plotting the heat transfer coefficient versus friction power on a suitable unit surface area basis. A typical plot is provided in Figure 6. X =0. As recommended by Kays and London. 57 .1 Optimization One of the goals of this study was to predict optimal heat exchanger design configurations that would maximize heat transfer rate while minimizing frictional losses in the flow. X = 12.25. The case of H/D = 0.1.1 Optimization of configuration performance [17] This highlights the need for careful heat exchanger design in order to verify and fully realize the benefits of using pin-fins for performance enhancement.75mm provided the greatest heat transfer rate per friction power while the case of H/D = 1.

but is more dense and uniform due to the same treatment in the whole length of the mould. This process is very similar to several other manufacturing techniques. The basic process in the HCC involves the flow of the molten material in a mould.2 Horizontal continuous casting as a production method One of the major issues in most industries is the way which in that the product is manufactured. In addition. It should be mentioned here that there is a distinction between completely continuous and semi-continuous casting processes. such as fiberglass drawing. and comparing the friction power required for each configuration. since it offers several advantages. In the latter case. the continuous casting is essentially an automatic process which results in the less labor cost for the production unit. Continuous casting is a very important manufacturing process. which is often water cooled. 58 . Horizontal continues casting (HCC) is one of the main methods for producing different forms of metals. which involves complex interaction phenomena. The microstructure of the metals processed by continuous casting is dendrite (as in casting in an enclosed region). but the operational characteristics are same as what is mentioned above. Dies (or moulds) are made from copper or graphite and they are simple and inexpensive. These characteristics make HCC as an attractive production method for pin fins. A general review of the results shows that a drop-shaped pin-fin array has the better heat transfer in combination with the lowest pressure loss. With equal pin-fin surface area for all morphologies. Nabati The significance in the difference in performance of the different configurations can be quantified by choosing a specific heat transfer coefficient.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. the cylindrical pins have the maximum volume which increases the weight. Generally. This is another factor that should be considered for optimization. The continuous casting method implies that a strand of solid metal continuously is drawn out from the chill-mould at the same time as the chill-mould continuously is fed with new melt from upstream. Rectangular pins have the minimum weight. the length of the strand is limited. plastic extrusion and Czochralski crystal growing. particularly for metals. This results in the solidification of the liquid across a phase interface and finally the solidified ingot is withdrawn at a uniform velocity. which is a benefit from weight point of view. followed by a high cooling rate in the downstream. 6.

Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. especially strip. The tundish not only makes a smooth molten flow. but also acts as a reservoir of metal while it is necessary to change the empty ladle with a full one. Strand then is passed to a spray-chamber where a large amount of water is sprayed on it to accelerate the solidification rate. 49]. This process is used mainly for copper alloys and cast iron. The strand movement is carried by two water-cooled rollers. solidification starts from the sections close to the mold walls. in order to cut the casting at constant lengths. Several big and small companies have started producing and manufacturing pin fin tubes. Depending on the casting speed and strand size. the mold oscillates vertically. The mold walls themselves are cooled in most cases by water.2 Overall geometry of horizontal continuous casting unit Aluminum and copper can be easily cast into near net shape. It seems that pin fins production could be done directly by using this method. Nabati a saw is set up after the withdrawal rolls. the mold height can range from 0. After exiting the spray-chamber. Then the molten metal flows through a tundish into the crucible (or mold) which has different designs according to each factory special consideration. The process mechanism is as following: First the rough metal is melted in a furnace and transferred to a foundry ladle where some primary treatments like alloying takes place. Outokumpu as one of leading companies in metal sheet and tube producing has extensive tendency for 59 . The molten metal discharge section is placed below surface of the slag layer in the mold to make a more pure molten flow. Since it is possible that the molten metal sticks to the mold walls. But the shape of the fins will affect greatly on production procedure and there is need to find a novel configuration for cooling and solidifying section.2 illustrates schematically the HCC process. due to their lower melting temperatures [48. a strand is shaped with its core is still in the molten state. Figure 6.5 m to 2 m [48]. Figure 6. After formation of molten walls. In the mold. the strand passes through straightening and withdrawal rolls and is finally cut into predefined lengths according to customers’ requirements [48].

Based on this comparison. 5. 6. 60 . A paper discussing on improvement in the productivity and quality in the horizontal continuous casting process is included at the end of thesis.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. Also based on the results.3 Future work This thesis could be considered as an introductory study to illustrate the utility of computational flow analysis in the analysis and optimization of heat transfer in pipes with different shapes of pin fin. an experimental investigation had been carried out to support numerical results.More in depth investigating on pin fins production methods including the HCC as a novel and economically method. 6.Different materials can be used as conjunction between pin-fin and tube. 4. The aim was to find out a correlation between these casting parameters and the casting quality. 3. flow rate. After a first numerical 2D/3D survey about the solidification in the HCC. Further and more complete studies are needed to quantify the design parameters for pin fins. a set of operating parameters has been proposed. This is needed for applying a proper wall function to numerical model.Studying of axial pitch and pin height ratio effects on performance. the best parameters for numerical procedure will be obtained and further numerical studies for other pin fin geometries can be done and results are reliable without any need to build another test rig. Effect of material on heat transfer phenomena could be studied (Fig 6.Mesh refining to get more reliable results. To obtain the best quality for each alloy. This paper is a result from experimental works made at Outokumpu R&D. The author PhD study in fact started with support of Outokumpu Company to work and expand this idea. Nabati producing such kind of tube and innovating the production method for it.Comparison of numerical results with one real model. heat flux and casting temperature. Most important are: 1.5). There was a very good agreement between the current results and earlier numerical results. one can gain an insight on the productions of each casting machine and the grades of their quality.Morphology study and simulation of different pin fins geometries and arrangements should be conducted. Some casting parameters have been measured and collected: inlet and outlet temperatures. 2.

5 Conjunction material for future studies 7 For PhD thesis it is planed to joint this study with more industrial applications to make the proposed technique applicable in industry as well as the finding an optimum method for pin fins manufacturing by HCC method. The site data will be used for data verification for numerical model.4 3-D view of a pin-finned tube for future studies Pin-Fin Conjunction Material Figure 6. Optimization and characteristics studies will be carried out through these real cases. first the real case will be modeled numerically and the model results are verified using the existing or measured data. Nabati Figure 6. 61 .3 One possible arrangement for future study Figure 6.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. then optimized design study using pin fin technology will be done based on verified numerical model obtained in previous stage. To achieve this goal.

Moshfegh. E. K.1994. [10] F. Bill L. Nyiredy. Performance characteristics of industrial finned tubes presented in dimensional form. Ltd. Bill L. Phlogiston Press. 15th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference. MA. [6] Myung Ki Sung. Intel Technology Journal Q3.ebigchina. 1990. 1986. [9] G. pp. and Zhu.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. 2002.. [12] B. 3rd ed.G. 2000. Thermal Performance of an Elliptical Pin Fin Heat Sink. Tenth IEEE Semi-TherMP . http://greeht. 29. Int. April 29. F. D. C. Australia 13-17 December 2004. 8. Tenth IEEE Semi-TherMP . The University of Sydney. Seri Lee. Feb. 1119-1125. Numerical and Experimental Study of The Performance of a DropShaped Pin Fin Heat Exchanger. 59-63. of Zhuhai website. Seri Lee. Thermal Performance of an Elliptical Pin Fin Heat Sink. D. John H. Chapman. The combined effects of longitudinal heat conduction. Introduction to Heat Transfer. [2] ECN Magazine. vol. 2000. R. Journal of Mass and Heat Transfer. Natural convection heat transfer on finned tubes in air. Chapman. [13] Kröger. IN. vol.N. Wakharkar. A heat transfer textbook. P. [7] Christopher L. 2001 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition. [3] R. 2000. Viswanath. [14] Hahne. V. Schmidt. 2000. Feb.. Thermal Performance of an Elliptical Pin Fin Heat Sink. Numerical Simulation of a Pin-Fin Heat Sink with Air Impingement. and Seetharamu. Hemisphere Publishing Corporation. [4] Gree Thermo-Tech Co. Cambridge. Schmidt. 37. inlet fluid flow nonuniformity and temperature nonuniformity in compact 62 .com/ [5] Christopher L. Comparing RANS Models for Flow and Thermal Analysis of Pin Fin Heat Sinks. 2003. Incropera. Bill L. Lienhard V. P. Thermal Performance Challenges from Silicon to Systems. Hemisphere Handbook of Heat Exchanger Design. Copper Heat Sinks Provide A Cooling Premium. Chapman. Proceedings of IMEC 2002. Dewitt. Hewitt. [11] Jihed Boulares . 2005. Nabati 8 References [1] Lienhard IV. 2002. Int. Tenth IEEE Semi-TherMP . NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey. Fourth Edition. West Lafayette. no. Master Thesis. [15] Ranganayakulu. John H.. July 2002. USA. Seri Lee. Journal of Mass and Heat Transfer. Sydney. pp. Schmidt. California. [8] Christopher L. D.. Feb.

1980. pp. An Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics : The Finite Volume Method Approach. no. [18] H.. Y. 1082-1096.A. pp.. [19] Bergles. Y. C. no.. [27] Rustum. 42. 1984. Heat transfer enhancement in latent heat thermal energy storage system by using the internally finned tube. 1988.. 532-538. Journal of Mass and Heat Transfer.M. Journal of Mass and Heat Transfer.. no.M. and Prakash.M. New York.. [24] Zhang. Conjugate heat transfer in a channel with staggered ribs. 1987. A comparison of the heat transfer and friction factor performance of four different types of artificially roughened surface. 1143-1156.E.L. 1985. 598-604. [21] Zhang. pp. Journal of Mass and Heat Transfer. 58-65. Experimental investigation of laminar mixed convection in tubes with longitudinal fins. 8. 1994.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. pp. Journal of Heat Transfer vol.R. 63 . Heat transfer and friction in rectangular channels with ribbed or ribbed-grooved walls. 175-183. 1987. 102. 263-273.Z. vol. and Faghri. pp. 1996. Compact Heat Exchangers. 1999. 3rd Ed. Int. Nabati tube. 3rd Ed.C.. 1983. including effects of baffles. J. [23] Webb. 30. 1978.. P.M.W. Gu. A. L. G. 39. 1679-1687. Malalasekra. February. W.. 28. I. vol..S. no. Versteeg.J. W. [16] Idem. H. 3165-3173. May.J. and Ramadhyani.. and Meyer. A. Glicksman. Int. J. and Han. Gonzalez. and London. T.. and Soliman. vol. vol. and Goldschmidt. 26. Prentice Hall. Analysis of laminar flow and heat transfer in the entrance region of an internally finned concentric circular annular duct. vol.. Int. vol. L. S.. Analysis of laminar heat transfer in internally finned tubes with uniform outside wall temperature. C. [22] Han.M. Journal of Mass and Heat Transfer. Journal of Heat Transfer. pp. W. 21. Int. 15. Chau. vol. B. 1988. 2. 109. 116. November. [25] Soliman. vol. 110. and Rohsenow. Journal of Heat Transfer. 9. Some perspectives on enhanced heat transfer – second generation heat transfer technology. An investigation of heat transfer and friction for rib-roughened surfaces. [20] Firth.C. W. vol. V. pp. 110. November. Journal of Heat Transfer... Performance of air-towater copper finned-tube heat exchangers at moderately low air-side Reynolds numbers. May. pp. H.C.W.. Journal of Heat Transfer. pp. 1733-1741. 366-372. R. A. A.fin heat exchangers: a finite element method. S. Jung. McGraw-Hill. [17] Kays. Journal of Mass and Heat Transfer. pp. Journal of Mass and Heat Transfer. [26] Renzoni. pp.. Int. and Trupp. Int.M. 1996. vol.

1985. V.S. 970974. C. pp.L. vol. Journal of Heat Transfer. C. and Scott. 101. pp. 38-43. J. Augmentation of horizontal in-tube condensation by means of twisted-type inserts and internally finned tubes. pp. vol. no.. vol. Int.L. and Webb. M.M.L. [33] Kelkar. 1979. Advanced micro. 1990. pp. 17-24. 7. Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. S.J.. no. vol. Lukes. Nabati [28] Rustum. 107. pp. and Dessiatoun. Journal of Heat Transfer. Journal of Heat Transfer vol. May. 39. [39] Royal.L. 64 . C. R. 1996.M. R. [38] Chou. Int. pp. 115. Journal of Mass and Heat Transfer. 4. pp. F.Y. and Soliman. and Wang. 121. Journal of Heat Transfer..V. 1996. [31] Kim N. Ohadi. Journal of Mass and Heat Transfer.E. 9.M. 1996. vol.R. pp. Condensation of R-12 in small hydraulic diameter extruded aluminium tubes with and without micro. 342-348. and Tien. February. Ivanovic.52 mm microfin/smooth tube.. Analysis of turbulent flow and heat transfer in internally finned tubes and annuli. 1980. pp.M. L. pp. and Sparrow... 39.. A.M and Webb.. 100. E. Int. [34] Chamra. pp. 2559-2569. Analytical prediction of the friction and heat transfer for turbulent flow in axial internal fin tubes. 33... and Patankar. 1839-1846. Journal of Heat Transfer. 112. vol. vol.. 1993. 553-559. M. 29-37. 1485-1496. [29] Patankar. February. 791-800. [32] Carey. Numerical prediction of fluid flow and heat transfer in a circular tube with longitudinal fins interrupted in the streamwise direction.C. I. 497-499. [30] Webb.V. R.M.L. no. 1990.. S. 102. [36] Kuo. no. and Webb. 1978. 1996. 12. [35] Yang. Journal of Heat Transfer. Int. vol. 118. 1999. J. K. A. February. In-tube evaporation of HCFC-22 in a 9. vol. vol. 39. November. 972-977.H.. May. R. Journal of Heat Transfer.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. pp. Numerical analysis of laminar mixed convection in horizontal internally finned tubes.C.. November. [37] Singh. A parametric analysis of the performance of internally finned tubes for heat exchanger application. August. C.P.fins. Surface tension effects on convective boiling heat transfer on compact heat exchangers with offset strip fins. M..fin tubes for condensation. S. Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. Journal of Heat Transfer vol. Heat transfer enhancement by fins in the microscale regime. and Bergles. H. Flow boiling heat transfer coefficients of R134a in a microfin tube.

C.Y.. 0. 114..C. Carrothers. 118. 1991.F.org/wiki/Continuous_casting [49] Tsutomu NOZAKI. pp. pp. Cheng. 20. 116. T. vol. E. pp. W.G. 27. 118. Thermal rating of transformers . pp.. [48] Wikipedia. 1961.. Journal of Engineering for Power. 1996. Transformer Components and Accessories. Heikal. Journal of Heat Transfer. Optimum design of radiating rectangular plate fin array extending from a plane wall. [44] Wang.. and Tanda. Developing Heat Transfer in Rectangular Ducts with Staggered Arrays of Short Pin Fins. Morris . Rev. pp. J. vol.com. M. vol. 700-706. K. P.. 2000 [52] Iran Transfo Corporation Documents. R.N.. Mufuta. A. Heat-Transfer Coefficients for Staggered Arrays of Short Pin Fins. Appl. August. Thermal Energy.A. R.. vol.. the free encyclopedia. Int. vol. 104. K.no. 19191924. and Cowell. J. vol. [41] Krishnaprakas. Vol.Q. [46] Metzger. Journal of Heat Transfer. G.-M. 1982 [47] Chyu.R. Journal of Heat Transfer. 1982. 1987 [50] M . Horizontal Continuous Casting Processes..2175-2186.K. J. Document No. http://en. 42. Bronson. [45] VanFossen. 34. Q. Seiji ITOYAMA. A thermodynamic method for the comparison of plate-fin heat exchanger performance.. Drakulic. IEEE. D. Berry. A heat transfer and friction correlation for wavy fin-and-tube heat exchangers. 1998. Nabati [40] Xiao. and Tao. Two. 490-493. [42] Tagliafico. J. Modeling of the mixed convection in the windings of a disc-type power transformer. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. pp 1564-1570. E. pp. C. Experimental study on effect of interwall tube cylinder on heat/mass transfer characteristics of corrugated plate fin-and-tube exchanger configuration. N. Jang. L. vol. May... Sep. August. 1999. www. R. pp. M. T. 1996. Journal of Heat Transfer. 2005.104. Influence of an Array of Wall-Mounted Cylinders on the Mass Transfer from a Flat Surface. 40634080.iran-transfo. [51] J. B. pp. Goldstein. 755-759...The State of the Art and Future Trends. 417-437.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. Transactions 'Sri.9. Van den Bulck. [43] Atkinson.wikipedia. 268-274. 65 . vol. 1992. E.and three dimensional numerical models of flow and heat transfer over louvered fin arrays in compact heat exchangers. 41. G. 805-809. TA0080. Vol. Journal of Mass and Heat Transfer. Int. Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. pp. and Chiou.

Contributions from Hamid Nabati: Main author. Data collection. Vienna. The data and conclusions of a study like this can be applied to the design of gas turbine blades. Nabati 9 Papers Summary Paper 1: "Numerical Study of Thermal Performance of Different Pin-Fin Morphologies" Nabati H. 2008... The heat exchanger used for this research consists of a rectangular duct fitted with pin fins. Modeling. Austria. parameters identification and analysis in collaboration with Jafar Mahmoudi 66 . This improvement is mainly due to the increased wetted surface area of the drop pins. Contributions from Hamid Nabati: Main author. and is heated from the lower plate. The efficiency of the air-side heat transfer is a primary consideration when determining the best heat exchanger for a particular application. Setup and planning of the morphologies selection in collaboration with Jafar Mahmoudi This paper presents the results of numerical study of heat transfer in a heat exchanger. Trondheim. Submitted to the Journal of Applied Energy for publication. A numerical study using fluent was conducted to select the optimum pin shape considering maximizing the heat transfer and minimizing the pressure drop across the heat exchanger... Mahmoudi J. especially in the recovery boiler which is the heart of the pulp and paper mill. The pulp and paper industry consumes a noticeable portion of all the primary energy consumed in the industrial countries manufacturing. It can also be used in the design of electronic components. considering three different morphology pin fins. Mahmoudi J. Norway. This study also demonstrated that numerical models backed with experimental analysis can reduce both the time and money required to create and evaluate engineering concepts. Mahmoudi J. Surface enhancement using pin fins could be a promising method to overcome the described problem as well as maintenance efforts. This paper is trying to introduce a new concept in heat exchanger design which is originated from new e-cooling technology to improve energy efficiency. the Fifth International IMACS Symposium on Mathematical Modeling(5th MATHMOD).Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. simulations and calculations. 2005. Modeling and simulations. Contributions from Hamid Nabati: Main author. Paper 3: "Numerical Modeling of a Plane Radiator Used in a Power Transformer Cooling System" Nabati H. 2006.. Vienna University of Technology. Study's results have shown the drop-shaped pinfins have a better heat transfer performance comparing to the two other cylindrical and triangular morphologies. 46th Conference on Simulation and Modeling (SIMS 2005). discussion on pulp and paper industry in collaboration with Jafar Mahmoudi A large number of different heat exchangers are used in a pulp and paper mills. The results indicate that the drop shaped pin fins yield a better treatment in heat transfer and pressure loss compared to the other pin fins. especially blades that operate at extremely high temperatures.. Paper 2: "Optimal Pin Fin Heat Exchanger Surface for Pulp and Paper Industry" Nabati H. February 8 – 10. especially those that deal with fluid flow and heat transfer. modeling and simulations. and the delay in the flow separation as it passes the more streamlined drop shaped pin fins.

The numerical study using fluent software has been conducted to find the explanation of low cooling efficiency in this especial power transformer currently used in industry. PP. Nabati H.. 2008. Also based on symmetrical property of radiator. Contributions from Hamid Nabati: Main author. There is a very good agreement between the current results and earlier numerical results. The obtained results show that the heat transfer in ONAF state is in acceptable level. Number 2. an experimental investigation has been carried out to support numerical results. Some casting parameters have been measured and collected: inlet and outlet temperatures. Also based on the results. 185-189. Our main objective is the study of current situation of cooling system and its characteristics to show us the weakness points of installed cooling system. International Journal of Green Energy. a numerical study has been conducted for radiator model in both ONAN and ONAF states. Our main desire is the study of relation between radiator block characteristics and cooling behavior of system which can be used for its optimization in the future studies. there is a need to cool the transformer to preserve it from destruction. flow rate. . just one quarter of it. one can gain an insight on the productions of each casting machine and the grades of their quality. but the oil flowing passage needs some correction and optimization. To obtain the best quality for each alloy. Data collection. 67 . Submitted to the Journal of Applied Energy for publication.. After a first numerical 2D/3D survey about the solidification in the HCC. Each block radiator consists of eighteen plane radiators which are parallel together and a typical power transformer (like a 30MVA) has 6 radiator blocks in each side which means it has 12 blocks totally. parameters identification and analysis in collaboration with Jafar Mahmoudi This paper presents the results of numerical modeling of temperature distribution and flow pattern in a block radiator used in power transformer cooling system. In order to attain this goal.Optimal pin fin heat exchanger surface H. Mahmoudi J. Volume 3. The control volume method has been used to resolve governing equations in the steady state. . we have studied the heat transfer and fluid flow in a cooling system of a power transformer. a set of operating parameters has been proposed. we chose a single radiator element composed of two welded identical steel plates. Result can be used for optimization of power transformer cooling system in future studies. The study results lead to find out a correlation between these casting parameters and the casting quality. In order to simplify the study. heat flux and casting temperature. The oil mass flow distribution is not homogenous which affects the heat transfer rate inversely. Contributions from Hamid Nabati: data preparation and analysis The aim of the current work is to provide information on how to improve the productivity and quality in the horizontal continuous casting process (HCC). was modeled and simulated. Nabati In the third paper. modeling and simulations. The results indicate that recirculation occurs whenever pressure increase at the end of a radiator block that consequently prevents the enough oil flow through the last radiator of block. Experimental data taken from company and technical data extracted from transformer documents have been used for model calibration and results verification. Paper 4: "Simulation of Power Transformer’ Cooling System in ONAN State" Nabati H. The Joule effect and the Foucault currents produce an undesirable heat in the different components of the transformer. Paper 5: "An Experimental Study on Productivity and Quality Improvement of Horizontal Continuous Casting Process" Mahmoudi J. From economical and security point of view. April-June 2006. The physical properties of the cooling oil were calculated from technical drawing obtained from Iran Transfo Company.

Paper 1

Numerical Study of Thermal Performance of Different Pin-Fin Morphologies
Hamid Nabati
PhD Student, Dept. of Public Technology, Mälardalen University, MDH, Box 883, S-721 23, Västerås, Sweden Email: hamid.nabati@gmail.com

Jafar Mahmoudi
Adjunct Professor, Dept. of Public Technology, Mälardalen University, MDH Box 883, S-721 23,Västerås, Sweden Email: Jafar.Mahmoudi@mdh.se

ABSTRACT This research presents the results of numerical study of heat transfer in a heat exchanger, considering three different morphology pin fins. The heat exchanger used for this research consists of a rectangular duct fitted with pin fins, and is heated from the lower plate. A numerical study using fluent was conducted to select the optimum pin shape considering to maximize the heat transfer and minimize the pressure drop across the heat exchanger. The results indicate that the drop shaped pin fins yield a better treatment in heat transfer and pressure loss compared to the other pin fins. This improvement is mainly due to the increased wetted surface area of the drop pins, and the delay in the flow separation as it passes the more streamlined drop shaped pin fins. The data and conclusions of a study like this can be applied to the design of gas turbine blades, especially blades that operate at extremely high temperatures. It can also be used in the design of electronic components. This study also demonstrated that numerical models backed with experimental analysis can reduce both the time and money required to create and evaluate engineering concepts, especially those that deal with fluid flow and heat transfer.

materials such as copper, brass, copper/nickel, aluminum/brass, carbon steel and stainless steel. In the recent years, this technology has become to one of the major techniques in heat sinks design for electronics cooling and because of the highly conductive nature of copper, the copper heat sinks are getting more and more favorable. Copper heat sinks provide significantly lower thermal resistance values, per given volume, and as a result are suitable for devices that dissipate heavy heat loads. At the same time, copper heat sinks are able to spread heat efficiently along their base and therefore provide exceptional cooling for devices that possess focused heat sources. Pin-Fin technology has shown its excellent characteristic in heat transfer in electronics cooling and it seems that its time to use this technology in the conventional heat exchangers. Using this technology in tubes will be result in overcome the problems that other heat transfer enhancement tubes could not solved for long time, including: Large pressure loss, low total heat transfer efficiency. Its unique finned structure greatly increases heat-exchanging area both inside and outside the tube with dramatically reduced thickness of boundary layer. Some of the features are presented below [1]: 1. Convection heat exchanging coefficient for single-phase fluid is 2.5to 6 times higher than that of the plane tube. 2. Boiling heat transfer coefficient is 2 to 5 times higher than that of plane tube. 3. Condensing heat transfer coefficient is 3 to 6 times higher than that of the plane tube. 4. Unique self-cleaning feature greatly reduces maintenance cost of heat exchangers. NOMENCLATURE A Surface area CP Specific heat capacity D Circular and drop-shaped fin diameter, Rectangular fin width

INTRODUCTION To achieve better thermal performance, fins are added to plain tubes resulting in large external surface area and high heat transfer performance and smaller dimensions. There are various forms of fins and several big and small companies are involved in producing and manufacturing such kinds of tubes. Having these enhanced tubes in mind, one of the most recent interesting methods in enhanced heat exchanger design is Pin-Fin technology. Pin Fin is suitable for numerous applications including process liquids and gasses, oil, diesel, high-pressure water and steam. Pin Fin can be manufactured using a variety of base tube

Dh f h H k

& m
NuD P Pr Q R ReD T TH u,U

Hydraulic Diameter Friction coefficient (Total pressure loss coefficient) Convective heat transfer coefficient Pin fin height Thermal conductivity, turbulent kinetic energy Mass flow rate Nusselt number based on Dh Pressure Prandtl number Rate of heat transfer Resistance Reynolds number based on D Temperature Heat source temperature Velocity

They found that there was 40% more air flowing through the rectangular pin design, yet the thermal resistances were virtually equal and the elliptical pin fin enhanced the heat transfer.

Figure 1. Schematic diagram of different heat sinks for tests [1] The other work which is studied for current research is a master thesis[3]. This thesis presents the results of a combined numerical and experimental study of heat transfer and pressure drop behavior in a compact heat exchanger (CHE) designed with drop-shaped pin fins. A numerical study using ANSYS was first conducted to select the optimum pin shape and configuration for the CHE. This was followed by an experimental study to validate the numerical model. One of the most recent published papers in the pin-fin filed is B. Moshfegh and R. Nyierdy' [4]. Although their paper discusses various levels of numerical modeling of turbulent flow that are relevant to electronic cooling, their guidelines are very useful for similar works. The model under consideration is a 3-D model of circular pin fin heat sinks in bypass flow conditions. Three different inlet velocities have been considered corresponding to a channel Re = 5000 to 14500. Results are presented for the base plate temperature, the pressure drop, as well as the influence of flow bypass, and the leakage from the inter-fin region to the bypass regions of the domain. Sparrow and Larson [5] performed experiments to determine per-fin heat transfer coefficients in a pin-fin array located in a longitudinal flow which turns to a cross-flow. They varied different parameters of the fin geometry including the fin height to diameter ratio (H/D) and the inter-fin pitch to diameter ratio (P/D). The pressure drop across the array was also measured and presented in dimensionless form relative to a specially defined velocity head, which gave a universal pressure drop result for all operating conditions. Furthermore, they also compared the performance of different pin-fin geometries [4]. However, the objective was to determine which fin height and interfin spacing yield the lowest overall thermal resistance for the array. The minimization of the resistance was sought under the constraint of constant pumping power for all candidate systems (i.e. those characterized by different H/D and P/D values) and for a uniform fin-toairstream temperature difference for all fins in a given array. The optimal geometry of fins' array to minimize the thermal resistance between the substrate and the flow forced through the fins was studied by Bejan and Morega [6]. Both round pin-fin arrays and staggered parallel plate fin arrays were optimized in two steps;

Subscripts :
∞ f in out. t x y z Free stream fin Inlet Outlet Thermal X direction Y direction Z direction

Greek Symbols:
α ηf ε εf ν σt νt Thermal diffusivity Fin efficiency Turbulent dissipation rate Fin effectiveness Kinematics viscosity Turbulent Pr number Eddy viscosity

LITERATURE REVIEW This literature review includes a discussion of current state-of-the-art issues and optimization techniques involved with thermal management in compact heat exchangers and e-cooling. One of the most referenced works is C. L. Chapman and Seri Lee paper [2]. They carried out comparative thermal tests using aluminum heat sinks made with extruded fin, cross-cut rectangular pins and elliptical shaped pins in low air flow environments. They developed an elliptical pin fin heat sink with specific design parameters; maintaining large exposed surface area for heat transfer and minimizing vortex flow by incorporating an airfoil design. The approach taken in the paper was to compare this elliptical shaped heat sink with a conventional extruded fin heat sink of equal volume. They used thermal resistance and amount of flow bypass terms to measure the effects of different thermal conductivity, flow characteristics and pressure drop on heat sink performance. Figure 1 shows the schematic diagram of different heat sinks that they used.

the diameter of the cylindrical portion of the pin (D. Drop-Shaped Z ∆ H Lo Lo PARAMETERS AND GEOMETRY In this study. rectangular and drop-shaped. The pin-fin section consists eight rows of inline pin-fins with axes perpendicular to the flow.h . D D D/2 L H H H Z Z Figure 3. Figure 4. ηf and effectiveness. pin-fin section and exit section.h ε f .. In general. The heat exchanger domain consists of three connected channels: Entrance section. When fins occur in combination with other thermal elements. 10D as width and 10D as height. It could be used to predict the performance characteristics of untested. Also for a reasonable design. The exit duct was also used to ensure well-mixed conditions at the exit plane. The three different pin shapes are cylindrical. The pin-fin section is composed of 8 solid pins that are attached to a solid rectangular volume which is considered as the heat source. as shown in Figure 2. Asurface . Normally. To compare the performance of different types of finned-tubes. εf [11]: actualheat trans ferred by a fin (1) ηf = transferre d heat if the entirefin wereat T = Tb ε f = heat flux from the wall with the fin heat flux from the wall without fin (2) 200mm Entrance Section 50m 50mm 200mm Exit Section 100mm Pin-Fin Section Figure 2. Heat exchanger domain While ηf provides some useful information as to how well a fin is contrived. (Kröger. Both the entrance and exit duct are assumed to be adiabatic. εf should be as big as possible. convection (Hahne and Zhu. Because of the various industry applications for finned tubes. there are many different fields of research. f = = η f . Pins location in the channel The entrance duct was constructed in front of the heat exchanger pin-fin section to ensure a fully developed laminar flow condition at the entrance to this section. Figure 3 gives more details on these parameters. 1994[8] and conduction (Ranganayakulu et al. The last parameter that we are dealing with in this study is fin thermal resistance. but this can always be done by extending the length of the fin. Rectangular. The research papers that are referred frequently in literatures are concerned with correlations (Kröger. for a fin of any shape. They also compared the minimum thermal resistance of staggered parallel-plate arrays and continuous fins. (1987) [10]. The entrance section of heat exchanger is composed of a rectangular duct having 40D as length. Another correlation for finned-tubes was empirically derived by Idem et al. for rectangular pinfin this parameter is considered as fin width). it is not generally advisable to design toward a particular value of ηf. The main geometrical dimensions that characterize the heat exchanger are the pin height (H). we want the effectiveness to be as high as possible. The pin' width (D) was kept constant at a value equal to 5 mm and was considered as a reference length scale. The exit section is exactly same as the entrance section. 1986 [7]) derived a method to present the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of finned-tube bundles. it can simplify calculations to treat them as a thermal resistance between the root and the surrounding fluid. 1999 [9] ). geometrically similar heat exchangers. The total pin-fin area is equal for all pin-fins.first the optimal fin thickness was selected and then the optimal size of fluid channel was determined. three models are considered. Two important parameters for basic measures of fin performance are the efficiency. and that rapidly becomes a losing proposition. 1986 [7]). the streamwise pin spacing (∆) and the pin-tail length (Z). Studied morphologies: Cylindrical. fin thermal resistance can be written in terms of fin efficiency and fin effectiveness [12]: 1 1 (3) Rt . Aroot .

Theses two parameters should be modeled to close the system of equations. the governing equations and turbulence models used for analysing the flow and heat transfer are presented. several models have been proposed to state the νt and therefore two unknowns u i′u ′j and u i′θ . In the first model the turbulent transport phenomenon is analogized to viscous transport and an eddy-viscosity for turbulence is introduced by Boussinesq assumption.∇ 2U i + (−u i′u ′j ) ∂xi ∂x j ∂ u i′ ∂ u i′ ∂x j ∂x j (11) ∂ (U jU i ) ∂x j (5) (6) ∂ (U j T ) ∂x j = α . Thus. Equation for the transport of Rij = u i′u ′j is given by: ∂(U j . the continuity. three dimensional. RSM or a so-called secondmoment model is based on modeled versions of the Reynolds stress transport equations.ε − ρ  ∂x + ∂x  ∂xj k k k i    j u i′θ are the eddy-viscosity turbulence models and RSM(Reynolds Stress-Transport Model)[3]. u i′θ constitute the Reynolds stresses and turbulent heat fluxes.S ij + u i′θ = − 2 δ ij k 3 (7) (8) ν t ∂T σ t ∂x j (12) In the above equations. RSM is one of the most sophisticated tools currently used by engineers to predict turbulent flows with complex strain fields or significant body forces. The most important models in this category are: • Standard k-ε model • Renormalization-group (RNG) k.ε ) ∂x k  νt  2 ∂U i ε ε2 = ν + σ  . One important model is Two-equation model[12]. The buoyancy effect is assumed to be negligible and the radiation heat transfer is not considered. the problem involves conjugate heat transfer and needs solution of the energy equations in the solid as well as the air regions. The second model. The finite volume models were constructed using the Gambit software and the models data were passed to the Fluent software for various analyses. ε is given by: ε =ν (4) =− ∂P ∂ + ν . The most popular models to approximate u i′u ′j and Thus. This model implies that the length and velocity scales of the mean flow and of the turbulence are proportional and can be related by means of A commercial finite volume analysis package Fluent (Version 5. The governing equations solved by Fluent are the Navier-Stokes equations combined with the . Based on these assumptions for steady state. The Boussinesq assumption for u i′ u ′j and u i′θ are given by: u i′u ′j = − 2ν t . νt is the eddy viscosity. and it is valid only when local isotropy in the turbulence field is assumed. k is found by adding the three normal stresses. σt is the turbulent Pr number. 5 ( ∂U j ) ∂U i + ∂x j ∂xi The ε is given by: ∂ (U j . k is turbulent kinetic energy and: S ij = 0 .5 . it is necessary to solve nine full partial differential transport equations for six unknown Reynolds stresses and three turbulent heat fluxes and one equation for transport of ε.∇ ε − C ε 1 Rik ∂x k − C ε 2 k ε  j  (13) (9) In this category.ε model • Realizable k-ε model • k-ω model More details about each model can be found in references 4 and 13. the turbulent eddy viscosity can be derived as. vt=Cµk2ε−1.5ε−1 (10) Considering the above assumption.∇ 2T + ∂ ( −u ′ i θ ) ∂x j P is the modified kinematics pressure and u i′u ′j . For nonisothermal 3-D turbulent flows.2) was selected to perform numerical analysis on the model.CFD MODELING At the first part of this section. time averaged Navier-Stokes and energy equations are given by following correlations: ∂U i =0 ∂xi dimensional reasoning to turbulent kinetic energy (k) and its dissipation rate (ε): u=k0.Rij )  νt  2 ∂U j ′ ∂u′j  ∂Ui 2 p′   ∂ui   = ν + σ . The aim is to solve the two unknowns u i′ u ′j and u i′θ when averaging Navier-Stokes equations. it is both due to conduction and convection. two-equation eddy-viscosity models require two additional transport equations for k and ε to solve the spatial and temporal variation of the local velocity scale and the length scale. The heat transfer in the fin occurs due to conduction while in the fluid. incompressible turbulent flow.∇ Rij − Rik ∂x Rjk ∂x − 3 δij . (6) except of the absence of convective terms. The energy equation in the solid region is the same as in Eqn. l=k1.

The no slip condition was applied and zero velocity in the three direction (Ux=Uy=Uz=0) was used. To mesh the model. Ux= Uy= Uz=0 Velocity Inlet Side Walls q = 0. A result was also considered valid if the model outlet temperature matched the calculated outlet temperature using an energy balance method to within 2%. Cylindrical Rectangular Drop-Shaped Figure 5. Ux=Uy=Uz=0. The model is composed of three parts. the no slip condition was applied leading to a zero velocity in the 3 directions. Ux= Uy=Uz=0 Out flow TH = 420K Figure 6. No additional thermal boundary conditions are required. hexahedral 8-node element spacing was specified along the boundary and swept later to cover the entire model volume. . When you read a grid with this type of wall zone into FLUENT. Nodes were also concentrated around the pins to account for the change of the velocity and temperature gradient and pressure drop. Figure 6 gives a clear idea of the boundary conditions implemented. The standard k-ε turbulence model with standard wall function was set for each model. it is called a "two-sided wall". Once the analyses are completed. All flows were specified as steady state and incompressible. and also between the pins to capture the flow acceleration due to the decrease in the cross section area. The inlet and exit sidewalls have the same properties as the pin-fin section ones. The mesh also was refined in some critical areas to ensure coverage for satisfactory resolution. It was refined near the no slip walls where velocity and temperature gradients were expected to be high. The two zones are coupled. because the solver will calculate heat transfer directly from the solution in the adjacent cells. which was set based on the wetted surface area. three configurations could be investigated and the optimum configuration giving the highest heat transfer and the lowest pressure loss could be determined. air flows through a smooth exit section design to prevent boundary condition feedback into the test section. Since the each pin has a fluid on one side and the solid region on the other side. No special boundary condition was applied to pins. After the pin-fin section. and constitutive property relationships which are described above. the resulting data can be easily evaluated by the Fluent postprocessor. the thermal equation. The outlet boundary condition was set to out flow. a "shadow" zone will automatically be created so that each side of the wall is a distinct wall zone. Model's view with boundary conditions The sidewalls were modeled to be adiabatic with zero heat flux. The inlet velocity depends on the chosen Reynolds number. This study can be extended easily by changing other parameters and studying the resulted effects. Figure 5 shows three different pin morphologies with generated meshes. Note that the resistance parameters you set for one side of the wall will automatically be assigned to its shadow wall zone. The Segregated 3D solver with an implicit formulation was set to solve the models. Grid independence was always verified.continuity equation. Different Pin-Fin sections including generated meshes Side Walls q = 0. The first part is a smooth entrance duct upstream of the pin-fin section having the same cross section as the test section and long enough to provide a fully developed flow condition at the entrance to the heat exchanger. The air then passes through the pin-fin section composed of 8 rows of pin fins. By keeping the pin-fin surface area at a constant value. The inlet air temperature was set to 290 K. The bottom wall was kept at a constant temperature of 420 K. Since it is a rigid boundary.

but here difference between rectangular morphology and two other ones is much larger. Three orders of magnitude of convergence were maintained for each solution in order to ensure accuracy of the results. In laminar flows. For high Reynolds numbers. 10000. Drop-shaped Upon completion of all the test runs. It's clear from the figure that in both laminar and turbulence flow regimes. pressure drop and mass flow rate were obtained from the Fluent output results. Crucial results like total heat transfer rate. out = Tbulk . The energy flow into and out of the system at the flow boundaries were ensured to be equal to the total energy added at the hot wall. Rectangular. The conservation of mass was verified by comparing the inlet and outlet mass flow rate to ensure that the mass balance was achieved.RESULTS Several checks were performed in order to verify the generated results. Table 1 shows the test matrix that was used. this value will increase to higher values. The lowest Nusselt number in the turbulent flow regimes is for the drop-shaped pin-fins and in the laminar flow regime. The result file generated by Fluent upon completion of each run was examined and analyzed. several key performance indicators were examined to understand the heat transfer characteristics and trends for each pinfin configuration and Reynolds number.CP m (14) Table 1 Test configurations Variable Values Figure 7. obtained from the calculations are illustrated in Figure 8. temperature and pressure were observed separately to ensure that the results satisfy the boundary conditions. Computational errors both in pressure drop and heat transfer measurements were commonly encountered. the dropshaped pin-fins have the better efficiency than the other ones. For each geometry. inlet and outlet bulk temperature. eight simulations were carried out by varying the air mass flow rate. Fins' efficiency at different ReD ReD Fin Morphology 500. The curves represent the lines of best fit through the eight points obtained in the simulations. The outlet bulk temperature based on energy balance was determined as follows: effectiveness. both circular and drop-shaped pin-fins have nearly the same Figure 8. The trend is the same as in the previous figure. Fins' effectiveness variation with ReD . Tbulk . A range of studies was conducted based on the threedimensional model of pin-fins with different morphologies. the lowest Nusselt value belongs to the cylindrical arrangements. This could result in a diverging solution and was corrected by increasing the reference pressure and/or relaxing the modified inertia criteria. there is a sharp reduction in fins efficiency for all morphologies. in + Q & . It can be noted that the rectangular fin shape yields the highest Nusselt number at most Reynolds numbers in the range considered here. The distributions of the pin-fins effectiveness levels over the different Reynolds numbers. The effectiveness level are here less than the desired value for designers(<2). 50000 Cylinderical. The pins surface area for all computation simulations was kept constant with varying Reynolds number.3000. but by increasing the fins number. A comparison of the average Nusselt number variation with Reynolds number for various geometries is shown in Figure 9. A simple calculation of the outlet bulk temperature based on the energy balance was performed to verify the result obtained directly from Fluent. Figure 7 shows the pin-fins' efficiency at different Reynolds numbers.5000.1000. The contour plots for velocity. the circular pin-fins have a poor efficiency and even less than rectangular fins. In transient regime.

In the current section. It is obvious that in the dropshaped pin-fins. pin-fins have been introduced in the planar duct in order to enhance overall heat transfer The pins improve heat transfer rate due to the addition of their own surface area. In order to compare the pumping power requirements of each geometry. results for two different Reynolds number are presented: 1000 and 50000. The drop-shaped pin fins have the minimum pressure loss ( note the Reynolds number for this figure is 50000). Figure 12 provides a contour plot indicating the contour of the heat transfer coefficient on the iso horizontal surface exactly choosed in the middle of pins body of the array as the flow moves from inlet to outlet. flow has reached the fully developed conditions more quickly than the others. whereas the circular pin-fins are the worst configuration in laminar flow regime. Recirculation acts as a wall preventing the fresh air contributes in heat transfer. the friction factor and total pressure distribution in inlet and outlet are plotted in Figures 10 and 11. Nusselt number at different ReD Figure 11. Temperature distribution in a surface which cuts the last pin is illustrated in figures 13.Figure 9. The reason is that in this configuration. The first one implies the laminar flow regime and the second one shows the turbulent flow regime. Total pressure distribution(ReD =50000. The drop-shaped pin-fins show the moderate behavior and lie between two other morphologies. One important point is that the fin temperature has the highest average value for the rectangular morphology and the lowest one for the drop-shaped morphology. The relative differences depend on the Reynolds number. This means that temperature difference between fin surface and impingement air is bigger in drop-shaped pins which causes to better convection heat transfer. From figure 11 it is clearly obvious that the pressure loss is higher in the rectangular pins. The reason is that there is strong recirculation flow between pins in the rectangular pin-fins. flow particles follow a smoother path line. The figures comparison shows that in drop-shaped fins the temperature distribution is much more smoother. thereby giving rise to better transport rates. Figure 10. The heat transfer coefficient has the highest value in the dropshaped pins and the lowest in the rectangular. and also by increasing flow turbulence levels. As previously stated. It is evident that the pins are affecting this temperature distribution. In turbulent flow regime the rectangular pin-fins exhibit the highest pressure drop. Friction factor at different ReD . Z= Cte) It is interesting to note that the cylindrical fins are only marginally better than the drop-shaped pin-fins in the turbulent flow regime. This recirculation reduced in the cylindrical and drop-shaped arrays.

Master Thesis. 2000. Y= Cte) Figure 13. the fins' efficiency and effectiveness show same behavior. Ltd. Y= Cte) (ReD =1000. circular fins work best. Temperature Contours (ReD =50000. by OUTOKUMPU/R&D and by AHT/USA/Memphis. The authors also would like to acknowledge Steve Wayne from AHT Company. Numerical and Experimental Study of The Performance of a Drop-Shaped Pin Fin Heat Exchanger. . which means that the heat exchanger performance varies less with different working loads.com/sdp/133 765/4/main-368641. of Zhuhai website. Tenth IEEE Semi-TherMP . Temperature Contours(Last Pin in the flow direction) CONCLUSIONS A fair comparison of various pin-fin geometries has been attempted. Y= Cte) Horizontal surface (ReD =50000. Thermal Performance of an Elliptical Pin Fin Heat Sink. At higher values. Schmidt. [3] Jihed Boulares .2.These were greatly simplified by assuming one column in-line pin-fins with axes perpendicular to the flow and isothermal heat transfer surfaces. This research was sponsored. in part. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We would like to acknowledge the use of Fluent Inc. Seri Lee. In high Reynolds numbers. Bill L.'S solver Fluent 5.. Also its variation in different flow regimes is more smoother.ebigchina.Horizontal surface (ReD =1000. drop-shaped fins offer highest performance. Chapman. Feb. and its mesh generator Gambit in the current work. Y= Cte) Figure 12. A three-dimensional conjugate problem has been studied with a three -dimensional isothermal model .html [2] Christopher L. for his technical support and guides.http://greeht. At lower values of pressure drop and pumping power. REFERENCES [1] Gree Thermo-Tech Co. but drop-shaped configuration always stand a little bit upper.

Bejan and A. pp. Incropera.G. 75-81. 8. no.. [7] Kröger. vol. 115. 5. 59-63. Dewitt. no. Int.NAVAL POSTGRADUATE Monterey. Journal of Mass and Heat Transfer. Int. Cambridge. W. 25. V. vol. Journal of Mass and Heat Transfer.N.. G. 1999. [5] E. Australia 13-17 December 2004. 1986. R. John H. Malalasekra. Int.1994. 1993. Moshfegh. Int. 1987. 1119-1125. Shorter Communications in Heat Transfer from PinFins Situated in an Oncoming Longitudinal Flow which Turns to Crossflow. D. vol. pp. Larson and E. pp. California. pp.W. [8] Hahne.. 3rd Ed. The combined effects of longitudinal heat conduction. pp. P. 3rd ed. 2005. A heat transfer textbook. vol. Lienhard V. 2002. Journal of Mass and Heat Transfer. 723-725. Journal of Heat Transfer. K. [12] Lienhard IV. Vol. 30. Performance characteristics of industrial finned tubes presented in dimensional form. [10] Idem. John H. 29. and Seetharamu. [13] H. Gonzalez. Versteeg. inlet fluid flow nonuniformity and temperature nonuniformity in compact tubefin heat exchangers: a finite element method. Sydney. 15th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference. pp. C. 1996. P. and Zhu. S. Natural convection heat transfer on finned tubes in air. M. Performance of air-towater copper finned-tube heat exchangers at moderately low air-side Reynolds numbers. Prentice Hall. Phlogiston Press. D. 1733-1741.. including effects of baffles..A. Comparing RANS Models for Flow and Thermal Analysis of Pin Fin Heat Sinks. An Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics : The Finite Volume Method Approach. 2003. Nyiredy. . Jung. Sparrow. Introduction to Heat Transfer. 42.. MA.. Journal of Mass and Heat Transfer. [9] Ranganayakulu. and Goldschmidt. D. SCHOOL [4] B. 1982 [6] A. 37. International Journal of Heat Mass Transfer. Optimal Arrays of Pin Fins and Plate Fins in Laminar Forced Convection. D. 263-273. 8. The University of Sydney. C. Morega. [11] F.J. Vol. No. E. Fourth Edition. M.

Paper 2 .

Västerås. The efficiency of the air-side heat transfer is a primary consideration when determining the best heat exchanger for a particular application.nabati@gmail. Nabati Dept. Study's results have shown the drop-shaped pin-fins have a better heat transfer performance comparing to the two other cylindrical and triangular morphologies. Surface enhancement using pin fins could be a promising method to overcome the described problem as well as maintenance efforts. Sweden email:hamid. Nomenclature A Surface area CP Specific heat capacity D Circular and drop-shaped fin diameter.U. This paper is trying to introduce a new concept in heat exchanger design which is originated from new e-cooling technology to improve energy efficiency. Rectangular fin width Dh Hydraulic Diameter f Friction coefficient (Total pressure loss coefficient) h Convective heat transfer coefficient H Pin fin height k Thermal conductivity. specially in the recovery boiler which is the heart of the pulp and paper mill. The pulp and paper industry consumes a noticeable portion of all the primary energy consumed in the industrial countries manufacturing. U Velocity Subscripts : ∞ Free stream f fin in Inlet out Outlet t Thermal x X direction y Y direction z Z direction Greek Symbols: α Thermal diffusivity ηf Fin efficiency ε Turbulent dissipation rate εf Fin effectiveness ν Kinematics viscosity σt Turbulent Pr number . Nabati and J. of Public Technology.com Abstract. Sweden. Mälardalen University. Mahmoudi. Västerås. MDH. A large number of different heat exchangers are used in a pulp and paper mills. Corresponding Author: H.OPTIMAL PIN FIN HEAT EXCHANGER SURFACE FOR PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRY H. MDH.q R ReD T TH Mass flow rate Nusselt number based on Dh Pressure Rate of heat transfer Thermal resistance Reynolds number based on D Temperature Heat source temperature u. turbulent kinetic energy & m NuD P Q.

Figure 2 shows a typical single drum recovery boiler which is used in pulp and paper mills.6 TBtu of steam and ~30 MW of electricity annually (total useable output of ~3. and the recovery of valuable pulping chemicals[14].5 TBtu/yr). The heart of the pulp and paper mill is its recovery boiler. Innovative designs developed through new numerical and simulation tools can lead to a valuable energy efficiency improvement which is equivalent to a significant energy saving. materials used in recovery boiler design. These conditions impose severe demands on the enhanced heat transfer surfaces.1. Introduction The pulp and paper industry consumes a noticeable portion of all the primary energy consumed in the industrial countries manufacturing. construction and maintenance. The large fireside walls. Figure 1: simplified process flow diagram of pulp and paper Figure 2: Typical recovery boiler used in the pulp and paper mills [2] .240 tons of black liquor dry solids per day resulting in an energy production of ~2. It makes the entire process economically practical through the generation of nearly all of the mill's steam power and 60 to 80% of the mill's electricity. It is also the most capital-intensive operation in the mill. The average recovery boiler processes approximately 1. floor and heat exchange surfaces in the boiler are subjected to high temperatures (700 to 900°C) and to gaseous and molten pulping chemicals which are extremely corrosive[2].

with the current availability of enormous computing resources and several powerful commercially available computational fluid dynamics software packages. Typically. Boiling heat transfer coefficient is 2 to 5 times higher than that of plane tube. as these are less expensive and simpler to manufacture than finned ones. Also heat transfer through tubular surfaces is restricted by the heat passing through the external surface of a tube and therefore can be increased by extending that surface. In the simple words. it is necessary to consider all important operating parameters such as erosion. Depending on the method of heat absorption. Figure 3: Typical pin fins used in the industry (especially e-cooling)[4] This paper provides general guidelines related to numerical analysis of heat transfer surfaces and it has been attempt to deal with the results of numerical study of heat transfer in a pulp and paper heat exchanger. fins are added to plain tubes resulting in large external surface area and high heat transfer performance with smaller dimensions. A numerical study using fluent has been conducted to select the optimum pin shape considering maximum heat transfer and minimum pressure drop across the heat exchanger. these components could be divided into convective and radiative heat exchangers or a combination of the both heat transfer process. loss of heat transfer.The boiler consists of several heat transfer components including: super heater. the heat absorption is limited. Some of the pin fins' features are presented below [8]: 1. before proposing the pin fin heat exchanger for big industries like pulp and paper mills. Unique self-cleaning feature greatly reduces maintenance cost of heat exchangers. and an optimum geometric configuration together with a pin shape will be selected based on the overall heat exchanger performance. In the first step. Also smooth tubes are less prone to fouling and can be cleaned more easily. evaporator and air heaters.5 to 6 times higher than that of the plane tube. More ever there are other heat exchangers employed in the pulp and paper mills (for example in the drying section) which can operate with higher efficiency using enhanced heat transfer surfaces. Condensing heat transfer coefficient is 3 to 6 times higher than that of the plane tube. the first studies can be conducted numerically for pre-design evaluation of pin-fin heat exchangers. it's necessary to conduct complete studies on pin fins' characteristics. then saturated steam produced in the evaporating heating surfaces is further superheated to a specified temperature in steam super heaters. Considering the new e-cooling technologies to improve energy efficiency [3]. . cold water is heated up in the economizer. type of fuel. 4. Super heaters (specially the radiant types) are made from smooth tubes. pressure loss and plugging resulted from deposits. Anyway. Different parameters will be investigated. surface enhancement using pin fins could be a promising method to overcome the described problem as well as maintenance efforts. But the drawback is that in moderate velocities of gas flow. Pin-Fin technology has shown its excellent characteristic in heat transfer enhancements (especially in the electronics cooling) and it seems that it is the time to develop this technology in the conventional heat exchangers to solve the most of the problems which other heat transfer enhancement tubes have not been able to solve them completely. 2. low total heat transfer efficiency and maintenance problems. reheater. Finally a comparison between pressure drop and heat transfer will be carried out. for a better thermal performance. economizer. The main objective of the current paper is to present the result of a numerical simulation using three dimensional model of a compact heat exchanger consisting of a rectangular duct with inline arrays of three different shapes pin fins in a cross flow of air. Convection heat exchanging coefficient for single-phase fluid is 2. 3. including: large pressure loss. Because experimental work can be expensive and time consuming. Among the wide variety of fins. and characterize the heat transfer and associated pressure drop behavior. Figures 3 shows typical pin-fins which are used in different applications to achieve better thermal performance. when comparing this technology with the conventional ones. considering three different morphologies for pin fins.

[13].e. They concluded that cylindrical pin-fins give the best overall fan-sink performance. Results are presented for the base plate temperature. and the leakage from the interfin region to the bypass regions of the domain. yet the thermal resistances were virtually equal and the elliptical pin fin enhanced the heat transfer. The minimization of the resistance was sought under the constraint of constant pumping power for all candidate systems (i. there has also been some effort in investigating different pin fin shapes and concepts. Numerical modeling has the advantage of offering a cost and time effective model with flexible geometry and boundary conditions. Steuber and Metzger [12] investigated partial length circular pin fins as an alternate to full circular pin fins. One of the most recent published papers in the pin-fin filed is B. However. They developed an elliptical pin fin heat sink with specific design parameters. However even numerically it is important to be true to the physics and have flow models that capture the flow behavior accurately. A flow visualization study on in-line circular and square pin fins is conducted by Minakami et al. In the field of e-cooling. The Gambit grid generation package was used to generate the 3-D unstructured grid. In addition. Wirtz et al [11] were amongst the earliest ones to measure the performance of a pin-fin heat sink. Literature Review A literature survey shows very few studies on the thermal performance enhancement in pulp and paper industry considering the change of heat exchanger surfaces. Only recently has numerical modeling shown greater promise with the advent of advanced computers and software. One of the most referenced works is C. Although their paper discusses various levels of numerical modeling of turbulent flow that are relevant to electronic cooling. Subsequent to this study. Chapman and Seri Lee paper [4]. the considerable resources required to set up the experiment and run it. It seems that no attempts have been done to use e-cooling technologies in the pulp and paper industry and this paper is trying to introduce this new concept for paper mills. maintaining large exposed surface area for heat transfer and minimizing vortex flow by incorporating an airfoil design. R. They used thermal resistance and amount of flow bypass terms to measure the effects of different thermal conductivity. Most of the studies have focused on the promotion of energy conservation technologies without considering the heat exchangers performance. and diamond shape cross-section pin-fins were considered. a wide variety of studies are done to compare the effect of pin-fins morphologies on thermal performance of heat exchangers. They varied the geometric parameters of round fins including the fin height to diameter ratio (H/D) and the inter-fin pitch to diameter ratio (P/D). square. Cylinder. The approach taken in the paper was to compare this elliptical shaped heat sink with a conventional extruded fin heat sink of equal volume. Their results showed that the circular pin fin array had higher heat transfer levels and this was explained by wider flow mixing area created in circular pin fin arrays than in case of the square pin fins. All these studies were experimental studies that cost much money due to the large cost of tools and parts needed. Some valuable attempts have been done to present a general energy consumption pattern in the entire pulp and paper industry [5]. they also compared the performance of different pin-fin geometries. Due to symmetry conditions in the span-wise direction. However. those characterized by different H/D and P/D values) and for a uniform fin-to-airstream temperature difference for all fins in a given array. experimental results were reported on the thermal performance of model fan-sink assemblies consisting of a small axial flow fan which impinges air on a square array of pin-fins. Nevertheless. only impinging flow drawn through the fin arrays was considered. L. [10]. some of their partial length pin fin arrays were superior. In terms of pressure loss the square and circular pin fins had similar overall performances. and the inflexibility from the point of view of geometry and boundary conditions. Nyierdy' paper [1]. In their work. Their results showed that the partial length pin fins did not outperform the full length fins in terms of heat transfer but when the heat transfer and pressure loss are both considered. the past pin fin research is mostly based on the determination of heat transfer and pressure loss characteristics of different array configurations with circular pin fins. Three different inlet velocities have been considered corresponding to a channel Re = 5000 to 14500. Most of these studies are conducted by department of energy (or renewable energy) in the US or Canada. They carried out comparative thermal tests using aluminum heat sinks made with extruded fin. The pressure drop across the array was also measured and presented in dimensionless form relative to a specially defined velocity head. but their guidelines are very useful for similar works. only half . the pressure drop. Elliptical pin-fin arrays were not studied in their investigation. The model under consideration is a 3-D model of circular pin fin heat sinks in bypass flow conditions. were evaluated at fixed applied pressure rise and fixed fan power. They found that there was 40% more air flowing through the rectangular pin design. The overall heat sink thermal resistances. cross-cut rectangular pins and elliptical shaped pins in low air flow environments. the objective was to determine which fin height and inter-fin spacing yield the lowest overall thermal resistance for the array. Figure 2 shows the schematic diagram of different heat sinks that they used for their experimental tests. Moshfegh and R. as well as the influence of flow bypass. flow characteristics and pressure drop on heat sink performance.2. Sparrow and Larson [6] performed experiments to determine heat transfer coefficients for a pin-fin array situated in an oncoming longitudinal flow that turns to a cross-flow.

The drop-shaped fins have been arranged in a way that their behavior shows an airfoil characteristic. The governing equations of continuity. In-line pin-fins array consists of eight rows with axes perpendicular to the flow. so fins' height will change to adapt with this criterion. T is the temperature. and ρ. the thermal equation. the streamwise pin spacing (∆) and the pin-tail length (Z).∇ V = − ∇ P + ν ∇ 2V v (3) V . The pin-fin section is composed of 8 solid copper pins that attached to a solid rectangular volume which is considered as heat source (also made from copper). ν and α are the density. Heat exchanger geometry Three different pin fin morphologies are considered in this study including cylindrical. triangular and dropshaped. Two additional transport equations is ρ (2) . The triangular fins are arranged inversely so incoming air touches their leading edge firstly. The exit section is exactly same as the entrance section. for triangular pin-fin this parameter is considered as fin width). These parameters are illustrated in figure 5 with more details. Reffering to figure 4.V = 0 (1) v v v 1 V . This part is considered to account the effect of tube thickness on conductive heat transfer and total heat exchanger performance. The governing equations solved by Fluent are the Navier-Stokes equations combined with the continuity equation. The whole duct is assumed to be adiabatic. constant property fluid with no heat generation can be expressed in vector form as follows: v ∇.∇T = α∇ 2T v Where V is the velocity vector. the resulting data can be easily evaluated by the Fluent postprocessor. The coarse grid had about 40000 hexahedral cells.of the channel had been considered. Numerical modelling As it mentioned before. the diameter of the cylindrical portion of the pin (D. Pin-fin geometries and parameters: cylindrical. Heat exchanger domain D H H D/2 L Z ∆ H Lo Lo H Figure 5. The pin' width (D) was kept constant at a value equal to 5 mm and was considered as a reference length scale. Once the analyses are completed. and constitutive property relationships which must be understood carefully to apply the appropriate models in simulation. 3. there is an extra copper sheet attached to the heat exchanger. triangular. a commercial finite volume analysis package Fluent (Version 5. The finite volume models were constructed using Gambit software and the models data were passed to the Fluent software for various analyses. The entrance and outlet section of heat exchanger is composed of a rectangular duct having 50D as length and 10D as width and height to ensure a fully developed flow in the domain and a well-mixed conditions at the exit plane. drop-shaped Z Z Z 4. The heat exchanger domain consists of three connected channels: Entrance section. Two grids of different density were used for computation of the test cases.2) was selected to perform numerical analysis on the model. momentum and energy for steady state forced convection in a Newtonian. Outlet Air Exit Section (200 mm) Pin-Fin Section (100 mm) Entrance Section (200 mm) D Inlet Air Figure 4. Also the total pin-fin's surface area is equal for all pin-fins. P is the pressure. respectively. kinematic viscosity and thermal diffusivity of the fluid. as shown in Figure 4. The main geometrical dimensions that characterize the heat exchanger are the pin height (H). pin-fin section and exit section.

Figure 6 gives a clear idea of the boundary conditions implemented. These sections have the same cross section as the pin-fin section and they are long enough to provide a fully developed flow condition at the entrance to the heat exchanger and also prevent boundary condition feedback into the pin-fin section. Figure 6: Overall problem domain and boundary conditions Figure 7: Sample model meshing . The standard k-ε turbulence model with standard wall function was set for each model. Two zones will be coupled to each other to connect the conductive and convective heat transfer in the adjacent cells. Since the each pin has a fluid on one side and the solid region on the other side. three configurations could be investigated to determine the optimum pin fin morphologies considering the highest heat transfer and the lowest pressure loss in the heat exchanger. By keeping the pin-fin surface area at a constant value.required for k and ε to solve the spatial and temporal variation of the local velocity scale and the length scale in turbulent flows. a "shadow" zone will automatically be created so that each side of the wall is a distinct wall zone. When you read a grid with this type of wall zone into FLUENT. This study can be extended easily by changing other parameters and studying the resulted effects. It was refined between the pins to capture the flow acceleration due to the decrease in the cross section area. Meshing also was refined in some critical areas to ensure coverage for satisfactory resolution. A result was also considered valid if the model outlet temperature matched the calculated outlet temperature using an energy balance method to within 1%. Figure 7 shows a sample meshing for the total solution domain. The model is composed of three parts. Nodes were also concentrated around the pins to account for the change of the velocity and temperature gradient and pressure drop. The most important models in this category are: • Standard k-ε model • Renormalization-group (RNG) k. The impingement air flow was specified as steady state and incompressible. Grid independence was always verified. Hexahedral 8-node element spacing was specified along the boundary and swept later to cover the entire model volume. The Segregated 3D solver with an implicit formulation was set to solve the models.ε model • Realizable k-ε model • k-ω model More details about each model can be found in references [1] and [9]. The first and last parts are smooth ducts considering for flow inlet and outlet. it is called a "two-sided wall".

Aroot . A range of studies was conducted based on the three-dimensional model of pin-fins with different morphologies. Table 1 Test configurations. Also for a reasonable design. but this can always be done by extending the length of the fin. it is not generally advisable to design toward a particular value of ηf. A simple calculation of the outlet bulk temperature based on the energy balance was performed to verify the result obtained directly from Fluent. The energy flow into and out of the system at the flow boundaries were ensured to be equal to the total energy added at the hot wall. ηf and effectiveness. temperature and pressure were observed separately to ensure that the results satisfy the boundary conditions. The conservation of mass was verified by comparing the inlet and outlet mass flow rate to ensure that the mass balance is achieved. The Nusselt number and friction factor of the pin-fins array were calculated using heat transfer relationships. out + Q & . Three orders of magnitude of convergence were maintained for each solution in order to ensure accuracy of the results. Drop-shaped Variable 5. Values ReD 500. The last parameter that we are dealing with in this study is fin thermal resistance. The outlet bulk temperature based on energy balance was determined as follows: Tbulk . The result file generated by Fluent upon completion of each run was carefully examined and analyzed. Computational errors both in pressure drop and heat transfer measurements were commonly encountered.CP m (7) The Nusselt number gives the ratio of actual heat transferred of the pin-fins array by the moving fluid to the equivalent heat transfer that would occur by conduction. and that rapidly becomes a losing proposition. pressure drop and mass flow rate were obtained from the Fluent output results. The pins surface area for all computation simulations was kept constant with varying Reynolds number.h (6) Several checks were performed in order to verify the generated results. 5000. normally. 1000. When fins occur in combination with other thermal elements. εf should be as big as possible. fin thermal resistance can be written in terms of fin efficiency and fin effectiveness [7]: Rt . we want the effectiveness to be as high as possible. Triagular. Table 1 shows the test matrix. for a fin of any shape. Results Crucial results like total heat transfer rate. The contour plots for velocity. f = 1 η f . 50000 Fin Morphology Cylinderical. The Nusselt number was defined as: Nu D = h .h = 1 ε f . it can simplify calculations to treat them as a thermal resistance between the root and the surrounding fluid. 10000.∆Tlm (9) . Asurface .Two important parameters for basic measures of fin performance are the efficiency. This could result in a diverging solution and was corrected by increasing the reference pressure and/or relaxing the modified inertia criteria. 25000. In general. out = Tbulk . inlet and outlet bulk temperature. εf [7]: actual heat transferred by a fin (4) ηf = transferred heat if the entire fin were at T = Tb ε f = heat flux from the wall with the fin heat flux from the wall without fin (5) While ηf provides some useful information as to how well a fin is contrived. 3000.Dh k (8) Where the heat transfer coefficient: h= Q A.

There is a sharp increase in friction factor for non circular morphologies during the changing of flow regime. Nusselt number versus Reynolds number For a cylindrical pin in a turbulent flow regime: Shifted Power Fit: Nu D = a.L 2 (11) Where L is the overall streamwise length of the pin-fin array. 7000 < Re < 60000 c (12) 5.4338. The graphs in Figure 8 shows Nusselt number plotted against Reynolds number on a logarithmic scale for all pin-fin configurations. flow is accelerated in pin-fin section which could result in more friction and pressure drop. c = 0. The graph in Figure 9 shows friction factor plotted against Reynolds number. in − Twall ) − (Tbulk .in ) Tbulk . From this figure it was evident that Nusselt number could be correlated as a power law function. Figure 8. out − Twall ) T − Twall ln( bulk . This increment is smoother for circular pins. In turbulent flow regime the triangular pin-fins exhibit the highest pressure drop.29401445.U 2 .1 Nusselt Number The Nusselt number was calculated for each test configuration.2 Friction Factor The friction factor results have been plotted for three configurations in a similar manner.9120403. . b = 4946. 5. It should be noted here that the H/D ratio for drop-shaped pinfins is smaller than other ones (but wetted surface area is equal for all). It can be seen that for Drop-shaped pin-fins.And the log mean temperature difference: ∆Tlm = (Tbulk .(Re D − b) Coefficient Data: a = 4. The relative differences in pressure drop are completely depended on Reynolds number. all graphs tend to converge to a single value. The drop-shaped pinfins show the moderate behavior and lie between two other morphologies. whereas the circular pin-fins are the worst configuration in laminar flow regime. out − Twall (10) The friction factor in the array was calculated using the following definition: f = ∆Pfins .ρ . This behavior can be reasoned by noticing the figure 10. It can be readily seen that the friction factor varied greatly with changes in ReD and in the high Reynolds numbers.Dh 1 .

This recirculation reduced in the cylindrical and drop-shaped arrays. Comparing the figures.Figure 9. The trend for effectiveness is like the efficiency. the circular pin-fins have a poor efficiency and even less than triangular fins. The reason is that there is strong recirculation flow between pins in the triangular pin-fins. In laminar flows. The heat transfer coefficient has the highest value in the drop-shaped pins and the lowest in the triangular fins. One important point is that the fin temperature has the highest average value for the triangular morphology and the lowest one for the drop-shaped morphology. Friction factor Cylinderical Drop-Shaped Figure 10. . Figures 11 and 12 provides a contour plot indicating the temperature contours on the Iso horizontal and vertical surfaces choosed in the middle of pins' array as the flow moves from inlet to outlet. the drop-shaped pin-fins have the better efficiency than the other ones. both circular and drop-shaped pin-fins have the nearly same effectiveness. The pins improve heat transfer rate due to the addition of their own surface area. results for two different Reynolds number are presented: 500 and 25000. Y=75 mm) 5.3 Heat Transfer Pin-fins have been introduced in the planar duct in order to enhance overall heat transfer performance. It's clear from the figure that in both laminar and turbulence flow regimes. thereby giving rise to better transport rates. and also by increasing flow turbulence levels. but by increasing the fins numbers this value will increase to higher values. Horizontal Surface. there is a sharp reduction in fins efficiency for all morphologies. This means that temperature difference between fin surface and impingement air is bigger in drop-shaped pins which causes to better convection heat transfer. but here difference between triangular morphology and two other ones is much larger. Figure 13 shows the pin-fins' effectiveness and efficiency at different Reynolds numbers. Recirculation acts as a wall preventing the fresh air contributes in heat transfer. It is evident that the pins are affecting this temperature distribution. flow has reached the fully developed conditions more quickly than the others. Velocity contour (ReD = 10000. It is obvious that in the drop-shaped pin-fins. In transient regime. shows that for drop-shaped fins the temperature distribution is much more smoother. The effectiveness level are here less than the desired value for designers(<2). The first one implies the laminar flow regime and the second one shows the fully turbulent flow regime. In the current section. For high Reynolds numbers.

From another point of view. reduced vortex flow. .e. This result is in correlation with the basis of the drop-shaped pin fin design considerations. the easy maintenance and cleaning process is one of the superior benefits of pinfin heat exchangers. i. circular fins work best. the air foil benefits are visible. there is considerable potential for energy use reduction in pulp and paper mills by presenting this kind of heat exchangers with new design.These were greatly simplified by assuming one column in-line pin-fins with axes perpendicular to the flow and isothermal heat transfer surfaces. The drop-shaped pin enhances heat transfer. Laminar flow) Horizontal surface (Y= Cte) Vertical surface (X= Cte) Figure 12. Temperature Contours (ReD = 25000.Horizontal surface (Y= Cte) Vertical surface (X= Cte) Figure 11. Considering the obvious enhancements of drop-shaped pin-fins. At higher values. A three-dimensional conjugate problem has been studied with a three -dimensional numerical model . At lower values of pressure drop and pumping power. eliminating boundary layer effects. Temperature Contours (ReD = 500. Turbulent flow) Figure 13. Conclusion A comparison of various pin-fin geometries has been attempted. Fins' effectiveness and efficiency versus ReD 6. In comparing the drop-shaped pin find with the other studied pin-fins. drop-shaped fins offer highest performance.

http://greeht. Yagi. Incropera. H. 119. Wirtz.S.2005. Germany. Ltd. Mochizuki. Energy Cost Reduction in the Pulp and Paper Industry– An Energy Benchmarking Perspective. L. [4] C. D. 3rd Ed. L. 1997. 2915. ”Heat Transfer and Pressure Loss Performance for Families of Partial Length Pin Fin Arrays in High Aspect Ratio Rectangular Ducts. 24-31.” Proceedings of the International Symposium on Flow Visualization. Comparing RANS Models for Flow and Thermal Analysis of Pin Fin Heat Sinks.” Proceedings of the Tenth IEEE Semi-Therm Symposium. Sparrow and E. These studies are going to be performed and published in the Green energy journal in the near future by authors. Browne. [6] E. [14] U. Proceedings EuroSim 2005. “Visualization of Flow Mixing Mechanisms in Pin Fin Arrays. Larson.T. E.” Proceedings of the 8th International Heat Transfer Conference. 2004. 1982.W. Official website. Chapman. Moshfegh. “Thermal Performance of Pin-Fin Fan-Sink Assemblies. 5. K. and its mesh generator Gambit in the current work. 25.com [3] Bijan Karimpourian and Jafar Mahmoudi. Acknowledgments We would like to acknowledge the use of Fluent Inc.. Wang. References [1] B. Introduction to Heat Transfer.com/sdp/133765/4/main368641.. 1986. D. . Handy Manual: Paper & Pulp Industry. 1992.Finally it should be mentioned here that for a more accurate design (specially for the heat exchangers which are used in the recovery boiler) other parameters such as effect of in-line versus staggered arrangement.2920. Sohal. Berlin. solid versus serrated fins and effect of fouling should be evaluated. 504-508. [12] Steuber.ebigchina. No. 1996. Dewitt. Iwasaki. The University of Sydney. G. W. M. 15th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference. [7] F. 26-31. [8] Gree Thermo-Tech Co. 1993. 7. [13] The Energy Conservation Center (ECC. Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada (Paprican).. Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey..'s solver Fluent 5. 6. Fourth Edition. and B. Nyiredy. [11] R. 1994. Francis. Murata. [10] Minakami. A.babcock. 1317 December 2004. http://www. S. Vol. Department of Energy. Metzger. Vol. [2] Babcock & Wilcox Company. A Review to Electronic Cooling Device. [5] D. Malalasekra. S. Vol. 603614. “Thermal Performance of an Elliptical Pin Fin Heat Sink. P.2.C. An Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics: The Finite Volume Method Approach.. 8. D. Schmidt. Y. Prentice Hall. Lee. 2002.” Journal of Electronic Packaging. of Zhuhai website. Versteeg.. “Heat Transfer from Pin-Fins Situated in an Oncoming Longitudinal Flow which Turns to Crossflow.” International Journal of Heat Mass Transfer. A.. Towers and T. and H. Australia. R. 2002. R. M.html [9] H. D.Japan). 1998... P. Sydney.

Paper 3 .

we chose a single radiator element composed of two welded identical steel plates. .Numerical Modeling of a Plane Radiator Used in a Power Transformer Cooling System Hamid Nabati PhD Student. The oil circulation is due to free convection or combined free and forced convection. Mälardalen University. it is of Iran Transfo interest to minimize the size of heat exchangers and internal cooling ducts. The obtained results show that the heat transfer in ONAF state is in acceptable level. In the power transformers designing. of Public Technology.3]. the cooling is provided through circulation of oil between ducts in the active parts and heat exchangers outside the transformer tank. a numerical study has been conducted for radiator model in both ONAN and ONAF states. Also based on symmetrical property of radiator. In order to simplify the study. but the oil flowing passage needs some correction and optimization. The heat dissipation by means of natural convection through its own surface is enough in small transformers. Heat transfer inside the channels and thermal behavior of the flow in a pipe with different boundary conditions are investigated widely in heat transfer texts. Dept. Sweden Email: hamid. was modeled and simulated. MDH Box 883. just one quarter of it. Result can be used for optimization of power transformer cooling system in future studies. S-721 23.Mahmoudi@mdh. Mälardalen University. but no special paper with focus on radiator were found in literature. Dept. From economical and security point of view. Iran Transfo Corporation is one of the leading Iranian manufacturers of single and three phase oil immersed distribution transformers since 1966 that produces distribution transformer with capacity of 12000 MVA and power rating up to 5000 kVA and 36 kV. Västerås. but this heat dissipation medium is not enough for transformer of average and high power that require more elaborated methods of cooling and generated heat must be removed effectively[1. Sweden Email: Jafar. Box 883. In order to attain this goal. few studies have been made on the heat transfer and the fluid flow outside the transformer and most of them have focused on inside a power transformer. For example recently Mufuta and Van Den Bulck [2] studied the case of a winding disc-type transformer and they showed the influence of Re Gr−1/2 on the flow structure and they give some correlations to calculate the heat transfer inside this kind of transformer. In this paper. S-721 23.com Jafar Mahmoudi Adjunct Professor. Our main objective is the study of current situation of cooling system and its characteristics to show us the weakness points of installed cooling system. The Joule effect and the Foucault currents produce an undesirable heat in the different components of the transformer. The physical properties of the cooling oil were calculated from technical drawing obtained from Iran Transfo Company.Västerås. of Public Technology.nabati@gmail. there is a need to cool the transformer to preserve it from destruction. MDH. In the literature. The energy losses in these power transformers are proportional to the load. These losses are transformed into heat which causes a temperature rise that can reach high levels and affects negatively the transformer performance which means an operational load and useful life reduction. we present a numerical study of heat transfer and fluid flow inside a radiator element which is used in different 3-phase power transformer cooling systems and composed of two welded identical metal plates. They are most valuable assets in power systems and it appears worthwhile to pay special attention to this key component to ensure stability in power systems. INTRODUCTION Transformers are widely used in the industry especially in the distribution power networks.se ABSTRACT In this paper we study the heat transfer and fluid flow in a cooling system of a power transformer. The oil mass flow distribution is not homogenous which affects the heat transfer rate inversely. In the Iran Transfo power transformers. The control volume method has been used to resolve governing equations in the steady state.

Radiator elements[7] . Oil brings out from transformer and flows to an upper header which directs the oil to semicircular channel. This channel directs the oil into the provided ways inside the radiator. The general specifications of radiators are as following: • Length of elements 800 . Finally.3500 • Width 520 mm • No. forced air cooling (ONAF) is used to accelerate the cooling process. Cooling fans are activated in one or more stages by the relay contacts of the top oil temperature sensor. If factors such as expected future load growth or exposure to prolonged high ambient temperatures have to be taken into account.NOMENCLATURE A Surface area CP Specific heat capacity D Diameter Dh Hydraulic Diameter f Friction coefficient h Convective heat transfer coefficient k Thermal conductivity. of elements in each radiator 4-28 • Elements spacing 45 mm Figure 2. The radiator thickness after final construction is approximately 12mm. in order to provide the necessary cooling surface (ONAN). Steel sheets used for radiator manufacturing are St-37. Each channel is equipped with two internal throughout wings to increase the heat transfer rate from radiator.U Velocity Figure 1. which are connected to top and bottom headers. A typical power transformer equipped with auxiliary fans[7] Subscripts : ∞ in out. At the upper and lower parts of radiator. Cooling capacity of radiators is defined according to the number and dimensions of their radiating elements. Different aspects and dimension of a typical radiator is illustrated in figures 2 and 3. The radiators are steel plate heat exchangers that are installed vertically next to transformers and each of them consists of seven channels for oil flowing. oil is collected in lower semicircular channel and sent out. Free stream Inlet Outlet RADIATOR TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS All Iran Transfo transformers are equipped with detachable panel radiators. A typical transformer which is assembled in Iran Transfo Company is shown in the figure 1. turbulent kinetic energy & Mass flow rate m NuD Nusselt number based on Dh P Pressure Pr Prandtl number Q Rate of heat transfer Ra Rayleigh number ReD Reynolds number based on D T Temperature u. semicircular channels are provided for oil flow entry and exit. Two identical steel plates are pressed and welded to each other to form the radiator. Radiators are produced in accordance with DIN 42559.

2) software was selected to perform numerical analysis on the model. three dimensional and incompressible turbulent flow. More details about other models can be found in references 4.∇ 2U i + (−u i′u ′j ) ∂x i ∂x j ∂ (U jU i ) ∂x j (2) (3) ∂ (U j T ) ∂x j = α . k is turbulent kinetic energy and: S ij = 0 .5ε−1 (7) CFD MODELING Using the appropriate governing equations and turbulence models for flow and heat transfer analyzing is an essential key to ensure the accuracy and confidence of CFD results. The Fluent (Version 5.∇ 2 T + ∂ ( −u ′ i θ ) ∂x j (a) Semicircular entrance and exit channel P is the modified kinematics pressure and u i′u ′j . Considering the steady state. Theses two parameters should be modeled to close the system of equations. Different parts of radiator and u i′θ [13]. One of the most important models to express these parameters is Standard k-ε model that is used in our simulation. The Boussinesq assumption for u i′ u ′j and u i′θ are given by: (b) Provided oil flow ways u i′u ′j = − 2ν t . the turbulent transport phenomenon is analogized to viscous transport and an eddy-viscosity for turbulence is introduced by Boussinesq assumption. νt is the eddy viscosity. σt is the turbulent Pr number. The finite volume model and related mesh were constructed using Gambit software and the models . The eddy-viscosity turbulence model is used to approximate u i′u ′j and u i′θ [4. u i′θ constitute the Reynolds stresses and turbulent heat fluxes. In this model. l=k1. the continuity. This model implies that the length and velocity scales of the mean flow and of the turbulence are proportional and can be related by means of dimensional reasoning to turbulent kinetic energy (k) and its dissipation rate (ε): u=k0. 5 ( ∂U j ∂U i + ) ∂x j ∂ xi (6) Two-equation model is used to state the νt and therefore two unknowns u i′u ′j (d) Inside view of radiator Figure 3. In the current study the buoyancy effect is assumed to be negligible inside the radiator and also the radiation heat transfer is not considered.∂U i =0 ∂xi (1) =− ∂P ∂ + ν .5].5. 6 and 10. momentum and energy equations are given by following correlations: Two-equation eddy-viscosity models require two additional transport equations for k and ε to solve the spatial and temporal variation of the local velocity scale and the length scale.S ij + u i′θ = − 2 δ ij k 3 (4) (5) ν t ∂T σ t ∂x j (c) Upper and lower headers In the above equations.

data were passed to the Fluent software for various analyses. The governing equations solved by Fluent are the Navier-Stokes equations combined with the continuity equation, the thermal equation, and constitutive property relationships which are described above. Once the analyses are completed, the resulting data can be easily evaluated by the Fluent postprocessor. In the constructed model, radiator is considered as a separate element with internal oil flow from top to down and convective heat transfer on the outer surfaces. All flows were specified as steady state and incompressible. The standard k-ε turbulence model with standard wall function was set for radiator model. The Segregated 3D solver with an implicit formulation was set to solve the model. Upon completion of each run, results were carefully examined and analyzed to prove their accuracy. The conservation of mass was verified by comparing the inlet and outlet mass flow rate to ensure that the mass balance is achieved. The energy flow into and out of the radiator at the flow boundaries were ensured to be equal to the total energy dissipated at the outer wall. Computational errors both in pressure drop and heat transfer measurements were commonly encountered. This could result in a diverging solution and was corrected by increasing the reference pressure and/or relaxing the modified inertia criteria. It should be noticed that only one quarter of the radiator is modeled here, since radiator is symmetric with two symmetry axes. Results can be easily extended for other sections. Parameters which have been encountered in this study are considered as follow: Nusselt number: this number shows the ratio of convective heat transfer to conductive heat transfer in the oil. The relation is:

Reynolds number: the Reynolds number characterizes the relative influences of inertial and viscous forces in a fluid flow:

Re D =

ρ .U .Dh µ

(12)

Dh is hydraulic diameter which is expressed with following relation:

Dh =

4 × cross sectional area wetted perimeter

(13)

The physical properties of the mineral oil vary with the temperature according to the correlations given by the following equations. These equations are extracted from company graphs:

ρ = 1075.4 − 0.682T
K = 0.191 − 3.25 × 10 −4 T + 4.36 ×10 −7 T 2

C P = 616.84 + 4.24T

µ = 304.065 − 5.255T + 0.0378T 2

(14)

From these equations it is obvious that the density, the thermal conductivity and the dynamic viscosity decrease with increasing temperature, but the specific heat at constant pressure varies in the same way as the temperature.

Nu D =

h .D h k

(8)

h is hold for convective heat transfer coefficient and given by: h= Q A.∆Tlm
(9)

Logarithmic mean temperature difference is given by: (Tbulk ,in − T wall ) − (Tbulk ,out − T wall ) ∆ Tlm = ln [(Tbulk ,in − T wall ) /( Tbulk , out − T wall ) ] (10)
Outlet mean temperature: Oil outlet temperature is calculated by following equation:

ASSUMPTIONS AND SOLUTION TECHNIQUES Referring to figure 1, it can be seen that radiators are installed parallel to each other in both side of transformer and auxiliary fans are also added for ONAF conditions. When natural convective heat transfer is not able to dissipate the heat from radiators, these fans start to reduce the oil temperature. According to radiators place in the cooling system block, they show different heat transfer behavior. The side radiators possess higher heat transfer efficiency than middle radiators, since the side radiators are in contact with less temperature air. This property is less important in ONAF state. Since convective heat transfer coefficient is one of the most important parameters which is used as an input data in simulation, this coefficient is calculated theoretically for both natural and forced convective heat transfer states. According to different working condition of radiators, the following assumptions are considered: TAir = 25 °C

Tbulk ,out = Tbulk ,in +

Q & m.C P

Toil-in = 120 °C, 110 °C, 100 °C, 90 °C, 80 °C

(11)

∆T = 40
Twall = Toil-ave - 5

Based on these considerations, the Rayleigh number was calculated and considering its values the following equation was used for natural convective heat transfer coefficient calculation[9]:
1

h = 1.31× (∆T ) 3

( Ra〉10 9 )

(15)

Using the above equation, the average value was calculated about 5 W/m2.K. For Forced convective coefficient the following relation was used[9]:
.8 0.4 Nu D = 0.023 × Re 0 D × Pr

(16)

The average calculated value in this case was 202 W/m2.K which is approximately 40 times higher than natural convection coefficient. Another important factor is natural circulation force(Thermosyphon) which causes the oil flow between radiators and transformer body. Natural circulation will only occur if the correct conditions exist. Even after natural circulation has begun, removal of any one of these conditions will cause the natural circulation to stop. The conditions for natural circulation are as follows: 1. A temperature difference exists (heat source and heat sink exists). 2. The heat source is at a lower elevation than the heat sink. 3. The fluids must be in contact with each other. The following correlation is used for thermosyphon force calculation [8]: (17) H = ( ρ Cold − ρ Hot ) × g × h The calculated value was used as an input data for boundary condition in simulation program. Following figure shows a schematically view of oil flow and heat transfer in the radiators.

MESH CONSTRUCTION Based on the received drawings from Iran Transfo and collected data in the factory, a 3-D mesh model was generated to simulate one radiator element. All important aspects of radiator including inlet and outlet passages and oil passing channels were simulated accurately. The produced finite volume mesh contained approximately 500000 cells. Figure 5 shows mesh and the whole simulated section. Since the inlet and outlet flow affect seriously on flow behavior inside the radiator elements, these section were modeled carefully and all important aspect were included in the model. A close view of inlet section is shown in figure 6.

Oil-In
Figure 5. The 3-D finite volume mesh constructed to simulate radiators

h, T∞

h, T∞

Oil-Out

Figure 4. Schematic View of heat transfer Figure 6. Inlet (and outlet) passage illustratation in the 3-D model

RESULTS Presented results in the current section include output data obtained from first stage simulation. The simulated radiator has the same characteristics as the produced radiators in Iran Transfo company. Several checks were performed in order to verify the generated results. Three orders of magnitude of convergence were maintained for each solution in order to ensure accuracy of the results. The contour plots for velocity, temperature and pressure were observed separately to ensure that the results satisfy the boundary conditions. A range of studies was conducted based on the different boundary conditions. Table 1 shows the test matrix that was used. Crucial results like total heat transfer rate, inlet and outlet bulk temperature, pressure drop and mass flow rate were obtained from the Fluent output results. A simple calculation of the outlet bulk temperature based on the energy balance was performed to verify the result obtained directly from Fluent. The outlet bulk temperature based on energy balance was determined as follows:

be eliminated by reducing the section diameter during construction.

Tbulk , out = Tbulk , in +

Q & .CP m

(18)

Figure 7. Velocity vector colored by velocity magnitude (m/s)

Table 1 Test configurations

Variable
ReD Fin Morphology

Values
500,1000,3000,5000, 10000, 50000 Cylindrical, Rectangular, Dropshaped

Flow profiles Figures 7 to 9 show the velocity vectors colored by velocity magnitude at a vertical surface placed exactly in the middle of radiator element. It's clear from the figures that in both upper and lower sections of radiator, the rotating flow exists. This rotating flow causes the recirculation oil flowing in a restricted region and decreases the radiator cooling efficiency. Recirculation is much more in lower section which means there is need to have a new look in the section design. Referring to figures 9 and 10, it’s obvious that the oil velocity has the maximum value in two right passages (middle of the radiator). This means the most mass flow rate passes through these passages. The velocity magnitude in the left passage is actually half of the middle passage which decreases their roles in heat dissipation. The low oil velocity through these passages decreases the heat transfer coefficient and consequently reduces the cooling efficiency of radiator. With a more carefully look at oil passage it can be seen that in each passage the oil velocity values are lower in right sections. This imperfection can

Figure 8. Velocity vector in upper section

Figure 9. Velocity vector in the oil passages

-M. July 2000. Temperature Contour in the middle vertical surface Temperature profiles Figures 11 and 12 show the temperature contours in horizontal and vertical surfaces. CONCLUSIONS In the first stage a radiator is simulated based on its current working condition. the efficiency decreases there. for their technical support and guides.2. [4] B. Master thesis. E. Recirculation acts as a wall preventing the fresh oil contributes in heat transfer. Temperature Contour in horizontal surface ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We would like to acknowledge the use of Fluent Inc. In the upper and lower section of radiator with recirculation flow. Considering the different calculated velocities. the circulation rate is also higher. Mufuta. R. Nyiredy. The authors also would like to acknowledge technical office staff in Iran Transfo Company. REFERENCES [1] Yong Liang. pp. 2000 [3] Q. since oil velocity is higher in middle section. Thus the warmer oil passes from this section and makes the walls warmer. The highest wall (or oil) temperatures are located in middle surfaces. feb. Simulation of Top Oil Temperature for Transformer. Modeling of the mixed convection in the windings of a disc-type power transformer. a new diameter design should be done for all passages. The outer surfaces are cooler. but the oil flowing passage needs some correction and optimization. Cornell University. Appl. 20. 417-437. He. Comparing RANS Models for Flow and Thermal . The simulation results show that the heat transfer in ONAF state is in acceptable level. This is justified with oil velocity. practically no useful heat transfer occurs. Van den Bulck. The oil mass flow distribution is not homogenous which affects the heat transfer rate inversely. and its mesh generator Gambit in the current work. Figure 11.'S solver Fluent 5. Thermal Engrg. 2001. Transformer semi-physical modeling and simulation. ASU dissertation. since the oil velocity is lower there. In the next stage the following studies should be carried out in order to improve heat transfer characteristic in radiators: • Change of oil flowing passage profile • Change of radiators dimensions • Using the widthwise pin fins between radiators Figure 12.Figure 10. Velocity contour in a horizontal surface Generally it can be said that the uniform shape of oil passages causes unbalanced distribution of oil velocity and flow in them and directly affects the cooling efficiency. Since the oil circulation is much lower in these regions. This design guarantees the uniform oil flow inside all passages. in spite of lower oil temperature. [2] J. Moshfegh.

. Incropera. 45. Lienhard IV. John H.. 2006. An Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics : The Finite Volume Method Approach. Sydney. pp. 2005. D. International Journal of Thermal Sciences. Trondheim. MA. [7] Iran Transfo Corporation Ducument. El Wakil .com. Versteeg. www. F. Introduction to Heat Transfer. 3rd ed. Phlogiston Press. Padet. John H. The University of Sydney. 15th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference. 2002. 2005. Dewitt. N. W. Prentice Hall. [8] [9] [10] H. Document No. Rev. 2005 [6] N. P.. C. P. [5] Nabati H. Mahmoudi J. Transformer Components and Accessories. vol.iran-transfo. Fourth Edition.. J. TA0080. A heat transfer textbook. 0.Analysis of Pin Fin Heat Sinks. Australia 13-17 December 2004. . 46th Conference on Simulation and Modeling(SIMS 2005). Lienhard V. Norway.. 3rd Ed. Chereches. 615–626. Numerical study of heat transfer and fluid flow in a power transformer. 1996. Malalasekra. Cambridge. Numerical Study of Thermal Performance of Different Pin-Fin Morphologies.

Paper 4 .

Simulation of Power Transformer’ Cooling System in ONAN S ta te Hamid Nabati PhD Student. S-721 23. [5]. Sweden Email: hamid.nabati@gmail. Iran ABSTRACT This paper presents the results of numerical modeling of temperature distribution and flow pattern in a block radiator used in power transformer cooling system.Gr−1/2 on the flow structure and they give some correlations to calculate the heat transfer inside this kind of transformer. Box 883. . It is of interest to minimize the size of heat exchangers and internal cooling ducts and simultaneously increase the cooling efficiency.Mahmoudi@mdh. the current cooling system should be re-engineered and uprated. Each block radiator consists of eighteen plane radiators which are parallel together and a typical power transformer (like a 30MVA) has 6 radiator blocks in each side which means it has 12 blocks totally. Our main desire is the study of relation between radiator block characteristics and cooling behavior of system which can be used for its optimization in the future studies. The results indicate that recirculation occurs whenever pressure increase at the end of a radiator block that consequently prevents the enough oil flow through the last radiator of block. In most power transformers. Heat transfer inside the channels and thermal behavior of the flow in a pipe with different boundary conditions are investigated widely in heat transfer texts [9. the oil mass flow distribution is not homogenous which affects the heat transfer rate inversely. the cooling is provided through circulation of oil between ducts in the active parts and heat exchangers outside the transformer tank. Västerås. 10]. Dept. These losses are transformed into heat which causes a temperature rise that can reach high levels and affects negatively the transformer performance which means an operational load and useful life reduction. In the conventional oil passage through radiators. MDH. of Public Technology. Sweden Email: Jafar.Västerås. Dept. Sharif Technology Development Institute(TDI). Mälardalen University. INTRODUCTION Transformers are the most valuable assets in power systems and it appears worthwhile to pay special attention to this key component to ensure stability in power systems. To provide added load capability or to reduce temperature for highly loaded units.se Ali Ehteram Research expert. Most of the literatures have focused on inside the power transformer. A numerical study has been conducted for a single radiator in both ONAN and ONAF states by Nabati h. Mälardalen University. S-721 23. Experimental data taken from company and technical data extracted from transformer documents have been used for model calibration and results verification. For example recently Mufuta and Van Den Bulck [2] studied the case of a winding disc-type transformer and they showed the influence of Re. The oil circulation is due to free convection or combined free and forced convection. In power transformr. but no special paper with focus on radiator were found in literature. Tehran. the heat dissipation by means of natural convection through its own surface is not enough and it requires more elaborated methods of cooling [1. They are widely used in the industry especially in the distribution power networks.3]. They found that the conventional oil flowing passage needs some correction and optimization. The numerical study using fluent software has been conducted to find the explanation of low cooling efficiency in this especial power transformer currently used in industry. and Mahmoudi j.com Jafar Mahmoudi Adjunct Professor. of Public Technology. The energy losses in the power transformers are proportional to the load. MDH Box 883.

In the current paper.U Velocity of a radiator block and dimension of a typical radiator are illustrated in figures 2 and 3. in order to provide the necessary cooling surface (ONAN). NOMENCLATURE A Surface area CP Specific heat capacity D Diameter Dh Hydraulic Diameter f Friction coefficient h Convective heat transfer coefficient k Thermal conductivity. Finally. forced air cooling (ONAF) is used to accelerate the cooling process. Different aspects Figure 1. If factors such as expected future load growth or exposure to prolonged high ambient temperatures have to be taken into account. turbulent kinetic energy & Mass flow rate m NuD Nusselt number based on Dh P Pressure Pr Prandtl number Q Rate of heat transfer Ra Rayleigh number ReD Reynolds number based on D T Temperature u. Steel sheets used for radiator manufacturing are St-37. which are connected to top and bottom headers. Side view of a block radiator [8] . A typical power transformer equipped with auxiliary fans[8] Figure 2. Subscripts : ∞ in out. oil is collected in lower semicircular channel and sent out. A typical transformer which is assembled in Iran Transfo Company is shown in the figure 1. The radiators are steel plate heat exchangers that are installed vertically next to transformers and each of them consists of seven channels for oil flowing. Two identical steel plates are pressed and welded to each other to form the radiator. Oil brings out from transformer and flows to an upper header which directs the oil to semicircular channel. we present a numerical study of heat transfer and fluid flow inside a radiator block which is used in different 3-phase power transformer cooling systems and composed of eighteen radiators which are installed on two headers in a parallel configuration. This channel directs the oil into the provided ways inside the radiator. At the upper and lower parts of radiator. Each channel is equipped with two internal throughout wings to increase the heat transfer rate from radiator. semicircular channels are provided for oil flow entry and exit. Free stream Inlet Outlet RADIATOR BLOCK TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS All Iran Transfo transformers are equipped with detachable panel radiators. Cooling fans are activated in one or more stages by the relay contacts of the top oil temperature sensor.

the resulting data can be easily evaluated by the Fluent postprocessor. This model implies that the length and velocity scales of the mean flow and of the turbulence are proportional and can be related by means of dimensional reasoning to turbulent kinetic energy (k) and its dissipation rate (ε): u=k0.∇ 2U i + (−u i′u ′j ) ∂xi ∂x j (2) (3) ∂ (U j T ) ∂x j = α . All flows were specified as steady state and incompressible. the thermal equation.2) software was selected to perform numerical analysis on the model. Once the analyses are completed. Considering the steady state. . k is turbulent kinetic energy and: S ij = 0 . u i′θ constitute the Reynolds stresses and turbulent heat fluxes. The standard k-ε turbulence model with standard wall function was set for radiator model.5.6]. The Segregated 3D solver with an implicit formulation was set to solve the model. In the current study the buoyancy effect is assumed to be negligible inside the radiator and also the radiation heat transfer is not considered. momentum and energy equations are given by following correlations [11]: ∂U i (1) =0 ∂xi ∂ (U jU i ) ∂x j =− ∂P ∂ + ν . The finite volume model and related mesh were constructed using Gambit software and the models data were passed to the Fluent software for various analyses. The conservation of mass was verified by comparing the inlet and outlet mass flow rate to The general specifications of radiators are as following: • Length of elements 800 .3500 • Width 520 mm • No. In this model. The Boussinesq assumption for u i′ u ′j and u i′θ are given by: u i′u ′j = − 2ν t . The Fluent (Version 6. The eddy-viscosity turbulence model is used to approximate u i′u ′j and u i′θ [4. Upon completion of each run. radiator is considered as a separate element with internal oil flow from top to down and convective heat transfer on the outer surfaces. 5 and 6. One of the most important models to express these parameters is Standard k-ε model that is used in our simulation. Theses two parameters should be modeled to close the system of equations. the continuity. The governing equations solved by Fluent are the Navier-Stokes equations combined with the continuity equation. three dimensional and incompressible turbulent flow. of radiators in each block 4-28 ( 18 in our model) • Elements spacing 45 mm CFD MODELING Using the appropriate governing equations and turbulence models for flow and heat transfer analyzing is an essential key to ensure the accuracy and confidence of CFD results.5ε−1 (7) Two-equation eddy-viscosity models require two additional transport equations for k and ε to solve the spatial and temporal variation of the local velocity scale and the length scale. More details about other models can be found in references 4.S ij + u i′θ = − 2 δ ij k 3 (4) (5) ν t ∂T σ t ∂x j In the above equations.∇ 2T + ∂ ( −u ′ i θ ) ∂x j P is the modified kinematics pressure and u i′u ′j .the turbulent transport phenomenon is analogized to viscous transport and an eddy-viscosity for turbulence is introduced by Boussinesq assumption. results were carefully examined and analyzed to prove their accuracy. and constitutive property relationships which are described above. l=k1. Different parts of radiator block[8] Two-equation model is used to state the νt and therefore two unknowns u i′u ′j and u i′θ [13]. σt is the turbulent Pr number. In the constructed model. νt is the eddy viscosity. 5 ( ∂U j ∂U i + ) ∂x j ∂ xi (6) Figure 3.

∆Tlm (9) Logarithmic mean temperature difference is given by: ∆ Tlm = (Tbulk .84 + 4. 4.C P m (11) Reynolds number: the Reynolds number characterizes the relative influences of inertial and viscous forces in a fluid flow: Re Table 1: Initial conditions for simulation Oil inlet Oil inlet Ambient volumetric flow temperature temperature [m3/h] [C] [C] 1.0378T 2 (14) Considering these equations.in − T wall ) /( Tbulk . Natural circulation will only occur if the correct conditions exist. Nu D = h .36 ×10 −7 T 2 C P = 616. Computational errors both in pressure drop and heat transfer measurements were commonly encountered. the thermal conductivity and the dynamic viscosity decrease with increasing temperature.in + Q & . It should be noticed that only one quarter of the radiator is modeled here. The relation is: ρ = 1075. removal of any one of these conditions will cause Dh is hydraulic diameter which is expressed with following relation: Dh = 4 × cross sectional area wetted perimeter (13) The physical properties of the mineral oil vary with the temperature according to the correlations given by the following equations. This could result in a diverging solution and was corrected by increasing the reference pressure and/or relaxing the modified inertia criteria. Results can be easily extended for other sections.3 45 D ρ . The energy flow into and out of the radiator at the flow boundaries were ensured to be equal to the total energy dissipated at the outer wall.D h k (8) h is hold for convective heat transfer coefficient and given by: h= Q A. since radiator is symmetric with two symmetry axes. These equations are extracted from company graphs[8]: .25 ×10 −4 T + 4.Radiators are modeled as a simple radiator with a rectangular cube shape.191 − 3. Even after natural circulation has begun. Parameters which have been encountered in this study are considered as follow: Nusselt number: this number shows the ratio of convective heat transfer to conductive heat transfer in the oil.K) Another important factor is natural circulation force(Thermosyphon) which causes the oil flow between radiators and transformer body.ensure that the mass balance is achieved.22 W/m2K. it is obvious that the density. the natural convective heat transfer coefficient has been calculated and defined as [5]: Hnatural = 8.out = Tbulk . D h = µ (12) Based on these considerations and considering the equations given in reference [5]. The oil properties variation with temperature is taken into account in simulation. out − T wall ) ] (10) The following table shows the initial conditions for radiator block: Outlet mean temperature: Oil outlet temperature is calculated by following equation: Tbulk .4 − 0.U .The cooling oil specifications are taken from technical documents supplied by Iran-transfo Company. 2.065 − 5.Mass flow and input temperature of cooling oil are extracted from the specified transformer documents. ln [(Tbulk .3 95. In natural convection state this coefficient is approximately about 8. but the specific heat at constant pressure varies in the same way as the temperature.24T µ = 304. 3.22 (W/m2.in − T wall ) − (Tbulk .The convective heat transfer coefficient is calculated theoretically for natural convective heat transfer state and assumed constant and homogenous for all walls in a radiator block [5].out − T wall ) ASSUMPTIONS AND SOLUTION TECHNIQUES The following considerations are taken into account before applying the solutions: 1.255T + 0.682T K = 0.

Figure 4 shows the whole simulated section. The numerical result shows a cooling capacity for one radiator block about 8602 Watt.the natural circulation to stop. Since the inlet and outlet flow affect seriously on flow behavior inside the radiator elements. The temperature distribution on the middle section of radiator block has been shown in the figure 6. P55 = 120000 W.max )x (16) According the Zimence documents [8]. thus the total heat dissipation rate from transformer is equal to 98582 Watts. The total cooling capacity of transformer cooling system as the following: Figure 4. Thus the net cooling capacity of radiators is 87982 Watts. θ0. But there are some other losses from the transformer body rather than radiators. these section were modeled carefully and all important aspect were included in the model. The following correlation is used for thermosyphon force calculation [10]: (15) H = ( ρ Cold − ρ Hot ) × g × h The calculated value was used as an input data for boundary condition in simulation program.3 and x = 0. A temperature difference exists (heat source and heat sink exists). Based on technical documents for this special transformer. The heat transfer mechanism in these regions is mainly due to heat conduction inside the oil and as a result reduces the cooling efficiency. The temperature is almost constant in the upper header. 3. the exit temperature is lower than the left side radiators in a block. The conditions for natural circulation are as follows: 1. The fluids must be in contact with each other. 2. but in the lower header it is quite different. These zones are resulting from recirculation flows and highly affect the cooling capacity of radiators. For all other walls the boundary condition is the constant natural convective coefficient. There are some dead zones which are blue colored. All important aspects of block including inlet and outlet headers and oil passing channels were simulated accurately. MESH CONSTRUCTION Based on the technical drawings and collected data in the factory.5mm dimensions. the heat losses from transformer body and other parts are approximately 10600 Watts. Simulated radiator block P55 = Ptotal × ( 55 1 θ 0. max = 50. The inlet boundary condition for upper header is the mass flow rate and the outlet boundary condition for the lower header is considered as outflow. This phenomenon will be discussed more in the following. For a 30MVI transformer which consists of 12 radiator blocks the total cooling capacity is 12*8602=103224 Watts. Each radiator is considered as a rectangular plate with 1500mm*520mm*7. A complete computational mesh of the radiator block consisting of about 1700000 cells was made. RESULTS Figure 5 shows the temperature distribution on the surfaces of radiator block. . At the right side radiators. This value shows a difference about 15% from technical data which can be resulted from the assumption of constant convection coefficient for all radiators. The other dimensions are considered as the values that are shown in figure 2 and 3. a 3-D mesh model was generated to simulate the whole radiator block. The cooling capacity of radiators is considered as key performance indicator to examine the accuracy of numerical solution. The heat source is at a lower elevation than the heat sink.8.

Considering these issues. It can be seen that at the end of upper pipe. Velocity vectors in the middle section of block Figure 5. the velocity vectors in the middle section of radiator block are shown. the oil flow starts the recirculation and thus a small amount of The pressure distributions in the upper and lower headers are shown in the figures 9 and 10 respectively. . Temperature distribution among the middle section of block In the figures 7 and 8. Figure 7. the cooling efficiency decreases. Recirculation flow in upper pipe Figure 7. An exact look in both diagrams shows that the pressure difference between upper and lower headers are much more in the right side of block than the left side. Consequently. Temperature distribution on radiator block walls Figure 8. the velocity distribution through the radiators should vary greatly. Thus the oil flow is less in the right side radiators.inlet flow reaches the last radiators.

Pressure distribution in radiator block inlet pipe(Oil flows from left) Figure 12. Temperature distribution at middle line of radiator block Figure 10.Also figure 13 shows the internal heat transfer coefficient for different radiator in a block. Q & . we concern on temperature distribution. in + Based on the mass flow studied above. This value for the radiators which are closer to inlet is higher than the radiators which are far. The outlet bulk temperature based on energy balance was determined as follows: Tbulk . Internal heat transfer coefficient for different radiator in a block Presented results in the current section include output data obtained from first stage simulation. Pressure distribution in radiator block outlet pipe (Oil exits from left) Figure 11 shows the average z velocity through the radiators in the middle section of the block. Again. it is obvious that there is a significant difference between average temperature in the first radiators and the last ones. out = Tbulk . The simulated radiator block has the same characteristics as the produced ones in Iran Transfo Company. Several checks were performed in order to verify the generated results. The contour plots for velocity. Figure 9. It can be seen that the first radiators (more close to inlet) have higher velocity than the radiators which are far from inlet. temperature and pressure were observed separately to ensure that the results satisfy the boundary conditions. thus the velocity magnitudes are small and as a result the Nusselt number and convective heat transfer coefficient reduces. The explanation is that the mass flow in the right side radiators is less. Figure 12 shows the average temperature distribution through the radiators in the middle section. This proves that oil flow in the last radiators is few and can’t contribute in heat transfer effectively. A simple calculation of the outlet bulk temperature based on the energy balance was performed to verify the result obtained directly from Fluent. Figure 11. Velocity distribution at the middle section of radiator block Figure 13.CP m (17) CONCLUSIONS The current study concerns on heat transfer and flow behavior in a radiator block which is . Three orders of magnitude of convergence were maintained for each solution in order to ensure accuracy of the results.

W. Volume 25. University of Sydney. Prentice Hall. F. Morris .IEEE. MA. Phlogiston Press. An Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics : The Finite Volume Method Approach. . [11] H. Norway. Moshfegh. Mufuta.. and Hatam M.. Malalasekra. Simulation of Top Oil Temperature for Transformer. International Journal of Thermal Sciences. 2005. P. Applied Thermal Engineering. The authors also would like to acknowledge technical office staff in Iran Transfo Company. 20. Heyrani-Nobari M. E... [2] J. the following matters should be considered in order to improve heat transfer characteristic in radiators: • Change of radiators dimensions in a block • Change of distance between radiators • Using the widthwise pin fins between radiators • The last suggestion can be considered as the most important one. El Wakil . Transformer Components and Accessories. REFERENCES [1] M . P. D. 2005 [7] N. Nyiredy. [8] Iran Transfo Corporation Ducument."Thermal rating of transformers ". pp. So it is possible to investigate on the feasibility of radiator block performance improvement using pin fin structure on the outer surface of them.. for their technical support and guides. John H. [4] B. June 2005. Modeling of the mixed convection in the windings of a disc-type power transformer. Cambridge.-M.iran-transfo. A good idea is that to use pin fins on the external surface of radiators to enhance the heat transfer and reduce the oil temperature at the radiator outlet. Document No. [6] Nabati H. N. Rev.installed in a specific power transformer. 2002. www. 116. 2000 [3] Yong Liang. Van den Bulck. Introduction to Heat Transfer. 45. 15th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference. 2005. Cornell University. Vol. pp. [10] Lienhard IV.R.com. 1996. pp 1564-1570. and its mesh generator Gambit in the current work. In the future studies. September 1961. So the less oil passes through the last radiators and consequently their cooling capacity decreases. feb. The study results show that the most problematic issue in radiator block configuration is the big difference between the heat transfer efficiency of the first radiators in the block and the last ones. Comparing RANS Models for Flow and Thermal Analysis of Pin Fin Heat Sinks. 3rd Ed. T. Sydney. 417-437. The numerical simulation of block is based on its current working conditions. Appl. J. An optimized design for the upper pipe can resolve this problem.2. 2006. Chereches. 615–626. An experimental study of heat transfer in an open-ended vertical eccentric annulus with insulated and constant heat flux boundaries. [9] ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We would like to acknowledge the use of Fluent Inc. Numerical study of heat transfer and fluid flow in a power transformer. Carrothers. Versteeg. Mahmoudi J. Issues 8-9. Lienhard V. John H. 3rd ed. Fourth Edition.'S solver Fluent 6. 46th Conference on Simulation and Modeling(SIMS 2005). pp. Padet. 1247-1257. Trondheim. TA0080. E. Master thesis. Australia 13-17 December 2004. Numerical Study of Thermal Performance of Different PinFin Morphologies. 2001. . Thermal Engrg. R. C.. 0.9. vol.no. The simulation shows that the pressure increases at the end section of upper pipe.. Incropera.G. [5] Hosseini R. A heat transfer textbook. Dewitt.

Paper 5 .

Mälardalen University. Sweden (email: hamid. flow rate. Mälardalen University. Västerås. (email Jafar.Mahmoudi@outokumpu. heat flux and casting temperature. 2. The study results lead to find out a correlation between these casting parameters and the casting quality. Västerås.AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON PRODUCTIVITY AND QUALITY IMPROVEMENT OF HORIZONTAL CONTINUOUS CASTING PROCESS Jafar Mahmoudi1.se) PhD Student. MDH. an experimental investigation has been carried out to support numerical results. To obtain the best quality for each alloy.com) ABSTRACT The aim of the current work is to provide information on how to improve the productivity and quality in the horizontal continuous casting process (HCC). R&D Division. Some casting parameters have been measured and collected: inlet and outlet temperatures. Sweden.Mahmoudi@mdh.com) Adjunct Professor.nabati@gmail. Also based on the results. Sweden (email: Jafar. After a first numerical 2D/3D survey about the solidification in the HCC. MDH. There is a very good agreement between the current results and earlier numerical results. a set of operating parameters has been proposed. Västerås. NOMENCLATURE Cp: Thermal capacity [J/kg. C] ρ : Density [kg/m3] .K] & : Mass flow rate [kg/s] m Q: Heat flow [J] T: Temperature [K] V: Volume[m3] & : Flow rate [m3/s] V ∆Hf: Latent heat of fusion [J/kg] ∆P: Pressure drop [pa] ∆T: Temperature Difference [K. Hamid Nabati3 1 2 3 Outokumpu Copper. one can gain an insight on the productions of each casting machine and the grades of their quality.

et al. In the latter case. Mahmoudi. Voller et al. The analysis will be carried out to understand the effects of different casting parameters to gain: − Increased quality (inner and surface) − Increased productivity (2. plastic extrusion and Czochralski crystal growing. The basic process in the HCC involves the flow of the molten material in a mould. Horizontal continues casting is the main method for producing different forms of brass in the factory which involves complex interaction phenomena (Mahmoudi. 2000). the continuous casting is essentially an automatic process which results in the less labour cost for production unit. the temperature distribution and the growth of the solid shell are coupled to each other..1 ton/h and further to 5 ton/h) − Increased profitability . but the operational characteristics are same as what is mentioned above.. 2001. By adding some other elements to its basic composition of copper and Zinc. lock parts. such as fiberglass drawing.. In addition. et al. Continuous casting is a very important manufacturing process. Each billet is continuously cast with a typical casting rate of 2. 2001.G. This process is very similar to several other manufacturing techniques. particularly for metals. Generally. Clavaguera et al. plumbing fixtures.. water mixers.. there is only one operator responsible for the HCC machine. Brass is provided in the form of rods. The continuous casting method implies that a strand of solid metal continuously is drawn out from the chill-mould at the same time as the chill-mould continuously is fed with new melt from upstream. et al. in order to cut the casting at constant lengths. This results in the solidification of the liquid across a phase interface and finally the solidified ingot is withdrawn at a uniform velocity. a very strong circulating flow region is generated in the strand.. nuts. The operator selects the production requirements on the operation control panel. It should be mentioned here that there is a distinction between completely continuous and semi-continuous casting processes. Furthermore. The length of the machine in the factory is around 10 m and it contains two parallel cast strands (hereafter referred as north and south strands) with a total production capacity about 5 t/h for copper-base alloys. The solidified shell is withdrawn periodically in successive strokes. profiles and bars for further manufacturing processes. Since the strand is withdrawn periodically. B. it provides useful information for productivity improvement. Mahmoudi. can produce 300 to 600 kg/h of bronze. The microstructure of the metals processed by continuous casting is dendrite (as in casting in an enclosed region). but is more dense and uniform due to the same treatment in the whole length of mould. The liquid metal starts to solidify in the mould. 2003. electrical components. A casting unit which is working based on the described method. which is often water cooled.INTRODUCTION Brass is a material which has a wide variety of usage. Examples of final products are screws.1 to 3. The casting machine is controlled automatically and monitored by its own programmable logic controller (PLC). The liquid metal is supplied into a water-cooled copper mould through an inlet channel. The flow field. Dies (or moulds) are made from copper or graphite and they are simple and inexpensive. Noshadi et al. Figure (1) illustrates schematically the HCC process. such that a solid shell is formed.. since it offers several advantages. 1987. Typically.. This process is used mainly for copper alloys and cast iron. the length of the strand is limited (Thomas. 1998. decorative items and etc. which all together influence the macro segregation and microstructure of the produced metal strand.2 t/h.. 1999). This study will focus on finding the correlation between the operational parameters and the casting quality to gain optimized parameters for each alloy. a saw is set up after the withdrawal rolls. or 700 to 1400 kg/h of cast iron. making it suitable for a variety of application areas and manufacturing methods. followed by a high cooling rate in the downstream. it gains unique characteristics.

THEORETICAL CONSIDERATION OF SOLIDIFICATION

The solidification takes place between the liquidus and solidus temperatures. At the liquidus temperature the solidification process begins. The usual method for solidification process studying involves the temperature recording of the sample during the solidification process using a thermocouple which is placed in the centre of a small crucible. Solidification in continuous casting essentially is solidification in heat extraction process. The microstructure of the strips processed by the method is dendritic, but is more uniform because the whole length receives the same treatment in the mould. The basic process involves the flow of the molten copper in a mould, which is often water cooled, followed by a high cooling rate in the downstream. This results in the solidification of a liquid across a phase interface and the final product is a solidified strip which is withdrawn and cut at a constant rate. In order to understand the solidification behavior, the knowledge of shell formation is of the greatest importance. This is also useful for geometrical design of the mould and determining the length of the mould for a specific casting speed. To determine the dimension of cooling equipments, thickness and surface temperature of the strip’s shell are main designing factor. It is important to remove the heat in a controlled and predictable manner to optimize thermal profile of the strip as a function of casting condition and withdrawal rate. In the liquid region, heat is transferred by conduction and convection and in the solid region heat is transferred mainly by conduction. The heat flow in the mould is controlled by the natural gap which is formed between shell and mould during the formation of solid shell. After the mould section, the strand is further cooled in a caster by water sprays. In order to evaluate the mean heat flux from the cast material to the cooling water, the following heat balance has been used:

dQ & water .C P , water .∆ T water = m dt
where

(1)

& & water = ρwater.V m water

(2)

where ρ water and CP , water denote density and specific heat capacity of the cooling water and volumetric flow rate and temperature difference of incoming and outgoing cooling water.

& water and ∆ Twater denote v

the

The heat entering the mould comes from heat of fusion of the solidifying metal as well as cooling the liquid metal before and during solidification process:

dQ dT = ρ .CP .V . + ρ .V .(−∆H f ) dt dt

(3)

The second term in the right hand side of the equation describes the rate of generated heat due to solidification which is equal to zero before the start of solidification and at the end of it. During solidification, the rate of heat which is generated due to solidification corresponds to the latent heat of fusion. This can be simplified to:

dQ & ( C P .∆ Tbillet − ∆ H f ) =m dt

(4)

where ∆Tbillet denotes difference between temperature of entering liquid metal to the mould and surface temperature of leaving solidified metal at the end of mould. This can be used to estimate the surface temperature of the billet when it passes through the mould. This estimation is corresponding to plant observation and preliminary temperature measurements of the billet surface when it leaves the mould 4.

REVIEW ON QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF DIFFERENT ALLOYS PRODUCED

Data which are presented here are related to the company productions from January to July 2003. During this period, the company produced 13195 tones of brass and four main alloys were manufactured: Alloy 1458, Alloy 1658, Alloy 2665 and Alloy 2862. Normally the next stage after completion of solidification is extrusion, but in fact just part of the brass is sent to this next stage and there are some other residuals including: Return metal, casting slag and burned off. Figure (2) shows that alloy 1658 is more produced with almost the half of the total production. About 6.7 % of the production is either re-melt or lost. This part (6.7 %) is not profitable and is wasted. To get more insight to company productions, the distribution of the different qualities of alloys, for the both south and north strands are presented in figure (3). Referring to this figure, the following points can be observed for each alloy:
Alloy 1458

At the first semester of 2003, 18.3% of the total company production was alloy 1458. For the north strand, only 1.3% of production was Grade 5, and the main production was Grade 4 (48.5%). The other half of the production was divided to almost three equal parts of Grade 1, 2, and 3. Similarly, for the south strand, only 1.4% of production was Grade 5 and the main production was Grade 4 (38.7 %). Sum of Grade 1 to 3 for the north strand was 10% more than the south strand and it is seen thatt the quality of the north strand is better than the south strand.
Alloy 1658

This was the main alloy produced in the company which represented 47% of the total company production at the first semester of 2003. For the north strand, only 5.1% of production was Grade 5, and the sum of Grade 4 and 5 represented the one forth of the total production which was equal to the percentage of less quality productions (Grade 1 and 2). Almost half of the production was Grade 3 (45.4%). For the south strand, the best quality was never reached, and the quality 4 represented only 14.9%. Sum of the amounts of Grade 1 and 2 is more than half of the total production (53.4%) and Grade 1 was the most one. From the north to the south strand, Grade 3 decreases about 13.7%. Again for this alloy, quality of the north strand is better than the quality of the south strand.
Alloy 2665

The alloy 2665 represented 6.2% of the total production in the company, for the same period of time. The south and the north strand had the same results and conclusions are same for both of them. The best quality was never reached in none of strands. The quality 4 represented only 25.3% of the production and Grade 2 was the most production with a percentage about 52%. Moreover, sum of Grade 1 and 2 represented the three-quarter of the total production (74.7%). This alloy had the worst quality in all the alloys produced.
Alloy 2862

20.6% of the total company production was alloy 2862. In the north strand, amount of the best quality production was about 30.4%, and sum of Grade 5 and 4 was equal to the two third of the total production (61.7%). Moreover the Grade 3 was the most produced one (38.2%), and the company had not produced Grade 1 and 2. For the south strand, only grade 3 and 4 were produced, which Grade 4 represented 61.8% of the total production. Percentage of Grade 3 did not change from the north to the south stand. Again, quality of the north strand was better than the quality of the south strand. This alloy had the best quality among all the alloys produced.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

Experiments were performed to find out the correlation between operating parameters with casting quality. The ongoing measuring campaigns started from January 2003 after a load of trials. The cooling water flows have been measured on both strands during casting. The data have also been used to estimate the cooling effect. The inlet and outlet flow rate, inlet and outlet temperature, and casting temperature for both strands (North and South) have been collected. The cooling effect and in/out temperature differences were evaluated from the measuring data, and compared with a previous numerical analysis. First of all, the inlet/outlet temperatures, the flow rates (in/out), the heat flux and the casting temperatures are collected using a data acquisition system with an interval time of 5 seconds. The flow rate was also given by an analogue system on the pipes (it will be called index). This has been used to re-calibrate and double control our measuring data. A load of experiments indicated that the recorded data and the data acquisition system showed too high value. That was found by comparing the acquired data with previous numerical studies. Therefore a new set of measurement was carried out to re-calibrate the outgoing signal from data acquisition system. This was done by filling up a basket with cooling water in a certain period of time. Volume of water was measured and results showed that the relation of Index/Computer acquisition system were very close to each other. That indicated the re-calibrated value was sufficiently accurate.

COLLECTED DATA

A statistic survey has been carried out to show the correlation between these parameters and the quality. At the company, the quality is divided into five grades: Grade 5 represents the best quality, and Grade 1 is held for the poor quality. For each casting parameter, two kinds of charts have been done. On the one hand the average of the parameter as a function of grade, on the other hand its fluctuation as a function of grade. The in/out cooling water flow rate, in/out temperatures of the cooling water and temperatures have been measured on both strands during casting. Figure (4) shows the typical data that we collected from both strands: flow and temperature, the evaluated heat flux variation, and the casting temperature, as a function of time, measured directly during the casting process. The range of the collected data for the cooling water flow through the north strand is: The temperature differences vary between 24–25 ºC The flow rates vary between 1.23 – 1.68 l/s The heat flux vary between 125 – 167 kW And for the south strand: The temperature differences vary between 18–19 ºC The flow rates vary between 1.36 – 2.09 l/s The heat flux vary between 106 – 152 kW The casting temperature fluctuates between 978 – 1019 ºC. During the data collection, it was found that the average heat flux and temperature values for the north strand were higher than those for the south one. Moreover, difficulties appeared often in data measurements, which make it difficult to be properly explained. Especially, it occurred more often for Grade 3. In fact, the point is to be more accurate, new measurement works should be carried out. Also the level of quality cannot be explained with only one parameter. It is the mix of the effect of all of them. The results are obtained both for the north and the south, so that the two strands of the casting process are shown. The evolution of the parameters can be seen with the following graphics:

the less heat fluxes are related to the less quality grades. Outlet Temperature Figures (6a) and (6b) show the average outlet temperature and its fluctuations for both strands. the flow rates decrease from grade 5 to grade 1.7 and ±7. the less the quality is.9 ºC. we can see that the minimum casting temperature results in the best quality. It seems that for the inlet and the outlet temperatures.5 and 71. data for both strands are very close to each other. it can be seen that high quality alloy comes with low temperature. and also the high quality obtained with lower temperature. But for the south strand. Hence considering only the three best levels of quality (grade 5 to 3). Also fluctuation of the temperatures has a range between ±1. and heat flux.Inlet Temperature Average inlet temperature for the north and south strands and its fluctuation are shown in figures 5a and 5b respectively. The level of outlet temperature for the north strand is higher. That explains what happens for grade 1 and 2. DISCUSSION North strand According to the charts. The flow rate and the heat flux are correlated as explained previously. it can be seen that for the north strand. What happened for Grade 3 is an example of what is written before: More data are required to avoid it. it seems that a good quality requires a heat flux equal to maximum value (172kW) for the north strand and a mean value (127 kW) for the south strand. we can see that a low fluctuation leads to a better quality. The more the fluctuation in temperature. again less temperatures result in better grads. Referring to these figures. Fluctuation of the casting temperature (Figure 9b) is relatively the same for both strands. As a general role. flow rate. to 48. without considering Grade 3. Figure (8a) shows that for the north strand. The temperatures go from 48. and the casting temperature is about . the flow rate should be controlled around 1. This figure is not entirely satisfying because of the Grade 1 and 2. it can be seen that the less fluctuation of the flow rates results in better quality. Referring to figure (8b). the quality of alloy decreases. Flow Rate Average flow rate is shown in figure (7a). From the figure. It could be explained like previously because of the lack of data or of the fact that one only parameter cannot explain the level of quality. Moreover. The heat flux varies between 152 to 172 kW for the north strand and 113 to 136 kW for the south strand.76 l/s in order to produce Grade 5. But for the south strand behavior is unexpected and different from north strand. In this chart. Casting Temperature Figure (9a) shows the average casting temperature for both strands. it can be seen as the cooling water temperature increases.5 ºC for the best quality.8 ºC for the worse quality. The best quality requires maximum flow rate. North strand shows more regular behavior.5 ºC. For the south strand. Figure (7b) shows the fluctuation of flow rate. The heat flux is around 173 kW. That is why the behaviour of the chart of the flow rate looks like the chart of the heat flux.2 ºC. The best quality requires a heat flux of 173 kW. The best quality has a fluctuation of about ±1. the best quality is obtained for such values of temperatures. Heat Flux Average and fluctuation of the heat flux for the north and south strand are shown in figures (8a) and (8b) respectively. In these figures. these temperatures should be equal to 48. the variation of heat flux is not satisfying at all. The fluctuation pattern is the same for both strands and it shows that less fluctuation results in best quality. If grade 3 is ignored.

Like the north case. but here increase in the percentage of Sn has a positive effect on the quality of the alloy 2665. It is really different from the previous casting order (1015 ± 15 ºC) and could explain why about 74. The casting temperature is equal to 998 ºC for the south strand. the best quality is also obtained with approximately same values for operating parameters. For the best quality in all alloys. But the survey of each alloy leads to recommendations for each of them separately. This is not the same for the maximum of Sn. all the fluctuations have to be as low as possible.5 and 68. The inlet and the outlet temperatures should be around 48. it looks like that increasing the percentage of Sn. Furthermore. Also table (1) shows composition of the alloys as a function of quality.7% of its production was Grade 1 and 2. some values are different from the previous one. This is confirmed by a previous numerical analysis. here again. But here it seems that increasing the percentage of Sn has a positive effect on the quality. As. However. Alloy 2862 There are always fluctuations for all the different qualities. The flow rate and the heat flux should be around 1. and Cr. Al. and Ni has a positive effect on the quality of the alloy 1458. Alloy 2665 Fluctuations are the same as the alloy 1458. and Cr. a more accurate study has been carried out for each alloy which leads to new operating casting parameters. Al. in each case the fluctuations in the operating parameters should be kept as low as possible. Alloy 1658 The fluctuations are the same as the ones for the previous alloy. However. Ni. Here.7 ºC. Fe.1000 ºC. to obtain the best quality in all the cases. CONCLUSION This study shows that the quality could be improved by changing some of the operating parameters. some recommendations should be followed. the fluctuation should be as low as possible. However to obtain the best quality. This is the same for the maximum of Sn. Fe. According to these data following conclusions could be obtained: Alloy 1458 The fluctuations are always respected for all the different qualities. However for the south strand. Ni. the new operating parameter for the casting temperature is 1040 ºC ± 10 ºC. the casting temperature should be about 1000 ºC. a target value exists and the fluctuation should not be too large. South strand According to the presented charts for the south strand. Some operating parameters are the same for all alloys: Inlet temperature Outlet temperature Temperature difference Flow rate Heat flux Casting temperature − − − But following parameters change: − − − As an example. For all parameters. Fe.59 l/s and 39 kW. . Moreover. any increase in the percentage of Sn and Fe has a positive effect on the alloy quality. Table (2) summarizes the operating parameters for each alloy. General recommendations have been previously given.

It would increase both the productivity and the quality. Scandinavian Journal of Metallurgy. Solidification . 5. Outokumpu Copper. sivesson and H. Vol. P. Sivesson (2000).There are still some issues remaining to be done. heat transfer and solidification in the strip casting of copper base alloy (I). Issue 1: 21-29. 34... pp 1-59. Solidification study of Cu-based alloys obtained by continuous casting.. pp. Vynnycky M. (2001). and the casting temperature Metallographic analysis Fluctuation in the contents of the alloying elements More clearly detail studies for the compositions − − − − − ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to acknowledge Mr. Stieg Andersson for their technical support and guides. 30-40. UK. Heat and Mass Transfer. 44 :1741-1751. Vynnycky M.1599. Produce more Grade 5. Clavaguera Mora1.. by using the new recommendations. Christer Halén. Vol. Noshadi. . 655-662. Issue 30: 1709-1719. (2001). the heat flux. Mahmoudi J. V. (III). Oxford. M. General thanks are given to our colleagues at the Outokumpu R&D Västérås that among all of them. Prakash C. Modeling of fluid flow. and Mr. Scandinavian Journal of Metallurgy. A Fixed Grid Numerical Modeling Methodology for Convection-Diffusion Mushy Region Phase Change Problems. G. Internal flow and shell solidification in horizontal continuous casting processes. Modeling of fluid flow. heat transfer and solidification in a Cu-Cr strip casting process. Vol. but a new experimental campaign should be carried out to check the results Increase the productivity rate for the present set up Less fluctuation for the flow rate. Continuous Casting. (2001). Mathematical modeling of fluid flow. Vol. heat transfer and solidification in the strip casting of a copper base alloy. 8.Peter Andersson and Olle heed for providing data at the company. & Kuznetsov A. Vynnycky and H. Mater Trans. Modeling of fluid flow. P. B. Int. Peo Boholm REFERENCES: 1.C. internal report. B. Scandinavian Journal of Metallurgy. (1998). Richard Mackey...G. 7.. Mr. Volume 30. Karin Hansson. Beckermann). Thomas. Mahmoudi J. Vol. It would improve the quality. 2:1595. Comas1 (1999). Mahmoudi J. M. Fredriksson (2001). W.a theoretical study. Journal of Materials Science. Also many thanks are due to Mr. The Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology. Mahmoudi J. 29. Issue 1: pp. Fredriksson (2003). Heat Transfer. Schneider. 6. Thomas & Ch. Issue 3: 136-145. 30.. The next steps for quality and the productivity improvement are: − − Decrease the rejected production. International conference on modeling of Casting. Mahmoudi J. V. An experimental and numerical study on the modeling of fluid flow. 3. we would especially like to mention: Jonas Fjellstetd. Number 17:4347 – 4350. 2. (1987). Elsevier Science Ltd. Voller R. J. Vynnycky.. heat transfer and solidification in the strip casting of copper base alloy (II). 4. JIM. 9. heat transfer and solidification in a copper continuous strip casting process. Welding and Advanced Solidification ProcessesVIII: (ed.. Water model.

Total Production = 13195 t Grade 5 Alloy 2862-South Alloy 2862-North Alloy 2665-South Alloy 2665-North Alloy 1658-South Alloy 1658-North Alloy1458-South Alloy1458-North 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Grade 4 Grade 3 Grade 2 Grade 1 Distribution Fig.Fig. 3 Distribution of the different qualities of alloys. for both the south and north strands . 2 Company production from January to July 2003. 1 Overall geometry of horizontal continuous casting unit Fig.

5b Fluctuation of cooling water inlet temperature as a function of grade 74 73 Temperature.Fig.6 48. T / C Grade 5 Grade 4 Grade 3 Grade 2 Grade 1 Fig. 6a Average outlet temperature of cooling water as a function of grade .5 48.75 48. 4 Typical casting temperature 48.4 Grade 5 Grade 4 Grade 3 Grade 2 Grade 1 North Strand South Strand Fig.7 48.55 48.9 48. 5a Average inlet temperature of cooling water as a function of grade 8 7 o Temperature.65 48.45 48. T/ C o North Strand South Strand 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Tem perature.85 48.8 48. T/ C o North Strand South Strand 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 Grade 5 Grade 4 Grade 3 Grade 2 Grade 1 Fig.95 48.

26 F lo w ra te .2 0.24 0.8 7 o North Strand South Strand 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 T e m p e ratu re . v/(l/s) 1.5 1. 6b Fluctuation of cooling water outlet temperature as a function of grade 1.14 0.28 0. v /(l/s) 0.7 Flow rate.8 North Strand 1. T / C Grade 5 Grade 4 Grade 3 Grade 2 Grade 1 Fig.22 0.3 Grade 5 Grade 4 Grade 3 South Strand Grade 2 Grade 1 Fig.1 Grade 5 Grade 4 Grade 3 Grade 2 Grade 1 North Strand South Strand Fig.3 0. 7a Average flow rate of cooling water as a function of grade 0.4 1.12 0.18 0.16 0. 7b Fluctuation of cooling water flow rate as a function of grade .6 1.

T/ C 1008 1006 1004 1002 1000 998 996 Grade 5 o North Strand South Strand Grade 4 Grade 3 Grade 2 Grade 1 Fig.173 168 163 158 153 148 143 138 133 128 123 118 113 Grade 5 Grade 4 Grade 3 Grade 2 North Strand South Strand Heat flux. W/kW Grade 1 Fig. 8b Fluctuation of heat flux as a function of grade 1010 Temperature. 9b Fluctuation of casting temperature as a function of grade . 8a Average heat flux as a function of grade 31 29 27 Heat flux. 9a Average casting temperature as a function of grade 50 45 o North Strand South Strand C Temperature. T/ 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Grade 5 Grade 4 Grade 3 Grade 2 Grade 1 Fig. W/kW 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 Grade 5 Grade 4 Grade 3 Grade 2 Grade 1 North Strand South Strand Fig.

5 1.5 1.5 Outlet temperature ± 3.5 Inlet temperature °C ± 1.6 160 1040 48.5 1.2 Flow rate l/s ± 25 Heat flux kW °C ± 10 * Casting temperature * For alloys 1458 and 1658 this value is ± 5 Alloy1458 Alloy 1658 Alloy 2665 Alloy 2862 48.5 72 23.0 Temperature difference °C ± 0.81 170 1010 .67 170 994 48.5 1.65 165 996 48.5 72 23.5 72 23.5 72 23.Table 1 Alloys composition as a function of quality Table 2 Operating parameters for different alloys Parameters Unit Fluctuation °C ± 1.

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