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HEO HYDRO ELECTRIC PROJECT 1. Executive Summary 2. E.I.A. 3. E.M.P.

DRAFT FINAL REPORT JUNE 2012

C CI IS SM MH HE E

Executive Summary of ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT & MANAGEMENT PLAN OF HEO HYDROELECTRIC PROJECT, Arunachal Pradesh

Prepared for: Heo Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi CENTRE FOR INTER-DISCIPLINARY STUDIES OF MOUNTAIN & HILL ENVIRONMENT University of Delhi, Delhi

Heo H.E. Project - EIA & EMP Executive Summary 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Developer Foreword ......................................................................................................... 4 General Description .......................................................................................................... 5 Project Background and Legal & Administrative Framework .................................. 10 Environmental Impact Assessment / Environmental Management Plan .................. 11 Baseline Environmental Status ...................................................................................... 12
5.1. Land Environment ..................................................................................................................................... 12
5.1.1. 5.1.2. 5.1.3. 5.1.4. Physiography.................................................................................................................................................... 12 Geology & Seismicity ...................................................................................................................................... 12 Soil ................................................................................................................................................................... 14 Land Use and Land Cover ................................................................................................................................ 14

5.2. Fluids Environment ................................................................................................................................... 17


5.2.1. 5.2.2. 5.2.3. Air Quality & Noise Pollution.......................................................................................................................... 17 Water Quality ................................................................................................................................................... 17 Hydro-Meteorology.......................................................................................................................................... 17

5.3. Biological Environment ............................................................................................................................. 18


5.3.1. 5.3.2. 5.3.3. Floristic and Forest Types ................................................................................................................................ 18 Faunal diversity ................................................................................................................................................ 19 Aqua Flora and Fauna ...................................................................................................................................... 19

5.4. Socio Cultural & Economic Environment ................................................................................................. 20

6.

Environmental Impacts Assessment ............................................................................. 21


6.1. Impact Identification .................................................................................................................................. 21 6.2. Prediction of Impacts ................................................................................................................................. 21

7.

Environmental Management Plan................................................................................. 23


7.1. Biodiversity Management & Wildlife Conservation Plan ......................................................................... 23 7.2. Fuel Wood Energy Management & Conservation ..................................................................................... 23 7.3. Waste Management Plan ........................................................................................................................... 23 7.4. Management of Air & Water Quality and Noise Level ............................................................................. 24 7.5. Catchment Area Treatment Plan ................................................................................................................ 24 7.6. Public Health Delivery System .................................................................................................................. 24 7.7. Fishery Development & Downstream Management plan .......................................................................... 25 7.8. Muck Disposal Plan ................................................................................................................................... 25 7.9. Green Belt Development Plan ................................................................................................................... 26 7.10. Restoration of Construction Areas and Landscaping ............................................................................... 26 7.11. Disaster Management Plan ...................................................................................................................... 26

Heo H.E. Project - EIA & EMP Executive Summary


7.12. Rehabilitation & Resettlement Plan ......................................................................................................... 27 7.13. Good Practice........................................................................................................................................... 27 7.14. Implementation & Monitoring program .................................................................................................. 28 7.15. Summary of Costs .................................................................................................................................... 28

Heo H.E. Project - EIA & EMP Executive Summary 1. Developer Foreword The strategy and philosophy followed by Velcan Energy, in all countries and for all projects, is to develop midsized run-of-the-river Hydroelectric Projects, which minimize the impact on the environment and local populations while allowing energy generation without greenhouse gases emissions. Such kind of projects is highly environment friendly because contrary to large reservoir projects, they do involve only small ponds or very small ponds, and therefore small or very small submergence areas. In addition Velcan Energy takes up exclusively the development of Projects which do not require displacement of people. Heo H.E Project is developed with the cooperation of local inhabitants right from the beginning of the field investigations and feasibility studies, and compensations and benefits are allocated through contracts, sponsoring and welfare activities even before the start of Project construction. This is the philosophy as per which the Heo Hydro Electric Project is proposed: Small submergence area: 8.4 ha including 3.3 ha of river bed (net submergence impact of 5.1 ha). Land requirement & very small impact on forest: net surface land impact 47.1 ha. Dam 15 m high No displacement of people. No wildlife sanctuary affected. Minimum environmental flow to guarantee sustenance of downstream aquatic life & afforestation measures. Local people getting benefit right from the investigation phase. Total budget for environmental and social mitigation measures: Rs 2880.43 Lakhs. Rehabilitation measures and Local Area Development budget: Rs 786.58 Lakhs (do not include the compensations per the Land Acquisition Act, which will be paid in addition whenever applicable) A summary of baseline data, methodology technical impacts and corresponding mitigation measures is presented hereafter.

Heo H.E. Project - EIA & EMP Executive Summary 2. General Description Heo H.E project is the middle project of a cascade of three projects developed by Velcan Energy Group on the Yarjep (Shi) River, between Mechuka and Tato circles, in West Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh. Heo H.E. Project is located in the Mechuka subdivision of West Siang district in Arunachal Pradesh (Fig. 1). The nearest road head at Hiri is about 160 km from Aalo, the head quarters of West Siang district. Heo Hydroelectric Project is a run of the river scheme proposed on the Yarjep (Shi) river (also known as Shi in the lower reaches), which is a right bank tributary of the Siyom river). The project Dam is located 5 km downstream of the confluence of the Sae Chu with the Yarjep (Shi), about 15 km downstream of Mechuka. The proposed dam site is located between 941631E longitude and 283220N latitude near Purying village. Proposed Power house site is located between 941843E longitude and 283232N latitude near Meying village. The nearest road heads are Gapo and Hiri villages which are linked to Mechuka and Tato towns. From these villages, or from the Tato Mechuka existing road, foot tracks are used to access the proposed dam and power house, respectively. The nearest road is connected to National Highway-52 via state road and is about 320 km from Akajan in Assam. For Heo project the nearest meter gauge rail head is at Silapathar (approx 300 km) and broad gauge at Naogaon (approx. 700 km) in Assam. From the project site, the nearest operational airport is around 450 km, located at Dibrugarh in Dibrugarh district of Assam and the nearest international airport is around 830 km located at Guwahati, the capital city of Assam. Heo H.E. Project involves a 15 m high concrete gravity dam, a horse shoe head race tunnel (HRT) of 3.6 km and a surface powerhouse with an installed capacity of 240 MW. Total catchment area of the project is 1065 sq km. The standard projected flood (SPF) and maximum probable flood were calculated to be 3200 and 3900 cumecs, respectively. The construction of the project will be completed in 4 years. The details of salient features of the project are given in the EIA report and in Table 1. The Project is designed with a small Pond, which involves a submergence of 8.4 Ha. The Land requirement is about 55.7 Ha, including underground structures and river bed area. The desing of project has been developed by the Engineering Department of VELCAN Energy. Reputed International consultants have also contributed significantly to the civil design, geology, geotechnics, and hydrology according to the latest international and Indian standards. 5

Heo H.E. Project - EIA & EMP Executive Summary Table 1. Salient features of the proposed Heo H.E. project
1 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) LOCATION State District Village Access Road Arunachal Pradesh West Siang Purying Road from Tato to Mechuka (v) Geographical Coordinates of dam a. Longitudes b. Latitudes (vi) Geographical Coordinates of Power house a. Longitudes b. Latitudes 2. (i) (ii) (iii) 3. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) 4. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) 5. (i) (ii) POWER Installed capacity (MW) Firm power (MW) in a 90% dependable year Annual energy 90% dependable year (GWh) RIVER BASIN CLIMATOLOGY and HYDROLOGY Catchment area at the water intake (km2) River Tributary Average Annual Rainfall (mm) Min-Max temperature (c) Min-Max humidity (%) Standard Project flood (m /s) Maximum probable flood (m3/s) RESERVOIR Maximum water level (m) Full reservoir level (m) Minimum Drawn Down Level (m) Active storage (Mm ) Dead storage (Mm ) Submergence area (ha) DAM Type of dam Crest level (m) Concrete Gravity Dam El 1400
3 3 3

941631E 283220N 941843E 283232N

240 32.2 1049.3

1 065 Yarjep (Shi) River Siyom River 2 621 1 40 39 - 100 3200 3900

El 1406.5 El 1400 El 1398 0.15 0.15 8.4

Heo H.E. Project - EIA & EMP Executive Summary


(iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) Foundation level (m) Length at top (m) Width at top (m) Upstream Slope Downstream Slope Maximum height above deepest foundation level (m) Type of spillway a. Full reservoir level (m) b. Maximum water level (m) c. Length (m) El 1385 107 5 1V: 0.3 H 1V:1H 15 Free Ogee Spillway El 1400 El 1406.5 84 for main spillway and 10m for complementary spillway d. Maximum height above the deepest foundation (m) e. Crest level (m) 15 El 1400 for main spillway and El 1402 for complementary Spillway f. Maximum discharging capacity (m3/sec) at MWL (corresponding to SPF) g. Type of energy dissipation arrangement (x) Water intake a. Type b. Number c. Size (m) d. Design discharge (m3/s) (xi) 6. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) 7. (i) (ii) (iii) 8. (i) (ii) Desilting device invert level HEAD RACE TUNNEL Length (m) Shape Size (m) (inner diameter) Thickness of hydraulic concrete lining (mm) Design discharge (m /s) SURGE TANK Type Diameter (m) Vertical height (m) PRESSURE SHAFT Shape Number Circular 1 Vertical Orifice 10 81.8
3

3200

Teeth

Rectangular 2 H7.5 x L9 130.2 1386

3578 Horse Shoe 6.4 300 130.2

Heo H.E. Project - EIA & EMP Executive Summary


(iii) (iv) 9. (i) (ii) Diameter (m) Thickness (mm) POWER HOUSE Type Head (m): a. Normal Gross Head (FRL-TWL) (m) b. Design Gross Head (90% dependable year) (m) c. Design Net Head (90% dependable year) (m) (iii) Size of power house: a. Length (m) b. Width (m) c. Height (m) (iv) (v) Installed capacity (MW) Turbine (s): a. Type b. Number c. Capacity (MW) 10. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 11. (i) (ii) TAILRACE Shape Length from centre line of units (m) Tail Water level Number of draft-tube gates SWITCHGEAR Voltage level / Basic undulation level (kV) Type 220 Outdoor GIS Open air tail basin 40 El 1189 3 Francis vertical 3 3x80 35 60 35 240 211 211.1 201.8 Surface 5.75 15-45 mm

Heo H.E. Project - EIA & EMP Executive Summary

Figure 1: Location map of Heo H.E. Project Stage-I

Heo H.E. Project - EIA & EMP Executive Summary 3. Project Background and Legal & Administrative Framework VELCAN Energy Group has entered into a MoA with the State of Arunachal Pradesh for the development of the Heo. H.E. Project on Build, Own, Operate and Transfer (BOOT) basis. The final stretch of river available for Project development was finally determined by the Government of Arunachal Pradesh on 31st July 2009, through the signature of an amendment to the Memorandum of Agreement. In addition, the first two years of Hydrological & Meteorological studies and data collection showed more available water than initially estimated and the installed capacity of the Project was increased to 210 MW accordingly, through the aforesaid Amendment dated 31st July 2009. Following the signature of this Amendment, involving new features, the Heo H. E. Project had to be thoroughly designed again in order to arrive at a new PFR which was submitted in November 2009. Water Availability Studies have been approved by the C.E.A / C.W.C in July 2010. The Power Potential Studies have been submitted in July 2010 to the C.E.A, which finally requested the Project developer, in April 2011, to increase again the installed capacity from 210 MW to 240 MW. Hence the Power Potential Studies have been approved with a capacity of 240 MW. The Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India, granted to HPPL the revised TORs and clearance of preconstruction activities, updated with the new project capacity and features in April 2010 for the first increase and then in October 2011 for the second increase. The DPR has been submitted to the CEA in the beginning of April 2011. VELCAN Group has set up local operations in order conduct the field surveys and investigations. One Guest house is located in Mechuka and the local head office is located at Aalo. Locally, VELCAN Group is employing a team on permanent employment basis in the West Siang District, in addition to a variable team of daily labours or temporary employees depending on site works requirements. Local population has been integrated to the project development right from the beginning through welfare activities or employment. Since June 2007, Velcan Energy has performed surveys & investigations for project reconnaissance and then for DPR preparation: Hydrological and climatic surveys of the area 10

Heo H.E. Project - EIA & EMP Executive Summary Topographical Surveys Geological mapping Sub-surface geological investigations Environmental surveys for EIA/EMP preparation. Heo HE Project is proposed to be developed by meeting statutory environmental requirements of Arunachal Pradesh as well as the Central Government. The Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF) is the nodal regulatory agency of the Central Government for planning, promotion, co-ordination and overseeing the formulation and implementation of environmental and forest policy, legislations and programs. Given the installed capacity of the Project, regulatory functions like grant of Environment Clearance (EC), Forest Clearance (FC) are part of the mandate of the Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF).

4. Environmental Impact Assessment / Environmental Management Plan The aim of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is to enumerate the entire panel of environmental issues involved in the construction and exploitation of the Heo structures, with the scope listed in the Terms of Reference (TOR) accorded by the MoEF during scoping and pre-construction clearance of the named project. Standard methodologies of Environment Impact Assessment were followed in the EIA study of Heo HE Project. The present study has been based on the guidelines for EIA reported by several workers and institutions including CISMHE. All the methods were structured for the identification, collection and organization of environmental impacts data. The information, thus gathered, has been analyzed and presented in the form of a number of visual formats for easy interpretation and decisionmaking. The study was carried out in catchment area, influence area (10 km radius of proposed dam and power house) and the project area (directly impacted area). Spatial database on physiographic features were taken from various sources including Survey of India (SOI) toposheet, satellite data and analyzed with the help of Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. Successive phases of the EIA study include reconnaissance visit, survey and data collection, determination of environmental baseline setup, identification, prediction and evaluation of impacts and possible mitigation measures and formulation of environment management plans.

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Heo H.E. Project - EIA & EMP Executive Summary The Environmental Management Plan (EMP) is conducted in order to minimize the effects of the project on the surrounding environment by establishing a sustainable work line.

5. Baseline Environmental Status 5.1. Land Environment 5.1.1. Physiography

The proposed dam site is located on the Yarjep (Shi) river. This river forms one of the major tributaries of Siyom River in Arunachal Pradesh. In the middle stretch, Yarjep (Shi) River runs from WNW to ESE and several tributary streams flowing from north hills to south and southern hills to north join this river in the Indian part of the catchment. The area of the Heo projects influence zone is around 41314.1 ha. The drainage network of the catchment area up to the dam site is shown in Fig. 2.

5.1.2.

Geology & Seismicity

The Himalayan ranges continuing from NW India to NE India occurs as a gigantic crescent in this part of the country with its convex side towards south and extends from the Western border of Bhutan to Lohit valley in the east and is divisible into four linear zones namely the Tibetan Himalaya, Higher Himalaya, Lesser Himalaya, and Sub Himalaya abutting against the Trans Himalayan range, and the Mishmi Hills famously known as the Eastern Syntaxial Bend.

The project area falls in Dirang formation resting over the Se La group of rocks. The formation comprises a thick sequence of low grade metasedimentaries comprising garnetmuscovite schist, phyllite, sericite- quartzite, calc silicate and tremolite-actinolite marble, truncated in the north by Main Central Thrust.

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Heo H.E. Project - EIA & EMP Executive Summary

Figure 2: Drainage map of Yarjep Shi River in the catchement area of proposed Heo H.E. project up to proposed dam site
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Heo H.E. Project - EIA & EMP Executive Summary The proposed dam site is located in constricted valley and the valley opens up in the immediate upstream. The proposed dam site is located in a country of marble and gneiss with bands of schists. The proposed Head Race Tunnel (HRT) alignment passes through a rough and rugged terrain with very difficult access on the left bank of Yarjep (Shi) River. The HRT will encounter the following rock: Schistose Gneisses, Marble and banded gneisses, and Quartzites with interbedded layers of augen, streaky gneisses and bands of schist and amphibolites bands with schistose bands and basic rock layers. The predominant rock type at Power House site is quartzitic gneiss. It is occupied by quartzite exposures covered by variable depth of overburden varying from 1-6 metres, as proved by drilling. The area falls in Seismic Zone V, of the Seismic Zoning Map as adumbrated in the Indian Standard Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of structures. However, the project area manifests relatively fewer incidences of earthquakes and the focal mechanism of two fault plane solutions of two nearby events to the south indicates strike slip mechanism. 5.1.3. Soil

The study covers soil properties for the catchment area, project influence area and project area. Soil association of Lithic Udorthents Dystrict Eutrochretps is predominant in these areas. All the project components like dam, HRT, powerhouse colony area, etc. are located on the soil association of Lithic Udorthents Typic Udorthents. Soil is loamy skeletal and shallow to moderately deep which is susceptible to severe to very severe soil erosions. Physical, chemical and biological properties of soil, which impact the life span of the reservoir and the viability of the project, are developed further in the EIA study. 5.1.4. Land Use and Land Cover

Land use and land cover mapping of the Heo H.E. Project was carried out by standard methods like digital image processing (DIP) supported by ground truthing. The land use and land cover of the Heo catchment area includes Dense forest, Open Forest, Scrub/Alpine scrub, Degraded forest, Alpine Meadow, Cultivation, Moraines, Barren, River, Lakes, Snow and glaciers. The catchment area is prevalently covered by Dense Forest, which occupies 37.39% of the total 106 500 ha area, as shown in Fig 3. Additionally, MoEF has been following a general practice of baseline data to be collected in a 10 km radius of a project while conducting EIA studies. A base map was developed to demarcate the submergence zone and influence zone of the Heo H.E project. Therefore land 14

Heo H.E. Project - EIA & EMP Executive Summary cover and land use maps will be examined within the 10 km radius of power house and dam site. It is called as the study area (Influence zone and the submergence area). The land cover and land use patches in the influence zone are include dense forest, which accounts for 41.82% of the total influence zone and is prevalent along the right bank of the Yarjeb Chhu.

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Heo H.E. Project - EIA & EMP Executive Summary

Figure 3: Land use & cover map of Yarjep (Shi) River in the catchment area of the proposed Heo H.E. project up to the proposed dam site

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Heo H.E. Project - EIA & EMP Executive Summary 5.2. Fluids Environment 5.2.1. Air Quality & Noise Pollution

The main sources of outdoor air pollution in the project area may be road construction activities (excavation, paving etc), vehicular movement and Jhum fires while burning of fuel woods is the only source of indoor air pollution. SPM levels varied in the range 83.61 to 311.00 g/m3. RSPM varied in the range of 13.75 to 137.61 g/m3 and SO2 and NOx are below detection limits. These values are well within the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAASQ). Except the gurgling sounds of river, there is no other unwarranted sound in the project sites. The baseline data of air environment, detailed in the study, would be useful in preparing the mitigation measures of air quality during the construction phase. All parameters are anticipated to increase significantly during the construction phase. 5.2.2. Water Quality

Stream flow, which is strongly correlated to many critical physicochemical characteristics of rivers, such as water temperature, channel geomorphology, and habitat diversity, can be considered a "master variable" that limits the distribution and abundance of river species and regulates the ecological integrity of flowing water systems. The study of the water quality in Yarjep (Shi) stretch from Mechuka to downstream Tato in West Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh was conducted in three seasons, Winter season (February, 2009), Pre- monsoon (May, 2009) and Monsoon (August, 2009). Sampling was done at following three sites S1 (upstream of proposed dam site), S2 (proposed dam site) and S3 (proposed power house site) and in four main tributaries of Yarjep (Shi) river. The profile of the water quality is presented in the report.

5.2.3.

Hydro-Meteorology

The average monthly rainfall data for rain Gauge stations in the catchment area are ranged between 186 to 908 mm/month during the monsoon and between 16 and 140 mm in December. Precise figures are given in the study for Mechuka, Monigong, Raying, Kaying, Aalo and Tato R&G stations.

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Heo H.E. Project - EIA & EMP Executive Summary The optimization studies for the Heo H.E Project have been conducted on the basis of the 10 daily discharge data for 25 years. The average discharge in Yarjep (Shi) river during the monsoon months (June to September) vary from 139 to 210 cumec at dam site respectively, while the minimum and maximum are respectively 69 and 444 cumec during this period. 5.3. Biological Environment The region of Arunachal Pradesh is located at the boundary of Indo-china and Indo-Malayan bio-geographic region and is one of the richest areas in habitat and species diversity. The state has wide variation in altitude, topography and climatic conditions, which result in a rich floral and faunal diversity. 5.3.1. Floristic and Forest Types

The forest of Arunachal Pradesh falls under five major categories of vegetation: tropical, subtropical, temperate broad-leaved and temperate coniferous, sub-alpine and alpine forests. All these types are represented in the study area of the Heo H.E. Project, and the EIA gives an exhaustive list of the floral species within each category. Complementary studies on site have been conducted in order to quantify the density of natural organisms living in the areas of Heo project. The study focuses on communities, which are assemblages of organisms living in a particular area or aggregations of organisms which form a distinct ecological unit. The present ecological study in the project area of Heo HE Project was undertaken with the objectives of preparing a checklist of flora in the submergence area and locations where project components are proposed and its adjoining areas (listing of rare/ endangered, economically important and medicinal plant species; determination of frequency, abundance and density of different vegetation components). A total of 86 species of plants were recorded under the ecological investigation during different sampling seasons. Out of which 19 were trees, 12 shrubs and 55 herbs. The ground vegetation comprised of ephemeral, annual and perennial species of grasses, sedges, legumes and non legume forbs.

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Heo H.E. Project - EIA & EMP Executive Summary 5.3.2. Faunal diversity

The study of Heo H.E. Projects EIA highlights the zoogeographical distribution, conservation status, endemism of the faunal species in catchment area, influence zone and project area. It also outlines the likely impacts of the proposed project on the faunal elements. A total of 35 mammals species are expected to inhabit in the catchment area of Heo H.E. Project on Yarjep (Shi) River. Out of 35 species 30 are common in the catchment and influence areas, and four Carnivora types species, were considered as threatened species by the Zoological Survey of India, the International Union of Conservation for Nature and the Wildlife Protection Act. An exhaustive list of the species in the Arunachal Pradesh territory (mammalian fauna, avifauna, herpetofauna, butterflies...) is given in the study, along with their conservation statuses. A local survey has also been carried out in order to determine more precisely the wildlife environment in a short range around Heo H.E. structures. 5.3.3. Aqua Flora and Fauna

Biological quality of water flows can be assessed by different kinds of organisms: algae, riparian and aquatic vegetation, invertebrates and fishes (Kelly and Whitton, 1995). As they are part of the overall biodiversity, the study records density and abundance of these bio indicators in order to provide holistic information regarding the water biological quality of Yarjep (Shi) and its tributaries. Yarjep (Shi) River is one of the main tributaries of Siyom River in middle stretch, which regroups 12 different species of fish according to a survey by Sen in 2006. However, Yarjep (Shi) is not considered as rich as Siyom in fish resource. The inhabitants have little fishing activities as very low capture and disorganized fishing occur in the region. Specie Schizothorax Richardsonii is predominant in Yarjep (Shi) River, and most fishing depends on it. None of the species inhabiting Yarjep (Shi) River and tributaries is endemic to Siyom River system.

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Heo H.E. Project - EIA & EMP Executive Summary 5.4. Socio Cultural & Economic Environment Socio-cultural and economic statement in an EIA report essentially covers the demography, education, occupation, history, culture, ethnography, and lifestyle of the inhabitants which are directly and indirectly affected by the H.E. project activities. The district headquarter of West Siang is located at Aalo. According to Census (2001) the total population of West Siang district is 103,575 with sex ratio of 912 (females to 1,000 males). The population density of the district is 12 individuals per sq. km, nearly same as that of the State (13 person/sq km). The scheduled tribe population accounts for 81.7% of the total population in the district. The district recorded a total literacy rate of 59.47%. Influence area of Heo H.E. Project is inhabited by a total of 18 villages in which 13 come under the jurisdiction of Mechuka circle and remaining 5 are under Tato circle. Total population of villages of influence area is 1899 and comes from 339 households (Census, 2001). Average sex ratio in these villages is 1018, that is higher than state average. Scheduled tribe population accounts for 98% of the total population. All villages are inhabited by Scheduled tribe population. Average literacy rate in these villages is 47.9%, considerably higher in male population (58.7%). Nearly 43.8% inhabitants are employed in various works. The majority of the main workers are involved in cultivation. Most of the villages have facilities of tap non treated water, supplied from spring. Mechuka and Tato are the main centres of influence and gather the public facilities such as bank, post office, secondary school and primary health. Six villages are affected by the various project components. It represents a total population of 308 individualities belonging to 59 households (Census 2001). Territory near Hiri and Purying villages would be used for the dam complex while power house complex would be located near Meying and Gapo villages. A total of 230 persons coming from 43 households (66 families) are affected in the proposed project. The sex ratio in the project affected families is 1029. All project affected persons belong to Scheduled Tribe, which are mainly Adi tribe and its sub-tribes. Average literacy rate in the project affected families is 43.7%. The socioeconomic and cultural profiles of these villages are given in the EIA report.

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Heo H.E. Project - EIA & EMP Executive Summary 6. Environmental Impacts Assessment The Environmental Impact Assessment relies on 4 steps: impact identification, impact prediction, impact evaluation and identification of mitigation. Impact identification brings together project characteristics and baseline environmental characteristics with the aim of ensuring that all potentially significant environmental impacts (adverse or favorable) are identified and taken into account. Quantitative predictions have been set as priority in order to take the most precise measures. The identification and prediction of likely impacts are the starting points which lead to identification of monitoring requirements and mitigating measures. 6.1. Impact Identification Impacts study for the Heo H.E. Project has been divided into 4 environments: Terrestrial, which group geophysical matters and land ecosystem preservation. Aquatic, including water quality and aquatic biodiversity. Atmospheric, for air quality and noise pollution issues. Human, focusing on sociologic and economic impacts.

For each domain, impact study is levelled on every step of the project development: preconstruction, construction and exploitation. 6.2. Prediction of Impacts The major impacts anticipated on land environment during construction phase are acquisition of land, quarrying operations, excavation of construction material, operation of constructing equipment, soil erosion, muck disposal and construction of roads. A total of 47.1 ha of land would be required for the surface works. A small forest area will be cleared for the purpose, which would result into land use and land cover changes. Around 8.4 ha land would be required for the submergence. Some of the negative impacts are local and temporary, as they are expected to last mainly during the construction phase. The long term major impact on land would be the submergence area (8.4 ha) and the place dedicated to project components, mainly dam and power house. Both sides of the Yarjep (Shi) River, downstream and upstream of the plant will be impacted. Water diversion from the main channel is anticipated to various impacts on the aquatic 21

Heo H.E. Project - EIA & EMP Executive Summary ecosystem. The reduction of the water in downstream would decrease the self purification capacity of water and most of the physical and chemical characteristics would be affected adversely. The water may be prone to deterioration due to project activities and workers. The physical and chemical characteristics would affect the biological composition and fisheries. The dearth of water would not be able to sustain the large column feeder fish and would affect the fish movement adversely. These impacts are anticipated in operation phase, they are long term, permanent and irreversible. Civil works during construction will inevitably downgrade air quality levels, such as average concentration of SPM, carbon dioxide and monoxide etc, and would have negative impacts on the health of neighbouring environments. Noise pollution would be substantially increased. The activities of the construction phase would disturb the human population as well as wildlife. Such negative impacts would remain for short time during construction phase only. The impacts are temporary and reversible in nature. A dam of 15 m height is expected to hamper the fish movement and exert a negative impact on the fish fauna. In addition, reservoir would also be non conducive and act as area of fragmentation for bottom dwellers. The proposed reservoir would increase the possibilities of reservoir fisheries, therefore, it is considered as positive impact. These impacts are foreseen in the operation phase of the projects. The impacts are permanent in nature. A total of around 1300 persons including the family members of peak labour force are expected to enter the area of the project works,. It would be a more than 50% increase of the total population in influence area during the construction period. Change in the demography may trigger the cultural confliction between natives and outsiders. Also, there are fair possibilities of overexploitation of fuel wood, poaching, animal hunting and river pollution. The area is dominated by Adi tribe and its sub-tribes. These tribes are unique in their culture, customs and their traditions. The high number of migrant population of different culture may bring the anxiety among the tribe, which may result in the confliction during the construction phase. Sometimes a temporary and numerous outsider population is associated with social unrest in a context of confliction. The natives may be affected to some extent. In addition, the migrant population could carry of new diseases.

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Heo H.E. Project - EIA & EMP Executive Summary 7. Environmental Management Plan The Environment Management Plan is a document of mitigation measures, which are taken to avoid, minimize, remedy or compensate for the predicted adverse impacts of the project and to take full advantages of the positive effects of the Heo project. Each management plan budget is detailed in the report, as it will be integrated in the costs of the overall project. 7.1. Biodiversity Management & Wildlife Conservation Plan Biodiversity Management Plan will be implemented during operational phase, however, some aspects will be implemented during the construction phase too. The State Forest Department will be implementing the plan, in close relationship with the tribal inhabitants. The main objective of this plan is to conserve the crucial habitats which hold potentially shelters for several keystone species. The major activities under this plan are Establishment of Task Force, preparation of Peoples Biodiversity Registers (PBR). It would also involve removal of invasive species and recovery of susceptible species, forest protection plan and strict safeguards measures. The total cost estimated for this plan would be would be Rs. 182.00 Lakhs. 7.2. Fuel Wood Energy Management & Conservation In order to sustainably maintain wood resources and avoid over exploitation, the EMP suggests setting up Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) depots, Kerosene depots, solar panels and Community Kitchens in the project area. In addition locals would be encouraged to use solar cookers, pressure cookers and smokeless chullahs. Shared resources may be managed with the downstream project of Tato-1 to ease the furniture of Kerosene and LPG, and to limit the number of storage tanks. The allocated budget for this plan would be Rs 70.20 lakhs. 7.3. Waste Management Plan As it is essential to collect, treat and dispose of all types of wastes generated by native and immigrant populations on site, a proper waste management plan has been set up for Heo H.E. Project. This plan includes management of solid and liquid waste except muck. Based on several assumptions, the peak migrant population in the project area would be around 1 300 persons, producing a total amount of solid waste of around 220 tons per annum. Therefore septic tanks, community toilets, bathrooms and washing places, two sewage treatment plants,

23

Heo H.E. Project - EIA & EMP Executive Summary incinerators, dumpers and wheel barrows, and water and toilet facilities will be installed in the project colony and the estimated cost would be Rs 198.85 lakhs. 7.4. Management of Air & Water Quality and Noise Level The main reason for the management of the quality of the aquatic, air and noise environments is to maintain the observed water and air quality properly within desirable limit. This section regroups additional measures for air and water quality which are not part of other environment managing plans. The report recommends the use of quality levels monitoring devices and first protection equipments such as dust masks. It also establishes a list of works habits that helps keeping pollution at acceptable levels. A special responsibility of sustainable work control would be given to a site officer. Overall budget should not exceed Rs 40 lakhs. 7.5. Catchment Area Treatment Plan Catchment area treatment plan will be implemented during the construction phase and operational phase. The objective of this plan is to reduce and minimize soil erosion in the free draining area. Several engineering methods as well as biological measures will be adopted, especially the use of check dams that will rectify slopes while supporting vegetation growth. The total free draining area is 8400 ha, and 1365 ha are concerned with severe to very severe erosion. The total surface to be treated would be around 927 ha. The State Forest Department will be in charge of the activities and the total budget estimated for this plan would be Rs 491.08 lakhs. 7.6. Public Health Delivery System The main objective of the public health delivery system in Heo H.E. Project is not only to provide the medical facilities to project workers and staff but also to deliver effective and sustained health care to the project affected families and the local people of the region. The proposed Heo H.E. project is located in a remote area of Arunachal Pradesh, where existing medical facilities are in bad condition, insufficient and highly inadequate. The developer of the Heo H.E Project would participate in developing and strengthening the public health management by establishing new health centre in the affected zone, opening up immunization centres in the villages and labourer camps, distribution of first aid boxes in the surrounding villages, providing services for pre-/ post-natal check up, one mobile medical van, etc. Overall budget is expected to be Rs. 264.40 lakhs.

24

Heo H.E. Project - EIA & EMP Executive Summary 7.7. Fishery Development & Downstream Management plan A hatchery is suggested for the conservation of indigenous species. It would be constructed in consultation with State Fishery Department. An approach to raise population of fish in the artificial reservoir is developed in the report. The downstream management plan is to regulate the environmental flow along the downstream of the reservoir. Besides, other mitigation measures related to river ecosystem were also suggested in various sections like Fishery Development, Waste Management and Environmental monitoring. The three major component of this plan are maintenance of river flow level, channelization of river stretch and creation of large pools. Both plans of artificial fishery and managing downstream flows will be implemented during the operational phase and the dedicated budget is estimated to be Rs. 212 Lakhs. 7.8. Muck Disposal Plan Muck would be excavated from the Dam complex, HRTs & TRTs during the tunneling, power house complex, approach roads etc. Even though some of the muck will be utilized for back filling, yet a large quantity of the excavated material will need to be relocated and dumped in such a manner that it does not impose any negative impact on terrestrial and aquatic environment. Total quantity of the muck to be generated from the different project components would be 8,13,217 cum. Considering the swelling factors (10 to 20%), the volume of muck would increase to 9,70,456 cum, that would be rehabilitated in the muck disposal areas. Four dumping sites have been identified for the disposal of muck which are located near the dam site, and near the power house site. Both engineering and biological methods will be adopted for rehabilitation of muck. Engineering method includes the construction of retaining wall and compaction while biological method includes plantation with geo textiles technology. Total financial outlay for the relocation of muck and rehabilitation dumping sites including engineering and biological measures would be Rs 248 lakhs.

25

Heo H.E. Project - EIA & EMP Executive Summary 7.9. Green Belt Development Plan The green canopy has the inherent capacity to absorb pollution, increase water retention by soil and decrease sediment transport. In order to reduce different kind of pollutions and avoid land slips from the portion of catchment draining directly into the reservoir, the green belt in and around the project areas is an obvious choice. Thus a green belt would provide the stability to immediate vicinity of reservoir and will contribute to the aesthetic and beautification of the project area. For the Heo H.E. Project, the areas to be treated are along the network of approach roads, dam sites, power house sites and around the periphery of the reservoir. Global budget is expected to be Rs. 29.76 lakhs. 7.10. Restoration of Construction Areas and Landscaping Around 47.1 ha of land will be directly disturbed due to various construction activities of the proposed project, like access roads, muck dumping sites, quarry sites, colonies, offices, etc. Therefore, all areas disturbed by construction activity including access roads will be landscaped to reflect natural contours, restored with suitable drainage paths and the reestablishment of vegetation would be encouraged. For this purpose, many biological methods would be employed, such as the removal of top nutritive soil before excavation for re implantation, and construction of retaining wall. The plan will also develop a nursery. Overall restoration project would cost approximately Rs. 84.56 lakhs. 7.11. Disaster Management Plan Disaster management plan is the worst case scenario that could occur under the H.E. plant operation. In order to prevent the loss of lives and property and to mitigate the negative impacts as a result of dam break a detailed Disaster Management Plan is proposed. This approach includes preventive measure, mitigation and preparedness, response, recovery and rehabilitation. An effective dam safety surveillance, monitoring and observation along with periodic inspection, safety reviews and evaluation must be put in place. A centralized siren system would be installed at all effected flood prone villages Panchayats.
In order to prevent the loss of lives and property and to mitigate the negative impacts as a result of dam break a detailed Disaster Management Plan is proposed. The package includes the cost of

property lost, sustenance grant, livelihood grant, medical grant and rights and privilege grant on forest resources. The total budget layout plan for disaster management is estimated to be Rs 188 lakhs, considering the low height of Heo dam. . 26

Heo H.E. Project - EIA & EMP Executive Summary 7.12. Rehabilitation & Resettlement Plan The R&R plan for the affected persons or families of Heo H.E. Project follows the guidelines of Rehabilitation & Resettlement Policy of Government of Arunachal Pradesh (2008). The plan addresses all regional and national issues. It includes relief package to project affected families, compensation against rights and privileges, and a comprehensive social development plan. Rehabilitation plan is based on the study of the socio economic profile of the neighboring population, and one of its purposes is to develop different skills and education. Relief and rehabilitation package for the affected families includes eligible person family grant, livelihood grant, schedule tribe grant, BPL family grant, pension for vulnerable persons and free electricity grant. A compensation for the loss on customary rights on Unclassified State Forest is also planned. Peripheral Development Plan is proposed to improve the quality life of the local inhabitants and infrastructure in the area. The provisions of the plan are education facilities, merit scholarship programme, Training on various courses for income generation, transportation facilities, construction of rain shelters and footpath, provision of sanitation facilities, community welfare centers and establishment of a model village. Total budget for the Rehabilitation and Resettlement Plan and Peripheral Development Plan would be Rs. 786.58 Lakhs 7.13. Good Practice The good practice is a set of safeguard and precautionary measures, which do not require detailed management plan and high financial outlay but are decisive to keep sustainable ecological and social environments. As well, the good practice is a way to maintain respectful relationship between project authorities and local inhabitants. The project authorities would establish their Environment Cell and Corporate Social Responsibility cell which will execute and monitor all the good practices. A Rs 25 Lakhs budget is allocated to Good practice implementation.

27

Heo H.E. Project - EIA & EMP Executive Summary 7.14. Implementation & Monitoring program Various plans and measures are proposed/ suggested in the Environment Management Plan (EMP) to reduce the adverse impacts of proposed project on the environment and biodiversity of the area as well socio-economic development of the region. The given plans will be executed by various agencies and departments of government of Arunachal Pradesh as well as project authorities. However, it would require a proper coordination among these agencies for smooth functioning. For this reason, two committees are suggested for the monitoring and evaluation i.e. the independent committee and project level committee. Various environmental variables would require a regular monitoring like air, water, noise, etc. In addition, various other agencies are involved in the monitoring and evaluation of some mitigation measures. Total budget allocated for the Implementation and Environment Monitoring programmes would be Rs.60 lakhs only.

7.15. Summary of Costs Amount (Rs in Lakhs) 491.08 248 84.56 29.76

S.No. Plans 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Catchment Area Treatment Plan Muck Disposal Plan Restoration of Construction Areas and Landscaping Green Belt Development Plan

Biodiversity Management and Wildlife Conservation Plan 182

Fishery Development and Downstream Management Plan 212 Public Health Delivery System Waste Management Plan Fuel Wood Energy Management and Conservation Management of Air & Water Quality and Noise Level Rehabilitation and Resettlement Plan Disaster Management Plan Good Practice Implementation & Monitoring Programme Total 264.4 198,85 70.20 40 786.58 188 25 60 2880.43

28

C CIIS SM MH HE E

DRAFT FINAL REPORT JUNE 2012

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF HEO HYDROELECTRIC PROJECT, Arunachal Pradesh

Volume-I Baseline Data


Prepared for: Heo Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi CENTRE FOR INTER-DISCIPLINARY STUDIES OF MOUNTAIN & HILL ENVIRONMENT University of Delhi, Delhi

Project Team
Principal Investigator Professor Maharaj K. Pandit

Core Team Dr. J.P. Bhatt, Senior Scientist Dr. D.C. Nautiyal, Senior Scientist Dr. Dawa Dorje, Research Scientist Mr. Rajender Mehta, GIS-Remote Sensing

Research Laboratory Staff Ms. Sudha Tiwari, JRF Mr. Rohit Singh, LA/FA Mr. Basudev Singh Bisht, LA/FA

Support Staff Mr. Ajay Gaur, Accounts Ms. Laxmi Negi, JACT Mr. Dharam Singh, LA Mr. Kalam Singh, LA Mr. Yashpal Singh, LA Mr. Digamber Singh, LA

CONTENTS Page No. CHAPTER 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 INTRODUCTION GENERAL YARJEP RIVER BASIN PROJECT CONTEXT 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.4 Policy Initiatives Initial Ranking 1-1 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-3 1-4 1-4 1-5 1-6 1-6 1-7 1-7 1-8 1-9 1-9

POWER POTENTIAL 1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 1.4.4 Power Potential in India Need of Hydro-power Power Potential in Arunachal Pradesh Hydro Electric Potential of Siang Basin

1.5

POLICY, LEGAL & ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK 1.5.1 1.5.2 1.5.3 Policy Framework Legal Framework Administrative Framework

1.6

PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF EIA STUDY

CHAPTER 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4

PROJECT DESCRIPTION LOCATION BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT SALIENT FEATURES ALTERNATIVES 2.4.1 2.4.2 Dam Power House 2-1 2-1 2-3 2-6 2-6 2-7 2-7 2-7 2-8 2-9 2-9 2-14

2.5

CONSTRUCTION METHODOLOGY 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.3 2.5.4 2.5.5 Material Sources Contract Packages Schedule of Work Construction Activities Land Requirement

CHAPTER 3 3.1

BASELINE DATA CONCEPTS & METHODOLOGY 3.1.1 3.1.2 Concept Methodology 3-1 3-1 3-2 3-14 3-14 3-14 3-15 3-22 3-23 3-23 3-24 3-26 3-26 3-27 3-27 3-29 3-33 3-36 3-40 3-44 Introduction Soil Types Soil Properties 3-44 3-44 3-46 3-50 3-50 3-50 3-51 3-51 3-53 3-54 3-54 3-55

3.2

LAND ENVIRONMENT 3.2.1 PHYSIOGRAPHY 3.2.1.1 3.2.1.2 3.2.1.3 3.2.1.4 3.2.1.5 3.2.1.6 3.2.1.7 3.2.2 Drainage System Drainage system in the Influence Zone Stream Gradient Digital Elevation Model Relief Slope Aspect

GEOLOGY AND SEISMICITY 3.2.2.1 3.2.2.2 3.2.2.3 3.2.2.4 3.2.2.5 3.2.2.6 General Regional Geology Geology of Project Area Seismo-tectonics and Seismicity Seismicity and Earthquakes Geotechnical Assessment

3.2.3

SOIL 3.2.3.1 3.2.3.2 3.2.3.2

3.2.4

LANDUSE/ LANDCOVER 3.2.4.1 3.2.4.2 3.2.4.3 3.2.4.4 3.2.4.5 3.2.4.6 3.2.4.7 3.2.4.8 Introduction Objective and Study Area Database Methodology Classification Scheme Catchment Area Influence Zone Submergence Area and Project Area

3.3

WATER ENVIRONMENT 3.3.1 HYDROLOGY 3.3.1.1 3.3.1.2 3.3.1.3 3.3.1.4 3.3.1.5 3.3.1.6 3.3.1.7 3.3.2 General Climate Rainfall Water Discharge and Water Availability Flood Peaks in the River Sedimentation Environmental Implications

3-56 3-56 3-56 3-56 3-57 3-58 3-62 3-62 3-62 3-63 3-63 3-64 3-64 3-74 3-80 3-80 3-80 3-81 3-81 3-81 3-82 3-82 3-83 3-83 3-83 3-84 3-84 3-85 3-86 3-86 3-89 3-90 3-91 3-91

WATER QUALITY & AQUATIC ECOLOGY 3.3.2.1 3.3.2.2 3.3.2.3 3.3.2.4 General Sampling Sites Water Quality Analysis Water Quality

3.3.3

FISH & FISHERIES 3.3.3.1 3.3.3.2 3.3.3.3 3.3.3.4 3.3.3.5 3.3.3.6 3.3.3.7 General Fish Fauna of Siyom and Yarjep River System Fish Composition in Catchment and Influence Areas Conservation Status Fisheries Fish Migration Conclusion

3.4

AIR ENVIRONMENT 3.4.1 METEOROLOGY 3.4.1.1 3.4.2 Temperature, Humidity and Wind

AIR ENVIRONMENT 3.4.2.1 3.4.2.2 3.4.2.3 3.4.2.4 3.4.2.5 3.4.2.6 General Sampling Strategy Traffic Density Air Quality NOISE LEVEL CONCLUSION

3.5

BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT 3.5.1 FLORAL ELEMENTS

3.5.1.1 3.5.1.2 3.5.1.3 3.5.1.4 3.5.1.5 3.5.2

Introduction Forest types in the catchment area Vegetation Profile in the Influence Zone Forest and Floristics of Project Area Community Structure

3-91 3-92 3-94 3-96 3-102 3-118 3-118 3-119 3-130 3-133 3-134 3-135 3-135 3-135 3-135 3-136 3-136 3-137 3-137 3-138 3-139 3-139 3-139 3-141 3-141 3-142 3-142 3-143 3-143 3-143 3-144 3-144 3-145 3-145

FAUNA ELEMENTS 3.5.2.1 3.5.2.1 3.5.2.3 3.5.2.4 3.5.2.5 Introduction Catchment and Influence Areas Project Area Tribes and Biodiversity Conclusion

3.6

SOCIAL ENVIRONEMNT 3.6.1 INTRODUCTION 3.6.1.1 3.6.1.2 3.6.1.3 3.6.1.4 3.6.2 Arunachal Pradesh West Siang District Mechukha Circle Tato Circle

INFLUENCE AREA 3.6.2.1 3.6.2.2 3.6.2.3 3.6.2.4 Demography Profile Education Profile Occupation and Cropping Pattern Other Amenities

3.6.3

AFFECTED VILLAGES 3.6.3.1 3.6.3.2 3.6.3.3 3.6.3.4 Demography Education Profile Occupation and Crop Pattern Other Amenities

3.6.4

AFFECTED FAMILIES 3.6.4.1 3.6.4.2 3.6.4.3 3.6.4.4 3.6.4.5 3.6.4.6 Demographic Profile Education Profile Occupation Pattern & Crops Livestock Population Vulnerable Persons Fuel Use Pattern

3.6.5 3.6.6

LIVING STANDARD CULTURAL ENVIRONEMENT 3.6.6.1 3.6.6.2 Brief History Ethnography

3-145 3-146 3-146 3-146 3-147

3.6.7

Conclusion

CHAPTER 4 4.1 4.2

ASSESSMENT OF IMPACTS INTRODUCTION IMPACT IDENTIFICATION 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 4.2.7 Land Environment Geophysical Environment Aquatic Environment Air Environment Downstream Impacts Anthropogenic Impacts Social and Human Environment 4-1 4-1 4-1 4-2 4-2 4-2 4-2 4-2 4-3 4-3 4-3 4-5 4-6 4-7 4-8 4-10 4-11 4-12 4-14 4-15 4-16 4-17

4.3

PREDICTION OF IMPACTS 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4 4.3.5 4.3.6 4.3.7 Terrestrial Ecosystem Geophysical Environment Aquatic Ecology Air Environment Human Environment Downstream Impacts Social Empowerment

4.4 4.5 4.6

IMPACT INFORMATION IDENTIFICATION OF MITIGATION MEASURES CUMULATIVE IMPACT ASSESSMENT 4.6.1 4.6.2 Brief Description of the Projects Identification & Prediction of Cumulative Impacts

BIBLIOGRAPHY ANNEXURES I - III PLATES 3.2.1, 3.2.2, 3.2.3, 3.3.1, 3.3.2, 3.3.3, 3.5.1, 3.5.2 Matrix 4.1 & 4.2

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1.1 Table 1.2 Table 2.1 Table 2.2 Table 3.2.1 Table 3.2.2

Status of Development of Hydro Power Potential Share of Hydropower in Indias Installed Capacity Salient features of Heo H.E. Project Break up of the land to be acquired for various components in Heo HEP Tributaries of Yarjep Chhu and its catchment characteristics Gradient profiles of the Yarjep Chu and its major tributaries in the upstream of Dam Site

Table 3.2.3 Table 3.2.4 Table 3.2.5 Table 3.2.6 Table 3.2.7 Table 3.2.8

Elevation range and corresponding area of Heo H.E. Project catchment Slope range and corresponding area of Heo H.E. Project catchment Prominent discontinuities sets recorded in country rock Characteristics of joints recorded near powerhouse site Chronological listing of earthquake data for magnitude > 4.9 Soil groups and their characteristics in catchment, influence and project component areas of Heo H.E. Project

Table 3.2.9

Physical and chemical characteristic of soils retrieved from the influence area of Heo H.E. Project

Table 3.2.10

Microbial communities in the soils retrieved from the influence area of the Heo H.E. Project

Table 3.2.11 Table 3.2.12

Database used for land use/ land cover mapping of Heo H.E. Project Area under different land use/ land cover categories in the catchment area of Heo H.E. Project

Table 3.3.1 Table 3.3.2. Table 3.3.3

Seasonal Distribution of rainfall at various locations in Siang Basin Average 10 daily water discharge at Heo dam site for 25 years Monthly variation in 10 daily water discharge in 50% and 90% dependable years

Table 3.3.4

Physico-chemical characteristics of Yarjep River water in the surrounding of Heo H.E. Project

Table 3.3.5

Physico-chemical characteristics of tributaries of Yarjep River in the surrounding of Heo H.E. Project

Table 3.3.6 Table 3.3.7 Table 3.3.8

Density of various biotic communities in Yarjep River in the surroundings of Heo H. E. Proj Algal composition in Yarjep River in the surrounding of Heo H.E. Project Macro- invertebrate composition (individual/m2) in Yarjep River in the surrounding of Heo

Table 3.3.9 Table 3.3.10 Table 3.3.11 Table 3.4.1 Table 3.4.2 Table 3.4.3 Table 3.4.4

Drinking water quality standards Tolerance Limits for Inland Surface Waters Fish composition in the catchment and influence area of Heo H.E. Project Meteorological data recorded at Heo H.E. Project sites Traffic density in and around Heo H.E. Project Air quality characteristics recorded at Aalo and projected for the project areas National ambient air quality standards approved by Ministry of Environment & Forests

Table 3.4.5 Table 3.4.6 Table 3.5.1 Table 3.5.2 Table 3.5.3 Table 3.5.4

Noise levels at various sites in the vicinity of Heo H.E. Project Ambient noise levels as per CPCB List of flowering plants in Submergence area Some of the common pteridophytes of submergence area of Heo HEP project Various ecological attributes of woody vegetation in Heo HEP Project Various ecological attributes of herbaceous vegetation at different sites in Heo HEP

Table 3.5.5 Table 3.5.6

Number of herb species encountered on two project sites in different seasons Species Diversity Indices (H) for different vegetation components at different sampling sites in Heo HE Project

Table 3.5.7 Table 3.5.8

Some common pteridophtes of the Heo HEP influence zone Rare, vulnerable, endangered and endemic plants of low hills in the Heo HE project influence area

Table 3.5.9 Table 3.5.10 Table 3.5.11

Some common medicinal plants of the project area List of some common useful plant species of the project area Mammalian composition and their conservation status in the catchment and influence area of the proposed Heo H.E. Project

Table 3.5.12

Avifaunal composition and their conservation status in the catchment and influence area of the proposed Heo H.E. project

Table 3.5.13 Table 3.5.14 Table 3.5.15 Table 3.6.1

Herpetofaunal elements occurring in the catchment area of Heo H.E. Project Avifaunal species in the project component area of Heo H.E. Project Butterfly species at various sites of influence area of Heo H.E. project Demographic profile of the villages located in the influence area of Heo H. E. Project

Table 3.6.2 Table 3.6.3

Educational profile of the villages located in the vicinity of Heo H. E. Project Occupation pattern in the villages located in the vicinity of Heo H.E. Project

Table 3.6.4 Table 3.6.5 Table 3.6.6 Table 3.6.7 Table 3.6.8 Table 3.6.9 Table 3.6.10 Table 4.1 Table 4.2 Table 4.3

Demographic profile of the affected villages of Heo H. E. Project Educational profile of the affected villages of Heo H. E. Project Occupation pattern in the affected villages of Heo H.E. Project Demographic profile of project affected families of Heo H.E. Project Educational profile of project affected families of Heo H.E. Project Occupation pattern among the project affected families Livestock population of project affected families Sound level at different distance from the source Summary of impacts of various actions in construction and operation phases Summary of impacts on various environmental variables in construction and operation phases

Table 4.4 Table 4.5 Table 4.6 Table 4.7

Salient features of the projects proposed on Yarjep River in cascade Combined actions of three projects in Yarjep valley of Arunachal Pradesh Constructions activities and their impacts The major impacts identified during the operational phase

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1 Figure 2.2 Figure 3.1.1 Figure 3.1.2 Figure 3.2.1

Location map of Heo H.E Project Layout map showing the different components in the stretch of Heo H.E. Project Map showing samplings sites of the proposed Heo H.E. Project Inputs and outputs related to evaluation of impacts Drainage map of Yarjep Chhu in the catchment area of the proposed Heo H.E. project up to the proposed dam site

Figure 3.2.2

Drainage map of Yarjep Chhu in the influence zone of the proposed Heo H.E. project up to the proposed Weir site

Figure 3.2.3

Digital Elevation Model (DEM) map of the catchment area of Heo H.E. proposed up to the dam site

Figure 3.2.4

Digital Elevation Model (DEM) map of Yarjep Chhu in the Influence zone of the proposed Heo H.E. Project up to the proposed dam site

Figure 3.2.5

Relief map of the catchment area of Heo H.E. Project up to the proposed dam site

Figure 3.2.6

Relief map of Yarjep Chhu in the influence zone of the proposed Heo H.E. Project area

Figure 3.2.7 Figure 3.2.8

Slope map of the catchment area of Heo H.E. Project up to the dam site Slope map of Yarjep Chhu in the influence zone of the proposed Heo H.E. Project area

Figure 3.2.9 Figure 3.2.10

Aspect map of the catchment area of Heo H.E. Project up to proposed dam site Aspect map of Yarjep Chhu in the influence zone of the proposed Heo H.E. Project area

Figure 3.2.11 Figure 3.2.12 Figure 3.2.13 Figure 3.2.14 Figure 3.2.15 Figure 3.2.16 Figure 3.2.17 Figure 3.2.18

Map showing physiographic divisions of Arunachal Pradesh Regional geology of the Arunachal Pradesh showing Heo H.E. Project area Geological map around the project site of the proposed Heo H.E. Project Seismotectonic map of Northeast India Seismic zoning map of India Soil map of the catchment area of Heo H.E. Project up to the proposed dam site Soil map of the influence zone of Heo H.E. Project False Colour Composite (FCC) generated from IRS-P6 LISS-III, 2006 of the proposed Heo H.E. Project

Figure 3.2.19

Flow diagram for Land use/ land cover classification

Figure 3.2.20

Land use/ land cover map of Yarjep Chhu in the catchment area of the proposed Heo H.E. project up to proposed dam site

Figure 3.2.21

Land use/ land cover map of the influence zone of the proposed Heo H.E. Project

Figure 3.2.22 Figure 3.3.1 Figure 3.3.2 Figure 3.3.3 Figure 3.3.4 Figure 3.3.5

Land use/ land cover map of the submergence area of the Heo H.E. Project Locations of G&D sites and Rain Gauge Stations Monthly precipitation for seven rain gauge stations Average monthly variation of 10 daily river discharge at barrage site Average monthly variation of 10 daily river discharge at barrage site 10 daily discharge for the dependable years of 50% and 90%

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment

CISMHE

1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 GENERAL Heo H.E project is the middle one of the cascade of three projects of Velcan Energy in the Mechuka subdivision of the West Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh. The nearest township from the project is Mechuka, located 20 km upstream of the dam site. The project area can be approached through a motorable road up to Mechuka followed by foot tracks from the Tato Mechuka highway. The project falls in a steep mountainous area at an average elevation of 1000 - 1500 m.

Heo H.E. Project involves a 15 m high concrete gravity dam with installed capacity of 240 MW (3x80 MW) for an annual energy of 1049.3 GWh. In order to generate energy it would utilize 211 m head on the Yarjep (Shi) River. Geographically dam site is located between 941631E longitude and 283220N latitude near Purying village. The Powerhouse is situated between 941843E longitude and 283232N latitude. The project has been developed by the Engineering Department of VELCAN Energy. Reputed International consultants have also contributed significantly to the civil design, geology, geotechnics, and hydrology according to the latest international and Indian standards.

1.2

YARJEP (SHI) RIVER BASIN The Heo HE project is proposed to harness the power potential in Yarjep (Shi) River which is

a major tributary of river Siyom, forming a part of Brahmaputra river system. Yarjep (Shi) River is a snow and lake fed river. In the upper stretch before confluence of Sae nallah it is known as Yargyap River. Downstream of this confluence it flows as Siet River and further downstream it is called as Yarjap Chhu. After the confluence of Phipir Korong it flows as Shi nallah and finally joins Siyom River on right bank at 960 m. With many streams joining it on both of its banks, this is a well developed subsystem within the Siyom river system. In the Tibetan part of its catchment (in its headwater region) two northeast to southwest and southwest to northeast flowing streams feed the southeastward flowing Yarjap Chhu. These streams are snow and lake fed and flow in the altitudinal zone between 4000 to 4430 m. About 2 km downstream of this confluence another stream, flowing from a lake lying above 3400 m drains into the Yarjap on its right bank. Another lake fed stream
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flowing on the northern slope of 4418 m peak confluences with Yarjap Chhu at 2440 m on its right bank. Further downstream, a stream flowing southward from 5003 m peak (the highest elevation in the catchment) and draining thick forest region confluences with Yarjap Chhu on its left bank at 2320 m. This small stream is also fed by four lakes on its left bank, which lie above 4000 m. In the middle stretch, Yargyap Chhu runs from WNW to ESE and a number of tributary streams flowing from north to south and south to north join this river in the Indian part of the catchment. The catchment area of the proposed schemes lies between Longitude 9350E to 9415E and Latitude 2826N to 2849N. The catchment area up to the proposed dam site is 1065 Sq.km. The deepest riverbed elevation at the proposed diversion structure is 1386 m. The catchment area presents a shape of basin oriented NW-SE surrounded with mountain chain reaching 3500 m on the northern and southern sides and 4000m on the western side. The bottom part of the basin is constituted with an alluvial plain ended by Mechuka village. Leaving the Mechuka valley, the Yarjep (Shi) River enters into quite steep and narrow gorges borders (50% up to 100% slopes) for 35 km down to Tato village where it joins Siyom River. In these 35 km stretch, the river is losing 900 m. The project is located in these narrow gorges between Mechuka and Tato village. From mountain top down to Mechuka valley (from 4500m down to 2000m), the area is steep and covered with forest. The surrounding crown (3000 m - 2000 m) of the Mechuka valley is deforested due to the past activity of the valley development. Coming out from the valley down to Tato village, the river enters into steep gorges stretch. The banks are covered alternatively with thick and dense semitropical forests or open and degraded forest.

1.3

PROJECT CONTEXT Comparing the projected growth of peak power demand, energy requirement anticipated and

increase in the generating capacity on the basis of new projects proposed and/or under construction/consideration during 11th and 12th Five Year Plans, it is evident that there is a dire need to provide additional power to the National Grid to meet the objective of power on demand. New schemes have to be taken up immediately and implemented to derive timely benefits. The most important source of power development in the Northern Eastern region is hydroelectric power located in Arunachal Pradesh and other sister states.

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The power from hydro projects in the North Eastern region would be in excess of the demand in the region and would have to be exported for utilization in other regions of the country through the Siliguri corridor. Presently there is no problem in the availability of transmission systems beyond the Northeastern power region for dispersal of power as the five power regions of the country are in the process of greater integration within a national grid.

1.3.1 Policy Initiatives Several policy initiatives has been taken in the power sector, viz., 100% FDI in generation, transmission and distribution, long-term power purchase and fuel supply agreements, mandatory International Competitive Bidding (ICB), R&M schemes costing up to Rs.500 crores are not required to be submitted for the concurrence of the Central Electricity Authority (CEA) etc.

The new Hydel Policy announced with an objective of making investment in hydro projects more attractive. Tariff dispensation and innovative financing mechanisms is expected to minimize the risks associated with hydro projects. The key GoI policy statements that guide hydropower development are National Policy for Hydropower Development and the 50,000 MW Hydroelectric Initiative (2003). The latter sets a long term target for hydroelectric power to meet 40% national generation mix, and medium term target as 28.63% of generation mix by end 10th Plan (the starting point being 25% in 2003). The policy statements describe the policy objectives of hydropower development as: (i) environmental benefits, in particular avoidance of pollution and emissions from thermal plant (ii) benefits for power system operation, especially for meeting peak demand (iii) energy security - reducing exposure to fuel price and supply risks. The policy statements also propose several policy actions to promote hydropower. A key feature of these policy statements is the concept of planning for the development of a shelf (portfolio) of hydroelectric projects. India had adopted a portfolio approach to project development given (i) the scale of projected demand increases relative to individual project size (ii) the benefits of having a portfolio of projects in terms of diversifying project development and timing risks.

1.3.2 Initial Ranking The CEA study on Preliminary Ranking Study of Hydro Electric Schemes identified potential hydroelectric sites at various river basins, which are prioritized in the order of their attractiveness for implementation. With the objective of expediting hydro power development in a
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systematic manner, Central Electricity Authority (CEA) completed the ranking study of the hydro potential sites for all the basins in the country during 2001-02 .The ranking of hydro sites has been carried out based on a weightage criteria for various aspects involved in the development of hydro schemes. Considering these aspects, the schemes have been graded in A, B and C categories in order of their priority development. Based on the Preliminary Ranking Study, 399 schemes with an aggregate installed capacity of about 106910 MW have been prioritized in the six major river systems of the country. Out of this, 98 schemes with probable installed capacity of 15641 MW fall under A category, 247 schemes with probable installed capacity of 69853 MW under B category and 54 schemes with probable installed capacity of 21416 MW under C category.

1.4

POWER POTENTIAL

1.4.1 Power Potential in India India is endowed with a vast hydropower potential. As per the latest assessment carried out by the CEA, feasible hydro potential in India has been estimated as about 148700 MW which corresponds to a potential of about 84000 MW at 60% load factor, which can yield an annual power generation of over 440 TWh of electricity with additional seasonal energy, the total energy potential is about 600 TWh a year. Only 22.34% of this potential is under operation and 8.64% of the potential is under execution. Thus the bulk of the potential amounting to 69.01% is yet to be developed.

About 75% of the potential of the country comes from the Himalayan river systems (the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra) of that 39.6% is located in the North-Eastern region and 35.9% in the Northern region. The hydro potential of the NE region is approx. 32,000MW at 60% load factor, which is almost 95% of the Brahmaputra basin potential (Table 1.1).

Table 1.1 Status of Development of Hydro Power Potential (As on 28/02/2009)


Sl. No. Region Feasible Potential / Projects identified MW 53395 Potential already developed MW 13772 % 25.79 Potential under development MW 6734 % 12.61 Total Potential Potential yet to development be developed

MW 20506

% 38.40

MW 32889

% 61.60

Northern

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Sl. No.

Region

Feasible Potential / Projects identified MW 8928 16458 10949 58971 148,701

Potential already developed MW 5804 9395 3049 1203 33223 % 65.01 57.08 27.85 2.04

Potential under development MW 400 786 2211 2724 % 4.48 4.78 20.19 4.62 8.64

Total Potential Potential yet to development be developed

MW 6204 10181 5260 3927 46078

% 69.49 61.86 48.04 6.66

MW 2724 6277 5688 55044

% 30.51 38.14 51.96 93.34 69.01

2 3 4 5

Western Southern Eastern North-East

Total (India)

22.34 12855

30.98 102622

1.4.2 Need of Hydro-power About 75% of Indias total installed capacity is thermal-based (Table 1.2). However expansion of this energy source is encountering difficulties because of the burden it places on the infrastructure for supply (mines) and transportation (railways) of coal. Considering that the capacity of Indian Railways to carry coal effectively is limited and the coal is of low quality which needs costly transportation over long distances, it appears logical to develop thermal projects in specific areas, e.g. coal- rich areas in Bihar, Orissa, Eastern Uttar Pradesh and surrounding areas, and gasbased power near the port belts of Gujarat and Maharashtra, and thus place total emphasis on hydropower in States such as Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttaranchal and far-East India - the Himalayan belt. Table 1.2 Share of Hydropower in Indias Installed Capacity
Year 1962-63 1969-70 1979-80 1989-90 1991-92 1993-94 Chapter 1 - Introduction Total Installed Capacity (MW) 5801 14102 28448 63636 69070 76718 Hydropower Capacity (MW) 2936 6135 11384 18308 19189 20366 Share of Hydropower (%) 50.6 43.5 40.0 28.8 27.8 26.6 1-5

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Year 2001-02 2006-07 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11

Total Installed Capacity (MW) 105045 135299 147965 159398 169798

Hydropower Capacity (MW) 26268 33776 36878 36878 37367

Share of Hydropower (%) 25.0 25.0 24.92 23.14 22.00

The declining share of hydropower also strongly advocates development of hydropower projects.

1.4.3 Power Potential in Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh along with the States of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Manipur, Nagaland and Mizoram form part of the Brahmaputra Basin. This basin comprises five major rivers, viz., Kameng, Siang, Subansiri, Lohit and Dibang. During 2001 to give fillip to the efforts for the development of hydropower potential, CEA under took Preliminary ranking studies of yet to be developed sites. The study analyzed about 399 sites out of 845 identified sites to determine the priority for development of schemes identified in the re-assessment studies. This was followed by 50,000 MW hydro electric initiative launched by Honble Prime Minister of India. Under this initiative, preliminary feasibility reports (PFR) of 162 hydro sites were prepared. Out of 162, seventy two (72) projects were identified in North eastern region itself with total installed capacity of 31925 MW. The State wise distribution of the main schemes in NE region is as under: Arunachal Pradesh Meghalaya Nagaland Mizoram Sikkim : : : : : 42 schemes (27293 MW) 11 schemes (931 MW) 3 schemes (370 MW) 2 schemes (1500 MW) 10 Schemes (1469 MW)

1.4.4 Hydro Electric Potential of Siang Basin As per the study on Re-assessment of Hydro Electric Potential carried out by CEA during 1978-87, Siang river system has a probable hydropower potential of about 10730 MW from 16
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identified schemes at 60% load factor. These schemes are run of river and storage types. Survey and investigation works were taken up at Siang Upper/Intermediate (11000 MW), Siyom (1000 MW) and Siang Lower (2000 MW) by NHPC.

In addition to the above, following nine schemes totaling to 3152 MW in Siang basin have also been identified under the same study (below updated capacities are mentioned). Ringong HE Project Tato-II HE Project Naying HE Project Mirang HE Project Hirong HE Project Simang HE Project Pauk H.E. Project Heo H.E. Project Tato-I H.E. Project 150 MW 700 MW 1000 MW 141 MW 500 MW 90 MW 145 MW 240 MW 186 MW

1.5

POLICY, LEGAL & ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK It is important, for the proposed project, to identify applicable environmental regulations and

legislations of the country which necessitate compliance in respect to its nature, type, scale, area and region of the proposed development.

1.5.1 Policy Framework The National Environment Policy (NEP) of 2006 is intended to mainstream environmental concerns in all development activities. It is built on earlier policies for environmental management, viz., the National Forest Policy (1988), National Conservation Strategy and Policy Statement on Environment and Development (1992), Policy Statement on Abatement of Pollution (1992) and on some sector policies like National Water Policy (2002), National Agriculture Policy (2000), and National Population Policy (2000). The NEP is intended to be a guide to act in regulatory reforms, programmes and projects for environmental conservation and to review and enactment of legislation, by agencies of the central, state, and local Governments. The dominant theme of this policy is that while conservation of environmental resources is necessary to secure livelihoods and well-being of
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all, the most secure basis for conservation is to ensure that people dependent on particular resources obtain better livelihoods from the fact of conservation, than from degradation of the resource. In the course of its development, the Heo HEP needs to adhere to all relevant policies and guidelines in general and the following, in particular. i.) ii.) iii.) iv.) National Forest Policy (NFP), 1988 National Water Policy (NWP), 2002 National Rehabilitation and Resettlement Policy (NRRP), 2007 Rehabilitation and Resettlement Policy (RRP), 2008 of GoAP

1.5.2 Legal Framework The legal environmental framework stems from the national commitment to a clean environment, mandated in the Constitution in Articles 48 A and 51 A (g) and strengthened by judicial interpretation of Article 21. The Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF) is the nodal regulatory agency of the Central Government for planning, promotion, co-ordination and overseeing the formulation and implementation of environmental and forest policy, legislations and programmes. Regulatory functions like grant of Environment Clearance (EC), Forest Clearance (FC) are part of the mandate of this agency. The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 is the national umbrella legislation that provides a holistic framework for the protection and conservation of environment. The Act, its associated Rules and their subsequent amendments require for obtaining environmental clearances for new or expansion of river valley and hydro-electric projects as addressed under the Environmental Impact Assessment Notification, 2006 and require for submission of an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) report as one of the pre-requisites for EC.

Heo H.E. Project is proposed to be developed by meeting statutory environmental requirements of Arunachal Pradesh as well as the Central Government. The project is to be complied with applicable environmental regulations and guidelines. Some of the Acts, Rules, notifications and standards relevant for this project development are given as under. i.) ii.) Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 and its amendments
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iii.) iv.) v.) vi.) vii.) viii.) ix.) x.) xi.) xii.)

Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 Environment (Protection) Rules, 1986 and its amendments Wildlife (Protection) Amendment Act, 2002 The Biological Diversity Act, 2002 Forest (Conservation) Rules, 2003 and its amendments Noise Pollution (Regulation & Control) Rules, 2003 and its amendments EIA Notification, 2006 and its amendments National Ambient Air Quality Standard, 2009 Supreme Courts Orders on Diversion Forest Land for Non-Forest Purpose IS Codes & CPCB Guidelines for monitoring & analysis of air, water, soil etc.

1.5.3 Administrative Framework For ensuring environmental and related compliance by project proponents, the administrative framework consists of following entities: i.) ii.) iii.) iv.) v.) vi.) vii.) viii.) ix.) x.) xi.) MoEF, GoI and its Regional Establishments Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) State Pollution Control Boards or Union Territory Pollution Control Committees State Forest Departments Ministry/Department of Environment in respective States Ministry of Tribal Affairs (MoTA) Central/State Ground Water Boards (CGWB/SGWB) Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment (MoSJE) Ministry of Power (MoP) Ministry of Water Resources (MoWR) Ministry/Department of Water Resources in respective States

1.6

PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF EIA STUDY Hydro-power is considered as green energy as compared to other projects like thermal

power, nuclear power, etc. However, it has some adverse impacts on the environment and social structure. An EIA study is always focused to identify the negative impacts and to ensure that development is sustained with minimal environmental degradation. The purpose of the identification of the negative impacts is to formulate the suitable mitigation measure in order to
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require the prior environmental clearance (EC) as per EIA Notification, 2006. The EIA is expected to serve one or more of the purposes, viz., (i) decision making during project development, (ii) choosing among various project design alternatives and (iii) integrating environmental cost into the project cost. The scope of EIA study has been determined through scoping, the second stage of EC process. Hence, the scope of the present study is listed in the Terms of Reference (TOR) accorded by the MoEF during scoping and pre-construction clearance.

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2
DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT
2.1 LOCATION Heo H.E. Project is located in Mechuka subdivision of West Siang district in Arunachal Pradesh (Fig. 2.1). The nearest road head at Hiri (near to dam site) is about 150 km from Aalo, the head quarters of district West Siang. Heo Hydroelectric Project is a run of the river scheme proposed on the Yarjep (Shi) river (also known as Shi in the lower reaches), which is a right bank tributary of the Siyom river). The project is located 5 km downstream of the confluence of the Sae Chu with the Yarjep (Shi), about 15 km downstream of Mechuka. The proposed dam site is located between 941631E longitude and 283220N latitude near Pur ying village. Proposed Power house site is located between 941843E longitude and 283232N latitude near Meing village. The nearest road heads are Gapo and Hiri villages which are linked to Mechuka and Tato towns. From these villages or from the Tato Mechuka existing road, foot tracks are used to access the proposed dam and power house. The nearest road is Tato-Mechuka road, which is connected to the National Highway-52 (and is about 295 km from Akajan in Assam). For Heo project the nearest meter gauge rail head is at Silapathar (approx 300 km) and broad gauge at Naogaon (approx. 700 km) in Assam. From the project site, the nearest operational airport is around 450 km, located at Likhabali in North Lakhimpur district of Assam and the nearest international airport is around 830 km located at Guwahati, the capital city of Assam.

2.2

BACKGROUND OF PROJECT The Heo HE Project is one of the 3 schemes located on the Yarjep (Shi) River and entrusted

to Velcan Energy Group by the Government of Arunachal Pradesh for implementation of the Project vide MoA signed on 30.06.2007 on BOOT basis for an installed capacity initially estimated at 90 MW as per CEA preliminary rankings studies. The two other projects on the Yarjep (Shi) River are Pauk HEP and Tato-I HEP. Heo Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd (HPPL), a member of Velcan Energy Group, is now the Special Purpose Vehicle dedicated to the development of the Heo HEP on B.O.O.T. basis.

A Pre-feasibility Report has been prepared and submitted to the State of Arunachal Pradesh in March 2008. Due to interference of Rapum HEP on the immediate upstream project (Pauk), the
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initial project had to be modified, and a new PFR was submitted accordingly in November 2008. The interference of Rapum project has however continued after this second PFR, and was finally cleared by the Government of Arunachal Pradesh on 31st July 2009, through the signature of an amendment to the Memorandum of Agreement defining the stretch of river available for Project development. In addition, the first two years of Hydrological and Meteorological studies and data collection showed more available water and the installed capacity of the Project was increased to 210 MW accordingly through the aforesaid amendment dated 31st July 2009. Following the signature of this amendment, involving new features, the Heo H. E. Project had to be thoroughly designed again in order to arrive at a new PFR which was submitted in November 2009.

Water Availability Studies have been approved by the Central Electricity Authority (CEA)/ Central Water Commission (CWC) in July 2010. The Power Potential Studies have been submitted in July 2010 to the CEA, which finally requested the Project developer, in April 2011, to increase again the installed capacity from 210 MW to 240 MW. Hence, the Power Potential Studies have been approved with a capacity of 240 MW.

The Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India, granted to HPPL the revised TORs and clearance of preconstruction activities, updated with the new project capacity and features in April 2010 for the first increase, and then in October 2011 for the second increase. The DPR has been submitted to the CEA in the beginning of April 2011.

VELCAN Group has set-up offices-cum guest houses in order to conduct the surveys. One guest house is located in Mechuka and the local head office is at Aalo. Locally, VELCAN Group is employing a team on site, in addition to daily / temporary workers regularly hired for site investigation support depending on works requirements. Local population has been integrated to the project development from the beginning, through employment and / or various sponsoring and CSR activities.

Since June 2007, HPPL has performed preliminary surveys for project reconnaissance (on various sites depending on interference issues): Hydrological and climatic surveys of the area Topographical Surveys
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Geological mapping Sub-surface geological investigations Environmental surveys for EIA/EMP preparation.

Heo HE Project is proposed to be developed by meeting statutory environmental requirements of Arunachal Pradesh as well as the Central Government. The Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF) is the nodal regulatory agency of the Central Government for planning, promotion, co-ordination and overseeing the formulation and implementation of environmental and forest policy, legislations and programs. Given the installed capacity of the Project, regulatory functions like grant of Environment Clearance (EC), Forest Clearance (FC) are part of the mandate of the Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF).

2.3

SALIENT FEATURES The proposed Heo H.E. project envisages the construction of a gravity dam of 15 m height

above deepest foundation level, a horse shoe shaped head race tunnel (HRT) of 3.6 km and a surface powerhouse with an installed capacity of 240 MW. Total catchment area of the project at dam site is 1065 sq km. The standard projected flood (SPF) and maximum probable flood were calculated to be 3200 and 3900 cumec, respectively. The construction of the project will be completed in 4 years. The details of salient features of the project are given in Table 2.1. Detailed layout plan of Heo H.E. project indicating the location of various project components is given in Fig. 2.2.

Table 2.1. Salient features of Heo H.E. Project


1 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) LOCATION State District Village Access Road Geographical Coordinates of dam a. Longitudes b. Latitudes Geographical Coordinates of Power house a. Longitudes b. Latitudes

Arunachal Pradesh West Siang Purying Road from Tato to Mechuka 941631E 283220N 941843E 283232N

(vi)

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2. (i) (ii) (iii) 3. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) 4. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) 5. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix)

POWER Installed capacity (MW) Firm power (MW) in a 90% dependable year Annual energy 90% dependable year (GWh) RIVER BASIN CLIMATOLOGY and HYDROLOGY Catchment area at the water intake (km2) River Tributary Average Annual Rainfall (mm) Min-Max temperature (c) Min-Max humidity (%) Standard Project flood (m3/s) Maximum probable flood (m3/s) RESERVOIR Maximum water level (m) Full reservoir level (m) Minimum Drawn Down Level (m) Active storage (Mm3) Dead storage (Mm3) Submergence area (ha) DAM Type of dam Crest level (m) Foundation level (m) Length at top (m) Width at top (m) Upstream Slope Downstream Slope Maximum height above deepest foundation level (m) Type of spillway a. Full reservoir level (m) b. Maximum water level (m) c. Length (m) d. Maximum height above the deepest foundation (m) e. Crest level (m) f. Maximum discharging capacity (m3/sec) at MWL

240 32.2 1049.3

1 065 Yarjep (Shi) River Siyom River 2 621 1 40 39 - 100 3200 3900

El 1406.5 El 1400 El 1398 0.15 0.15 8.4

Concrete Gravity Dam El 1400 El 1385 107 5 1 V : 0.3 H 1V:1H 15 Free Ogee Spillway El 1400 El 1406.5 84 for main spillway and10m for complementary spillway 15 El 1400 for main spillway and El 1402 for complementary Spillway 3200 (corresponding to SPF) 2-4

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(x)

(xi) 6. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) 7. (i) (ii) (iii) 8. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 9. (i) (ii)

g. Type of energy dissipation arrangement Water intake a. Type b. Number c. Size (m) d. Design discharge (m3/s) Desilting device invert level HEAD RACE TUNNEL Length (m) Shape Size (m) (inner diameter) Thickness of hydraulic concrete lining (mm) Design discharge (m3/s) SURGE TANK Type Diameter (m) Vertical height PRESSURE SHAFT Shape Number Diameter (m) Thickness (mm) POWER HOUSE Type Head (m): a. Normal Gross Head (FRL-TWL) (m) b. Design Gross Head (90% dependable year) (m) c. Design Net Head (m) (based on 90% dependable year) Size of power house: a. Length b. Width (m) c. Height (m) Installed capacity (MW) Turbine (s): a. Type b. Number

Teeth Rectangular 2 H7.5 x L9 130.2 1386

3578 Horse Shoe 6.4 300 130.2

Vertical Orifice 10 81.8

Circular 1 5.75 15-45 mm

Surface 211 211.1 201.8

(iii)

(iv) (v)

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c. Capacity (MW) 10. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 11. (i) (ii) TAILRACE Shape Length from centre line of units (m) Tail Water level Number of draft-tube gates SWITCHGEAR Voltage level / Basic undulation level (kV) Type

3x80

Open air tail basin 40 El 1189 3

220 Outdoor GIS

2.4

ALTERNATIVE SITES The technical conception of the project has been performed in order to reach the most cost-

effective solution to harness the natural head available between Purying Village and Gapo Village. During study stages, different alternatives have been identified. Alternatives have been worked out in regards to geological constraints and cost-effectiveness approach. Out of this study, the alternative described below has been selected:

The dam is located in the outlet of a right bend of the Yarjep (Shi) River. Orientation of axis is chosen so that flood discharge will not damage the downstream banks. The crest of the overtopping concrete dam (FRL of the reservoir) is fixed at 1400 m. asl. The peak generation is ensured by the regulation made by the upstream project (Pauk). The water intake is installed on the left bank. A flush gate located on the left side of the dam is provided to keep the water intake out of the sand and silt deposit. There is only 0.15 Mm3 of active storage. But the reservoir of Pauk immediately upstream of Heo project permits to regulate the flow during the lean season. The 3.6 km tunnel excavated within a hilly area is driving the flow up to the entrance of the power house platform. This platform is the only suitable location for surface power house.

2.4.1 Dam Regarding the Dam site, various locations for dam site have been worked out in the preliminary stages. Two sites have been particularly investigated. The chosen site is the most upstream one. This choice is mainly due to geological reasons. In the alternative option located 500 m downstream, a landslide has been identified in the dam site area leading to important excavations and soil
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consolidation. In the upstream option, geological and geotechnical investigations showed that bed rock lies 5 to 10 m under surface on the right and left banks. Moreover, a technical and economical optimization leads to the selection of the most upstream solution. The submergence is less, and almost confined within the major river bed of the river. The upstream option presents less impact on both local activities and environment. Additionally, the valley at the dam site of upstream option is much narrower than the valley at the downstream option. Thus topography is favorable to the upstream option. The upstream option is the best one regarding geological, socio-environmental and cost effective issues. Both local topography and geology allow the construction of a concrete dam with overflowing spillway. Construction schedule has been worked out in order to minimize the cost of diversion works. Main structures shall be constructed during lean season, work area being protected from the flows by rock and earthfill cofferdams. In this way, no diversion tunnel is required.

2.4.2 Power House Regarding the power house site, there is only one option for location of a surface power house due to topographical reason. The power house is located near the Meying village with no impact on houses and habitation. The head race tunnel is located on the left bank harnessing a meander of the Yarjep (Shi) River. The Head Race Tunnel is crossing various layers of suitable rocks such as gneiss and quartzite.

2.5

CONSTRUCTION METHODOLOGY There are three main construction components, namely, power house near Meying village, as

well as 2 smaller elevated structures for tunnel and surge shaft works, diversion dam and intake platform in Purying village, and tunnel intermediate adit platform with access road from Lipusi village. Network of consolidated small foot paths has been implemented for investigation purposes. Before the commencement of the work, access roads will be built from the existing Tato to Mechuka road. The access roads preparation will be awarded in an advanced stage once all clearances are obtained, so that this preliminary activity will not jeopardize the tunneling work start date.

2.5.1 Material Sources 2.5.1.1 Concrete 20 km upstream of the site, the Mechuka valley is filled with a deep layer of alluvium and sandy material. A quarry site for sand will be developed in the vicinity of the village and the
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required quantity of sand will be transported from Mechuka to the construction sites. During investigation stages, various quarry sites for coarse aggregates have been identified in the vicinity of the construction sites. Based on direct availability of rock in situ and construction sites proximity, 2 locations have been selected. Near Gapo village (PH quarry site) Downstream of Hiri village (Dam quarry site)

Crushing plant will be located at the construction sites. According to test results, aggregates extracted from these quarry sites are suitable for concrete production. Cement has to be brought by road from the closest cement factory (most probably from Assam).

2.5.1.2 Steel and Equipment Due to site specific conditions, almost all equipments and steel parts will have to be brought from remote factories, either in other districts of Arunachal Pradesh or from other States of India, particularly in the case of E&M equipment. For heavy equipment delivery, alternative solutions over Brahmaputra River as well as rail transport up to Dibrughar were investigated.

2.5.2 Contract Packages The entire project is envisaged to comprise the following eighteen main contract packages: CIVIL WORKS Package I Package II Package III : Dam, Power Intake Structure : Head Race Tunnel and Valve House : Surge Shaft, Pressure Shaft, Powerhouse complex and Tail Race Basin

HYDRO-MECHANICAL WORKS Package IV : Hydro Mechanical works comprising of gates, hoists and Pressure Shaft steel liner ELECTRO-MECHANICAL WORKS Package V : Generating Units (Turbine & Generator), Cooling Water System, Drainage/ Dewatering System, Unit Control & Automation, Bus duct. Package VI : Valves-MIV& BFV

Package VII : EOT Crane, Package VIII : Air Conditioning, Ventilation etc.
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Package IX Package X Package XI Package XII

: Fire Fighting, : Transformers (Generator Transformer), : 415 V Switchgear & 11 kV Switchgear : Illumination

Package XIII : DG sets (construction power) Package XIV : Cable &Cable Trays Package XV : Switchyard & Protection metering

Package XVI : Transformer (Dry Type UAT SST), Package XVII : DC System (Battery & Battery Charger), UPS Package XVIII : Miscellaneous and finishing works

Contractors eligibility for each Package mentioned above shall be fixed suitably based on the working experience under similar conditions. The auxiliary works of the river diversion including cofferdams shall be part of the civil works. However, depending on the basic site facilities available such as storage facilities for contractor, site offices, testing laboratory, staff colony, plant and access roads at power house and diversion dam sites, some or all of the related works have to be taken up by the Contractor departmentally to enhance the pace of work and cost recovered from the contractors. Package-IV to XVIII listed above being equipment packages, they shall be contracted earlier so that by the time civil contractors mobilize site facilities and manpower, minimum equipment are made available for furthering the work on site.

2.5.3 Schedule of Work As per plan, underground works such as headrace tunnel, adits and the related works should not be hampered by the restricted working season. The diversion dam will be built over 2 periods of 5 months each corresponding to lean season, from November 1st to March 31st. First lean season will be used for the diversion channel preparation. Second lean season will cater to construction of the weir itself. The powerhouse site will be protected from the river course and should not be hampered by the restricted working season. The peak workforce is expected to reach up to 450 people during the construction period.

2.5.4 Construction Activities Following construction activities for various components of the H.E.P are described herein.
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2.5.4.1 Diversion of river Dam and Diversion channel Construction activities for Structures located on the left bank are highly impacted by the water level seasonal variation. Therefore, the work sequence shows 4 phases, each of which corresponding to either lean or monsoon time.

Phase 1: Diversion structure is proposed to be built during the first lean season. The construction site will be isolated from the river through a lateral coffer dam built out of suitable fill material excavated from the tunnel.

First step will consist in an overall cleaning of the area, which includes tree and spoil removal. Excavation methodology and plant for intake and spillway structures depend on geological specificities of the existing material. Soft and weathered material will be excavated down to sound rock level with hydraulic excavators and loaded on trucks to be stockpiled for later in-situ re-use, either in cofferdam or working platforms, or as concrete aggregates after crushing and screening. Excavation in hard rock will involve drill and blast process in 3 to 4m high benches. After spoil evacuation, each bench is stabilized with appropriate shotcrete and rock bolts pattern and steel mesh layer as per design by appointed geologist, before carrying on to the next bench down to bottom level.

Two (2) passes will be built and left fully opened in order to serve as diversion channel in the second construction period. Meanwhile, a 120 m long reinforced concrete lateral wall will be erected in 2 to 3 m high lifts up to suitable level in order to provide an abutment structure for the 2 plug cofferdams that close up the intake area in phase 2.

Phase 2: Construction of 2 plug cofferdams allows continuing and completing civil works on the intake and spillway structures during monsoon time, without being impacted by water level contingencies. The lateral cofferdam may be removed in the mean time so that the occasional flood will be routed with maximum section available.

Phase 3: During the second construction period starting with the second lean season, the site will be isolated from the river course through 2 cofferdams of about 10000 m3 each (1 upstream and 1 downstream). Excavation works on the right bank have to be carried out prior to that using the same methods as for left bank in phase 1. Excavation in riverbed shall go down to the ground rock level.
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The main dam structure consists in concrete cast in 30cm layers and supplied by nearby site batching plants. During the lean season time span, it will be built up to the same elevation as the cofferdams. Grouting in riverbed if revealed necessary - will then be performed from this level through concrete in order to be completed before the third monsoon. The remaining part of the dam may be completed at a later stage whenever water level allows safe access and work.

Phase 4: Once the main dam is completed, the 2 passes of the diversion channel may be converted into flush gates. The gates and overtopping weir will be built alternatively, including secondary concrete for all embedded parts.

For packages IV and V contractor will be able to proceed with equipment installation such as gates, gantry crane and start testing & commissioning process for this part of the project. The two cofferdams are removed in the mean time and spoil evacuated to HPHMD platform.

2.5.4.2 Intake structure Intake structure on the left bank shall be excavated in the first lean season simultaneously with spillway as per process detailed above. The structure will be concreted during the second construction period as well. The connection of the HRT with the intake structure will be made once the HRT is completed in order to avoid risk of water entrance into the subsurface working front.

2.5.4.3 Tunneling The HRT is slightly inclined with a horse shoe shaped section with a 6.4 m finished diameter and an overall length of about 3.6 km. For sequencing purposes, it is divided into 3 sections of equivalent length referred to as Section A, B and C going downstream. Tunneling works will start with the construction of two adits with the same section that will provide access & start point for further excavation activities. A 450 m long intermediate adit starts from a platform nearby Lipusi village. It lays perpendicular to the main tunnel and crosses it at about one third of its overall length, which is the meeting point of section A and B. A 240 m long downstream access gallery starts from a platform located above PH site at elevation 1345 m.

Three excavation fronts will be operating simultaneously to minimize work duration. Section A and B will be excavated from intermediate adit, whereas section C works will be carried out from
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DS access gallery. Chosen boring technology is conventional drill & blast method using two or three boom jumbos, excavators, loaders and dumpers. As per international standards, vault reinforcement solution shall depend on geological conditions and progress rate will be affected consequently:

Rock class II

: 50mm of shotcrete and 4 anchors (dia 25mm, 2.5m long, 1.5m spacing) in crown.

Rock class III : 100mm of shotcrete and 9 anchors (dia 25mm, 2.5m long, 1.5m spacing) in crown and walls Rock class IV : 150mm of shotcrete and 9 anchors (dia 25mm, 2.5m long, 1.5m spacing) in crown and walls

Owing to preliminary geological survey, most part of the encountered material consists in quartzite and banded gneiss, 75 to 80% of which is supposed to be class II rock. This is a very good media for tunnel excavation.

Although it is not necessary from a structural point of view, the use of steel arches may be considered to ensure workforce safety in areas with poor rock quality. The completion time of tunneling including access preparation is expected to be 36 months based on 3 excavation fronts, each working in 2 shifts 6 days a week. That is the critical path of the construction programme. Concreting will start after tunnel breakthrough at the meeting point of section B and C, while excavation continues on Section A at a lower rate due to geological conditions. A 30 cm thick concrete lining will be cast in 12m long bays using two formworks on wheels. Both will work backwards from the midpoint of the tunnel in order to facilitate access and material supply to each work station. After tunnel breakout on dam side, section A concreting will start as well using the same methodology and another set of formworks. Batching Plant and aggregate processing plant installed for the Diversion dam shall supply concrete that will be transported by mixer trucks and pumped. Peak demand when the 4 formworks are in use is reckoned to reach up to 600m3 per week. 2.5.4.4 Surge shaft and pressure shaft A 5.75m diameter steel lined pressure shaft terminates the HRT, consisting in a 70 m upper horizontal section, followed by a 160m vertical section and another 170m lower horizontal section. It bifurcates and then feeds the 3 units of the power house. The first 2 parts will be bored through an
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access gallery starting from the same platform as the HRT at 1345 m. On the other hand, the last horizontal part can be excavated from the power house platform at 1191 m. and is therefore an independent site. Once all sections are complete, steel lining will be put in place in 3m segments, welded and backfilled with concrete.

A 81.8m high surge shaft with will be implemented at the starting point of the pressure shaft. It is designed with a 10m diameter and a 50cm concrete lining. Works will be carried out from the top at elevation 1429, where a dedicated platform will be set up. These sites are independent from the HRT works and will happen simultaneously in order to be ready to be connected to the HRT upon its completion.

2.5.4.5 Power house site The powerhouse is designed to accommodate 3 x 80 MW turbine units and all equipment required for their operation. Excavation of the power house and tailrace basin shall use standard method deploying Drill & Blast machinery and jack hammers. Rock faces will be stabilized with steel mesh, shotcrete and/or rock bolts wherever needed. Mucking of the excavated soil and rock will be carried out through site roads to Meying dump site. Approach to the powerhouse on the left bank of the river is planned from the existing road on the right bank and by crossing the Yarjep (Shi) River through a bridge built for this purpose. The left bank will be treated by grouting so that the site will have limited water infiltration from the river. Concreting of the powerhouse will be carried out in 2 major phases.

A substructure that accommodates machinery and several specific embedded parts such as draft tube and spiral case

A superstructure that is similar to conventional industrial building works Tailrace basin walls will be concreted in 3 m lifts with appropriate number of shutters. A

common batching and mixing plant at this location shall be employed for Tato I HEP Channel and water intake. Erection, Testing and Commissioning of the two TG units shall be a parallel activity to the entire scope of works described here above. However, commissioning may only be completed after impounding of the whole installation, which requires work completion of the other project components (dam, intake, HRT).
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2.5.5 Land Requirement Total land required for the construction of various components of Heo H.E. Project is 55.7 ha. 53 ha of surface will be required, rest being underground area for HRT. Out of the total surface land, 5.9 ha land accounts for river bed area while other belong to Unclassified State Forest Land (USF) (Table 2.2). The total submergence area is 8.4 ha, including 5.6 ha of River bed. Hence the balance submerged land area to be acquired is 2.8 ha. Out of 47.1 surface land 23.95ha (50.85%) land is covered under the dense forest, 7.15 ha (15.18%) is covered under open forest and 16 ha (33.97%) land is degraded.

Table 2.2 Break up of the land to be acquired for various components in Heo HEP
Purpose wise break-up of total land Required for HEO HEP S No Project Component Surface Area (Ha) Surface Land 1 A 2 3 4 5 6 7 Submergence area Surface Structures Dam complex area Dam Muck Disposal area Dam storage area, Office and Colony area Dam Quarry site Dam Access Road Power house area (including penstocks and Tail Race) 8 9 10 11 12 13a 13b 14 PH muck disposal PH Storage area, Office and colony PH Quarry site PH Access Road Adit Area Adit Muck Disposal 1 Adit Muck Disposal 2 Adit Access Road 0.3 15.5 1.1 0.8 1.4 2.6 0.3 15.5 1.1 0.8 1.4 2.6 2-14 3.5 1.3 3.5 1.3 0.3 3 9.2 0.3 3 9.2 1.5 2.6 1.2 0.3 1.8 2.6 1.2 2.8 River Bed 5.6 Underground Area (Ha) Total Area (Ha) 8.4

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Purpose wise break-up of total land Required for HEO HEP S No Project Component Surface Area (Ha) Surface Land Total of surface areas B 15 Under Ground Structures Head Race Tunnel (including Adit tunnel) Total 53 2.7 55.7 2.7 2.7 47.1 River Bed 5.9 Underground Area (Ha) Total Area (Ha) 53

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BASELINE DATA
3.1 CONCEPTS & METHODOLOGY
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is defined as the process of identifying, estimating and evaluating the environmental consequences of current or proposed actions (Vanclay and Bronstein, 1995). EIA is one the few formal procedures that permits explicit analysis of the relationship between economic activity and conservation of natural resources, providing a common platform for the integrated assessment of social, biophysical and economic issues. However, early interpretations of EIA considered the environment in largely biophysical terms and tended to neglect the consequences of proposals for human health and wellbeing, resulting in neglect of key social issues. The extent to which EIA is intended to address social issues still varies between countries. While the assessment of impacts on people is often addressed through EIA, Some countries have elected to legislate separately for social impact assessment (SIA).

3.1.1 CONCEPT

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has defined the goals and principles of EIA for the analysis and assessment of planned activities to ensure environmentally safe and sustainable development (UNEP, 1980). The nature of the EIA systems (e.g., mandatory or discretionary) vary widely in different countries. However, the concept of EIA has been accepted due to its central role in environmental protection and its validity as a proactive planning tool. With reference to hydropower development within India, it is worth mentioning that EIA is now a mandatory requirement and is to be carried out according to the terms of reference (ToR) defined by the Environmental Appraisal Committee (EAC) of Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), Government of India. It is further interesting to note that what began as an EC directive on environment assessment (CEC, 1985) regarding impact of development on flora and fauna has today developed into a major concern for the conservation and management of ecosystems and biodiversity in the environmental, financial and techno-commercial appraisals of developmental projects.

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An EIA requires systematic, holistic and multidisciplinary approach of the assessment of the impacts. The development actions may have impacts not only on the physical and biological environments but on the social environment. Thus social impact assessment is usually an integral part of EIA. In general the purpose of EIA is to provide an aid to decision making, formulation of development actions and instrument for sustainable development.

3.1.2 METHODOLOGY In the present study standard methods, either developed at the Centre or published elsewhere, such as CISMHE (1993, 1998, 2000, 2002, 2005, 2008), Clark, et al. (1981), Leopold, et al. (1971), Sassaman, (1981), Lohani & Halim (1987), Biswas & Geping, (1987) etc., were followed for Environment Impact Assessment of Heo HE project. Studies on water resource development projects by various authors viz. Bisset (1987); Dee, et al. (1973), Duke, et al. (1979) and LEUP, (1979) were particularly consulted for the present study. A brief account of the methodologies and matrices followed in the present study is given below under different headings. All the methods were structured for the identification, collection and organization of environmental impacts data. The information, thus gathered, has been analyzed and presented in the form of a number of visual formats for easy interpretation and decision-making. The detailed methodology followed for the EIA report of Heo H.E. Project is described in the following paragraphs.

3.1.2.1 Study Area Heo Hydroelectric Project is a run of the river scheme proposed on Yarjep River near village Purying in West Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh. It is immediately downstream of Pauk Hydroelectric Project. The Dam site is situated near Purying village and power house site is located near Meing village having total installation of 240 MW. The study area was bifurcated into areas of direct and indirect impacts. The area of indirect impact includes the catchment area and free-draining catchment area of proposed Heo HE Project, which comprises nearly of 1065 and 84 sq km, respectively. The indirect impacts on the various aspects included in EIA were also assessed in the 10 km radius of the proposed project, referred to as influence area. It covers an area of nearly 413 sq. km. It includes 10 km periphery of proposed dam and power house sites, tail of reservoir and river bed. The areas of direct impacts includes the components of the project like dam, powerhouse, dumping areas, headrace tunnel, quarry sites, colony area etc. They are referred to as Project Area.

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3.1.2.2 Surveys & Samplings Primary surveys were conducted in different seasons of the year to collect data related to geology, flora, fauna, forest types and ecological parameters including soil and water. During these surveys data and information were collected on geophysical and biological attributes of the catchment and free-draining areas in brief, influence area (10 km radius) and project areas in details. In addition, detailed surveys and studies were also conducted for understanding aquatic ecology and fish life of Yarjep River and its tributaries. Primary surveys in the entire catchment area were also conducted for the purpose of ground truthing and augmenting the remotely sensed data. For this purpose various attributes such as land features, rivers, forest and vegetation types were recorded on the ground in the catchment area, in project and in study area. A detailed schedule of the survey and samplings is given below. Location of various sampling sites is given in Fig. 3.1.1.

Sl.No. Duration of Survey 1 February, 2009

Parameters studied Water, Fauna, Flora, Geology, soil, Fish, Air, Noise, climatic attributes

May, June, 2009

Water, Fauna, Flora, Geology, Soil, Fish, Air, Noise, climatic variables, Ground truthing

Aug., September, 2009

Water, Fauna, Flora, Geology, soil, Fish, Air Noise, climatic variable, Ground truthing

4 5

May, June 2010 December 2010

Fauna, Flora, Geology, Soil, Fish, Noise Socio-economic surveys

3.1.2.3 Physiography Spatial database on physiographic features were taken from various sources including Survey of India (SOI) toposheets, satellite data and analyzed with the help of Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. These data were collected, arranged and thematic maps according to the EIA methods were used in the study. The thematic maps are presented in the form of general drainage map of catchment and its sub-watersheds, relief map, aspect map, slope etc. In addition, river gradient profile of the Yarjep River was calculated from its upper reaches to the proposed intake site.

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3.1.2.4 Geology & Seismicity The regional geology around project area highlighting geomorphology, stratigraphy and structural features were based on the existing information, viz., i) Detail Project Report (DPR, 2011), ii) Geology of Arunachal Pradesh (Kumar, 1997), iii) Geodynamics of Northeastern India and adjoining region (Nandy, 2001), iv) Seismotectonics of South Asia (Kayal 2008), v) Indian Meterological Department (IMD) earthquake data in the vicinity of the project area and vi) published literatures (Verma and Kumar, 1987; Kayal, 1996, etc.). The discussion on project geology has been based on the available data in DPR of Heo (2011) and field observation in the selected sites.

3.1.2.5 Soil The soils are classified by using the standard method of NBSS (1998). It was prepared for the catchment area, influence area and the project component area. The soil samples were retrieved from various locations with different land use. Description of the sites is given below (Fig. 3.1.1): Site S1 (Tato village) Agricultural land Site S2 (near Power house site, left bank of Yarjep river) Forest Area Site S3 (near dam site) right bank of Yarjep river) disturbed due to jhum Site S4 (Near dam site of Pauk, right bank of Yarjep river) Forest area

Soils were retrieved from three location at each site. The soil samples were collected with the help of auger. Soils were removed from upper temporary layer (5cm or more according to the soil profile) with help of digger; soil samples were retrieved from a depth of about 10 - 30 cm and about 10 x 10 sq cm in width. The physical properties included moisture content, water holding capacity, bulk density and pore size measurement (soil texture) while chemical characteristics included pH, organic carbon, organic matter, phosphate, nitrate, and chloride. Soil moisture was calculated by evaporating moisture from pre-weighed soil, at 105oC for 24 hours in an oven and reweighed the soil. Standard methods for the soil analysis were followed as given in Jackson (1958) for bulk density, soil texture and water holding capacity. The soil was divided into 6 textural classes very coarse, coarse sand, medium sand, fine and very fine sand, coarse silt and fine, medium silt and clay by using the sieve of mesh sizes - 500-2000 m for very coarse and coarse sand, 200-500 m for medium fine sand and 50 - 200 m for very fine sand and 20-50 m for coarse and medium silt and < 20 m for fine silt and clay.

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Soil pH and conductivity were measured by the instruments pH Scan and TD Scan3 (Oakton, Eutech Instruments), respectively. Nitrate and phosphate were determined by the icon specific meter (Hanna Instruments). Chloride estimation was done by colorimetric analysis given by Adoni (1985) while organic matter was calculated by Walkleys method (Walkley, 1947).

For the present study, we carried out the analysis of soil microbes for samples collected from three different sites of Heo H.E. Project. Microbial population analysis was carried out by Serial Dilution Technique. Microbes were isolated at 10-6 dilution on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA, Himedia) and Nutreint Agar (NA, Himedia) for fungal and bacterial populations, respectively. Media were prepared by dissolving the ingredients in distilled water and heated until the agar was completely dissolved. The pH of the media was adjusted to 5.4 ( 0.2) and 7.2 ( 0.2) for fungal and bacterial cultures, respectively. Finally, media were autoclaved at 15 lb/ inch2 for 15 minutes and allowed to cool to about 40 - 45oC and poured into sterilized Petri plates. Inoculated Petri plates were incubated at 27oC ( 2.0) for fungal and at 34oC ( 2.0) for bacterial colonies. Five to seven days old Petri plates were scanned for population counting and these were expressed as CFU (Colony Forming Units) for fungi and MPN (Most Probable Number) for bacteria.

3.1.2.6 Land use - Land cover Land use and land cover was prepared for the Heo H.E project area. Remote sensing and GIS spatial functionalities were used for the development of Land use and land cover maps for the whole catchment, with area coverage of 1065 sq. km. Satellite imageries of IRS-P6 LISS-III was used and it was radiometrically corrected using dark pixel subtraction technique before the land use/ land cover map was generated. The catchment is classified with nine land use and land cover classes. The Land use/land cover maps were also prepared for the influence area and submergence area covering total area 413 sq.km and 8.4 ha, respectively.

3.1.2.7 Hydrology The data on rainfall are available from 7 rain gauges stations namely, Mechuka, Monigon, Rayong, Kaying, Aalo and Tato sourced from various third parties (IMD, Brahmaputra Board and other private project developers) and have been used, along with the developer own Gauge station, to assess the water availability. Two data sources were acquired for Mechuka (i.e. external data source and rain gauge stations installed by Heo Hydro Power Pvt Ltd). Average annual precipitation
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was recorded at all the mentioned rain gauge stations. Based on the data described above, the detailed water availability studies have been conducted to arrive at the 10 daily discharge data of Yarjep river available from June 1978-79 to May 2008 - 2009 (DPR, 2011). This data set was utilized for calculating monthly, annual water discharge and 90% and 50% dependable years for Heo H.E. Project. The Central Water Commission has approved the Hydrology chapter of the DPR in August 2010.

3.1.2.8 Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality The water sampling was conducted at different locations in the 10 km river stretch of Yarjep River. These locations were grouped into three sampling sites namely W1 upstream of dam site), W2 (proposed dam site) and W3 (proposed powerhouse site). In addition water samplings were carried out in Purying Nala, Sang Nala, Sarak I Nala and Sarak II Nala. Sampling was conducted for three seasons, viz. winter, pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons.

A total of 19 physical and chemical parameters and 5 biological parameters were studied to assess the river water quality. The discharge data provided in the DPR of Heo project (2011) was used for analyzing the seasonal variation in the flow of Yarjep River. The water current velocity at all sites was measured with the help of float method. A 20 m stretch of the river was measured and marked at both ends. A float was thrown at upper end and the time taken by the float to travel the marked distance was recorded by a stop watch. The water temperature was recorded with the help of graduated mercury thermometer. Care was taken in measuring the temperature as it was recorded from surface, column and near the bottom of the river. Average value of these readings was computed. The pH was recorded with the help of pH Scan (Eutech) and pH meter (EI 132 E) in the field. For the turbidity of water, samples were collected in sampling bottles from different sites in the field and brought to the laboratory for analysis. The turbidity was recorded with the help of Nephelometer or turbido meter (EI 331 E). The total dissolved solids were measured with the help of TDScan 1 (Eutech) at each site. Similarly conductivity was recorded with the help of TDScan 3 (Eutech) at the site. Dissolved oxygen was measured by using digital DO meters (Eutech ECDO 602K). Total alkalinity, alkalinity as carbonates and bicarbonates, total hardness, Ca and Mg contents, chloride and heavy metals were measured with the help of APHA (1992) and Adoni (1985). Nitrate (NO3 N) and phosphate (PO4 P) were measured using HAANA instruments namely HI 93728 and HI 93713, respectively.
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Biological characteristics involved the status of total coliforms, zooplankton, suspended algae, phytobenthos and macro-invertebrates. A presumptive test (presence/absence test) was performed for the estimation of total coliforms. The method described by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), New Delhi, was adopted for this purpose. For the quantification of zooplankton and suspended algae, 50 liters of water for each community was filtered at each site by using plankton net made up of fine silk cloth (mesh size 25 m). The study was repeated three times at each site and the samples were pooled. The filtrate collected for suspended algae was preserved in the Lugols solution while unpreserved samples of zooplankton were brought to the laboratory. Epilithic
2

phytobenthos were obtained by scrapping the surface of rocks and boulders (4 x 4 cm ) with the help of a hard brush. Three replicates, obtained from each site were pooled and preserved in Lugols solution for further analyses. Before going further for other analysis of the plankton and benthic samples, the density was estimated by using drop count method. The density of suspended algae and phytobenthos were estimated with the help of APHA (1992). The suspended algae and phytobenthos were identified with the help of Sarod and Kamat (1984), Hustedt and Jensen (1985) and Edmondson (1959). The zooplankton was identified by using literatures of Edmondson (1959) and Battish (1992). The macro-invertebrates were obtained with the help of a square foot Surbers sampler or a square foot quadrate. The substrate, mainly stones were disturbed and immediately transferred to a bucket underwater and later rinsed thoroughly to dislodge all the attached macro-invertebrates. The organisms trapped in the Surbers sampler were also transferred to the bucket. The material was sieved through 100m sieve. Samples were collected in three replicates and pooled for further analysis. The samples were preserved in 3% formalin or 70% ethyl alcohol. The organisms obtained were then counted after identifying them up to family level by the procedure described by Pennak (1953) and Edmondson (1959).

3.1.2.9 Fish & Fisheries The study of fish fauna was carried out in the Siyom River, Yarjep River and their tributaries as they fall in the influence area. Common fishing methods were used to land fish from Yarjep River and its tributaries. The fish were landed with the help of local fisherman using cast nets and hooks.

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The fish were identified with the help of Talwar and Jhingran (1991). In addition, literature of Sen (2006) was consulted to make an inventory of fish fauna of Yarjep River.

Conservation Assessment Management Plan of Biodiversity Conservation Prioritization Project Worshop (CAMP-BCPP, 1997) was followed to know the conservation status of fish species inhabiting river Yarjep and its tributaries.

3.1.2.10 Air Environment & Noise Level The sampling for weather condition, ambient air quality and recording of traffic density and noise pollution data were carried out based on the availability of facilities.

Climatic Attributes: Using pocket weather tracker (KESTREL 4000), primary data on climatic attributes like wind speed, wind chill temperature, humidity etc were recorded for three seasons in the project components areas. These attributes were recorded at two sites Puyring village (site S1) and Meing village (S2). Replicates samples were recorded at each sites. An average value for each parameter was calculated for the interpretation

Traffic density: Number and types of vehicles plying on the Tato - Mechuka road were recorded for three seasons. Air pollution: To assess the level of pollutants in the air sampler (high volume, respirable dust sampler APM 460 BL and its attachment APM 411 TE) was run to record the concentrations of SPM, NO2 and SO2. Due to lack of electricity in the surroundings it was run at Aalo. Aalo is major town in the area and was considered as control. We assume that in any case the level of air pollutants in the surroundings of project area would be lower as compared to that of Aalo. Noise Level: Sound levels were recorded at various sites in and around the project area by using Sound Level Meter D 2023 (Cygnet), a TYPE 2 instrument (IS 9779, 1981). The noise levels were recorded at Purying village (N1), proposed dam site (N2), proposed power house site (N3) and nearest stretch of national highway (N4).

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3.1.2.11 Forest types and Floristics i) Study area The details on forest types and forest cover in the catchment area were based on our primary surveys in the area supplemented with the working plans and records of Aalo Forest Division, Arunachal Pradesh. The forests present in the catchment area have been grouped into different forest types following the classification of Champion & Seth (1968), Negi, (1989, 1996), Chowdhery (1996) and Muddgal & Hajra (1999).

Influence area (i.e. 10 km radius from power house site, dam site and HRT) was selected for the survey of flora. In the influence area, the surveys were carried out for description of vegetation along the altitudinal gradient (between 1100 m -1500 m). The important sites for the primary surveys were: i) Area between Padusa village and Hiri village ii) Area between Lipusi village and Purying village ii) Area beyond Rapum village and its environ

Floristic study in the project area was undertaken with the objectives of preparing a checklist of flora in the submergence area and locations where project components (i.e. Dam site, power house site and dumping sites) are proposed. Listing of rare/ endangered, economically important and medicinal plant species was prepared by conducting primary surveys along all project components.

The detailed account of ecological study and plant communities has been described based on the primary surveys in the project area. These surveys were undertaken during different seasons (winter, pre-monsoon and monsoon) of the year to account for most of the floral elements found in the area. For sampling various strata of vegetation during 2009 and 2010, two sites viz., dam site (Purying, left bank of Yarjep) and powerhouse site (Meying, left bank of Yarjep) were selected for vegetation structure study on the basis of the presence of forest patches in the area. Considering the
difficult terrain, quadrat method was used for vegetation sampling. Tree layer was analysed by sampling ten randomly placed quadrats of 10m x 10 m size in each site. The size and number of quadrats needed were determined using the species area curve (Misra, 1968). Circumference at breast height (cbh at 1.37 m from the ground) of all trees with > 31.5 cm was recorded individually per species. The shrub and sampling strata were analysed by sampling ten quadrats of 5 m x 5 m randomly on each site. The herbs were analysed by placing Chapter 3.1 Concepts & Methodology 3-9

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ten quadrats of 1 m x 1 m on each site during different seasons. Based on the quadrat data, frequency, density and cover (basal area) of each species were calculated. The importance value index (IVI) for different tree species were determined by summing up the Relative Density, Relative Frequency and Relative Cover values.

The diversity index for all the layers at each site was computed by using Shanon-Wiener information index (Shanon Wiener, 1963) as : H = - (ni/n) x LN (ni/n) Where, ni is individual density of a species and n is total density of all the species.

3.1.2.12 Fauna In order to collect the information on the fauna (mammals, birds, herpetofauna, and butterflies) in the catchment area of Yarjep river primary as well as secondary sources were utilized. Following methods were adopted during the survey of fauna.

i.

The Forest Working Plans of the Forest Divisions falling in the project area were referred to for secondary information on the wildlife of the catchment area.

ii.

ZSI (2006) publications were referred to make an inventory on mammals, avifauna, herpetofauna, butterfly and other invertebrates.

iii.

Interviews of local villagers for the presence and relative abundance of various animal species within each locality.

iv.

Data collection on habitat condition, animal presence by direct sighting and indirect evidences.

v.

Direct sighting and indirect evidences such as calls, signs, tracks and fecal pellets of mammals were recorded along the survey routes taking aid from Prater (1980).

vi.

Detailed household surveys were carried out to collect the information on trophies and hunting patterns.

vii.

A detailed survey of birds was carried out in the project sites and catchment area using the literatures of Ali & Ripley (1983), Grewal et al. (2002) and Dutta and Basu (2006) as field guides. The invertebrates were inventoried with the help of Das and Chattopaddhyay (2006) and Mondal (2006).

viii.

The criteria of IUCN (2010), Wildlife (Protection) Act (1970) and Zoological Survey of India (1994) were followed to describe the conservation status of the species.

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A detailed field survey was carried out for the mammals, birds, reptiles and butterflies for three seasons, namely winter, pre-monsoon and monsoon. We selected various sites which are likely to be disturbed by the various activities of the project. The surveyed sites were proposed colony site, power house site (altitudinal track on left bank), dam site (altitudinal trak on right bank), tracks from Gapo to Padusa villages, and Padusa to Hiri villages. The birds were surveyed in the morning hours while butterflies in noon hours. Standard methods were followed to sample the bird and butterfly species.

3.1.2.13 Socio-Economic & Cultural Aspects Socio-economic profile includes brief descriptions of Arunachal Pradesh, West Siang district and the circles in which project components are located. History, cultural aspects, ethic values and tribal life of Arunachal Pradesh and West Siang district are also briefly described. A detailed account on the demography, education, occupation and other amenities of the villages located in Influence area (10 km radius) and project affected villages is discussed in EIA report. In order to collect the baseline data for preparation of Resettlement & Rehabilitation Plan, a door to door survey for project affected households was carried out for the proposed project. A detailed questionnaire was prepared for this purpose and the same is placed in Annexure-I&II. The surveys and preparation of the plan included following procedure:

i) Due to non availability of revenue records, the land for acquisition was identified by the project authority and submitted to district administration for discussion with Panchayat members and Gram Budha of the concerned village. ii) Door to door socio-economic survey of the project affected families was conducted to collect the base line data. Data was collected on various parameters e.g. Demography, Occupation, Education, Quality of life, Income patterns, Land holdings, Amount of land loss due to this project, etc. The detailed information has been used in preparation of the R & R plan. iii) Discussion was held with all project affected families/persons. It resulted that all the interviewed persons have expressed their willingness to accept project. iv) The existing socio-economic profile of the project-affected area has been given in the EIA report.

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3.1.2.14 Impact Prediction The assessment of impacts was based on the identification, prediction and evaluation of the impacts. The ecosystem like terrestrial, aquatic, air, social etc based approach has been followed for the identification and prediction of impacts. Evaluation of the impacts was assessed on the basis of nature (positive/negative, reversible/irreversible, direct/indirect, long term/short term), magnitude and other dimension (local/strategic, small/large) of impacts. Evaluation included an assessment of the relative significance of the impacts. The outputs and inputs related to evaluation of impacts are given in Fig. 3.1.2. Generally, evaluation method ranges from simple to the complex, qualitative to quantitative, checklist to matrices etc.

In order to predict the impacts of Heo H.E. Project, a modified Leopold index has been used. The index comprises of rows and columns, represented by actions and environmental variables. Each cell of the index was assigned with a relative score indicating an impact. After weighing the nature, magnitude or other dimension of impact, a suitable score has been assigned. The totaling of rows and columns were evaluated and a suitable mitigation plan was prepared.

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Laws Theories, Experience Baseline data

DPR

Scope Assessment

Impact Identification

Impact Evaluation

Negative impacts

Positive Impacts Probability, Magnitude, Duration, Mandate, Society

Review of unforeseen impacts

Mitigations of Significant Impacts

Fig. 3.1.2 Inputs and outputs related to evaluation of impacts

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3.2

LAND ENVIRONMENT

3.2.1 PHYSIOGRAPHY
The study of land surface regarding the natural landscape and ongoing changes by several geomorphic agents like water, glacier, wind, etc. is known as physiography. These agents are controlled by the prevalent climatic conditions of the region and the internal dynamism of the earth. For a river valley project, the study of physiographic condition of the river catchment is very crucial as it has a strong control on water availability and sediment load supplied to the river. Therefore, the present chapter deals with the physiographical condition of the catchment area including project site.

To begin with the baseline data sets on physiography, initial information from available literature, reports, and project proponents were collected regarding location of the project and its salient features. The project area is spread in the West Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh. The proposed dam site is located on the Yarjep Chhu near Purying village. This river forms one of the major tributaries of Siyom River in Arunachal Pradesh. In the Environment Impact Assessment of the Heo H.E Project, various physiographic parameters were analyzed through remote sensing and GIS techniques. A database of different aspects was formulated for all constituent sub-watersheds of Heo catchment. Secondary sources like Survey of India (SOI) toposheets and satellite data were utilized in preparation of different thematic maps. Analysis and interpretation of this spatial database were achieved by using GIS techniques. The results were cross checked by field surveys for ground truth collection. The outcome of this study is discussed in the following sections.

3.2.1.1 Drainage System The Yarjep Chu catchment up to Heo dam site is around 106500 ha and the drainage network of the catchment area of Yarjep Chu is shown in Fig. 3.2.1. The river is called as Barpu Sikyo in the head water region of the catchment. Barpu Sikyo is joined by large numbers of the snow fed, spring fed, glacial fed and seasonal rivers. These streams flow in the elevational region between 4000 to 4430 m. Yarjap chhu is a spring fed, snow fed and lake fed river, originates from the region above 4000 m. In the Tibetan part of its catchment two northeast to southwest and southwest to northeast flowing streams feed the southeastward flowing Yarjep River. About 2 km downstream of this confluence another stream, flowing from a lake lying above 3400 m drains into the Yarjep on its
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right bank. Another lake fed stream flowing on the northern slope of 4418 m. peak confluences with Yarjep Chhu at 2440 m. on its right bank. Further downstream, a stream flowing southward from 5003 m. peak (the highest elevation in the catchment) and draining thick forest region confluences with Yarjep Chhu on its left bank at 2320 m. This small stream is also fed by four lakes on its left bank, which lie above 4000 m In the middle stretch, Yarjep Chu runs from WNW to ESE and a number of tributary streams flowing from north hills to south and southern hills to north join this river in the Indian part of the catchment. Besides, there are number of glacial lakes and lakes in the northern part of the catchment and southern part of the catchment. The drainage characteristics of these subsystems are discussed in detail with the left and right bank of the Yarjep Chhu in the following sections. In Table 3.2.1 catchment characteristics, place of confluence with the main channel is given and the sub-tributaries associated are given along the left and right bank.

i)

Left Bank Streams The streams joining the Yarjep Chu on its left bank are as follows and detail is given in the

map. Lungkhor Dem.. It is a small springfed stream which flows from 3200 m to 2240 m. Most part of its catchment is barren. It flows for approximately 5.3 km before it drains into the Yarjep Chu. Sheshirong Ishi It is a larger river than the former one besides it flows approximately for 12.3 km before it is joined with the main channel of Yarjep Chu. Sheshirong originates from the Damchen range and it is fed by several large and small rivulets along both the right and left banks. The largest sub-tributary of the Sheshirong flows from the North -East for 4.2 km approximately before it drains into Sheshirong Ishi. Netsrang Gongphu Chhu It is a snowfed and springfed stream which originates from 4053 m peak in Damchan range and flows southward for 13.3 km approximately and confluences with Yarjep Chu at 1990 m near Nachonggong Village. In its middle stretch it drains the region covered with fairly dense mixed forest. The tributary shows dendrite pattern with large number of tributaries along both banks (see Fig. 3.2.1).

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Nangso Sokang It is a small springfed stream which flows from Changkaria (2400 m) and confluences with Yarjep Chu at 1940 m near Nangso village. The tributary flows approximately for 3.5 km before it drains into Yarjep Chu near the Nangso village. The catchment area of this stream is barren land. Gaptse Chhu Gaptse Chu is a snowfed and springfed stream. This stream is separated from the stream in its east by the Puiling Pik ridge. It originates at the south of 3900 m on Damchan range. In the elevational range of 2200-3900 m there are five streams which join and together form Lhalungphu Chu. Of these five streams major discharge is contributed by Nukmaphu Chhu, Sharba Sakong and Mimraga Langlungphu Chu. Lhalungphu Cho in its downstream stretch is known as Gaptse Chu. The upper catchment of Gaptse Chu is covered with thick vegetation. Gaptse Chu flows for 9.2 km and drains into Yarjep Chu near Lhollne village (see Fig. 3.2.1). Endashokong The tributary is a short traversed tributary system and it is 2.8 km long. The river flows from 2800 m to 1930 m. In its upper reaches it drains the fairly mixed jungle and in the lower reaches there are cultivable terraces around Beehenthang village. It also drains the swampy land in the downstream before joining Yarjep Chu. Nyangapa rang It is a small springfed stream with a length of 2.7 km that drains the region around Nangso and confluences at 1940 m with Yarjep Chu. Entire catchment of this stream is barren land. Teden It is also a small stream with approximately 3 km of length. The catchment area is characterized with barren land. Draining the Galling Gompa region it meets with the Yarjep Chu upstream of Shinghir village. Chanajung The river traverses for 2.4 km southwards draining the catchment of barren land. It flows from 2320 m and meets Yarjep Chu at 1920 m in Chanajung village after taking a sharp bend. Dutangphu Chu Dutangphu Chu is one of the largest tributaries of the Yarjep Chu. It is drained by six snowfed and springfed streams namely Phushung Jang, Dorlingphu Chhu, Yarduphu Chhu, Tsarok Sakong, Tenrik Sokong, Shunuphu Chhu and flows through the slopes where land cover is fairly dense mixed forest region and later altogether forms the large Dutangphu Chu. These six streams
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drain a bowl shaped region bounded by Dam Chan range in the north, Sengang range in the southwest and Sharcho Rego-Ranchenling range in southeast. The river flows for a distance of 14 km in length and joins the Yarjep Chu at 1880 m upstream of Sheker village (see Fig. 3.2.1). Dohak Sokang The river flows south-eastwards direction along the Ranchenling range for 5.7 km and confluences with Dohak Sokang. It is a springfed stream, drains the slopes with fairly dense mixed forest and joins the Yarjep Chu at 1700 m. In its upper reaches it is also known as Darigyap Chhu. Dasong Siding It is a small springfed stream which flows from the steep southern slope of Shing Duk Range. There is thick forest cover on these slopes. The stream course is marked by a 61 m high waterfall. The river flows for 1.6 km before it drains into Yarjep Channel before the dam site.

ii)

Right Bank Streams Most of the streams joining the Yarjap Chhu flow northwards. Most of them are small and

short traversed river channels with narrow gorges. The tributary on its right bank are as follows. Bum Chhu It is one of the largest drainage systems originating from the western part of Great Himalayan range. Evidently the river system is a snowfed and springfed stream which drains northeastern slopes of Singyang range. The river flows for a distance of approximately 14 km eastwards before it drains into Yarjep Chhu near Nachonggong village. Nikma Ishi is a major tributary stream of Bum Chhu which flows northwards for 14.3 km. Further Nikma Ishi is joined by a small a tributary system from the south called Chirukishi stream. The catchment area of both these streams is covered with dense mixed forest (see Fig. 3.2.1). Segang Shuru Segarang Chu flows through a narrow channel for 5.2 km and drains into the main channel of Yarjep Chu. This is a snowfed and springfed stream which flows northwards from 3400 m and drains the dense forest on the northern slopes of Singkyang ridge and confluences at 1940 m with Yarjep Chu near Segang village. Jenrang This is a small snowfed stream which flows for 4 km. It is a springfed stream which flows northward and turns towards east to confluence with Yarjep Chhu downstream of Segang. The upper parts of its catchment are covered with dense mixed forest.
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Enda Sokang This is a small snowfed and springfed stream which drains the slopes with dense mixed forest in its upper part and cultivable terraces in the lower part before it confluences with Yarjep Chhu at 1920 m. The river has a length of 5.2 km from it point of origin. Shuru Phuja Shuru Phuja is large river system and it is a snowfed and springfed stream which flows in the west of Dungzugong ridge in the north of Singkyang range. The headwater region is composite of streams of Shuru Ishi, Enda Sokang, Talling Tongkok and Lingchonyg Tukuk. All these streams drain the slopes covered with thick forests in north of Singkyang ridge. The main channel of the Shuru Phuja flows for 10 km before it drains into the main channel of Yarjep Chhu (see Fig. 3.2.1). Tamding Phujo This is a small snowfed and springfed stream which drains the dense forest region between Barung Gong and Dungzu Gong ridge, flows through Mechuka and joins Yarjep Chhu on its right bank at 1880 m. The river flows for 9.6 km towards north and drains into the Yarjep Chhu downstream of Phocegy. Tachenpaogo Sokang It is a small springfed stream which flows for 2.6 km towards northeast on the northern slope of Barang Gong ridge draining along the dense forest and cultivable terraces. It confluences with Yarjep Chhu at 1920 m downstream of Churling. Kangdang Sila It also is a smaller springfed stream which flows for 3.6 km before it drains into the main channel of Yarjep Chhu. The tributary traverses through the thick forest region on the western slopes of Barang Gong ridge. Siligomang It is a larger drainage system that flows north-eastwards for 6.6 km and drains into Yarjep Chu. It is a springfed stream which drains the western slopes of Barang Gang ridge and confluences with Yarjap Chhu downstream of Kangdangshiri. The slopes are covered with thick forest. Kartesho Kong This is a snowfed and springfed stream which flows towards northeast on the eastern slope of 4008 m peak on Singkyang range and confluences with Yarjap Chhu at 1720 m. The tributary shows dendrite pattern and it flows for 7.7 km before it drains into the main channel of Yarjep Chhu.

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Namrangong It is one of the smallest tributaries of the Yarjep Chhu which is more a seasonal stream. The tributary has a length of 2.4 km before it drains into the main river channel. Ering Sokang This is a springfed stream which flows on the northeastern slope for 3.2 km from a peak of 2845 m. Upper reaches of its catchment are covered with dense mixed jungle. Sae Chhu As shown in the map given in Fig. 3.2.1 Sae Chu is one of the largest tributary systems of the Yarjep Chhu and moreover the largest tributary along the right bank of the Yarjep Chhu. It is a snowfed and springfed stream which flows towards northeast and confluences with Yarjep Chhu at 1428 m..In its upper stretch it is also known as Chechi To. The river traverses an approximately 16 km stretch before it drains into the main river channel of Yarjep Chhu near Rego village before the Dam site at Pauk. Mane Sokong, Gyara Sikyo, Shichi Sikyo, Sheh Sikyo and Sheti Sokang are important tributary streams of Sae Chhu. All these tributary systems form a large catchment of Sae Chu in the south-eastern part of the Pauk catchment. The Northern slopes of Sae Chhu are almost vertical cliffs whereas the southern slopes are gentle.

3.2.1.2 Drainage system in the influence zone Drainage thematic layer was generated within a 10 km radius of power house and dam site. The 10 km radius was demarcated from the power house and the dam site. It was generated using the distance map calculation in GIS from the point maps of Dam site and Power house site. The area of the influence zone is around 41314.1 ha. The influence zone will be studied for all the aspect such as DEM, Relief and Slope. As shown in the Fig. 3.2.2, the major tributaries upstream of the dam site are Dohak Sokong, Songshi Bu along left bank and Sae Chu, Shuku Sokong and Shene Sokong along the right bank. Between the dam and power house sites most of the streams along the left bank are small and moreover they are seasonal. In this stretch however, the streams along the right bank are larger, the two prominent streams along the right bank called Sarak Korong covers large area. Downstream of the power house Yarjep Chhu is called as Shi Chhu where it is joined by Sittin Korong, Pirpu Korong and several numbers of seasonal streams. Further downstream it is joined by large Siyom River. Along the right bank a small stream Sheu flowing from the south drains into Yarjep near Heyo.

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Table 3.2.1 Tributaries of Yarjep Chhu and its catchment characteristics


Major Tributaries Netsang Gongphu Chhu Gaptse Chu Right Bank/Left Bank Left bank Place of confluences with the Yarjep Chhu Upstream of Nachonggonh Major streams joining the tributary Left Bank; Unnamed small nalas joined at both the banks Composite of Nukmaphu Chhu,, Lhajungphu Chhu, Shama Sokong and Mimraga Catchment Characteristics

Netsang Gongphu Chhu is a left bank tributary of the Yarjep Chhu. The catchment area is covered with farily dense mixed forest Drainage pattern is characterized by dendritic. This tributary flows southwards traversing a length of 9.2 km. Drainage network shows dendritic pattern. Catchment area is occupied by mixed forest, agricultural land etc.

Left bank

Upstream of Dalgaling,

Dutangphu Chhu

Left bank

Shekar

The tributary flows towards south traversing a distance of 14 km. The Phushung Jang, Dorlingphu Chhu, catchment area is covered with alpine meadows in the head water regions and mixed forest along the lower elevation area. Yarduphu Chhu, Tsarok Sakong, Tenrik Sokong, Shunuphu Chhu Several seasonal streams Several large streams from the both the banks. It flows from north to south upto 5.7 km of length. It is covered with mixed forest. This tributary flow north-eastwards and the catchment is partly covered with glaciers in the upper elevation of the catchment where as the lower part of the catchment is covered with mixed forest. The main channel flows for 14.7 km up to the point of confluence.

Dohak Sokong Bum Chhu

Left bank Right bank

Downstream of Shekar Upstream of Nongso

Shuruphujo Chhu

Right Bank

Shingbir

Shuru Ishi, Enda Sokang, Talling Tongkok and Lingchonyg Tukuk


Seasonal streams

The catchment is covered with slopes of thick forests in north of Singkyang ridge. The drainage shows dendritic pattern.

Tamding Phujo

Right Bank

Downstream of Phocegy

The river flows for 9.6 km and it drains into the main channel. There are several streams which are some of the

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Kartesho Kong Sae Chhu

Right Bank

Downstream of Sheker Downstream of Kangiaghi

Komrong Sokong

The catchment is small and it is represented by mixed forest. The stream flows for a length of 7.7 km. It is one of the largest catchment in Yarjep Chu . The Northern slopes

Right bank

Mane Sokong, Gyara Sikyo, Shichi Sikyo, Sheh Sikyo and Sheti Sokang

of Sae Chhu are almost vertical cliffs whereas the southern slopes are gentle. Land cover is characterized with mixed forest type.

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3.2.1.3 Stream Gradient The river covers a distance of 61.56 km. It flows from 4300 m in the Great Himalaya range to 1385 m to the Dam site at Purying. The gradient profiles of major tributary streams like Sarak Korong, Songshi Bu, Sae Chu, Dutangphu Chu, Gaptse Chu and Bum Chu are given in the next paragraph.

The Yarjep Chhu spans an elevation of 2915 m in 61.56 km of its flow. Thus, the gradient of main river channel of Yarjep Chhu is 1:21.12. A knick point was observed at 0.77 km from the head water region where the elevation drops from 4300 m to 4000 m. One of the prominent tributaries is Bum Chu which flows for 15 km within the elevation range of 4000 to 2000 m. This channel has the gradient of 1: 7.35. One of the prominent knick points was observed along Bum Chhu and lies at 31.35 km from the headwater region. Here, the river elevation drops down from 4000 to 3700 m in a span of about one kilometer distance. The presence of knick points indicates major structural discontinuity across the stream. High knick points were observed along the head water region of Sae Chhu where river elevation drops to 300 meters within a span of 1 km. The stream gradient for this river is 1:8.35. Other streams Songshi Bu, Dutangphu Chu, Gaptse Chu and Sarak Korong have stream gradient of 1:7.41, 1:7.36, 1:5.57 and 1:5.29 respectively. Therefore, lower gradient indicates that the river is in its advanced evolutionary stage and hence has low erodibility potential. The higher channel gradient indicates lower equilibrium stage and therefore, high erodibility potential. As evident from gradient values, the main Channel of Yarjep Chhu has the highest gradient (1:21.12), while others have less than 1:10 gradient (Table 3.2.2). Therefore, the Yarjep Chhu has little higher erodibility potential as compared to its tributaries. Table 3.2.2 Gradient profiles of the Yarjep Chu and its major tributaries in the upstream of Dam Site S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Stream Yarjep Chu Sarak Korong Songshi Bu Sae chu Dutangphu Chu Gaptse Chu Bum Chu Length 61.56 12.7 16.67 18.37 14.71 10.31 15.06 Gradient 1:21.12 1:5.29 1:7.41 1:8.35 1:7.36 1:5.57 1:7.53
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3.2.1.4 Digital Elevation Model Topographical data and its aspects are the main input in much of environmental models. Most of the environmental models such as the soil erosion susceptibility model, geomorphologic and land cover mappings rely on topographical data as one of the major input (Zomer and Ives, 2002). Topography in GIS is usually termed as Digital elevation model (DEM). DEM, as the term indicates, is a digital description of the terrain relief. A DEM can be stored in different forms: contours lines, TIN (triangulated interface network), raster based array of cells. DEM stores the surface height by means of array of elements which are called as pixels. Generally DEM (Fig.3.2.3) formed the basis for generation of elevation-relief, slope and aspect maps, which are shown in Fig. 3.2.5, Fig. 3.2.7 and Fig. 3.2.9, respectively.

Raster based DEM was prepared from the toposheet of Survey of India. The toposheet was scanned and digitized using multi functional assets of ArcGIS 9.1. From the digital data, a DEM for the entire project area was generated using ArcGIS 9.1. Similarly, thematic maps for elevation-relief and aspect were also generated using the base map of the DEM. The mountain ranges of Tibet Himalaya range in the NW, Damchen range in the north and Singkyang range in the south of catchments are elevated at a height above 4200 m (see Fig. 3.2.4). The low lying valley from Bum Chu confluence to the dam site is elevated at a gradient height of 1800 m to 1290 m.

DEM in the influence zone In the influence zone of 10 km radius area, it is spread over of 41314.1 ha of land. The area of the Singkyang range in the south and Damchan in the north extends up to 3900 m However the lower lying valleys of Siyom i.e., d/s of the power house goes down to 861 m. Figure 3.2.4 shows the influence zone within the 10 km radius of the study area both from the dam site and power house site.

3.2.1.5 Relief The DEM was classified into 10 elevation bands in the catchment area up to the dam site. The lowest elevation band is classified up to 1600 m whereas the highest elevation band was classified above 4800 m. The largest area falls under the band of 2400-2800 m with an area coverage of 19.02% of total catchment area. This band is prominently spread in the middle part of the catchment (see Fig. 3.2.5). It is followed by higher elevation band (3600-4000 m) with area coverage of 18270.08 ha which is 17.16% of the total catchment. This class is prevalent in the higher
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ridges of Damchen, Great Himalaya range and Singkyang range. Band class 2800-3200 m covers 16.52 % of the total catchment. Followed by band of 3200-3600 m and 2000-2400 m with area coverage of 16596.96 ha and 15219.92 ha respectively. One of the highest elevation band of 40004400 is spread on 10.99% of the total catchment area. The lower elevation band of 1600-2000 m is spread on an area of 4991.67 ha (4.69% of total catchment area). The second highest elevation band is spread on 1522.89 ha i.e., 1.43% of the total catchment. The elevation up to 1600 m is spread on an area of 300.33 ha while the highest elevation band > 4800 m covers only 0.04% of the total catchment area. For detail of the area coverage under different elevation bands see Table 3.2.3.

Table 3.2.3 Elevation range and corresponding area of Heo H.E. Project catchment.
S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Bands 2400-2800 3600-4000 2800-3200 3200-3600 2000-2400 4000-4400 1600-2000 4400-4800 Upto 1600 > 4800 Total Area (ha) 20255.25 18270.08 17592.75 16596.96 15219.92 11706.48 4991.67 1522.89 300.33 43.67 106500 % age 19.02 17.16 16.52 15.58 14.29 10.99 4.69 1.43 0.28 0.04

Elevation the influence zone As shown in the Fig. 3.2.6 the elevation band class of 2400-2800 m in the influence zone accounts for largest area coverage with almost 23.8%of the total influence area followed by 20002400 m band with total coverage of 22% in the influence zone. Besides the lowest elevation band i.e., up to 1600-2000 m spreads over an area of 15.25 % of the total influence area.

3.2.1.6 Slope Moderately steep class is prevalently spread in the catchment with more than 50% of the total catchment area. This class is more prevalent along the right bank of the Yarjep Chu. Moderately
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steep is classified under the slope ranging from 15% to 30 %. Steep class is second predominant slope class in the catchment with an area coverage of 27743.25 ha i.e., 26% of the total catchment area up to the dam site (see Fig. 3.2.7). Steep class is more prevalent along the higher ridges of the Damchen and Singykyang ranges. Strongly sloping is more prevalent on the right bank on the ranges of hills along the watersheds of Tamding Phujo, Sae Chu, Kartsesho Korong and Shuru Phujo. Strongly sloping covers an area of 13770.45 ha which accounts for 13% of the total catchment area. Moderately sloping class is spread only on an area of 4.12% of the catchment which is more prevalent along the Mechuka valley and low lying area, the slope inclination is only 2-8%. Gently sloping is spread only on an area of 905.25 ha adjacent to area of moderately sloping class. The extreme slope class i.e., very steep is also merely spread within an area of 585.75 ha along the peaks in Singkyang ranges and Great Himalayan range the head water region of the Yarjep Chhu (see Table 3.2.4 Table 3.2.4 Slope range and corresponding area of Heo H.E. Project catchment)
S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Slope Class Gently Sloping Moderatly Sloping Strongly Sloping Moderately Steep Steep Very Steep Total Area (ha) 905.25 4387.80 13770.45 59107.50 27743.25 585.75 106500 Percent 0.85 4.12 12.93 55.50 26.05 0.55

Slope in the influence zone Within the influence zone moderately steep is prevalently spread on the right bank of the dam site and power house site. Perversely steep is more prevalent along the left bank of the dam site and power house site. Both of these classes are spread on an area of 90% of the total influence zone. The remaining classes are spread on the rest of the 10% of the influence area (see Fig. 3.2.8).

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3.2.1.7 Aspect As shown in the aspect map all the facets Flat, NW-N-NE, NE-E-SE, SE-S-SW and SW-WNW are more or less equally distributed. Moreover NW-N-NE facet is spread over an area of 26986.04 ha i.e., 25.34 % of the catchment area (see Fig. 3.2.9).

Aspect in the Influence zone The facet SW-W-NW is prevalently spread in the influence zone moreover on the right bank of the power house and dam site. This facet is spread in an area of 10690.91 ha which forms 26% of the influence zone. Flat lands are also widely spread with in the 10 km radius of the dam site and power house site. For details see Fig. 3.2.10. Other classes such as NW-N-NE, NE-E-SE and SE-SSW are spread in an area of 20.61%, 15.07% and 16.38% of the influence zone.

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(a)

(b)

Plate 3.2.1 Exposed rocks at proposed dam site: a) Gneiss, and b) Marble

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3.2.2 GEOLOGY & SEISMICITY


3.2.2.1 General Study of geology is important for the development of a hydropower project because it deals not only with the rocks and their strength housing the appurtenant structures of the project but also examines the earths internal and surfacial processes under a regional framework. Heo H.E. Project is located on Yarjep River in Mechuka subdivision of West Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh. The proposed dam site is located between Latitude 28 32 20N latitude and 94 16 31 E longitude. The project envisages a concrete gravity dam of 15 m height above river bed level, three coffer dams of various height, reservoir with a submergence of 8.4 ha, a head race tunnel of 3.6 km and a surface powerhouse. The proposed powerhouse is located between 28 32 32N latitude and 94 18 43E longitude. Total catchment area of the proposed project is 1065 sq km. Total install capacity of the project is 240 MW.

3.2.2.2 Regional Geology i) Stratigraphy The Himalayan ranges continuing from NW India to NE India occurs as a gigantic crescent in this part of the country with its convex side towards south and extends from the Western border of Bhutan to Lohit valley in the east and is divisible into four linear zones namely the Tibetan Himalaya, Higher Himalaya, Lesser Himalaya, and Sub Himalaya abutting against the Trans Himalayan range, and the Mishmi Hills famously known as the Eastern Syntaxial Bend (Fig. 3.2.11). The Himalayas constituting the northern fringe of the Indian Plate abuts against the Tibetan Plate along Indus-Tsangpo suture in the north and in the east by Indo-Burmese Plate along the Tiding Suture. Mishmi hills are considered to be part of the Burmese Plate, an extension from Myanmar. The Naga-Patkoi ranges defines the southern limit of the Upper Brahmaputra plain abut against the Mishmi Hills along Mishmi thrust in the part forms part of Assam-Arakan basin. The ophilite belt of Nag-Chin separates it from the Naga metamorphics in the east. The Brahmaputra plain lies between Shillong Plateau and Naga-Patkoi ranges in the south and Himalaya in the north, Mishmi Hills in the east. This is essentially made up of quaternaries and rest over the basement of Precambrian or Paleogene-neogene sediments.

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Rocks of Arunachal Pradesh belong to Proterozoic. Based on stratigraphy, degree of metamorphism and associated igneous activities they have been classified into three sequences ( Fig. 3.2.12) as enumerated below: Supersequence I Sela Group of rocks Early Proterozoic Supersequence-II Bomdila- Middle to late Proterozoic SupersequenseIII Dirang and Lumla Formations Mesoproterozoic age

The general Proterozoic succession is provided in the Table:


Proterozoic Neo Proterozoic Meso Proterozoic Granite Gneiss Dirang Formation;

Lumla Formation Palaeo Proterozoic Biotite granite gneiss Ultramafic dykes/sills Bomdila Group Chillepiam Formation Tenga Formation Ketabari Formation Se La Group Galensiniak Formation Tahila Formation

The Sela Group is the oldest, comprises polyphase deformed metasediments varying from green schist to amphibolite facies and well exposed in Se La pass and occurs in the higher Himalayas close to the border with Bhutan. The southern limit is defined by Main Central Thrust which separates it from the younger Dirang Formation. The Bomdila group extensively developed and exposed in the Lesser Himalayas from Siang Valley in the east to Kameng Valley in the West and further continues into Bhutan. Dirang formation unconformably overlains the Bomdila Group. As the sequence has been differently classified different nomenclature has been adopted by different workers and correlated differently. In view of the unconformable relation the Dirang formation is distinguished as a different identity from the upper most formation Chilliepam Formation of the Bomdila Group and is not considered part of the sequence.
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The Mesoproterozoic rocks unconformably overlie the Bomdila Group of Rock and Ziro gneisses in Lesser Himalayabto constitute Dirang formation and over the Se La group in Higher and Tethyan Hiamalayas to form Lum La Formation. The project area falls in Dirang formation resting over the Se La group of rocks. The formation comprises a thick sequence of low grade metasedimentaries comprising garnet-muscovite schist, phyllite, sericite- quartzite, calc silicate and tremolite-actinolite marble, truncated in the north by MCT.

3.2.2.3 Geology of the Project Area i) Dam site The present dam site is located in constricted valley and the valley opens up in the immediate upstream. The dam site is aligned N14E (Left Flank) - S14W (Right flank) and is located in a country of marble and gneiss with bands of schists (Fig.3.2.13). The fluvial morphology of the Yarjep indicates that at the dam site the river flows in a moderate to steep gradient and comprises essentially channel lag deposits of essentially marble, gneiss and quartzites of boulder, cobble and pebble size embedded in a sandy matrix. The different lithologies occur not as separate mappable entities but as intercalated sequence as a sequel to which bulk lithological assemblages have been described. The foliation of the country rock trends N54E to E S54W to W and dips at 36 to 50 in the direction of N36W to W. The major discontinuities present in the rock mass of the country rocks are as provided in Table 3.2.5.

Table 3.2.5 Prominent Discontinuities sets recorded in Country Rock


Discontinuity Set I (Foliation / Foliation joint) N54E to E- S54 W to West dipping 36 to 50towards N36W to North N10W-S10E N14W-S14E dipping 50 towards N76E High Persistence More than 10m Medium Persistence 1m to 3m Low Persistence Smooth/Planar Moderately close to close 1cm to 100cm Orientation Persistence Roughness Frequency

II Vertical Joint

Smooth/Planar

III Joint

Smooth/Curvilinear

Moderately Close 30cm to 100cm Very wide more than 300 cm

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The foliation and other discontinuities present at the site extend across the valley as in the case of lithology of the country rock thereby indicating no structural dislocation along the riverbed. As stated previously, the marble rock encountered at the site contains patches of schists/ gneisses and also occurs as banded rock. This feature is inferred due to process of migmatization as lit-par-lit injections. Petrographic studies of the samples collected from the borehole samples indicate the rocks are impure marble with calcite up to 79% with minor accessories of quartz, chlorite and magnetite constituting the rest of the mineral assemblages. The contacts between the grains are identified to be sharp and the texture is granuloblastic. Marble with schist indicates alternating bands of biotite and quartz and the calcite/quartz composition are equal in proportion that is approximately 32% and the rest being accessory minerals of biotite, muscovite, hornblende and magnetite and the schist rock is made up of quartz up to 69% of quartz. Although a few isolated spread apart cavities, have been identified during the course of investigation, this combination of rocks is suggestive of the fact that karst cavities may be restricted only to marble portion and interconnection of cavities, regional occurrence of karst features will be extremely remote. This is also corroborated by the fact that criteria such as no anomalous loss in discharge of the mainstream, presence of water table in the boreholes drilled at the axis of the dam indicate that possibly the ground water regime is not a basin and possibly indicating a ridge, a case that will not happen in the event of a cavernous country. Secondly, large scale karst phenomenon, presence of structures like grikes, clints, sinkhole, subsidence, coalescence of sink holes forming uvala, etc. or even wide spread occurrence of terra rossa have not been recorded or reported. However, to rule them out unequivocally as a measure of abundant pre-caution, explorations required around the reservoir rim can be taken up as preconstruction/construction stage (Plate 3.2.1).

ii)

Intake Structure

A tunnel intake structure has been proposed taking off from the left flank of the dam and the seismic refraction profiling carried out has indicated that at the proposed structure the thickness of overburden is 7-8m below which the velocity layer of 2300 m /sec has been met with at RL1410 m which is inferred to be of v. poor Q value. The fresh bed rock of average velocity 3400 m/sec corresponds to Poor based on Q value. However as the FRL is expected to be much below RL 1400 m the rockmass is expected to improve considerably.

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iii)

Head Race Tunnel The proposed Head Race Tunnel (HRT) alignment passes through a rough and rugged terrain

with very difficult access on the left bank of Yarjep River. The tunnel as per the proposals is 3578m long with a diameter of 6.4 m, horseshoe and has a gradient of 1 in 300. The tunnel is almost in a straight line, except for a small kink in the initial reaches from the Intake, and in general is aligned in NE-SW direction.

In view of inhospitable terrain and also due to scarcity of outcrops and thick forest cover along the actual alignment, the geological details gathered on the mapping details of road section on the right bank and outcrops map of the tunnel alignment area had to be inevitably relied upon for interpreting the anticipated geological setting along the tunnel alignment. Mapping details at the powerhouse site and results of explorations have supplemented to develop the geological section along the tunnel alignment to make a forecast of the rock groups to be met along the tunnel alignment and the probable rock mass characteristics have been worked out to design the support systems.

The geological mapping carried out and correlation of other data indicates that the tunnel will encounter the following rock units/groups in general

I. II

Schistose Gneisses (Plate 3.2.2a) Marble (Calc gneisses?) and banded gneisses (dominant) with schistose bands and basic rock layers (Plate 3.2.2b).

III.

Quartzites with interbedded layers of augen, streaky gneisses and bands of schist and amphibolites bands

In the tunnel alignment following is broadly the distribution of the rock units along the tunnel alignment starting from the inlet side: In the initial reaches, the tunnel is aligned in NW direction from the dam site and in this stretch the tunnel will be excavated through schistose gneisses inter bedded with marble bands. It is expected that a number of shear zones in the poorer schistose zones are anticipated and may be filled with clayey and other rock flour material.

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Beyond the kink point the tunnel is aligned in northeasterly direction and is expected to be driven through marbles and gneisses group of rocks with the foliation strike of the rocks across the tunnel alignment making it a favorable direction for tunneling. The schists in thin layers in the gneisses show a puckering effect and form weak zones in the surrounding competent rocks and these vary in thickness from a few cms to about 2 metres.

The tunnel beyond this location falls exclusively in gneisses group of rocks for a good distance. The gneisses consist of streaky and augen variety interblended with schistose layers at places.

Quartzites are likely to occur in the final stretch of the tunnel up to the Surge shaft. The quartzites are grey in color form a very hard and compact rock The borehole data in this rock types near the powerhouse indicates that the rock has shown a very high core recovery varying from 70 to 100 per cent and RQD is of high order varying from 50 to 70 percent except for a few nil percentage zones which may correspond to the schist bands interbedded with the quartzites which can be considered as weak layers.

iii)

Power House Site The site is dominated by very steep cliffs. Between the river and the cliffs, a gentle to

moderate slope suggests the presence of rock fall deposits. The predominant rock type at selected site is quartzitic gneiss, which exhibits lens shaped features probably indicative of ductile shear. Bands or lenses of dark green to blackish schist are subordinate. In these reaches, the Left Bank is formed by 10-12 m high cliff of quartzitic gneiss, with schistosity orientation 300-330/30 (Table 3.2.6).

The Heo Powerhouse is proposed to be located on the left bank and is accessible from the right bank. Rock outcrops are noted on both the river banks upstream of the hanging bridge. The powerhouse is located at the base of the cliff characterized by quartzites, gneisses with amphibolite dykes sub parallel to foliation striking NE-SW and dipping at low angles of 20 to 30 towards NW i.e. into the hill.

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The Powerhouse area is occupied by quartzite exposures covered by variable depth of overburden varying from 1-6 metres, as proved by drilling. The quartzite is white to dirty white in color and a very hard and compact rock. The quartzites are well jointed in the following directions.

Table 3.2.6 Characteristics of joints recorded near powerhouse site.


Joint Direction and Amount) / N 460-050 W/2832
0

Type Foliation Joint

Continuity Long continuity up to more than 5m Sp 15 cm to 50 cm

Roughness

Frequency

Smooth planer Very frequent

N64/70

Steep Oblique Joint

50 cm -3 m, Sp 30-50 cm 1-2 m, Sp 50 cm -1m

Smooth planer Frequent

800 W : S 560

Nearly vertical, rolling joint

Smooth curvilinear

Occasional

3.2.2.4 Seismo-Tectonics and Seismicity Himalayas as a whole have undergone intense folding and faulting during different phases of Himalayan Orogeny. The Northeast India in particular has witnessed sedimentation from Paleozoic to Tertiary and has undergone subsequent tectonic events. Four physiographic divisions viz. Tethys, Higher, Lesser and Sub Himalayas of Arunachal Pradesh described above have imprints of different tectonic episodes and differ markedly in their intensity. The important structural features of Arunachal are described below. Seismotectonic map of the region is shown in Fig. 3.2.14.

i)

Folds Each division has witnessed different tectonic episodes and depicts different patterns of

folding. A brief description of various generation folds described in literature is given below. i). The first generation folds (F1) are isoclinal to reclined parallel to bedding (S0) and of local extent which were developed during first generation of metamorphism (garnet amphibolite facies) and are largely recorded in Se La Group of rocks. ii). The second generation folds (F2) are superimposed over F1, moderately tight to open and of regional dimension. These are conspicuously developed in Se La and Bomdila Group of rocks
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and trend in ENE WSW direction if not refolded during subsequent episodes. These are not traceable in younger rocks e.g. Dirang and late successions and therefore, are believed to be associated with late Palaeo - Proterozoic orogenic movements. Further, these are associated with large scale acid intrusions which gave rise to various granitic gneisses i.e. tourmaline gneiss, biotite granite gneiss etc. in this region. One such axis of regional fold, overturned plunging anticlinal is found running between MCT and MBF following same regional trend i.e. ENE WSW within Palaeo Proterozoic gneisses occurring between both tectonic features. iii) The third generation folds (F3) are isoclinal, reclined or asymmetrical with axial plane running in NNE SSW or NE SW and plunging towards north. Their imprints are found in Bomdila Group, Dirang Group and younger sequence of rocks. iv). The fourth generation (F4) is asymmetrical upright to overturned folds having ENE WSW trending axial plane and dipping towards north. These folds are recorded in Lower Gondwana sequence, west of Siang valley. Eastern Syntaxial Bend is the result of this tectonic event of deformation. Their imprints are well traceable in Bomdila Group as well. v). The last and final phase of deformation resulting in fifth generation (F5) folds which are generally open, broad asymmetrical with axial plane trending NNW SSE to NW- SE. These folds have affected Yingiang Group and older succession but have not affected MBF and Siwalik Group of rocks. It therefore, seems that they are the result of strong compression forces possibly during initiation of Himalayan orogeny when Gondwana Plate collided with Asian Plate along Indus Tsangpo Suture on one side and Central Burmese Plate along Tiding Suture on the other side along Tidding Suture.

ii)

Fault / Thrust a) Main Central Thrust

The MCT separates the high grade metamorphic rocks (Se La Group) with low to medium grade metamorphic rocks (Dirang Formation). It is traceable in Diggin valley near Rama Camp, upper reaches of Kamla River and near Taliha in Subansiri river section.

b)

Main Boundary Fault

The Main boundary Fault is northerly dipping, steep fault which demarcates Main Himalaya in the north and Sub Himalaya in the south. It is traceable from near Bhutan boarder in the west,

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through north of Itanagar it extends in ENE WSW direction to Roing in Dibang valley and ends up against Roing Fault.

c)

Bame Fault

Bame Fault runs N S in central Arunachal Pradesh and demarcates Bomdila Group of rocks and Lower Gondwana rocks. Along this fault, Yang Sangchu Formation which occurs between Lohit Thrust and Tidding Suture terminates in Sigang valley. This fault is traceable from Sigang valley in the north to near Basar in the south and it terminates along MBF.

d)

Roing Fault

Roing Fault runs parallel to Tiding Suture and Lohit Thrust in central Arunachal Pradesh in the NW SE direction and like them it also abuts against Mishmi Thrust. Main Boundary Fault also gets terminated near Roing along this fault.

e)

Tidding Suture

The word suture is normally referred to plate boundaries and therefore is important regional lineaments. The Tidding suture is NW SE trending suture zone or the zone of subduction where Indian Plate is believed to be subducting beneath the Burmese plate along this lineament. It extends from Dhapa Bum (southern part of Lohit valley) to south of Tuting in Siang valley in northwest. It abuts against Mishmi Thrust in the south

f)

Lohit Thrust

It is also NW SE trending feature which separates Tiding and Mishmi Formations. It was first identified by (Nandy, 1976). It is traceable from north of Tuting in Siang valley till Mishmi Thrust in the south where it is abutting against it.

g)

Mishmi Thrust

It is located in the south east part of the Arunachal Pradesh near Myanmar boarder. The western part of this thrust trends E W while it takes NW SE trend as it moves towards eastern side following the trend of Naga Patkoi Hill ranges.

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3.2.2.5 Seismicity and Earthquakes i) General The dam site is defined by co-ordinates 28 32 20 N and 94 16 30 E and lies in West Siang district, Arunachal Pradesh. The area falls in Seismic Zone V as adumbrated in the Indian Standard Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of structures IS: 1893-Part I, 2002. The Zone corresponds to Intensity IX of the MSK scale (1964) (Fig. 3.2.15) IS code quoted above also iterates that detailed site specific studies are to be carried out for determination of design earthquake parameters based on the seismotectonics of a given area, the response at site and seismogenic capability of the tectonic elements etc, a review of the past and present earthquake incidences etc.

The catalogue of earthquakes of the region containing information of source parameters, size, focal mechanism, time of occurrence are gathered through the published information of the Geological Survey of India (Seismotectonic Atlas of India-2000) and the table is appended with this report. (Table 3.2.7)

ii)

Seismotectonic Milieu Regionally, Arunachal Pradesh comprises four geotectonic blocks viz., 1) The Himalaya, 2)

The Mishmi Hills, 3) Naga-Patkoi ranges of the Arakan Yoma Mountain and 4) The Brahmaputra Plain separated from each other by major tectonic fabric, characterized by distinct stratigraphy with different orogenic episodes and geological history (Kumar 1997).

The major structural elements of the region are the MCT, which lies to the north of the project site, BaumeTuting Fault in the east, Mishmi Thrust, Tiding Suture and the Lohit thrust. The Main Boundary Thrust and the Main Frontal thrust occurs to the South east part of the project complex. As reported by the GSI (Seismic Atlas 2000), variable pattern of seismic incidences have been registered in different tectonic domains and the Himalayan domain is considered sparsely seismic contrary to Indo-Burmese convergent margin tectonics. The Project area falls very close to Himalayan domain. A perusal of the appended drawing indicates that the project area manifests relatively fewer incidences of earthquakes and the focal mechanism of two fault plane solutions of two nearby events to the south indicates strike slip mechanism. A regional assessment also indicates thrust mechanism for deeper events and normal and strike slip mechanism for relatively shallow events (GSI).
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A detailed Site Specific study for Design Earthquake Parameters for Pauk HEP, Arunachal Pradesh has been carried out by the Department of Earthquake Engineering, IIT, Roorkee. This project is just upstream of the HEO Project and falls in the same geotectonic block having similar geomorphological features, lithology and seismogenic sources. Besides at in the HEO site no additional major structural element such as river bed fault or neotectonic fault has been observed calling for exclusive seismic analysis. In view of proximity, size of the structure, similarity of lithological/tectonic features including falling in same geotectonic block, absence of additional features call for a consideration that the seismic analysis carried out for Pauk HEP and the horizontal seismic co-efficient arrived at can be adopted for HEO, HEP i.e. 0.31g and the vertical acceleration can be as two thirds of horizontal seismic co-efficient.

Table 3.2.7 Chronological listing of earthquake data for magnitude > 4.9

SI. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Yr 1927 1930 1932 1934 1935 1938 1939 1941 1943 1950 1950 1951 1954 1955 1956 1957 1957 1959 1960

Mo 3 9 8 6 4 5 5 5 10 8 9 2 3 9 12 5 7 4 5

Dt 15 22 14 2 23 6 27 22 23 26 25 8 21 8 30 28 1 9 26

Hr 16 14 4 5 16 3 3 1 17 6 12 21 23 4 21 5 19 17 20

Min 56 19 39 54 45 41 45 0 23 33 25 14 42 45 59 31 30 8 5

Sec 32.0 11.0 32.0 29.0 41.0 8.0 44.0 32.0 16.0 6.0 28.0 15.0 11.0 26.0 6.0 68.0 22.0 33.0 7.0

Lat 24.50 25.00 26.00 24.50 24.00 24.50 24.50 27.50 26.00 26.80 24.00 27.50 24.50 25.00 24.00 25.42 24.38 25.70 27.00

Long 95.00 94.00 95.50 95.00 94.75 95.00 94.00 93.00 93.00 95.00 93.00 95.60 95.25 95.00 94.50 95.03 93.76 94.76 93.00

Ms 6.50 6.30 7.00 6.50 6.30 5.80 6.70 5.60 7.20 6.00 5.50 5.80

Mb 6.00 5.90 7.00 6.00 5.90 5.70 6.10 5.50 7.40 5.80 5.50 5.70 7.40

Depth Km 130.00

Source GR GR

120.00 130.00 110.00 100.00 75.00

ABE GR GR GR GR GR ABE ISS ISS ISS

180.00 150.00

ABE ISS CGS

5.70 5.00 5.80 6.80 5.10 5.00

5.60 5.20 5.70 6.20 5.30 5.20

61.00 41.00

ISS ISS ISS CGS

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20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 1961 1961 1963 1963 1964 1964 1964 1965 1965 1965 1966 1966 1966 1969 1970 1970 1970 1970 1971 1971 1971 1973 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1979 1979 1980 1981 1982 1982 1983 2 6 6 10 3 6 7 2 5 6 9 10 10 4 2 7 7 7 6 7 12 5 10 12 11 12 11 1 5 7 8 8 4 9 11 1 4 14 26 14 27 3 12 18 30 18 11 2 18 28 19 29 29 29 26 17 29 31 9 2 4 25 13 8 29 13 11 12 25 14 26 3 8 0 17 2 4 2 20 4 8 8 15 4 20 12 7 10 10 10 2 15 22 23 4 1 19 1 21 6 0 23 20 16 11 6 13 11 51 41 21 1 30 49 15 26 48 17 55 31 34 50 10 16 30 31 16 0 27 39 1 8 27 7 2 10 39 20 32 44 32 1 26 28 48.6 17.0 57.3 23.5 36.1 17.2 58.8 34.7 19.7 38.1 19.4 49.5 37.4 17.2 61.5 20.4 47.4 11.0 36.9 55.8 3.5 52.4 47.4 45.9 58.5 10.9 31.8 58.5 52.1 8.8 7.9 1.5 23.0 28.5 29.1 15.1 24.80 24.55 24.30 25.20 25.82 25.88 24.88 24.97 25.93 24.94 26.90 24.41 24.28 25.93 27.40 26.02 26.04 26.24 24.60 26.41 25.17 24.31 27.69 24.44 24.09 26.12 26.51 24.73 24.50 24.88 24.20 24.80 24.89 25.93 27.78 24.23 95.30 94.69 95.10 95.30 95.71 95.69 95.31 94.21 95.80 93.67 95.60 94.81 94.87 95.20 93.96 95.37 95.33 95.10 94.78 93.15 94.73 93.52 93.60 95.31 95.11 95.18 93.00 95.20 94.74 95.22 94.93 94.62 95.34 95.31 94.87 94.45 4.4 5 4.6 4.3 3.9 5.7 5.1 4.70 5.40 5.80 5.40 5.70 5.40 5.30 5.30 5.40 5.50 5.40 5.30 5.20 4.90 4.90 4.90 5.00 5.40 6.40 5.00 5.30 5.00 5.40 5.60 5.80 4.90 4.90 5.20 4.90 5.10 5.00 5.20 4.90 5.00 4.90 5.70 5.00 5.10 5.10 135.00 91.00 79.00 33.00 115.00 121.00 152.00 45.00 101.00 48.00 26.00 75.00 86.00 68.00 12.00 68.00 33.00 52.00 74.00 52.00 46.00 1.00 33.00 107.00 98.00 55.00 52.00 97.00 82.00 108.00 113.00 52.00 146.00 88.00 29.00 82.00

CISMHE

CGS ISS CGS CGS ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC

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56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 1983 1983 1983 1983 1983 1984 1984 1984 1984 1984 1985 1986 1987 1987 1987 1987 1988 1988 1988 1988 1988 1989 1989 1990 1990 1990 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 1992 1992 1992 1 1 8 8 9 2 3 3 4 5 3 4 4 5 9 12 2 7 8 8 8 4 8 1 1 11 1 1 3 5 6 12 12 3 4 6 13 31 23 30 23 19 5 21 25 6 5 17 29 18 6 1 17 10 6 13 21 3 9 9 10 29 23 28 11 11 23 7 20 25 15 15 23 3 12 10 20 9 21 23 14 15 10 13 5 1 23 8 17 3 0 19 13 19 16 18 6 10 6 22 10 2 10 13 2 22 1 2 0 26 12 39 18 29 26 6 58 19 10 15 15 53 38 50 52 31 36 59 16 39 1 51 37 20 7 24 24 15 4 57 6 32 32 48 11.9 4.2 17.5 27.2 8.5 50.6 42.6 24.0 41.5 11.3 58.4 57.3 34.6 51.3 54.1 41.4 14.0 30.2 25.5 51.0 30.2 31.5 24.6 29.2 54.9 33.0 8.6 43.5 39.0 22.2 1.7 38.9 5.2 34.2 11.3 56.1 24.67 24.72 25.55 25.04 24.77 24.99 24.52 26.76 26.03 24.22 27.72 24.42 24.07 25.23 26.64 26.33 24.33 25.03 25.13 25.29 25.27 25.15 24.51 24.74 26.46 24.37 24.72 26.08 25.80 24.26 26.59 24.00 24.69 24.82 24.27 24.00 95.00 95.04 95.12 94.67 95.12 94.79 94.62 93.30 95.70 93.53 94.08 94.74 94.64 94.21 93.41 93.22 94.40 95.38 95.15 95.13 95.10 94.66 94.55 95.26 94.63 94.64 95.22 95.39 94.70 93.68 93.19 93.83 93.12 95.25 94.93 95.97 6.3 4.5 4.4 4.5 4.9 4.9 4.8 7.2 5.9 4.3 5.8 4.9 5.40 5.00 5.20 5.70 4.90 5.00 5.20 5.00 5.00 5.70 4.30 5.00 5.00 5.70 5.20 4.90 4.90 4.90 6.60 5.00 4.90 5.30 5.10 6.10 5.30 4.90 5.40 4.60 5.00 5.00 5.40 5.10 5.30 5.20 5.50 5.80 109.00 70.00 126.00 64.00 115.00 50.00 70.00 35.00 107.00 54.00 52.00 89.00 106.00 55.00 49.00 59.00 111.00 128.00 108.00 87.00 89.00 69.00 80.00 118.00 82.00 82.00 114.00 0.00 33.00 64.00 35.00 64.00 41.00 106.00 116.00 14.00

CISMHE

ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC ISC

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92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 1992 1993 1993 1994 1995 1996 1996 1997 1997 1998 1999 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2005 2005 2006 2006 3 9 12 4 2 1 6 5 8 9 10 1 1 1 1 1 5 6 2 6 2 3 27 4 12 6 17 26 9 16 9 26 5 2 22 25 26 30 14 7 3 1 23 25 9 17 23 7 2 2 23 11 4 18 17 10 9 16 21 6 17 21 20 20 20 5 42 25 54 3 44 21 15 18 48 27 4 23 37 43 37 35 18 46 13 6 4 51 58.5 10.1 18.4 27.6 24.4 11.2 18.5 7.7 0.7 5.4 48 59.1 11.1 24.8 51.6 10.1 28.3 56.4 28.9 40.6 53.5 49.3 24.64 30.3 27.2 26.2 27.6 30.9 28.3 30.3 30.29 27.77 26.26 28 30.54 27.96 31.45 29 28.03 27.07 26.22 28.95 27.13 26.89 95.02 94.8 92 96.8 92.3 91.5 92.2 97 96.98 92.81 91.93 92.51 94.06 92.5 96.07 91.76 91.42 97.02 95.61 94.71 91.58 92.38 4.90 5.1 5.1 5.6 5.2 5.1 5.1 5.2 5.2 5.4 5.3 5.3 5.1 5.3 5.6 5.1 5.2 6.1 5.2 5.7 5.6 5.1 117.00 10 33 33 33 33 0 33 33 33 33 33 52 33 33 33 15 33 90 49 10 10

CISMHE

ISC

3.2.2.6 Geotechnical Assessment i) Dam The Dam site is located in a country of marble and gneiss with bands of schists. Based on foliation of the country, petrographic studies of bore hole samples and karst cavities may be restricted only to marble portion identified during course of investigation, to rule them out unequivocally as a measure of abundant precaution, exploration required around the reservoir rim can be taken up as pre-construction/construction stage. The appropriate support measures

recommended for the class is toe ditch, spot or systematic bolting with spot shotcrete. The recommended measures will be carried out during execution of excavation.

ii)

Head Race Tunnel

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The HRT geological mapping carried out and correlation of other data indicates that the tunnel will encounter the following rock units/groups Schistose Gneisses II Marble (Calc gneisses?) and banded gneisses (dominant) with schistose bands and basic rock layers. III. Quartzites with interbedded layers of augen, streaky gneisses and bands of schist and amphibolites bands Based on Assessment has been made of the Q value and RMR value for the marbles and banded Gneisses as per the Guidelines for excavation and support of Rock Tunnels in accordance with the Rock Mass Rating System (Bienwiski 1989), the support system will be as follows: Good Rock RMR 61-80Locally bolts in crown 3m long spaced 2.5m with occasional wire mesh 50mm shotcrete on crown where required Fair Rock RMR 41-60 Systematic bolting 4m long spaced 1.5-2.5m in crown and walls with wire mesh in crown.50-100mm shotcrete on crown and 30mm on sides Poor Rock RMR 21-40 Systematic bolting 4.5m long spaced 1-1.5m on crown and wall with wire mesh Shotcrete 100-150mm on crown and 100mm on sides. Light steel set ribs spaced 1.5m where required.

Based on Grimstead and Barton (1993 on the tunneling quality index (Q) the support system for this 6.4m diameter tunnel, could be Systematic bolting or Systematic bolting with 40-100mm unreinforced shotcrete.

iii)

Surge Shaft The area around the Surge Shaft is occupied mostly by quartzite exposures with a thin cover

of overburden and bushey vegetation. The quartzite exposures are interbedded with schist bands of variable thickness.

In view of the good quality of the rock no problems should occur during the excavations of the shaft. However, if the rock falls occur from the sides the same will be suitably stabilized with

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anchors and shotcreted before final lining with concrete. The all round lateral cover for the Surge Shaft is considered adequate.

The drainage system around the location indicates presence of a nala towards eastern side and seepage along this may be anticipated during excavation for which necessary measures for dewatering will be made and this nala has to be diverted at higher levels.

iv)

Pressure Shaft The surface ridge outline is occupied by fine to medium grained quartzites with thin schist

bands RQD values indicates the quality of the rock mass to be Class II type and it may be of Class III for some stretch in the horizontal section.

Excavations of the pressure shaft should not pose problems both in the vertical as well as in the horizontal section taking precautions during excavations and providing rock bolts and shotcrete as dictated.

v)

Power House Geological mapping and evaluation of power house explorations by geophysical surveys and

drilling have proved that at the foundation grade jointed quartzites with schist layers and augen gneisses are encountered. The rock mass quartzites from data available are classified under Class III Fair rock and equivalent allowable bearing pressure capacity for the foundations rock for estimated RMR value of 55 is 2800Kpa at the maximum and minimum of 1555Kpa. The joint patterns also indicate a favorable loading direction. The Modulus of Elasticity of the foundation rock based on standard value for the rock mass is 30-40 Gpa and as per the tests conducted and this value can be adopted for the designs.

The permeability tests have indicated that the joints in the foundation are tight in nature. However, to seal effectively the few joints and weak zones consolidation grouting on a regular pattern to be decided upon opening of the foundations will be provided for after necessary trial grouting. Since the powerhouse wall falls close to the river on one side curtain grouting to prevent the river water entering the powerhouse pit will be provided in the rock mass to seal all the joints along with necessary drainage measures at the pit in the powerhouse.
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Slope cuts of the hill slope behind the powerhouse are a prerequisite for stabilization of the back slopes. The rock slopes behind the northern side of the powerhouse will be stabilized by designed slope cuts with anchors and shotcreting in the detailed design stage. A suitable diversion arrangement will be made at appropriate levels for the nalah so as to not to foul the construction activity and running of the powerhouse will be made at higher levels to prevent debris carriage and water in rainy season.

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Plate 3.2.2. Rock exposure in the HRT alignment a.) Schist band within gneiss near Pandusa village and b). Banded gneiss exposed near down stream of dam axis

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3.2.3 SOIL
3.2.3.1 Introduction Soil is a natural body of mineral and organic constituents and generally, it is differentiated into horizons usually unconsolidated, of variable depth, which differs among themselves as well as from the underlying parent material in morphology, physical makeup, chemical properties and composition and biological characteristics. The process of weathering by the natural forces such as heat, rain, ice, snow, wind and other environmental factors from the parent materials, i.e., rocks. Soil is one of the basic resources for sustaining all life forms on this earth. Soil characteristics and properties are the determining factors mainly for the growth of plants.

In addition to the natural events in the form of wind and water movements, soil properties are largely affected by the human induced activities resulting in the deterioration and degradation of soil quality. Soil is one of the important aspects of EIA study because a large scale of developmental activities involved in the construction of hydropower projects leads to the deterioration of soil quality. In hydroelectric projects, soil erosion in the project area and its surroundings is also an essential aspect to be addressed as it determines the life of the project. Baseline data on the soil is useful in preparing the Catchment Area Treatment Plan including both engineering and biological measures. In this section, we describe the soil classes and their properties for catchment and the project influence areas, and the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soils from the project component areas have also been documented.

3.2.3.2 Soil Types i) Catchment Area The Catchment area of Heo H.E. Project is distinguished with six different types of soil associations based on the map published by NBSS & LUP (1998), which covers a total geographical area of 1065 sq km. Soil association of Lithic Udorthents Dystrict Eutrochretps is predominant in the catchment area covering nearly 53.1% of the total area (Fig. 3.2.16). The soil is predominantly loamy skeletal and shallow and the severe erosion is associated with moderately deep and light stoniness (Table 3.2.8). The Yarjep River flows through the major part of this soil association. Soil association of Typic Udorthents Typic Eutrochretpts is spread in minimum area comprising 0.08%
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of the total area. The snow cover area with rock outcrops is limited to the upper catchment area mainly on right bank of the river, which covers 11.8% of the total catchment area.

ii)

Influence Area The influence area of Heo H.E. Project is identified with five soil association types (Fig.

3.2.17). Soil association of Lithic Udorthents Typic Udorthents is predominant in the influence area covering 54.1% of the total area. Soil is characterized with loamy skeletal and shallow to moderately deep, which is susceptible to severe to very severe erosion (Table 3.2.8). Occurrence of this group of soil is primarily restricted to valleys and middle hill areas. The upper most areas of influence zone on both sides of the river Yarjep are dominated with Typic Udorthents Dystrict Eutrochrepts and Lithic Udorthents Typic Udorthents associations.

iii)

Project Component Area All the project components like Dam, HRT, Powerhouse, colony area, etc. of Heo H.E.

Project are located on the soil association of Lithic Udorthents Typic Udorthents. Soil is loamy skeletal and shallow to moderately deep which is susceptible to severe to very severe soil erosions.

Table 3.2.8 Soil groups and their characteristics in Catchment, Influence and Project component areas of Heo H.E. Project
Soil Series S1 Description Sub-Group

Shallow, excessively drained, loamy-skeletal soils on very steeply sloping hill summit having loamy surface with very severe erosion hazard and moderate stoniness: associated with; Moderately deep, somewhat excessively drained loamy-skeletal soils on moderately steeply sloping side slopes with severe erosion hazard and moderate stoniness Deep, somewhat excessively drained, loamy-skeletal soils on moderately steeply sloping summits having loamy surface with severe erosion hazard and moderate stoniness: associated with; Moderately shallow, excessively drained, sandy skeletal soils on steeply sloping summits with very severe erosion hazard and slight stoniness.

Loamy-skeletal, Lithic Udorthents

Loamy-skeletal Typic Udorthents

S2

Loamy-skeletal, Entic Haplumbrepts

Sandy-skeletal, Typic Udorthents 3-45

Chapter 3.2 Land Environment Soil

Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment S3 Shallow, excessively drained, loamy-skeletal soils on steeply sloping summits having loamy surface with severe erosion hazard and slight stoniness: associated with; Moderately deep, somewhat excessively drained, loamy-skeletal soils on moderately steeply sloping side slopes and slight stoniness Shallow, excessively drained, loamy-skeletal soils on very steeply sloping summits having loamy surface with severe erosion hazard and strong stoniness: associated with; Moderately deep, somewhat excessively drained, sandy-skeletal soils with very severe erosion hazard and moderate stoniness Moderately shallow, somewhat excessively drained, loamy-skeletal soils on moderately steeply sloping side slope of hills having loamy surface with severe erosion hazard and strong stoniness: associated with; Moderately deep, somewhat excessively drained, fine-loamy soils with moderate erosion hazard Rocky mountains covered with perpetual snow and glaciers Loamy-skeletal, Lithic Udorthents

CISMHE

Loamy-skeletal, Dystric Eutrochrepts Loamy-skeletal, Lithic Udorthents

S4

Sandy-skeletal Typic Udorthents Loamy-skeletal, Typic Udorthents

S5

Fine-Loamy, Typic Eutrochrepts

S6

3.2.3.3 Soil Properties i) Physical and chemical properties Generally, physical and chemical properties of soil in nature are affected by soil texture and partly influenced by the vegetation cover and the activities of various animals and microorganisms living on and in it. The bio-chemical reactions and mechanical weathering of parent rock materials convert these into living soils, which is capable of supporting plant and microbial diversity. High percentage of silt and clay in soils is generally considered as rich in nutrient contents. The texture of the soil is one of the most important characteristics, which determines its porosity, permeability, erodibility and water holding capacity. In the present study, we recorded a considerable variation in the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil samples collected from the project and catchment areas (Table 3.2.9). Among the different grades of soil texture based on the International Systems of Soil Classification (1927) coarse sands recorded maximum percentage, followed by the medium sands and fine and very fine sands which clearly indicate high porosity and permeability of soils in the project and catchment areas. We recorded less than 2% silt and clay for majority of the samples collected from different sites. The percentage of moisture content ranged from 5.51 % for the upstream
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(Pauk site) to 34.81% for the near powerhouse site during monsoon season. Bulk density varied from 0.67 g/ cc to 1.31 g/cc indicating soils are loosely compacted and suitable for vegetation growth. Water holding capacity of the soil samples for different sites ranged between 0.64 and 71.34 %. A higher value of electrical conductivity (153 S/cm) was recorded for pre-monsoon season near powerhouse site, whereas it was recorded low (59 S/cm) in winter season at the same site. The pH of soils under study showed nearly similar values of the soils from the plains. We recorded pH less than 7 ranging from pH 5.1 to pH 6.8 for the soil samples collected from different sites of the project area (Table 3.2.9). These pH values indicate that soils fall under near neutral to slightly acidic in nature. However, Himalayan soils are generally of high to moderately acidic forms, deviation in the present result seems to be an exception to the above rule. A higher concentration of phosphate was recorded from the soils in comparison with chloride and nitrate (Table 3.2.9). We observed that soil samples collected from the different sites of the Heo H.E. Project area are considerably rich in organic matters and organic carbon. ii) Soil Microbes Besides physical and chemical factors, tiny biological agents also affect to some extent the property of soils. These biological agents of soils are generally called as microbes that cannot be seen by our naked eyes. Several factors such as presence or absence of water, soil pH, temperature, redox potential and organic matter content influence not only the types of microbes colonizing their respective micro-niches but to a great extent these affect the microbes activity. Microorganisms are everywhere but in soils, it plays an important role in nutrient cycling, soil structure and plant health and helps in improving soil structure. It is roughly estimated that in a gram of soil contains numerous individuals up to one billion and about 13,000 species. In EIA including hydropower projects, study of soil microbes plays a significant role in formulating suitable strategy for soil reclamation in the degraded and disturbed areas. Representative number of fungal and bacterial colonies developed from the soil samples are illustrated in Plate 3.2.3. We recorded higher number of fungal and bacterial colonies for the powerhouse site and a comparatively lower number in upstream sites (Pauk). The density of fungal colonies ranged from 2100 to 2.84 x 105 mpn/g-1 with maximum in monsoon season and minimum in winter season (Table 3.2.10). The concentration of bacterial colonies ranged from 2.33 x 103 to 3.22 x 106 cfu/g-1. Generally higher concentrations of soil microbes were found in monsoon season.
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Table 3.2.9 Physical and chemical characteristics of soils retrieved from the influence area of Heo H.E. project

Parameters S1 Physical Characteristics Soil Texture (%) Very Coarse sand Coarse sand Medium sand Fine and very fine sand Coarse silt Moisture content (%) Bulk Density (g/ cc) Conductivity (s) Chemical Characteristics pH Nitrate (mg/g) Phosphate (mg/g) Organic Matter (%) Organic Carbon (%) Chloride (mg/g) 5.52 0.05 0.52 2.44 1.44 0.068 0.67 49.38 30.8 15.43 0.66 12.72 1.04 59

Winter S2 S3 S4 S1

Pre-monsoon S2 S3 S4 S1

Monsoon S2 S3 S4

0 53.2 27.6 8.32 0.79 4.08 16.7 0.83 74.4 63 5.62 0 0.38 6.05 3.51 0.07

0.23 39.9 24.38 31.24 1.79 2.44 10.48 0.83 61.56 108 6.03 0.06 0.4 4.82 2.8 0.066

0.42 33.17 29.05 24.63 10.29 2.41 5.51 1.31 40.37 99 6.27 0.05 0.63 1.39 0.8 0.063

0 29.27 37.99 30.1 1.33 1.28 12.74 0.67 74.26 105.5 5.63 0.04 0.113 2.36 1.37 0.091

0.33 52.47 30.59 14.42 0.635 1.53 12.43 0.96 91.34 153 5.1 0.03 0.026 8.19 4.76 0.091

0 49.64 33.21 14.22 1.23 1.67 24.78 0.73 58.14 102.5 6.79 0.05 0.111 0.98 0.56 0.79

0 66.64 27.27 4.65 0.22 1.2 18.04 0.79 82.22 71 6.08 0.06 0.045 1.31 0.76 0.146

0.9 56.95 30.31 9.17 1.48 1.17 19.09 0.86 1.855 71 5.83 0.009 0.09 0.9 0.52 0.061

0.53 43.57 9.86 41.47 3.83 0.71 34.81 0.92 0.635 71 6.04 0.026 0.29 0.95 0.57 0.06

6.14 17.88 37.77 36.68 0.96 0.54 31.62 0.73 2.91 83 5.42 0.02 ND 2.55 1.61 0.043

1.39 14.32 42.18 41.1 0.59 0.39 16.96 0.73 4.035 63 6.7 0.01 0.08 0.9 0.52 0.048

Fine, medium silt and clay 3.03

Water Holding Capacity (%) 53.58

S1= Tato village, S2 = near Power house area (left bank); S3 = near dam site area (right bank); S4 = near Pauk dam site (right bank)

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Table 3.2.10 Microbial communities in the soils retrieved from the influence area of Heo H.E. Project
Soil characteristics Tato Winter Season Fungal colony (mpn/g-1) Bacterial colony (cfu/g ) Pre-monsoon Season Fungal colony (mpn/ g-1) Bacterial colony (cfu/ g-1) Monsoon Season Fungal colony (mpn/ g-1) Bacterial colony (cfu/ g-1) 1.99 x 104 2.42 x 105 2.31 x 104 2.62 x 105 1.73 x104 1.29 x 104 2.84 x 105 3.22 x 106 2.01 x 104 3.27 x 104 1.21 x 103 3.26 x 104 1.43 x 104 4.11 x 103 2.15 x 103 3.71 x 105
-1

Sites DS Pauk PH

46,00 2.88 x 10
4

21,00 2.26 x 10
4

23,00 2.33 x 10
3

51,000 3.01 x 104

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Fig. 3.2.3 Representative colony of fungal (A) and bacterial (B) colonies developed from the soil samples collected from different sites of the Heo H. E. project area.

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3.2.4 LAND USE AND LAND COVER


3.2.4.1 Introduction The knowledge of land use and land cover is important for many planning and management activities as it is considered as an essential element for modeling and understanding the earth feature system. Land use is defines as any human activity or economical related function associated with a specific piece of land, while the term land cover relates to the type of feature present on the surface of the earth (Lillesand and Kiefer, 2000). Land cover maps are presently being developed from local to regional and national to global scales. The use of panchromatic and medium scale aerial photographs to map land use has been an accepted practice since the 1940s. More recently, small scale aerial photographs and satellite images have been utilized and enhanced the land use and land cover mapping. The satellite remote sensing technology has found its acceptance worldwide for rapid resource assessment and monitoring, particularly in the developing world. National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) of USA has made most significant contributions with satellite based remote sensing techniques. Since 1972, after the Landsat1 was launched, remote sensing technology and its application has undergone a tremendous change in terms of sensing development, aerial flights with improved sensors, satellite design development and operations including data reception, processing, interpretation, and utilization of satellite images. All these advancement have widened the applicability of remotely sensed data in various areas, like forest cover, vegetation type mapping, and land cover changes on a regional scale. If this remotely sensed data is judiciously used along with the sufficient ground data, it is possible to carry out detailed forest inventories, monitoring of land use, and vegetation cover at various scales. The present work is an attempt of the same in the Heo H.E. Project area.

3.2.4.2 Objective and Study Area The objective of the present work is to produce land use and land cover map using hybrid digital classification technique. Also, to produce land cover data set appropriate for wide variety of applications like catchment area treatment (CAT) planning.

The proposed dam is located on the Yarjep Chu. The headwater of Yarjep Chhu originates from Great Himalayan mountain ranges. It is a spring fed, snow fed and lake fed river. It is called as Shi Chhu in the downstream. Downstream of this confluence, it flows as Siet River and further
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downstream it is called as Yarjap Chhu. After the confluence of Phipir Korong it flows as Shi Chhu before joining Siyom River at 960 m.

3.2.4.3 Database The details of primary data in the form of digital data on CDROMs for interpretation and analysis is given in Table 3.2.11. The mask of the entire Heo catchment area including the project site was generated from the IRS-P6 data. For the secondary data, Survey of India (SOI) toposheets on 1:50,000 scales were referred to for the preparation of base map and drainage map. The field information, collected by CISMHE and / or provided by Velcan Energy was also used in order to study the Project Area.

Table 3.2.11 Database used for land use and land cover mapping of the Heo H.E Project Satellite
IRS-P6

Sensor
LISS-III

Path/Row
112/051

Date
05-12-2006

Data type & Bands


(2, 3, 4, 5)

3.2.4.4 Methodology Land use and land cover mapping of the Heo H.E. Project was carried out by standard methods like digital image processing (DIP) supported by ground truthing. For this purpose digital data on CDROMs was procured from National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA), Hyderabad DIP of the satellite data, preparation of various thematic maps, and their interpretation were achieved at Computer GIS Lab, CISMHE using Erdas Imagine 9.0 of Leica Geosystems. Before image processing, image enhancement, transformation and classification, pre-processing was done for multi-spectral band. Different bands were downloaded into the workstation using Erdas Imagine 9.0. The images were checked for occasional shortcomings in the quality of radiometric and line dropouts. Band separation and windowing of the study area with the help of Survey of India (SOI) toposheets was performed. The registration of image was performed using the nearest neighbour resampling algorithm. The scene was geometrically corrected with toposheets using proper identification of Ground control points (GCPs) with a root-mean-square (RMS) error of 0.0002 to 0.003 pixels. Indian Remote Sensing data was radiometrically corrected using dark pixel subtraction technique. They were then co-registered with SOI toposheets using UTM Zone46 N WGS84 projection systems. Geo-referencing of the composite image was done using digital vector layer of
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drainage, road network, water bodies, and other permanent ground features extracted from SOI toposheets. Distinguishable Ground Control Points (GCPs) both on image and vector database were identified. By using these GCPs the image was resample and geo-coded. Sub-pixel image to map registration accuracy was achieved through repeated attempts. The image enhancement techniques like edge detection, filters, manipulation of contrast and brightness, histogram equalization etc. was performed by using different combinations for best image contrast. Standard false color composite (FCC) image of the catchment area was prepared using bands 2, 3 and 4 of IRS-P6 (Fig. 3.2.18) and discrimination of features was made by visual interpretation on this image. The interpretation key was based on the relationships between ground features and image elements like texture, tone, shape, location and pattern. A flow chart indicating the general procedure for land use and land cover classification is shown in the Fig. 3.2.19.

In order to provide higher resolution of base image (IRS-P6 LISS III), panchromatic (PAN) image was fused with MSS LISS III image. In this process, a portion of high resolution PAN band, which corresponds to an area of interest (AOI) in the multi-spectral LISS III image was extracted. Thereafter, both the images were co-registered and LISS-III image was resampled for merging with PAN image. Merging or image fusion was done by special enhancement module in Erdas Imagine 9.0. The digital vector layers like contour, drainage network, snow, glacier, forest, settlements etc. of the Heo H.E Project site were prepared from the SOI toposheet in 1:50,000 scale. The vector layers were also prepared for nearby free-draining catchment areas. Further, the drainage network was classified into various sub-watersheds based on stream order (Horton, 1945, Strahler, 1952, 1957).

In the preliminary analysis, image classification was done by unsupervised classification method by performing ISODATA training. It helped in assigning the classification of the image into land use categories. However, the boundaries of water bodies were separately mapped from SOI toposheets for image classification. The doubtful areas or wrongfully interpreted areas owing to various physical features controlling the study area were marked for ground truth collection. Consequently following the ground truth collection, supervised classification was assigned for the final image classification. The classified map was regrouped and merged. The classified raster map thus prepared, was then converted to vector format for GIS analysis, and the preparation of required thematic maps using ArcGIS 9.1 and GeoMedia Professional 5.2. Supervised and Unsupervised

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classification methods are statistical models which enable the user to classify land features in land uses and land covers.

3.2.4.5 Classification Scheme Keeping in mind the objectives of preparation of environment management plan (EMP), action plan for watershed management and catchment area treatment (CAT) plan, the classification scheme adopted for the preparation of land use/land cover maps on 1:50,000 scale is described below. Vegetation density classification was made by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) technique where band 2 and band 3 were used in extracting the vegetation index. NDVI= (1- 2) /( 1+ 2). Where 1 is near infrared channel and 2 is near visible band channel. In NDVI algorithm vegetated areas will generally yield high values because of their relatively high near-infrared reflectance and low visible reflectance in contrast to water, clouds, and snow have larger visible reflectance than near-infrared reflectance. Thus, these features yield negative index values. Therefore NDVI values are a measure for the presence and condition of green vegetation density (Lillesand and Kiefer, 1999).

From the NDVI assessment two forest density classes were interpreted for the forest cover mapping. The forests with >40% canopy cover were delineated as dense forests and between 10% and 40% crown density as open forest. Furthermore, degraded forests and scrubs were also delineated for the purpose of erosion mapping. The cropland was also delineated. The non-forest land cover in the form of barren/ rocky land, glaciers, lakes, etc. was also classified for the calculation of erosion intensity classification in Catchment area treatment plan.

An interpretation key was prepared based on the relationships between ground features and image elements like texture, tone, shape, location, and pattern. Image interpretation was done for the entire Yarjep River basin. Interpreted details (polygons) were then transferred to base map. Since satellite data is geo-coded there was not much error in the geometry of the data and wherever necessary, local matching was done while transferring the details.

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3.2.4.6 Catchment Area The land use and land cover of the Heo catchment area includes Dense forest, Open Forest, Scrub/Alpine scrub, Degraded forest, Alpine Meadow, Cultivation, Moraines, Barren, River, Lakes, Snow and glaciers (Fig. 3.2.20). Large area of the catchment (39824.61) is prevalently covered by Dense Forest, which occupies 37.39% of the total area. It is prominently spread on the either bank of Yarjep Chu. Snow and Glacier are prominently spread on the higher ridges of the catchment with an area coverage of 16959.06 ha of land. Open and degraded forest lands together occupy 14346.62 ha, which is 13.47% of the total catchment area. Alpine Scrub/ Scrub occupies an area of 12155.91 ha, which forms 11.41% of the catchment area. Moraines occupy 7243.07 ha, which is 6.80% of the catchment area. Significant area of 10762.89 ha is covered by barren/rockyland, which is 10.11% of the total area. Lakes and river together occupy a mere area of 274.76 ha. All the types of land use and land cover and their geographic area are summarized in Table 3.2.12. Table 3.2.12 Area (ha) under different land use/ land cover categories in the catchment area of Heo H.E. Project
Land use/ Land cover Dense Forest Open Forest Scrub Degraded Forest Cultivation Moraines Barren River Snow Total Area (ha) 39824.61 9058.89 12155.91 5287.73 4933.08 7243.07 10762.89 274.76 16959.06 106500 Percent 37.39 8.51 11.41 4.97 4.63 6.80 10.11 0.26 15.92 100

3.2.4.7 Influence Zone A base map was developed to demarcate the submergence zone and influence zone of the Heo H.E project. Therefore, land cover and land use maps have been examined within the 10 km radius of power house and barrage site. It is called as the study area (Influence zone and the submergence area).

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Iinfluence area has an area of 41314.11 ha of land indicated in Fig. 3.2.21. Dense Forest has maximum area coverage of 41.82 % of the study area. It is prevalent along the right bank of Yarjep Chhu. Open forest is more predominant along the left bank of the main Yarjep Chhu as seen in the Fig. 3.2.21, it accounts for 20.83% of the total study area. Alpine Scrub covers 18.11% of the total area whereas degraded forest is spread on 15.32% of the total study area. The remaining land cover and land used accounts for mere 3.92% of the total area i.e., Moraines and barren land, Cultivation and settlement, snow and river.

3.2.4.8 Submergence Area and Project Area A total of 8.4 ha area is delineated as submergence area. As shown in the Fig 3.2.22 submergence area is characterized by large area coverage of 38.2% of forest (dense forest & open forest). It is then followed by water bodies with an area coverage of 29.5% of the total submergence area. Scrub and degraded forest are other land covers represented in the submergence area.

The dam area, around Purying and Hiri villages, are characterized mostly by open to degraded forest and scrubs. The dense forest in this area is negligible compared to the rest of the dam area. There are also a few places of cultivation and settlement with a relatively small footprint. The adit and adit muck disposal area are located in an area covered by dense to open forest, while the power house area, located in the vicinity of Meying and Gapo villages, is mostly covered by open to degraded forest and scrubs. The area under dense forest or cultivation and settlement is very small compared to the rest of the land use.

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Fig. 3.2.11: Map showing Physiographic divisions of Arunachal Pradesh

Raw Satellite Data

Downloading of Data

Translation of Data

Generation of FCC

Geometric Correction

Pre -Processing

Radiometric Correction

A priori Knowledge

Classification
Using Hybrid classification

Ground Truth

Transformation model

Classified Output
(Land use/ land cover classes)

Creation of

Mask Files

Overlay Files
1. Rock Outcrops 2. Built- up Area

Image smoothing (3x3 majority filter)


Heo d/s H.E. Project Catchment Area Heo d/s H.E. Project Influence Area Watershed/ Subwatershed

3. Lakes 4. Relief 5. Slope 6. Aspect

Land use/land cover Map of Heo d/s H.E. Project

7. Landslides 8. Soil

Landuse/landcover Map of Project Catchment

Landuse/landcover Map of Influence area

Landuse/landcover Map of Sub-Watersheds

Fig 3.2.19 Flow diagram for Land use/ land cover classification

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3.3

WATER ENVIRONMENT

3.3.1 HYDROLOGY
3.3.1.1 General Hydrology deals with the studies of transfer of water and energy between the land surface and the lower atmosphere. Therefore the hydrometeorology of a particular basin is controlled by several meteorological and hydrological factors such as rainfall, temperature, direction of wind, evapo-transpiration, drainage network, sediment load etc. These hydrological, physical and environmental factors are guided by geographical position and topography of the basin. These hydro-meteorological parameters not only manifest the prevalent environment of a river basin, but also determine the setting up and viability of any development project and its management in it. The availability of water and hydrological conditions in a basin are the key to the development of any hydroelectric project. Consequently, the hydrological parameters are needed to be studied in detail in the context of hydropower development. It also characterizes the siltation and water discharge near the reservoir site. All the hydrological parameters like rainfall, water discharge, sedimentation vary over the year and this changing pattern is intricately associated with the ecology and impetus the ecological functionalities of the region. Therefore, this chapter attempts to discuss some aspects of hydrological system in the Yarjep basin with reference to the development of the proposed Heo HE Project near Purying village.

3.3.1.2 Climate The Himalayan mountain region is observed by four distinct seasons: i) Pre-monsoon (AprilMay), ii) Monsoon (June-September), iii) Post-Monsoon (October-November); and iv) Lean (December-March). The Himalayan climate varies to that of the plains in India (Das, 2002). A lull in rainfall over the plains of north and central India may be a period of active or heavy rain over the eastern Himalaya. There is a phase difference in monsoon season between the eastern and western sectors of the Himalaya. The seasonal character of the climate is often reflected by the strength of upper winds over the Himalaya. During the lean season and the post-monsoon period, strong westerly winds blows over the mountains, but during the monsoon strong winds blow northward. On the individual peaks and adjoining valleys the anabatic winds and katabatic winds control the local
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climate. These mountain and valley winds blow at a speed of 50-100 km/h and control the diurnal variation in the rainfall pattern of a valley.

3.3.1.3 Rainfall The rainfall data for various rain gauge stations shown in Fig 3.3.1 are used from the Hydrology of detailed project report (DPR) of Heo HE Project (Heo HEP, DPR, 2011).The average monthly rainfall data for rain gauge stations at Mechuka, Monigong, Raying, Kaying, Aalo and Tato is shown in Fig 3.3.2 and Table 3.3.1. The data from two stations were used for the project. One of the data was developed from the external source which is named as Mechuka (ext) and the other data was collected by Project Developer through its own Gauge station, named as Mechuka (int). Maximum rainfall was recorded at Raying and Kaying with an annual precipitation of 4659 mm and 4374 mm. Tato, one of the nearest location receives an annual rainfall of 3031 mm. The intensity of the rainfall is high during the monsoon period (June-September) whereas it is low during the lean season (December-March). There is no clear correlation of the rainfall level with altitude neither with distance along the Siyom Valley. As in most of the mountainous field, the rainfall is concentrated in specific pocket (as the one of Kaying-Raying) where the level of precipitation can be several times the average one measured around. As an example, Kaying and Aalo are close (distanced by 30 km) and at a comparable altitude. However, the level of rainfall measured at Kaying is twice the one measured at Aalo. This indicates sudden change of rainfall system most probably due to the specific orography of the area.

The monsoon rain decreases at the end of September. The rainfall received during October ranges from 104 to 288 mm and it is gradually reduced up to onset of winter in December. During the lean season maximum rainfall is received in the month of March, ranging from 104 mm to 325 mm. The maximum rainfall received during monsoon (July) is 908 mm at Raying.

i)

Seasonal distribution of rainfall The seasonal distribution of rainfall is given in Table 3.3.1. During monsoon the rainfall is

high in Kaying, Raying, Tato and Aalo. These four stations record around 60% of the annual precipitation during the monsoon season at their respective stations (June-Sept). At Monigong and Mechuka (int) the monsoonal precipitation amounts respectively to 54% and 50% of the yearly
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rainfall. However, the precipitation during the post-monsoon (Oct-Nov) season amounts to 7% to 12% of the total annual precipitation, where maximum of 12% at Monigong and minimum of 7% at Aalo were recorded. During lean season, minimum precipitation is received at Aalo with 11% of the total annual precipitation. Kaying receives maximum precipitation during lean season scaling up to 325 mm, and Tato receives maximum lean seasonal precipitation which amounts to 16% of the total annual rainfall there. A fifth (~13-25%) of the total annual rainfall is received during the premonsoon months (Apr-May) at most of the stations.

Table 3.3.1 Seasonal Distribution of rainfall at various locations in the Siang Basin
Station/Month Mechuka (ext)* Mechuka (int)* Monigong Raying Kaying Aalo Tato Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun 69 21 42 97 157 85 153 125 146 250 325 104 248 198 244 170 363 353 158 132 338 383 188 470 396 196 249 Jul Aug 342 393 285 641 624 229 469 Sep Oct Nov Dec Annual 316 188 186 224 195 174 632 288 535 246 298 104 237 180 66 40 45 63 69 33 73 27 35 16 51 50 17 140 2625 2459 1883 4659 4374 2046 3031

460 373 220 431 250 287 688 908 712 755 411 397 533 683

111 193 156 153 41 21 58 66

*Mechuka (ext) is the data collected by external sources, Mechuka (int) is the data collected by the developer.

3.3.1.4 Water Discharge and Water Availability i) Discharge pattern at intake site The average 10-daily discharge for dam site in the basin is shown in Fig. 3.3.3. The discharge increases significantly in the month of May. The onset of monsoon is in the beginning of June. The average 10-daily flow near Purying (June 1978 to May 1994 and June 2000 to May, 2009) was computed on the basis of flow series data from Hydrology chapter in DPR of Heo H.E project (Velcan Energy, 2011). Average 10-daily discharges computed at the dam site has been plotted and the same is shown in Fig. 3.3.3. During July and August the water discharge in the river is high. The average discharge in Yarjep River during the monsoon months (June to Sept) varies from 139 to 210 cumec at dam site (Table 3.3.2). During the monsoon season (Jun to Sept), the minimum and maximum water discharge were 69 cumec in the middle of September 2005 and 444 cumec in the end of July, 2007,
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respectively. The corresponding water discharge for i) post-monsoon (Oct-Nov) period were minimum 17 cumec at the middle of November in 2004 and maximum 256 cumec at the beginning of October, 2003, ii) lean months (Dec-Mar) were minimum 10 cumec from middle of January, 2006 and maximum 66 cumec in the end of March, 2007 iii) Pre-Monsoon (Apr-May) were maximum 268 cumec in the end of May, 2007 and minimum 16 cumec in beginning of April 1994.

ii)

Water availability and Optimization study The changing pattern of total annual yield at the proposed Heo dam site for the water years

1978-79 to 1993-1994 and 2000-2001 to 2008-2009 is shown in Fig.3.3.4. The optimization studies for Heo H.E Project have been conducted on the basis of the 10 daily discharge data for 25 years i.e., from year 1978-79 to 1993-1994 and 2000-2001 to 2008-2009. The criteria of dependable years signify the maximum quantum of energy which could be generated in a 90 % dependable year. On the basis of total annual yield for 25 years, 1978-79 and 2003-04 represent the 90% and 50% dependable years, respectively. The 90% dependable year is a year in which the annual energy generation has a 90% probability to occur over the considered period of 25 years. The average 10daily water discharge in Yarjep River at the dam site for 90% dependable year (1978-1979) and 50% dependable year (2003-2004) are shown in Fig. 3.3.5. The peak discharge in the 90% dependable year was 198 cumec in the mid of July. On the other hand, the peak discharge in the 50% dependable year was 320 cumec in the beginning of July. The minimum discharges were 12 cumecs in both the 90% and 50% dependable years (Table 3.3.3).

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Table 3.3.2 Average 10 daily water discharge at Heo dam site for 25 years

Annual Mean Monsoon Mean Non-Monsoon Mean Year Jun I II III I II III I II III I II III I II III I II III I II III I II III I II III I II III I II III I II III

91 156 26 AVERAGE 139 158 179 198 208 210 179 183 192 182 175 147 136 109 89 38 31 28 25 22 20 18 17 16 16 16 18 21 24 30 36 46 53 99 108 122 MIN 97 104 121 108 105 124 104 72 78 80 69 90 71 45 41 20 17 17 15 14 13 11 10 10 11 11 12 12 12 16 16 20 23 53 58 76

49 83 14 MAX 246 267 302 344 298 444 283 379 363 278 325 215 256 158 121 76 60 50 45 39 37 33 30 26 31 25 26 42 52 66 100 91 113 155 194 268

162 272 52

Jul

Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

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Table 3.3.3 Monthly variation in 10 daily water discharge in 50% and 90% dependable years
50% Dependable 2003-2004 99 138 215 320 261 158 132 226 146 200 156 149 256 106 84 36 33 34 22 28 27 13 12 13 12 12 14 19 20 31 17 23 33 53 58 84 90% dependable 1978-1979 126 175 243 147 160 155 152 118 78 140 175 145 120 92 81 39 32 39 26 23 20 17 16 15 14 12 18 18 19 26 27 31 33 106 97 76

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

I II III I II III I II III I II III I II III I II III I II III I II III I II III I II III I II III I II III

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3.3.1.5 Flood Peaks in the River The variation pattern of flood peaks shows that the peaks attain high level every 5 to 6 years for dam site axis. The data for the flood variation was available for 25 years (1978-79 to 1993-1994 and 2000-2001 to 2008-2009) and provided by Heo Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd (DPR, 2011). As seen in Fig 3.3.4 maximum discharge at the dam site was attained in the 2007-08 with a total cumulative discharge of 3632.77 Mcum. It was again followed by precedent year i.e., 2006-07 with an annual discharge of 3599.94 Mcum. In 2000-2001 the discharge attained a peak of 3584.0448 Mcum.

3.3.1.6 Sedimentation The slopes on both banks of the small reservoir are very steep. It has been assessed that the Mechuka plain plays a critical role in a sediment point of view. Since the valley at Mechuka is very wide and slopes of the flanks gentle on their lower levels, the valley acts as a desilting basin (Plate 3.3.1). Water is cleared from silts while it flows through the Mechuka plain. Even during high flood events, hydraulic model shows that sand and silt deposits are not put in motion again: water velocity does not increase significantly even during extreme flood event.

3.3.1.7 Environmental Implication The stretch up to dam site requires special attention for the purpose of catchment area treatment in case of soil erosion and high siltation during the monsoon period. In addition instantaneous flood peaks are expected. PMF has been taken into account for the design. PMF determination is based on critical heavy rainfall calculated by IMD. An appropriate disaster management plan is necessary and proposed under appropriate section of the EMP (Chapter 5.12) for the purpose of catastrophic events like dam break failure. Continual release of a minimum environmental flow during the lean season into the downstream stretch will help to maintain and sustain the ecological functions in this region. The project has no impact on the high peak in discharge occurring every day of the monsoon season. Then, flood regime of the river will be maintained during the entire monsoon season, allowing the ecological regeneration of the river life.

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Plate 3.3.1 Mechuka plain View of upstream Mechuka village

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3.3.2 WATER QUALITY & AQUATIC ECOLOGY


3.3.2.1 General Hydropower is considered to be a renewable, relatively non polluting, and reliable energy source. But the power generation affects the aquatic system in more than one way. The river which flows in a definite physiographic set up and prior to the dam/barrage construction is almost rhythmic in flow rates, temperatures and water chemistry. But in a dammed river, water is held back and most of the water is diverted from the main river channel leading to alterations in water flow, temperature and water chemistry. The aquatic fauna and flora are most and directly affected while developing a hydro- project as damming of a river will have immense effects on both downstream and upstream stretches. The magnitude of these effects depends on the size of dam and river. Effects include inundation of terrestrial systems (Nilsson and Berggren, 2000), decreased export of water, sediments, and nutrients to marine systems (Postel et al., 1998, Ittekkot et al., 2000), displacement of human communities (Wu et al., 2004), contributions to greenhouse gas emissions (Louis et al., 2000), increased outbreaks of parasites/diseases (Bonetto et al., 1987), facilitation of irrigated agriculture and urbanization (Postel and Carpenter, 1997, Fitzhugh and Richter, 2004), and dramatic changes in the physical, chemical, and biological structure and function of rivers and streams (Ward and Stanford, 1983; Allan 1995). Upstream effects include the transformation of lotic and floodplain habitat into lentic and reservoir-associated riparian or wetland habitat (Baxter 1977 and Dynesius et al. 2004) and upstream invasion by exotic species introduced to the reservoir (Gido et al., 2002, Light 2003). Likewise, dams can block movements of aquatic organisms, causing upstream population isolation (Peter 1998) and extirpation of migratory fauna (Pringle et al. 2000).

All the effects mentioned above will actually depend on the size and features of the Project area. Identification of impacts is primary activity in the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) studies of developmental projects. These studies help in formulating methods to avoid or mitigate the adverse environmental impacts caused by the projects. The present study was conducted in Yarjep Chu in West Siang district in Arunachal Pradesh to assess the aquatic ecology and water quality with special reference to hydro- electric projects.

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3.3.2.2 Sampling Sites The present study to assess the water quality in Yarjep chu river stretch from Mechuka to downstream Tato in West Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh was conducted in three seasons, Winter season (February, 2009), Pre- monsoon (May, 2009) and Monsoon (August, 2009). Sampling was done at following three sites W1 (upstream of proposed dam site), W2 (proposed dam site) and W3 (proposed power house site). Sampling was also conducted in four tributaries of Yarjep River, namely Purying nala (P1), Sang nala (S.1), Sarak I nala (S.2) and Sarak II nala (S.3). The replicates samples were taken from many locations, which were grouped into sampling sites described above.

3.3.2.3 Water Quality Analysis i) Physical and chemical characteristics The water quality affecting the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the lotic systems depends on the seasonal fluctuations in the water discharge. Indeed, stream flow, which is strongly correlated with many critical physicochemical characteristics of rivers, such as water temperature, channel geomorphology, and habitat diversity, can be considered a "master variable" that limits the distribution and abundance of riverine species (Power et al., 1995 and Resh et al., 1988) and regulates the ecological integrity of flowing water systems. A number of important stream flow characteristics such as the daily, seasonal and annual pattern of flows, timing of extreme flows, frequency and duration of floods and droughts and intermittent flows etc. are critical for the survival of communities of animals and plants living downstream (Poff and Allan, 1997).

The supply of nutrients and food particles to aquatic organisms and removal of wastes or allelo chemicals is determined by velocity gradients (Vogel, 1981). Water current velocity ranged from a minimum of 0.81 m/s at W1 in winter to 2.73 m/s at W2 in pre- monsoon (Table 3.3.4). Water temperature is another physical factor which influences important physical, chemical and biological processes (McCartney, 2009). Water temperature ranged from a minimum of 10C at W2 in winter season to 16C at W3 in monsoon season. The pH ranged between minimum of 6.76 at W1 in pre- monsoon season to 7.68 at W2 in monsoon season. Electrical conductivity ranged from a minimum of 7 S/ cm at W1 in pre-monsoon season to 75.66 S/ cm at W3 in winter season. Total dissolved solids (TDS) measures dissolved and suspended impurities of water. Total dissolved solids were found to be minimum at W1 in pre- monsoon season (5.33 mg/ l) and maximum at W3 in
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winter season (40 mg/ l). Dissolved oxygen concentration was found to be lowest at site W2 in monsoon season (8.02 mg/l) and highest at W3 in winter season (9.80 mg/l) as the turbidity is generally high in monsoon season which prevents photosynthetic activities of aquatic organisms. The high dissolved oxygen content in winter is due to low water temperature and turbidity, which results in increased transparency and promotes photosynthetic activities. Total alkalinity was minimum at W1 in winter season (11 mg/ l) and maximum at W2 in monsoon season (24 mg/ l). River water in Yarjep Chu can be described as soft water as the values for the total hardness were very low. Total hardness was minimum (4 mg/ l) at W1 pre- monsoon season and maximum (48 mg/ l) at W2 and W3 in winter season. Calcium hardness was minimum at W2 in monsoon season (4.20 mg/ l) and maximum at W3 in winter season (31.50 mg/ l). Magnesium hardness ranged from 1.6 mg/l at W1 in monsoon season to 27 mg/ l at W2 in winter season. Magnesium ions were recorded minimum at W1 in monsoon season (0.38 mg/ l) and maximum at W2 in winter season (6.56 mg/ l). Chloride concentration ranged from minimum of 5.99 mg/ l at W1 in monsoon season to maximum of 12.99 mg/ l at all sites in pre- monsoon season. Nutrient concentrations were either not detectable or very low in river water indicating minimal contamination due to anthropogenic activities. Nitrate concentration ranged from lowest (0.11 g/l) at W3 in winter season to highest (2.08 g/l) at W2 in winter season. Nitrate was not detectable in monsoon season as the high water discharge along with monsoon rain fall dilutes the nutrient concentration in river water. Phosphate concentration ranged from a minimum of 0.13 g/ l at W3 in monsoon season to a maximum of 2.49 g/ l at W3 in winter season. Table 3.3.4 Physico-chemical characteristics of Yarjep River water in the surrounding of Heo H.E. Project
Winter Parameters Physical Characteristics Water current velocity (m/s) Water Temperature (C) Chemical Characteristics pH E. Conductivity (S/cm) 7.06 72.00 7.52 70.33 7.32 75.66 6.76 7.00 6.85 7.66 7.14 21.00 7.36 21.00 7.68 32.33 7.56 24.33 3-65 0.81 11.00 0.96 10.00 1.37 11.00 2.35 12.00 2.73 11.50 1.28 14.00 1.73 15.00 1.28 12.00 NR 16.00 W1 W2 W3 W1 Pre- monsoon W2 W3 W1 Monsoon W2 W3

3.3 Water Environment Aquatic Ecology & Water Quality

Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment Total dissolved Solids (mg/l) Dissolved Oxygen (mg/l) BOD (mg/l) Total alkalinity (mg/l) Total hardness (mg/l) Calcium Hardness (mg/l) Calcium ion (mg/l) Magnesium Hardness (mg/l) Magnesium ion (mg/l) Chloride (mg/l) Nitrate (mg/l) Phosphate (mg/l) Heavy Metal (mg/l)
recorded; ND = not detectable

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36.66 8.43 1.23 11.00 40.00 21.00 8.41 19.00 4.61 6.99 ND 2.45 ND

33.33 9.66 1.22 12.00 48.00 21.00 8.41 27.00 6.56 7.99 2.08 2.20 ND

40.00 9.80 0.98 12.00 48.00 31.50 12.61 16.50 4.00 9.99 0.11 2.49 ND

5.33 8.93 1.11 20.00 4.00 6.00 2.40 0.00 0.00 12.99 0.15 0.25 ND

6.33 8.43 1.23 20.00 8.00 8.00 3.20 0.00 0.00 12.99 0.35 ND ND

14.00 8.76 0.78 22.00 8.00 8.00 3.20 0.00 0.00 12.99 0.18 0.25 ND

10.00 8.36 2.10 22.00 10.00 8.40 3.36 1.60 0.38 5.99 0.00 0.51 ND

20.00 8.02 1.11 24.00 14.00 4.20 1.68 9.80 2.38 6.99 0.00 0.91 ND

20.00 8.57 2.01 22.00 12.00 8.40 3.36 3.60 0.87 6.99 0.00 0.13 ND

W1 = upstream of proposed dam site, W2 = proposed dam site and W3 = proposed power house site); NR = Not

In general tributaries recorded moderate velocities (0.40 2.00 m/s), low temperature (7 17.5 C), alkaline pH (6.88 7.75), low BOD (0.0- 2.10), low to moderate TDS, alkalinity, total hardness, DO and nutrients and non detectable heavy metal (Table 3.3.5). The physico- chemical parameters of tributaries did not show much variation from main river channel except for Purying nala. Purying nala showed considerable higher values for pH, Electrical conductivity, Total hardness, Total alkalinity and chloride indicating that water is relatively alkaline and hard as compared to other sites. No significant variation was observed between Yarjep Chhu and other tributaries in the surroundings, which can lead to changes in water quality. The difference can probably be attributed to different geological factors in the catchment which can regulate the water quality.

The most important factor, which seems to affect the water quality, is water discharge (Hynes, 1970). Himalayan rivers follow seasonal variation in the water discharge. It is minimum during winter season and swells greatly in monsoon season. Monsoonal rains and snow melting play an important role in swelling of rivers. The water hardness, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, Electrical conductivity, and nutrients concentrations in Yarjep River and tributaries were higher in winter season and lowest in monsoon season. Apparently, monsoonal flow and surface runoff have immense effects on the chemical composition of water.
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Table 3.3.5. Physico-chemical characteristics of tributaries of Yarjep River in the surrounding of Heo H.E. Project

Purying Nala Characteristics Physical characteristics Water discharge (cumecs) Water current velocity (m/s) Water Temperature (C) Chemical characteristics pH Dissolved Oxygen (mg/l) E. Conductivity (S / cm) Total dissolved Solids (mg/l) BOD (mg/l) Total alkalinity (mg/l) Total hardness (mg/l) Calcium Hardness (mg/l) Calcium ion (mg/l) Magnesium Hardness (mg/l) Magnesium ion (mg/l) 8.36 8.46 240. 33 148.33 1.71 76.00 172.00 115.50 46.25 56.50 13.72 8.75 7.30 8.51 7.90 *NR 1.66 7.00 2.07 0.87 12.00 3.26 1.81 16.00 W PrM M W

Sang Nala PrM 6.29 1.13 15.00 7.48 9.00 6.00 4.97 1.17 36.00 24.00 21.00 8.41 3.00 0.72 M 8.96 1.04 17.00 7.52 8.43 14.67 10.10 1.17 24.00 29.40 8.40 3.36 21.00 5.10 W

Sarak I Nala PrM 4.07 1.07 15.00 7.50 8.10 9.50 6.75 0.94 30.00 36.00 25.20 10.09 10.80 2.62 M 2.63 0.94 17.50 7.62 7.20 15.00 10.33 1.84 22.00 37.80 8.40 3.36 29.40 7.14 W

Sarak II Nala PrM 4.11 0.93 15.00 7.82 8.33 8.00 6.83 1.56 36.00 28.00 25.20 9.25 2.80 0.68 M 3.98 1.14 17.00 8.06 7.47 17.67 12.33 2.10 24.00 42.00 8.40 3.36 33.60 8.16

2.88 0.40 7.00 6.88 8.96 18.33 11.66 1.12 28.00 58.00 23.10 9.25 34.90 8.47

0.93 0.42 8.00 7.80 8.56 23.00 19.33 1.85 28.00 26.00 18.90 7.56 7.10 1.72

0.26 2.00 8.50 7.23 8.76 30.00 19.66 1.26 48.00 62.00 48.40 19.34 13.60 3.30

92.00 169.00 70.16 106.00 0.82 80.00 33.60 13.45 48.40 11.76 0.81 64.00 92.40 37.00 48.30 11.73

82.00 140.70

Chloride (mg/l) Nitrate (g/l) Phosphate (g/l) Heavy metals (mg/l)


ND= not detectable

20.99 18.99 22.99 0.84 0.00 ND 1.54 0.14 ND ND ND ND

20.99 26.99 17.99 0.14 0.10 ND 0.22 0.00 ND ND ND ND

18.99 23.99 18.99 0.80 0.00 ND 0.21 0.00 ND ND ND ND

26.99 27.99 19.99 0.44 0.00 ND 0.33 0.00 ND ND ND ND

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ii)

Biological Characteristics Biological communities reflect overall ecological quality and integrate the effects of different

stressors providing a broad measure of their impact and an ecological measurement of fluctuating environmental conditions (http://www.epa.gov/bioindicators). Biological quality can be assessed by different kinds of organisms: algae, riparian and aquatic vegetation, invertebrates and fishes (Kelly and Whitton, 1995). They are also important part of environmental assessments, as conservation and management of these organisms is the prime objective of the EIA studies (Stoermer and Smol, 1999). Therefore, in this study, density and abundance of these bio indicators is recorded to provide holistic information regarding the water quality of Yarjep Chu and its tributaries. Densities of different biological communities showed marked seasonal variations (Table 3.3.6). Zooplanktons formed only a minor portion of planktonic community and its density ranged from 9 individual /lit. at W3 in monsoon season to 53 individuals/ lit. at the site (W2) in winter season. Diatoms formed the major portion of phytoplankton. Phytoplankton density ranged from 11 cells/ lit. at site W1 and W2 in monsoon season to 870620 cells/ lit at W3 in winter season. Phytobenthos density ranged from 17 cells/ cm at W1 in winter season to 148907 cells/ cm at W2 in winter season. Macroinvertebrate density ranged from 178 individuals/ m at W3 in pre- monsoon season to 1233 individuals/ m at W2 in pre- monsoon season.

Winter season or pre-monsoon seasons are most conducive seasons for the growth of biotic communities in Yarjep Chhu and its tributaries. The monsoonal flow in these streams washes away the major part of these communities while in post monsoon the biotic communities were found to restore themselves. Table 3.3.6 Density of various biotic communities in Yarjep River in the surroundings of Heo H. E. Project
Pre-monsoon W1 Total Coliforms Zooplanktons (indiv/lit.) Phytoplankton (cells/lit.) Phytobenthos (cells/ cm) A 29 19 17 W2 A 19 184 78 W3 A 36 208 103 Monsoon W1 W2 W3 A 19 11 A 11 11 A 9 29 32 W1 A 24 766584 115395 Winter W2 A 53 379337 148907 W3 A 35 870620 73256 3-68

18 137

3.3 Water Environment Aquatic Ecology & Water Quality

Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment Macro invertebrates (indiv / m) 866 1233 178 877 877 266 287 311

CISMHE

iii)

Community Composition Total 76 taxa were recorded at all sites in all seasons. 52 taxa were recorded in benthic form,

while 53 taxa were recorded in planktonic form. 24 taxa occurred exclusively in planktonic forms, while 23 taxa occurred in benthic form. A total of 29 taxa were common to both planktonic as well as benthic form. Maximum taxa diversity was found in winter season in phytobenthos at site W1 (29 species), while for phytoplankton maximum taxa were found in pre- monsoon season at site W3 (28 species). Phytobenthic community showed lower species richness in pre-monsoon season (Table 3.3.7). Fragilaria sp., Fragilaria vaucheriae, Gomphonema intricatum var. pumila and Gomphonema parvulum were the most abundant common taxa found in both phytoplankton as well as phytobenthos. Among phytobenthos, most abundant taxa were Reimeria sinuata followed by Fragilaria sp., Gomphonema bohemicum, Gomphonema longiceps, Gomphonema olivaceoides and Gomphonema sphaerophorum (Plate 3.3.2a,b). Other taxa present exclusively in benthic forms were Achnanthidium austriaca var. Helvetica, Achnanthidium cranulata, Achnanthidium laterostrata, Achananthidium saxonica, Achnanthidium subsalsa, Achnanthidium fragilaroides, Achnanthidium suchlandti, Cocconeis placentula var. euglypta, Cymbella amphicephala, Cymbella parva, Fragilaria construens, Gomphonema gracile, Gomphonema intricatum var. pumilum, Gomphonema olivaceum var. minutessima, Hannaea arcus var. amphioxys, Nvicula cari, Navicula radiosa var. minutessima, Pinnularia microstauron var. Brebissone, Planothidium lanceolata, Tabellaria flocculosa. In phytoplanktons, most dominant taxa were Gomphonema longiceps var. subclavata, Cocconeis placentula, Diatoma hiemale, Planothidium lanceolata, Navicula radiosa and Fragilaria construens. Other species present in planktonic species were Achnanthidium Boyei, Achnanthidium exigua, Achnanthidium Hauckiana, Achnanthidium nodosa, Achnanthidium plonensis, Cyclotella sp., Cymbella hungarica, var. signata, Cymbella pusila, Cymbella tumidula, Cymbella ventricosa, Diatoma hiemale var. mesodon, Didymosphenia geminate, Eunotia exigua, Fragilaria pinnata , Fragilaria pinnata f. subrotunda, Gomphonema nagpurenses, Gomphonema olivaceum var. calcarea, Gomphonema olivaceum var. minutessima, Navicula cryptocephala var. veneta, Planothidium lanceolata f. ventricosa, Synedra ulna var. aequali and Tetracyclus lacustris.

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Table 3.3.7 Algal composition in Yarjep River in the surrounding of Heo H.E. Project
Phytobenthos Winter Taxa name Achnanthidium affinis A. austriaca var. helvetica A. BoyeiA. conspicua A. cranulata A. exigua A. exilis A. Grimmei A. Hauckiana A. hungarica A. laterostrata A. linearies A. marginulata A. microcephala A. minutissima A. nodosa A. plonensis A. saxonica A. subsalsa A. suchlandti A. tragilaroides W1 0.92 4.60 2.30 5.52 3.22 5.06 2.30 1.38 4.14 W2 0.46 8.24 4.39 2.74 9.34 3.84 1.54 1.64 W3 0.39 3.12 3.12 1.27 4.29 1.27 2.54 1.95 5.45 1.17 1.27 W1 8.33 12.5 8.33 4.16 Pre- Monsoon W2 W3 2.04 2.04 10.20 W1 5.44 5.94 4.95 1.48 0.49 6.93 18.81 8.41 2.47 0.99 Winter W2 0.48 6.28 14.49 0.96 0.96 0.48 W3 6.01 4.62 46.29 11.57 1.85 W1 9.41 1.17 21.17 7.05 1.17 Phytoplankton Pre- monsoon W2 12.50 4.16 12.5 4.16 W3 3.34 2.39 0.47 0.95 2.39 0.47 34.93 1.47 1.47 1.47 3-70

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Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment A. suchlandti Cocconeis placentula C. placentula var. euglypta Cyclotella sp. Cymbella amphicephala C. delicatula C. delicatula C. hungarica var. signata C. laevis C. parva C. perpusila C. pusila C. tumidula C. ventricosa Diatoma hiemale Diatoma hiemale var. mesodon Didymosphenia geminata Eunotia exigua Fragilaria capucina F. construens F. pinnata F. pinnata f. subrotunda F. rumpens var. fragilaroides Fragilaria sp. 12.71 45.83 24.48 9.90 1.38 0.78 1.84 0.46 0.92 0.46 5.85 8.20 2.04 0.99 0.99 0.49 1.38 50.00 2.04 6.59 0.54 1.48

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0.48 0.48 2.41 1.44 3.86

0.46 0.46 2.31 4.16

3.52 1.17 1.17 1.17 1.17 1.17 11.76 2.35 3.52 1.17 9.41

8.33 4.16 4.16 12.5

1.47 0.47 0.47 0.47 0.95 0.47 1.99 17.14 3-71

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Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment F. vaucheriae Gomphonema bohemicum G. gracile G. intricatum G. intricatum var. pumila G. intricatum var. pumilum G. longiceps var. subclavata G. nagpurenses G. olivaceoides G. olivaceum G. olivaceum var. calcarea G. olivaceum var. minutissima G. paruvlum G. sphaerophorum G. olivaceum var. minutessima Hannaea arcus var. amphioxys Hannaea arcus var. linearis Navicula Cari N. cryptocephala var. veneta 0.46 2.04 2.30 0.54 0.92 3.29 1.95 2.73 8.33 4.08 2.04 4.95 2.47 2.76 2.30 9.21 5.49 3.29 12.71 1.95 2.04 1.48 0.99 13.82 6.59 13.36 10.98 12.71 2.04 1.98 11.52 4.60 0.46 12.08 2.74 2.74 9.76 1.95 4.16 36.73 2.04 13.86 -

CISMHE

11.11 0.48 5.79 3.38 1.44 1.93 1.93 2.41 -

10.64 0.46 0.46 0.46 0.46 1.85 2.31 1.85 -

3.52 2.35 3.52 3.52 1.17 1.17

4.16 4.16 4.16 -

4.78 0.47 0.47 1.99 0.95 0.47 2.39 0.95 3-72

3.3 Water Environment Aquatic Ecology & Water Quality

Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment N. radiosa N. radiosa var. minutissima Pinnularia microstauron var.Brebissone Planothidium lancedata P. lanceolata P. lanceolata f. ventricosa Reimeria sinuata Synedra ulna var. aequalis Tabellaria flocculosa Tetracyclus lacustris Total 0.46 29 22 24 8 2 15 1.48 24 0.46 0.78 2.04 0.46 1.84 10.98 1.95 2.47 50.00 1.38 2.04 0.99

CISMHE

0.48 0.96 21

0.46 0.92 1.85 20

4.70 1.17 24

16.66 4.16 13

11.44 0.47 28

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Benthic macro invertebrates are the most widely used biological assemblage for water quality monitoring. These organisms make good indicators of watershed health because they differ in their tolerance to amount and types of pollution and are integrators of environmental conditions. Macroinvertebrates were represented by more than 23 taxa coming from six orders. Diptera being the most diverse order represented by five families (Chironomidae, Tipulidae, Ceratopogonidae, Simulidae and Calanoidae) followed by Coleoptera (Chrysomelidae, Gyrinidae and Elmidae), Ephemeroptera (Heptageniidae, Baetidae and Ephemerillidae), Plecoptera (Perlidae and Peridodiae), Tricoptera (Hydroptilidae and Hydropsychidae) and Odonata (Gomphidae) (Table 3.3.8). Chironomidae family was the largest family recorded represented by four genera (Chironomous, Ablabesmyia, Tendipes and Antocha) followed by Heptageniidae (Cinygmula, Stenonema and Epeorus), Hydroptilidae (Hydroptila and Ochrotrichia) and Elmidae (Narpus and Heterlimnius).

3.3.2.4 Water Quality Water quality of the river water can be assessed using physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the water. Among the physical and chemical parameters, dissolved oxygen (DO), Bio-chemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), pH and concentration of heavy metal are important parameters for the water quality monitoring. High concentration of DO, low concentration of BOD, non detectable heavy metal and optimum alkaline range of pH in Yarjep waters indicate a good water quality. The present investigation reveals that quality of surface water and drinking water is good and stands under the desirable limit as per IS: 10500 except turbidity (Table 3.3.9).

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Table 3.3.8. Macro- invertebrate composition (individual/m2) in Yarjep River in the surrounding of Heo H.E. Project
Taxa W Ephemeroptera Heptageniidae Cinygmula Stenonema Epeorus Baetidae Baetis Epehmerelidae Ephemerella Ephemeroptera (others) Plecoptera Perlidae Acroneuria Periodidae Isoperla Trichoptera Hydroptilidae Hydroptila Ochrotrichia Hydropsychidae Hydropsyche 56 33 33 22 22 11 22 11 11 100 33 11 22 11 167 22 144 11 22 11 33 44 44 11 100 67 11 33 33 33 67 156 11 33 33 22 56 100 (W1) Pr M W (W2) Pr M W (W3) Pr M

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Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment Odonata Gomphidae Ophiogomphus Diptera Chironomidae Chironomus Ablabesmyia Tendipes Tentans Antocha saxicola Tipulidae Antocha saxicola Ceratopogonidae Culicoides variipennis Simuliidae Simulium pictipes Calanoidae Coleoptera Chrysomelidae Donacia hirlicollis Gyrinidae Dineutus Elmidae Narpus Heterlimnius Density (individual/ m )
2

CISMHE

11

44 22 -

178 367 -

555 -

211 -

356 622 -

678 -

244 22 -

44 11 --

11

11

78 -

11

11

11

11

22 143

1010

877

311

1233

877

365

178

266 3-76

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Table 3.3.9 Drinking water quality standards (as per IS:10500)


Parameters Color (Hz) Odour Taste Turbidity (ntu) pH Total coliforms (MPN/100 ml) TDS ((mg/l) Total hardness (mg/l) Total alkalinity (mg/l) Chloride (mg/l) Nitrate (mg/l) Calcium (mg/l) Magnesium (mg/l) Copper (mg/l) Iron (mg/l) Lead (mg/l) Cadmium (mg/l) Desirable limit 5.0 Unobjectionable Agreeable 5 5-8.5 0 500 300 200 250 45 75 30 0.05 0.30 0.05 0.01 Permissible limit 25 10 No relaxation 2000 600 600 1000 100 200 100 1.5 1.0 No relaxation No relaxation

There was no point source triggering the organic pollution in the vicinity. None of the effluents that were recorded measured the various parameters as per Table 3.3.10. Inland surface water standards indicate that the water of Yarjep and its tributaries are conducive for drinking, agricultural and fisheries purpose. Table 3.3.10 Tolerance Limits for Inland Surface Waters (as per IS:2296)
S.No. Parameter and Unit 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Colour (Hazen Units) Odour Taste pH (max) (min:6.5) Conductivity (S/cm ) Class-A 10 Unobject Tasteless 8.5 Class-B 300 8.5 Class-C 300 8.5 Class-D 8.5 1000 Class-E 8.5 2250 3-77

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6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36.

Do (mg/L) (min) BOD (3 days at 27oC) (mg/L) Total Coliforms (MPN/100 mL) TDS (mg/L) Oil and Grease (mg/L) Mineral Oil (mg/L) Free Carbon Dioxide (mg/L CO2) Free Ammonia (mg/L as N) Cyanide (mg/L as CN) Phenol (mg/L C6H5OH) Total Hardness (mg/L as CaCO3) Chloride (mg/L as CI) Sulphate (mg/L as SO4) Nitrate (mg/L as NO3) Fluoride (mg/L as F) Calcium (mg/L as Ca) Magnesium (mg/L Mg) Copper (mg/L as Cu) Iron (mg/L as Fe) Manganese (mg/L as Mn) Zinc (mg/L as Zn) Boron (mg/L as B) Barium (mg/L as Ba) Silver (mg/L as Ag) Arsenic (mg/L as As) Mercury (mg/L as Hg) Lead (mg/L as Pb) Cadmium (mg/L as Cd) Chromium (VI) (mg/L as Cr) Selenium (mg/L as Se) Anionic Detergents (mg/L MBAS)

6 2 50 500 0.01 0.05 0.002 300 250 400 20 1.5 80 24.4 1.5 0.3 0.5 15 1 0.05 0.05 0.001 0.1 0.01 0.05 0.01 0.2

5 3 500 0.05 0.005 1.5 0.2 0.05 1

4 3 5000 1500 0.1 0.05 0.005 600 400 50 1.5 1.5 50 15 0.2 0.1 0.01 0.05 0.05 1

4 0.1 6 1.2 -

2100 600 1000 2 -

Class-A:Drinking water source without conventional treatment but after disinfection. Class-B: Outdoor bathing. Class-C: Drinking water source with conventional treatment followed by disinfection. Class-D: Fish culture and wild life propagation. Class-E: Irrigation, industrial cooling and controlled waste disposal.

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In the biological parameters coliforms were absent from the river and tributary waters at all the sites investigated during different seasons. It can be explained on the basis of sparse human population and absence of any point source of organic pollution in the catchment. Most of algal species and macro-invertebrates species were intolerant of the organic pollution indicating the status of clear water.

Non-polluted water in the Yarjep River can be coincided with the absence of major sewage out fall in the river and very sparse population in the catchment and influence area. During the construction phase of Heo H.E. Project, the temporary deterioration of Yarjep river water can not be denied due to new temporary settlements along side the river, dispose off the muck, diversion of the river water. In order to maintain the river water quality up to pre-construction status, it would require appropriate mitigation precautionary measures. These measures are provided in the EMP report of Heo H.E. Project.

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Fig 3.3.2 Monthly precipitation for seven rain gauge stations

Fig 3.3.3 Average monthly variation of 10 daily river discharge at barrage site

Fig. 3.3.4 Average monthly variation of 10 daily river discharge at barrage site

Fig. 3.3.5. 10 daily discharge for the dependable years of 50% and 90%

(a)

Fragilaria vaucherae

(b) Plate 3.3.2

Reimaria sinuata

Dominant and common diatom species of plankton and phytobenthos in Yarjep river

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3.3.3 FISH & FISHERIES


3.3.3.1 General Generally dams/barrages adversely affect the biotic integrity of the river on local and landscape scales. The effects are related to the impoundment that is to be formed upstream of the dam and fragmentation of the river basin and restricted movement of the fish. By impounding water and altering flow pattern, dams modify upstream habitats and elicit changes in the composition of aquatic biota including fish assemblages (Hynes, 1970). Taking the impact assessment of a dam/barrage on the fish fauna into account, habitat characteristics and fish composition must require to be addressed preferably.

Proposed Heo H.E. Project of Yarjep River in Arunachal Pradesh is one of the projects of cascade development scheme of hydro-projects. Thus, the cumulative impacts of the river regulation are anticipated for the fish fauna of Yarjep River. In this contribution, baseline data on fish composition in and around the project area, conservation status of fish species, magnitude of fisheries, livelihood of tribes, if any, and migratory pattern of fish if any are described in the following paragraphs.

3.3.3.2 Fish Fauna of Siyom and Yarjep River Systems Siyom is one of the largest right bank tributaries of Siang River, draining West Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh. Major tributaries of Siyom River are Yarjep on right bank and Hirit on right bank. An account on fish diversity of West Siang district has been made by Sen (2006). He mentioned a total of 12 species in the Siyom River and its tributaries including Yarjep. Though, during the primary survey we came across the Danio species which was not reported earlier. Fish of Siyom basin show strong affinities with Western Himalaya (Labeo Calbasu, Puntius ticto, Schizothorax richardsonii, Nemacheilus multifasciatus, N. rupecola), North East (Garra Naganensis, Botia berdmorei, Ompok bimaculatus) and Ganga and Brahamputra plains (Mystus bleekeri, Glyptothorax annandeli, Chanda Nama, Glossogobius giuris). The species like Labeo calbasu, Nemacheilus spp., Chanda nama) are confined to lower segment of the river (up to 500 M). Other species are widely distributed.

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3.3.3.3 Fish Composition in Catchment and Influence Areas Ichthyofauna in the catchment and influence areas of Heo H. E project comprises of 6 species belonging to 4 families (Table 3.3.11). Schizothorax richardsonii (Snow trout) (Plate 3.3.3a) and Garra nagenensis are widely distributed in the catchment and influence areas. They prefer to inhabit main rivers like Yarjep and Siyom. Other species like Nemacheilus multifasciatus, Schistura rupecola, Botia berdmorei and Glyptothorax annandeli (Plate 3.3.3b) are bottom dwellers and prefer to inhabit tributaries. Only Schizothorax richardsonii is of fishery interest that contributes in most capture fishery in the area. Table 3.3.11 Fish composition in the catchment and influence area of Heo H.E. Project
Scientific Name Cyprinidae Schizothorax richardsonii* Garra naganensis Balitoridae Nemacheilus multifasciatus Schistura rupecola Cobitidae Botia berdmorei Sisoridae Glyptothorax annandeli
VU: Vulnerable; EN: Endangered; LRnt: Low risk, near threatened

Conservation Status (CAMP criterion) VU VU EN LRnt EN

3.3.3.4 Conservation Status Of the 6 species 5 have been assessed for their conservation status. Two species have been categorized as endangered species while two are vulnerable (CAMP, 1997). Only Schistura rupecola is considered as low risk- least concerned species. None of the species is endemic to Siyom River and its tributaries, however, Garra naganensis is considered as endemic to North-east region of India. The recently IUCN (2011) included Schizothorax richardsinii (snow trout) it the redlist as vulnerable species 3.3.3.5 Fisheries During the primary survey Schizothorax richardsonii and Garra naganensis were landed during winter, pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons in Siyom and Yarjep rivers. Glyptothorax
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annandeli was landed in winter season from Yarjep River while in monsoon season it was recorded from small right bank tributary near power house site. All other species listed in Table 3.3.11 were recorded from different tributaries in monsoon season.

In different seasons 4 fishermen were found to engage in fishing activities. The fishing was carried out between proposed dam site to proposed power house site and tributaries joining in between. A two hour fish catch in winter season ranged from 2.5 to 3.5 kg. It increased to a range of 2.5 to 4 kg in pre-monsoon season while it was around 0.5 kg in monsoon season. In monsoon season fish could be landed from tributaries only. Cast net and hooks are main fishing gears used in the vicinity of the project. Fishing can not be attributed to one of the means of livelihood of inhabitants. To fulfill their protein diet, inhabitants generally prefer hunting rather than fishing.

3.3.3.6 Fish Migration Schizotharax richardsonii, and Garra naganensis are column feeder, thus, considered to move relatively longer distance as compared to other species dwelling the river bed. Schizothorax richardsonii are considered to perform migration in river system. To cop the low temperature in peak winter season Snow trout moves downwards. It usually finds a tributary to spawn from May to September. In the region migratory pattern of Schizothorax richardsonii is not well studied but other studies in Himalayan river show that they have not specific breeding grounds.

3.3.3.7 Conclusion Yarjep River is one of the main and largest tributaries of Siyom in middle stretch, however, the river is not considered as rich in fish resource. Though, the river is unexplored, which may be one of the reasons of low fish diversity. The inhabitants of the surrounding areas are non vegetarian in food habit but it is not reflected in the fishing activities as very low capture and disorganized fishing occur in the region. Schizothorax richardsonii is predominant in Yarjep River, most capture fishery depends on it. None of the species inhabiting Yarjep River and tributaries is endemic to Siyom river system. Out of the six recorded fish species, two species are categorized as threatened (Schizotharax richardsonii and Garra naganensis). Those two species are usually migrating in winter season, but can adapt to lacustrine environment, like a reservoir or a pond created by a dam. However, adverse impact are anticipated due to habitat fragmentation.

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(a) An adolescent of Schizothorax Richardsonii

(b) Ventral view of Glyptothorax annadeli

Plate 3.3.3 Predominant fish species in the catchment and influence areas. The species are common in main rivers and their tributaries.

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3.4
3.4.1

METEOROLOGY & AIR ENVIRONMENT


METEOROLOGY

3.4.1.1 Temperature, Humidity and Wind Chill The temperature and relative humidity in high mountainous regions like Himalaya is influenced by the change in altitude. At about 2,000 meters, the average summer temperature is near 18C. The summer temperature in Yarjep valley reaches between 32C and 38C. The latitudinal variation in Himalaya also has control on the rainfall, temperature and humidity. The Eastern Himalaya receives heavy rainfall, and therefore, the variation pattern of temperature and relative humidity of this region is different from that of Western Himalaya. The temperature and humidity data available for the project area is shown in the Table. 3.4.1.

Temperature, humidity, wind speed and wind chill were directly assessed by CISMHE survey team during field visit (year 2009) at two sites. Site S1 is located near the Puyring village while S2 is located near the Meing village. Data for the pre-monsoon was recorded during May2009, for the monsoon it was acquired during August-2009 and for winter it was acquired in February, 2009. The Yarjep basin experiences cold temperature during the winter months from December to January. The maximum temperature recorded was 27.80C during post-monsoon season at site S1 whereas the minimum temperature was 17C recorded during winter at S2 site. Relative humidity was highest during the pre-monsoon period for S1 with 88.60%. The relative humidity during the winter scales downs to 43.70% at S1 site. In addition wind chill was also assessed for both sites in all three seasons. It was highest during the monsoon with a temperature of 27.70C at S1 site. The lowest wind chill temperature recorded was 17.4C at S1 site during winter. Besides wind speed was also recorded and the maximum speed was recorded during the monsoon at S1 site with a wind speed of 13.80 km/h. In addition heat index, dew point, wet bulb, barometer and density altitude were also directly assessed with the help of weather instruments. Details of the weather variables assessed are given in the Table 3.4.1.

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Table 3.4.1 Meteorological data recorded at Heo HE. Project sites Winter Parameters Wind (Km/h) Temperature (C) Wind Chill (C) Humidity (%) Heat index (C) Dew Point (C) Wet bulb (C) Barometer (hPa) Altitude (M) Density Altitude (M)
S1=Puyring; S2= Meing

CISMHE

S1 2.70 17.20 17.40 43.70 16.50 4.00 10.00 896.00 1382.00 1812.00

S2 2.30 17.00 18.00 56.00 16.90 8.00 11.60 916.70 1205.00 1511.00

Pre- monsoon S1 S2 0.30 19.00 19.60 88.60 19.70 17.40 17.30 894.80 1410.00 1897.00 1.00 20.40 20.10 85.30 20.50 17.80 18.80 914.70 1220.00 1713.00

Monsoon S1 S2 13.80 27.80 27.70 60.80 29.30 19.20 21.50 885.40 1500.00 2320.00 1.60 21.20 21.10 80.10 23.20 19.00 20.20 887.10 1484.00 2166.00

3.4.2 AIR ENVIRONMENT


3.4.2.1 General Air is a precious resource that surrounds Earth and it is essential for living and non-living world. Pure air is a mixture of several gases that are invisible and odourless and it consists of about 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and less than 1% of argon, carbon dioxide and other gases as well as varying amounts of water vapour. Beside these, tiny dust, pollen grains from plants, and other solid particles are also present in the air. Air quality refers to condition of the air around us. Good air quality means clean, clear and unpolluted air. Clean or fresh air is indispensable to maintaining the balance of life on this planet. A number of factors of both natural and humancaused sources viz., factory, vehicles and fossil fuels etc. affect air quality. Everyday activities such as driving vehicles and burning wood, etc. can have a significant impact on air quality. Further, ambient air quality is the quality of open-air to which the public has access. Poor ambient air quality occurs when pollutants increase in high concentration. Ambient air quality is measured near the ground level away from direct sources of pollution.

The amount and kind of pollutants that are released into the air play a major role in determining the degree of air pollution in a specific area. Any undesirable change in the natural composition of air or addition of new gases or particulate matter is called air pollution, which can occur at local (e.g., smoke from wood use in cooking purposes) as well as at regional level (e.g.,
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smoke from forest fires). However, regional air quality is, to some extent, determined by behaviour of air as a result of the interaction of topography such as mountains and valleys; weather such as wind, temperature, air turbulence, air pressure, rainfall and cloud cover; physical and chemical properties of pollutants; and by the emission sources themselves. In an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), study of air environment of the project including the hydroelectric power projects is important because a number of activities during construction phase may add or increase air pollutants viz., SPM, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), NO2, SO2 etc to some degree. In addition to these, anthropogenic activities such as transport system, changes in land use etc. also contribute significantly in polluting air. Therefore, it is very essential to maintain the good ambient air quality for the well being of all the components of living and non-living world in the proposed project area. The purpose of this assessment is to determine the concentrations of air pollutants, the sources of air pollutants, the impact of air quality on the environment and the risk to human health from air pollutants.

There is no earlier record of air quality in the catchment and project areas of Heo H.E. Project. The surroundings of proposed Heo H.E. Project are endowed with dense forests which show significant vegetation cover along the road that lead to the project area and in surroundings. The density of population within the project area is around 2-3 persons per sq. km. In order to collect the baseline data of air quality prior to the construction work the following parameters are highlighted, which would be useful in formulating the suitable management plan for air quality.

3.4.2.2 Sampling Strategy The sampling for weather condition, ambient air quality and recording of traffic density and noise pollution data was carried out based on the availability of facilities.

Traffic density: Number and types of vehicles plying on the Tato - Mechuka road were recorded for three seasons.

Air pollution: To assess the level of pollutants in the air, a sampler (high volume, respirable dust sampler APM 460 BL and its attachment APM 411 TE) was used. It was run to record the concentrations of SPM, NO2 and SO2. Due to lack of electricity in the surroundings it was run at Aalo. Aalo is a major town in the area and was considered as control. We assume that in any case the level of air pollutants in the surroundings of project area would be lower as compared to Aalo.
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Noise Level: Sound levels were recorded at various sites in and around the project area by using Sound Level Meter D 2023 (Cygnet), a TYPE 2 instrument (IS 9779, 1981).

Sampling was carried out for three seasons for all parameters. A detailed methodology for Air and Noise Environment has been given in the Chapter Concept and Methodology (3.1) of EIA report.

3.4.2.3 Traffic Density The average number of vehicles that occupy one mile or one kilometer of road space is expressed in vehicles per mile or per kilometer. In the vicinity of Heo H.E. Project a single road connects the surrounding villages and Mechuka and Tato towns. Due to sparse population in the region, transport services on this road are low; therefore, the transportation of local people is facilitated by private owned light vehicles. Values of traffic density in and around the project area are given in Table 3.4.2. The maximum traffic density was recorded during pre-monsoon season, though most of the recorded traffic came from armed forces based at Mechuka (Table 3.4.2). The data obtained at the sampling site revealed that traffic is not a major driver of deterioration of ambient air quality in the region. But a significant increase during the construction of project is anticipated.

Table 3.4.2 Traffic density in and around Heo H.E. Project


Location Winter Season Tato Mechuka Road Pre-monsoon Tato-Mechuka Road Monsoon Tato-Mechuka Road 27 Aug, 10.00- 11:30 1 3 2 23 May, 10.00 - 14:00 11 2 February, 12:00 - 14:00 2 2 1 Date and time Vehicular Traffic/ hour Heavy Light Two vehicles vehicles wheelers

3.4.2.4 Air Quality The main sources of outdoor air pollution in the project area may be road construction activities (excavation, paving etc.), slash and burning and traffic etc. while burning of fuel woods is the only source of indoor air pollution. The region receives high rainfall and is covered with dense vegetation. In addition, the open agricultural fields in the region remain covered with vegetation during fallow seasons. Soils are not exposed and there is little possibility of any dust
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storms contributing in air pollution owing to the pervasive characteristics of vegetation cover. Different air pollutants are described in the following headings.

i)

Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) It is anticipated that concentration of SPM levels in and around project area remains to be

lower than its values at Aalo that vary from 83.61 to 311.00 g/ m3 (Table 3.4.3). Except in winter season these values are lower than the standard values prescribed in National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), which is approved by the Ministry of Environment & Forests, GOI (Table 3.4.4). The average value of SPM was recorded lowest during the monsoon season, which may be ascribed due to settling down of the particles. Field observations show that vehicular traffic, occasional open degraded land areas and landslides are the main sources of SPM at Aalo. Forest fire was not observed in the region during the survey. The entire region is virtually covered with thick vegetation which plays a significant role in ameliorating the load of suspended particulate matters in air. Based on our field records of ambient air quality at Aalo we suggest that the levels of SPM, RSPM and NRSPM must remain much lower at the project sites because the density of human population in the surroundings of Heo is comparatively lower than of Aalo and the number of vehicles plying on the road is also low at the project site.

Table 3.4.3. Air quality characteristics recorded at Aalo and projected for the project areas
Parameters SO2 (g/m) NOx (g/m) TSPM (g/m) RSPM (g/m) NRSPM (g/m) Winter (a) 9.83 0.0 311.00 137.61 173.39 Winter (b) 0.0 1.79 272.60 79.24 193.36 Pre-monsoon 0.0 1.22 92.13 13.75 78.38 Monsoon 0.0 1.35 83.61 31.25 52.36

Note: During the winter season sampling was carried out twice

ii)

NOx NOx is the generic term for a group of highly reactive gases which contain compound of

nitrogen and oxygen in varying proportions. Most of the nitrogen oxide gases are colourless and odourless except nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which is reddish brown. These gases are produced during combustion especially at high temperature. Vehicles and industries are the main sources of NOx. In Aalo region, there is no industry so vehicles form the main source of NOx. A very low concentration of NO2 was recorded at Aalo (Table 3.4.3) which is negligible as compared to the values of NAAQS approved by Ministry of Environment & Forests (see Table 3.4.4).
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Maximum level of NO2 recorded at Aalo was 1.79 g/ m3 during winter season. Based on these above observations we anticipate that NO2 at the project site must remain lower than the recorded value of NO2 at Aalo (1.79 g/ m3).

iii)

Sulphur dioxide (SO2) Sulphur dioxide is a colourless gas smelling pungent irritating odour. The main source of

SO2 is volcanoes, industrial processes and combustion of fuels such as oils and coal. Besides, coal and petroleum contain sulphur compounds and upon their combustion results in generating sulphur dioxide unless the sulphur compounds are removed before burning the fuel. SO2 forms H2SO4 in the presence of a catalyst such as NO2 that results in acid rain. Sulphur dioxide emissions are also a precursor to formation of particulates in air. The highest level of SO2 recorded in the region was 9.83 g/ m3 (see Table 3.4.3). This value is significantly lower than the values of NAAQS approved by Ministry of Environment & Forests (see Table 3.4.4).

Table 3.4.4 National ambient air quality standards approved by Ministry of Environment & Forests
Pollutants Time Ecological Concentration in Ambient Air Method of Weighted Industrial, Measurements Sensitive Residential, areas Rural & Other Areas 20 g m-3 80 g m-3 30 g m-3 80 g m-3 60 g m-3 100 g m-3 40 g m-3 60 g m-3 2 mg m-3 4 mg m-3 50 g m-3 80 g m-3 40 g m-3 80 g m-3 60 g m-3 100 g m-3 40 g m-3 60 g m-3 2 mg m-3 4 mg m-3` Improved West and Greek Method Ultraviolet flourescence Modified Jacob Hochheises (Na-Arsenite) Chemiluminescence Gravimetric TOEM Beta attentuation

Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx)

Annual Average 24 hour

Annual 24hour

Particulate Annual Matter 24 hour (size less than 10 g) Particulate Annual Matter 24hour Matter (Size < 2.5 g) Carbon Monoxide (CO) 8 hour 1 hour

Gravimetric TOEM Beta attentuation

Non dispersive infrared spectroscopy

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The major sources of noise or sound are motor vehicle, blasting, mechanical equipment, compressed air horns, and turbulent flow of the river water in the region. Noise pollution affects mainly animal life that causes stress, increases risk of death by changing the delicate balance in predator/ prey detection and avoidance, etc. However, the traffic density in the area of the proposed Heo hydroelectric project is very low; hence, there is no other point sources of noise pollution. Noise from various sources intrudes unreasonably into the daily activities of human beings and animals creating adverse effects. Except the gurgling sounds of river, there was no other unwarranted sound in the project area. The sound levels in the project did not vary much, which ranged from 51.3 3.24 to 71.3 5.30 dBA with minimum at Purying village and maximum at proposed power house site. The higher values were recorded at proposed dam and power house sites which can be attributed to the turbulent noise of river flow (Table 3.4.5). The recorded noise levels in the project area were within the range limits as approved by the national standard, Government of India (Table 3.4.6).

Table 3.4.5. Noise levels at various sites in the vicinity of Heo H.E. Project
Location Winter Purying village (N1) Dam site (N2) Power House (N3) Nearest Road (N4) Pre-monsoon Purying village (N1) Dam site (N2) Powerhouse site (N3) Road site (N4) Monsoon Purying village (N1) Dam site (N2) Powerhouse site (N3) Road site (N4) 26 August, 2009; 10:00 AM 27 August, 2009; 12:00 AM 27 August, 2009; 2:00 AM 27 August, 2009; 10:00 PM 53.5 3.81 61.6 4.22 58.6 4.66 53.2 4.74 23 May, 2009; 12:00 PM 23 May, 2009; 2:00 PM 23 May, 2009; 3:30 PM 23 May, 2009; 10:00 PM 52.7 4.14 69.5 4.16 71.3 5.30 52.1 4.67 7 Feb, 2009; 2:50 PM 7 Feb, 2009; 12:10 PM 8 Feb, 2009; 10:30 AM 8 Feb, 2009; 2.00 PM 51.3 3.24 68.1 6.73 53.5 4.70 51.6 4.12 Date and time Sound level dB(A)

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Area code Category of Area Limits in dB (A) Leq Day time A B C D Industrial Area Commercial Area Residential Area Silence Zone 75 65 55 50 Night Time 70 55 45 40

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3.4.2.6 Conclusion During our field surveys, we did not find any point source of noise pollution in the surroundings of proposed project area. Vehicular movement is very poor while the practice of slash and burning is not prevalent as compared to lower reaches of the West Siang. The ambient air pollutants were recorded at Aalo, which must be significantly lower at the project sites as compared. The noise level is also low, though the landscape is mountainous, therefore, the sound produced by the flow of river is pronounced for a larger area.

The baseline data of air environment would be useful in preparing the mitigation measures of air quality during the construction phase. All the parameters are anticipated to increase significantly during the construction phase.

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3.5

BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT

3.5.1 FLORAL ELEMENTS 3.5.1.1 Introduction Arunachal Pradesh is located in the North East region of the country, bordering Bhutan in the West, China in the North, Myanmar in the East and the state of Assam in the South. The state forming a part of Eastern Himalaya slopes down to the plains of Assam. Forests cover about 82% area of the state and numurous turbulent streams, roaring rivers, deep gorges, lofty mountains, snow clad peaks and phenomenal diversity of flora and fauna characterize landscape. Kameng, Subansiri, Siang, Lohit and Tirap are major rivers drain these hills and catchments to the mighty rivers Brahmputra. The climate varies from sub-tropical in the south to temperate and alpine in the north. The temperature in the state ranges from below zero to 310C. The major forest types occurring in the state are tropical semi-evergreen, sub-tropical wet and pine forest, montane wet temperate and temperate mixed coniferous and alpine forest. Each forest type depicting its own its characterstic biodiversity, therefore, the area is considered to be one of the bio-diversity Hot Spot of the world. Over 4500 species of flowering plants and 400 species of pteridophytes are found in the state.

Unlike other regions within the Eastern Himalaya, this region was not able to attract as many plant collectors and explorers possibly due to tough and inaccessible terrain. H. Wilcox was the first botanist who for the first time explored the Mishmee hills in 1826. Subsequently, Griffith in 1836 botanized this region and his Flora of Mishmi Hills enumerates 900 species of flowering plants and 22 species of ferns and fern allies. With advent of 20th Century, plant explorations in this region gained momentum which resulted in the publication of some important floristic accounts of this region such as On the Botany of Abor Expedition by Burkill (1924-25); Botanical Expedition in the Mishmi Hills by Kingdom-Ward (1929-1931); Lohit Valley by Kingdon Ward (1953) and A sketch of the vegetation of Aka Hills based on the collections of Bor (1931-1934) which enumerates 1549 species of flowering plants, 9 species of gymnosperms and 58 species of ferns and fern allies. With the inception of the Eastern Circle of Botanical Survey of India at Shillong, various parts of Arunachal viz. Kameng, Subansiri, Siang, Lohit, Tirap, etc. were surveyed for its vegetational wealth, of which Rao and Panigrahi (1961); Deb (1961); Rao (1974); Sahni (1981), Chowdhery (1996) are worth mentioning.
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3.5.1.2

Forest Types in the Catchment Area

Arunachal Pradesh is reported to have 80.93 per cent of its total geographic area under forest cover, which includes very dense, moderately dense and open forest (FSI, 2005). The forest of Arunachal Pradesh fall under five major categories of vegetation viz., tropical, sub-tropical, temperate broad-leaved and temperate coniferous, sub-alpine and alpine forests. The type of vegetation met within a given locality depends on the climate, soil and past treatment. These major types are interlaced with subtypes and secondary forests depending upon local conditions. The catchment area of the proposed Heo HE Project covers almost all types of these forests. The forests in the project area fall in Mechuka range of Aalo Forest division.

The vegetation in these forests, particularly in lower valleys of project area comprises subtropical wet hill forests with many tropical semi-evergreen plant species. Wet temperate broadleaved and dry temperate coniferous forests occur in the upper valleys. In the entire valley of the catchment, the area is either covered by dense forests along the river banks or degraded open forests interspersed with settlements in upper reaches. The forests present in the Heo and adjoining areas have been grouped into different forest types following the classification of Champion & Seth (1968), Kaul and Haridasan (1987), Negi, (1989, 1996), Chowdhery (1996) and Muddgal & Hajra (1999). The major forest types found in this catchment are discussed below.

i) 8B/CI East Himalayan Sub-tropical wet hill forests These forests occur on hilly terrain between 1000-2000 m and are largely dominated by a number of evergreen species, though some deciduous trees also occur in the top canopy. Many of the tropical genera like Bischofia, Duabanga, Pterospermum, Tetrameles, etc are absent and more temperate genera like Alnus, Lithocarpus, Lyonia and Quercus appear. These forests were observed in Gapo, Menying and Purying areas. The top canopy is comprised of Albizia odoratissima, Alnus nepalensis, Altingia excelsa, Castanopsis indica, Engelhardtia spicata, Macaranga denticulata, Ostodes paniculata, Phoebe hainesiana, Schima wallichii, etc. The second storey is represented by some evergreen tree species like Alangium chinense, Brassiopsis aculeata, Ficus oligodon, Garcinia cowa, Gynocardia odorata, Oroxylum indicum, Rhus chinensis, etc. The third storey consists of small trees and shrubs. Among shrubs are Bambusa tulda, Boehmeria macrophylla, Clerodendrum
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griffithianum, Debregeasia longifolia, Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, Eurya acuminata, Leea asiatica, Maesa chisia, Oxyspora paniculata, Sida acuta, etc. Epiphytes and climbers are many. Climbers belong to the species of Canvalia, Cissus, Clematis, Dioscorea, Raphidophora and Stephania. Epiphytes are represented by ferns viz., Colysis, Lepisorus, Vittaria and orchids such as Cymbidium, Dendrobium, etc. The prominent herbs are Ageratum conyzoides, Anaphalis busua, Anemone

vitifolia, Aster mollisculus, Bidens bipinnata, Cardamine hirsuta, Crassocephalum crepidioides, Impatiens angustiflora, Persicaria capitata, P. barabata, Setaria glauca, Saccharum longisetosum, Spiranthes sinensis, Themeda arundinacea, Thysanolaena latifolia, Viola betonicifolia, etc.

ii) 11B/C1 East Himalayan wet temperate forests These forests occur between 1800-2700 m elevations on the higher hills of Mechuka range of West Siang district. The oaks contribute the greater part of top canopy with some laurels. The top canopy is represented by Acer acuminatum, Castanopsis hystrix, Litsea sericea, Magnolia pterocarpa, Michelia doltsopa, Prunus cerasoides, Quercus semiserrata, Q. lamellosa and Tetradium fraxinifolium. The middle storey is dominated by moderate sized trees and shrubs like Eurya acuminata, Ilex dipyrena, Lyonia ovalifolia, Prunus cerasoides, Rhododendron arboreum, Symplocos thaefolia, etc. Other associates of middle storey are Berberis asiatica, Dichroa febrifuga, Myrsine semiserrata, Oxyspora paniculata, Rubus niveus, Spiraea canescens and Thamnocalamus spathiflorus. Climbers and twiners are extremely rare except for the species of Clematis, Rubus and Vitis. These forests were observed in the upper reaches of Rapum and Rego areas. The ground flora consists of herbaceous species belonging to genera like Anaphalis, Anemone, Cardamine, Campanula, Circium, Carduus, Fragaria, Ludwigia, Plantago, Persicaria, Potentilla, Pilea, Stellaria and Viola.

iii) 12/1S1 Alder forest These forests are pure forests present along the banks of streams and water courses. These forests are mostly the primary colonizers of degraded lands, particularly the landslides. The forests are very dense with very thin understorey. These forests were commonly observed near Meing, Purying and Rego areas.

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iv) 13/C6 East Himalayan dry temperate coniferous forest This is a mixed coniferous forest type found in the inner valleys of Mechuka Reserve forest. These forests are characterized by the predominant conifer blue pine (Pinus wallichiana) as the principal species. The tall trees of blue pine are more or less open in nature. The top and the middle storey are composed of blue pine, whereas the lower storey and ground vegetation have the typical coniferous associates. These include Acer acuminatum, Lyonia ovalifolia, Populus ciliata, Prunus cerasoides, Quercus lamellosa, Rhododendron arboreum and Salix wallichiana. Shrubby layer is represented by Berberis wallichiana, Cotoneaster microphyllus, Eurya acuminata, Indigofera heterantha, Rosa macrophylla and Rubus niveus. The ground flora consists of some terrestrial ferns, herbs and grasses belonging to the genera such as Anaphalis, Anemone, Artemisia, Circium, Dicranopteris, Digitaria, Dryopteris, Fragaria, Lycopodium, Potentilla, Pilea, Pteridium, Rumex, Stellaria, etc.

3.5.1.3 Vegetation Profile in the Influence Zone The description of vegetation of the project area has been presented in terms of zones which correspond to topographic/elevational class within the the 10 km radius influence zone of the project. These are as follows: i) ii) iii) Area between Padusa village and Hiri village Area around Purying village Area beyond Rapum village and its environ

i)

Area between Padusa village and Hiri village This area predominantly has degraded mixed subtropical forests in the lower reaches. Padusa

and adjoining Hiri area from the banks of Yarjep is a gentle slope with little settlement. The natural vegetation comprises Albizia odoratissima, Altingia excelsa, Castanopsis indica, Engelhardtia spicata, Eurya acuminata, Macaranga denticulata, Ostodes paniculata, Quercus glauca and Saurauia punduana. The shrub elements are composed of decumbent and spreading species, viz., Aconogonum molle, Bambusa pallida, Boehmeria macrophylla, Debregeasia longifolia, Leea asiatica, Maesa chisia, Ricinus communis, etc. Alnus nepalensis grows mainly along water courses and is the

dominant colonizer of new landslip areas. The undergrowth is not dense and consists of few canes, palms and shrubs. The tree trunks are often seen laden with epiphytes such as ferns, mosses and
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lichens and orchids. Cuscuta reflexa, Scurrula elata and Loranthus odoratus are notable parasitic plants in the area. Vegetation of major adjoining nalas such as Sarak I, Sarak II and Song Shi Bu is degraded and mainly composed of some riparian shrubby plants. Aconogonum molle, Alsophila spinulosa, Boehmeria macrophylla, Buddleja asiatica, Oxyspora paniculata, Pandanus nepalensis, etc are important shrubs along these nalas. The herbaceous flora includes Ageratum conyzoides, Bidens bipinnata, Cyrtococcum accrescens, Fagopyrum esculentum, Gnaphalium pensalvania, Houttunia cordata, Isachne albens, Saccharum spontaneum, Thysanolaena latifolia, etc.

ii)

Area around Purying village The lower reaches in this zone are characterized by degraded forests whereas areas lying

above Purying village are characterized by temperate broad-leaved forest passing into dry mixed coniferous forest on the higher elevations. Secondary forests are found in the lower reaches especially in the upstream of Song Shi Bu and Purying nala. The river terraces and nala fans are being stabilized by Albizia odoratissima, Altingia excelsa, Alnus nepalensis, Macaranga denticulata, Rhus succedanea, etc. Few dense bamboo (Bambusa pallida) thickets and some tall grasses such as Themeda anthera and Setaria palmifolia were observed in abandoned area due to Jhum practice. The other plants observed in this zone are Brassiopsis aculeata, Engelhardtia spicata, Ficus oligodon, F. semicordata, Rhus chinensis and Saurauia roxburghii. Shrub elements are composed of Ardisia thyrsiflora, Debregeasia longifolia, Elaeagnus parviflora, Hydrangea robusta, Leea asiatica, Oxyspora paniculata, Vernonia vokameriifolia, etc. The tree trunks are loaded with a number of epiphytic mosses, ferns and orchids. A notable angiospermic epiphytic plants viz., Aeschynanthus parasiticus and Polygonatum oppositifolium were recorded on Engelhardtia spicata.

The vegetation around Purying is characterized by open degraded forest interspersed with Jhum cultivation in the middle reaches. A prominent tree species observed in the area are Alnus nepalensis, Engelhardtia spicata, Macaranga denticulata, Pinus walllichiana and Xylosma longifolium. Climbers and epiphytes are not common. Species of Cissus, Dioscorea, Rhaphidophora, Rubia, Stephania, etc are important twiners in the area. The shrubby species include Ardisia thyrsiflora, Chromolaena odoratum, Leucosceptrum canum, Maesa chisia, Oxyspora paniculata, Strobilanthes extensa, Rubus ellipticus and Saurauia roxburghii. Herbaceous elements include

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species of Ageratum, Arisaema, Artemisia, Crowfurdia, Hydrocotyle, Impatiens, Malva, Oxalis, Rumex, Saccharum, Sida and Themeda.

iii)

Area beyond Rapum village and its environ There are dense alder, wet temperate broad-leaf and dry mixed coniferous forest above

Rapum village. Rapum area from the bank of Yarjep is a moderately steep slope interspersed with Jhum cultivation. At lower reaches, the natural vegetation comprises open degraded mixed forest. Albizia odoratissima, Alnus nepalensis, Altingia excelsa, Castanopsis hystrix, Cinnamomum tamala, Schefflera impressa and Tetradium fraxinifolium are seen in the top storey. Shrubs are Ardisia thrysiflora, Brassiopsis aculeata, Dichora fabrifuga, Elaeagnus parviflora, Leucosceptrum canum, Maesa chisia, Oxyspora paniculata, Rubus ellipticus, etc. Tree trunks are clothed with a number of epiphytic mosses, lichens and ferns. Herbaceous flora includes species of Anemone, Artemisia, Brachystemma, Carduus, Dicranopteris, Fragaria, Impatiens, Ptridium, Persicaria, Potentilla, Spiranthes sinensis, etc.

The vegetation around Rego village is characterized by mixed coniferous forest viz., Cephalotaxus graffithii, Eurya acuminata, Magnolia campbelli, Michelia doltsopa, Pinus

wallichina, Quercus lamellosa, Rhododendron arboreum, Shefflera impressa, and Tetradium fraxinifolium. Climbers are few and represented by species of Clematis, Parthenocissus, Smilax and Vitis. Understorey consists of dense thickets of Thamnocalamus spathiflora with Berberis hookeri and Cotoneaster bacillaris. Other common shrubs are Gaultheria fragrantissima, Hypericum oblongum, Rabdosia rugosa, Rosa macrophylla and Rubus niveus. The herbaceous flora includes species of Anaphalis, Anemone, Conyza, Carduus, Desmodium, Digitaria, Potentilla, Rhynchospora, Scirpus, etc.

3.5.1.4 Forest and Floristics of Project Area The present ecological study in the project area of Heo HE Project was undertaken with the objectives of preparing a checklist of flora in the submergence area and locations where project components are proposed and its adjoining areas; listing of rare/ endangered, economically important and medicinal plant species; determination of frequency, abundance and density of different vegetation components.
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The field survey for all the above aspects of the ecological study pertaining to winter, premonsoon and monsoon season was conducted during different seasons of the year 2009 i.e. Feb, April and September, respectively. Besides the primary surveys in the catchment area of the project, we sourced our data on the floral diversity of this region from the literature cited above. The database has been pooled to present the results in terms of vegetation of submergence area, dam area and powerhouse area.

i)

Vegetation in Submergence Area The total submergence area in the proposed project is around 8.4 ha (0.084 sq km) and most

of the submergence area falls in the gorge. The left bank of the proposed project submergence area comprises mostly the degraded sub-tropical forest interspersed with jhum fields. On the right bank the vegetation in the vicinity of proposed project area is fairly dense and patchy consists of wet broad leaved sub-tropical forest with many riverine semi-evergreen species. On the left bank, the tree canopy is comprised of Actinodaphne obovata, Albizia odoratissima, Alnus nepalensis, Altingia excelsa, Cinnamomum glaucscens, Engelhardtia spicata, Ficus semicordata, Macaranga denticulata and Saurauia punduana (Plate 3.5.1a). Understorey is represented by small trees and shrubs. Boehmeria macrophylla, Debregeasia longifolia, Hydrangea robusta, Leucosceptrum canum, Luculia pinceana, Melocalamus compactiflorus, Maesa chisia and Rubus burkillii, are important shrubs. Epiphytes and climbers are few. Among climbers are Canvalia ensiformis, Cissus repens, Dioscorea bulbifera, Parthenocissus semicordata, Rhaphidophora decursiva, Rubia sikkimensis and Stephania glandulifera. Herbaceous flora is represented by pteridophytes, herbs and grasses. Ageratum conyzoides, Elatine ambigua, Equisetum diffusum, Hedychium spicatum, Microstegium vagans, Miscanthus nepalensis, Musa bulbisiana, Phragmites karka, Pilea scripta, Rumex nepalensis, Setaria palmifolia, etc are important herbs (Plate 3.5.1.e). About 93 species of angiosperms and gymnosperms including trees, shrubs, climbers and herbs are recorded in the submergence area during survey (Table 3.5.1). The epiphytic flora comprises of ferns like Asplenium ensiforme, Drynaria propinqua, Lepisorus nudus and Vttaria flexuosa. Terrestrial ferns are few viz. Equisetum diffusum, Pteridium aquilinum, Selaginella indica, etc (Table 3.5.2).

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At the right bank, a very dense mixed sub-tropical wet hill forest occurs at lower reaches in comparison to left bank. Some thickets of tree ferns (Alsophila spinulosa), banana (Musa bulbisiana), palms (Arenga sacchrifera), etc are found in the understorey with other shrubs (Plate 3.5.1b). The dominant tree species are Albizia odoratissima, Alnus nepalensis, Altingia excelsa, Castanopsis indica, Cinnamomum glaucescens, Ficus semicordata, Kydia calycina, Macaranga denticulata, Phoebe hainesiana, Pinus wallichiana, etc. The other riverine flora comprises tall grasses such as Imperata cylindrica, Phragmites karka, Saccharum spontaneum, Themeda arundinacea and Thysanolaena latifolia.

Table 3.5.1 List of flowering plants in Submergence area


Species Trees Albizia odoratissima Alnus nepalensis Altingia excelsa Brassiopsis aculeata Castanopsis indica Celtis tetrandra Cinnamomum glaucescens Engelhardtia spicata Eurya acuminata Ficus semicordata F. oligodon Kydia calycina Lithocarpus elegans Macaranga indica Pinus wallichiana Rhus chinensis Saurauia punduana Schefflera bengalensis Schima wallichii Xylosma longifolia Kalo Siris Utis Singri Hinguri Gonsoroi Murmura Pichola Malata Blue Pine Bhakimilo Paniposala Makrisal Tang-ensing Mimosaceae Betulaceae Hamamelidaceae Araliaceae Fagaceae Ulmaceae Lauraceae Juglandaceae Theaceae Moraceae Moraceae Malvaceae Fagaceae Euphorbiaceae Pinaceae Anacardiaceae Actinidiaceae Araliaceae Theaceae Flacourtiaceae 3-98 Local name Family

Chapter 3.5 Biological Environment Floral Elements

Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment Shrubs Aconogonum molle Aeschynanthus parasitichus Ardisia thyrsiflora Arenga saccharifera Bambusa pallida Bambusa tulda Boehmeria macrophylla Buddleja asiatica Calamus erectus Debregeasia longifolia Hydrangea robusta Leea asiatica Luculia pinceana Maesa chisia Melocalamus compactiflorus Rubus ellipticus R. burkillii R. niveus Zanthoxylum acanthopodium Climbers Cissus repens Crowfurdia angustata Derris multiflora Dioscorea bulbifera Rhaphidophora decursiva Rubia sikkimensis Smilax aspera Stephania glandulifera Toddalia asiatica Herbs Achyranthes aspera Arisaema tortuosum Arthraxon lancifolius Amaranthaceae Araceae Poaceae Vitaceae Gentianaceae Papilionaceae Dioscoreaceae Araceae Rubiaceae Smilacaceae Menispermaceae Rutaceae Thothney Sago Palm Makal Bijali Kamli Jeng Tusare Daral Hisalu Yokhung Polygonaceae Gesneriaceae Myrsinaceae Arecaceae Poaceae Poaceae Urticaceae Loganiaceae Arecaceae Urticaceae Hydrangeaceae Leeaceae Rubiaceae Myrsinaceae Poaceae Rosaceae Rosaceae Rosaceae Rutaceae

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Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment Capillipedium assimile Centella asiatica Commelina benghalensis Elatine ambigua Galium asperuloides Gerardinia diversifolia Houttuynia cordata Hedychium spicatum Hedyotis scandens` Hydrocotyle nepalensis Lecanthus peduncularis Microstegium vagans Musa bulbisiana Pilea scripta Polygonatum oppositifolium Pteris stenophylla Saccharum longisetosum Sida rhombifolia Spiranthes sinensis Synotis cappa Thysanolaena latifolia. Viola betonicifolia Poaceae Apiaceae Commelinaceae Elatinaceae Rubiaceae Urticaceae Saururaceae Zingiberaceae Rubiaceae Apiaceae Urticaceae Poaceae Musaceae Urticaceae Liliaceae Pteridaceae Poaceae Malvaceae Orchidaceae Asteraceae Poaceae Violaceae

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Table 3.5.2 Some of the common terrestrial pteridophytes of submergence area of Heo HEP project
Sl.No. Species 1. 2. 3. 5. 7. 8 9. Equisetum diffusum E. ramosissimum Selaginella indica Alsophila spinulosa Lygodium salcifolium Adiantum lunulatum Pteris subquinata Family Equisetaceae Equisetaceae Selaginellaceae Cyatheaceae Lygodiaceae Adiantaceae Pteridaceae Habit herb herb herb tree herb herb herb Altitude (m) Up to 3000 up to 3000 1000-2800 Up to 1500 Up to 2000 up to 1500 1000-1500 3-100

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Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment 10. Ptridium aquilinum Pteridiaceae herb Up to 2000

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ii)

Vegetation around dam site An open degraded sub-tropical broad-leaved forest occurs around the dam axis. The left bank

of the proposed project area comprises mostly the Jhum fields (Shifting cultivation), only patchy populations of few semi-evergreen plant species occur along the river bank. On the right bank the vegetation is fairly dense and consists of mixed broad leaved subtropical forest. At the left bank, the tree layer is represented by few tree species like Actinodaphne obovata, Albizia odoratissima, Alnus nepalensis, Altingia excelsa, Brassiopsis aculeata, Casearia vareca, Cinnamomum glaucescens, Saurauia punduana and Ttetradium fraxinifolium. Understorey is represented by some small trees and shrubs. Aconogonum molle, Ardisia thyrsiflora, Boehmeria macrophylla, Debregeasia longifolia, Elaeagnus parviflora, Hydrangea robusta, Leucosceptrum canum, Maesa chisia, Melocalamus compactiflorus, Phragmites karka, Rubus ellipticus, etc are common shrubs. Climbers and epiphytes are not common. Among climbers are Cissus repens, Cuscuta reflexa, Parthenocissus thomsonii, Rhaphidophora decursiva, Rubia sikkimensis and Stephania glandulifera. Herbs are represented by herbs and tall grasses like Artemisia nilagirica, Arthraxon lancefolius, Commelina benghalensis, Coniogramme caudata, Equisetum ramosssimum, Hedychium spicatum, Imperata cylindrica, Pteridium aquilinum, Saccharum longisetosum, Setaria palmifolia and Thysanolaena latifolia.

The right bank has more dense forest in the lower reaches in comparison to left bank. The dominant tree species include Albizia odoratissima, Alnus nepalensis, Castanopsis indica, Cinnamomum glaucescens, Engelhardtia spicata, Ficus semicordata, Macaranga denticulata and Saurauia punduana. Herbs are few and dominated by tall grasses like Saccharum spontaneum, S. longisetosum, Themeda arundinacea and Thysanolaena latifolia.

iii)

Power House site A surface powerhouse has been proposed on the left bank of river Yarjep near Meing village.

An open mixed sub-tropical forest occurs in the vicinity of project area. The dominant tree species in the vicinity are Albizia odoratissima, Alnus nepalensis, Altingia excelsa, Brassiopsis aculeata, Celtis tetrandra, Engelhardtia spicata, Juglans regia, Lannea cormandelica, Macaranga denticulata and Toona microcarpa (Plate 3.5.1c). The lower storey is of small trees and shrubs like Bambusa tulda,
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Boehmeria macrophylla, Brassiopsis griffithii, Chromolaena odoratum, Debregeasia longifolia, Ficus oligodon, Leea asiatica, Rubus ellipticus, etc. Climbers and epiphytes are few. Cissus repens, Melocalamus compactiflora, Piper pedicellatum, Rhaphidophora decursiva, Tetrastigma obovata, Smilax aspera, etc. are important twiners. In addition to these, Epiphytes are mostly represented by many species of ferns and orchids like species of Bulbophyllum, Cymbidium, Dendrobium, Rhynchostylis, etc. The epiphytic ferns are represented by species of Colysis, Lepisorus, Pyrrotia, Vittaria, etc. The ground floor is occupied by many herbs and grasses like Achyranthes aspera, Ageratum conyzoides, Alpinia allughas, Artemisia nilagirica, Capilippedium assimile, Carex longipes, Commelina benghalensis, Drynaria corymbosa, Equisetum diffusum, Hedychium

spicatum, Mischanthus nepalensis, Oplismenus compositus, Persicaria capitata, Pilea scripta, P. umbrosa, Saccharum longisetosum and Thysanolaena latifolia.

The right bank has a dense alder forest in lower reaches, while degraded mixed broad-leaved sub-tropical forest in middle reaches. Understorey is represented by some tall shrubs and herbs.

3.5.1.5 Community Structure Forest is a complex ecological system, composed of distinct biological units called forest communities that have come into being by combined action, reaction and co-reaction of a variety of organisms with complex factors of the habitat. Thus forests have a direct and beneficial influence on all parts of the biosphere as result of their heat absorption capacity, influence on water cycle, and emissivity in the infrared band.

Community is an assemblage of organisms living in a particular area or physical habitat or it is an aggregation of organisms which form a distinct ecological unit. Before going to expel any idea related to numerical strength of the species in the community, it is prerequisite to understand the community quantitatively. The phytosociological data gives an idea about the numerical strength of the species in a particular community.

In order to understand the community structure, vegetation sampling was carried out at different locations in the project area. During our surveys in Feb, 2009, April 2009 and Sept, 2009, two sites/stands viz., dam site (Purying, left bank of Yarjep) and power house site (Meing, left bank
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of Yarjep) were selected for vegetation structure study on the basis of the presence of forest patches in the area.

i)

Density and basal area The tree layer was poor in both sites of the project area (i.e. dam site and powerhouse site)

due to past and on-going land use changes including shifting cultivation (Jhum) (Table 3.5.3). Similarly, the herb layer was poor in all the three sampling seasons except monsoon (Table 3.5.4). Table 3.5.5 gives the number of herb species occurring on each site in different seasons.

On the dam site, the tree strata was dominated by Saurauia punduana having maximum density (100 trees/ha) and frequency (60%). The associated species in the tree canopy were Alnus nepalensis, Albizia odoratissima, Ficus semicordata, Cinnamomum glaucescens, Ficus oligodon, Lithocarpus elegans, Macaranga denticulata and Schefflera bengalensis. In the shrub layer Melocalamus compactiflorus was found to be the most dominant species having maximum density. The dominance of Melocalamus compactiflorus may be due to its capability to grow in shaded areas and spreading nature. Alnus nepalensis was found to be the most dominant species in the sapling layer. Other species in the sapling layer included Macaranga denticulata, Saurauia punduana, Cinnamomum glauscens and Schefflera bengalensis (Table 3.5.3). The complete absence of seedlings of all dominant tree species in a forest is attributed to severe trampling due to high human disturbance in the area.

At power house site, tree and sapling strata were dominated by Macaranga denticulata. The associated species in the tree canopy were Altingia excelsa, Juglans regia, Rhus chinensis, Alangium chinense, Albizia odoratissima, Schefflera bengalensis, Engelhardtia spicata and Tetradium rutaecarpa. In the shrub layer Melocalamus compactiflorus dominates in the site. The presence of Melocalamus compactiflorus and Rubus burkillii shows the biotic disturbance in the area. Other competing species in the understorey were Debregeasia longifolia, Maesa chisia, Leucosceptrum canum, Aconogonum molle and Boehmeria macrophylla (Table 3.5.3). Absence of seedlings of all the dominant tree species encountered in this site shows severe biotic pressure.

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Table 3.5.3 Various ecological attributes of woody vegetation in Heo HEP Project
Species V1 Trees 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Alnus nepalensis Albizia odoratissima Saurauia punduana Engelhardtia spicata Cinnamomum glaucescens Lithocarpus elegans Ficus semicordata Maesa robusta Ficus oligodon Schefflera bengalensis Macaranga denticulata Total Saplings 1 2 3 4 5 Saurauia punduana Alnus nepalensis Cinnamomum glaucescens Macaranga denticulata Schefflera bengalensis Total Shrubs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Debregeasia longifolia Hydrangea robusta Rubus burkillii Strobilanthes extensa Melocalamus compactiflorus Boehmeria macrophylla Maesa chisia Luculia pinceana Rubus ellipticus 20 30 20 20 40 20 30 20 10 120 160 160 360 1040 320 240 80 80 1.543 4.534 1.465 3.235 0.640 3.617 7.918 4.578 1.815 18.750 34.607 20.032 33.510 60.273 33.219 48.740 27.128 13.553 3-104 20 10 10 30 10 80 80 240 40 120 40 520 2.035 4.823 0.452 3.959 1.256 12.525 56.630 97.161 23.802 92.184 30.220 30 30 60 10 10 10 20 10 10 10 10 210 40 30 100 10 20 10 30 10 20 10 10 290 3.419 33.912 9.837 0.962 4.084 3.215 28.496 5.024 11.078 0.804 0.784 101.614 31.444 58.004 72.735 9.157 15.677 11.374 47.912 13.154 22.560 9.001 8.982 Frequency (F%) Density(ha-1) TBC(M2ha-1) Dam site (Purying, left bank of Yarjep) 1310m IVI

Chapter 3.5 Biological Environment Floral Elements

Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment 10 Leea asiatica Total V2 Trees 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Albizia odoratissima Macaranga denticulata Juglans regia Schefflera bengalensis Macropanax dispermus Cinnamomum glauscescens Rhus chinensis Alangium chinense Altingia excelsa Tetradium rutaecarpa Engelhardtia spicata Total Saplings 1 2 3 4 5 6 Macaranga denticulata Juglans regia Brassiopsis aculeata Prunus rufa Engelhardtia spicata Cinnamomum glauscescens Total Shrubs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Debregeasia longifolia Maesa chisia Leucosceptrum canum Aconogonum molle Rubus burkillii Boehmeria macrophylla Melocalamus compactiflorus Total 20 20 30 20 40 20 30 180 160 120 120 120 480 80 3040 4120 3.630 4.559 2.412 1.099 4.154 0.904 2.007 18.765 34.338 38.320 32.430 19.879 56.011 17.872 101.148 20 10 20 10 10 10 80 80 40 80 40 40 40 320 5.281 2.462 2.769 0.452 2.123 0.804 13.891 88.021 42.722 69.937 28.255 40.281 30.787 10 40 30 10 10 10 10 10 30 10 10 180 20 60 30 20 10 10 30 30 50 10 10 280 13.288 24.079 10.258 1.658 1.661 5.024 2.722 2.643 11.787 1.385 1.256 75.762 30.238 75.433 40.921 14.887 11.319 15.758 19.863 19.758 50.082 10.955 10.785 10 220 40 2600 1.256 30.602 10.188

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Power house site (Meing, left bank of Yarjep), 1150m

TBC = Total basal cover; IVI = Important value index


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Table 3.5.4 Various ecological attributes of herbaceous vegetation at different sites in Heo HEP
V1 Dam site (Purying, left bank of Yarjep), 1310m Winter Species Phragmites karka Vernonia scandens Setaria palmifolia Equisetum ramossimum Musa bulbisiana Miscanthus nudipes Hedychium spicatum Athyrium sp. Desmodium gangeticum Adiantum lunulatum Persicaria capitata Carex filicina Elatine ambigua Desmodium caudatum Agrostis himalayana Pteris sp. Selaginella indica Oplismenus compositus Bidens bipinnata Hydrocotyle nepalensis Valeriana hardwickii Cyperus rotundus Muhlenbergia viminea Gnaphalium luteo-album Digitaria cruciata Arthraxon lancifolius Conyza japonica Melilotus indica Density(ha-1) 90000 1000 6000 2000 2000 64000 4000 IVI 135.677 10.416 20.330 9.547 28.155 71.458 24.416 Premonsoon Density(ha-1) 80000 6000 2000 1000 44000 2000 2000 4000 18000 20000 IVI 134.912 15.971 7.407 19.200 42.533 17.583 7.407 8.609 22.606 23.772 Monsoon Density(ha-1) 14000 8000 26000 46000 3000 28000 8000 20000 4000 48000 4000 1000 20000 4000 5000 10000 4000 112000 98000 6000 42000 IVI 7.586 7.117 10.126 24.176 3.841 10.264 9.903 7.241 3.841 17.607 3.319 2.768 12.248 3.999 4.489 5.835 3.919 43.097 43.559 12.529 16.416 3-106

Chapter 3.5 Biological Environment Floral Elements

Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment Sida rhombifolia Capillepedium assimile Artemisia nilagirica Xanthium indicum Eragrostis nigra Urena lobata Nepeta ciliaris 1000 12000 3000 1000 4000 3000 10000

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2.530 5.875 12.897 3.075 3.319 9.122 9.318

V2 Power house site (Meing, left bank of Yarjep), 1150m Musa sikkimensis Amomum aromaticum Majus pumilus Molineria capitulata Artemisisa nilagirica Carex longipes Capillipedium assimile Miscanthus nudipes Persicaria capitata Ageratum conyzoides Oplismenus compositus Bidens bipinnata Persicaria chinensis Cyperus cyperoides Pilea umbrosa Urena lobata Crassocephalum crepidioides Hedychium spicatum Prunella frutescens Kyllinga brevifolia Fimbristylis dichotoma Oxalis corniculata Isachne albens 1000 6000 2000 7000 12000 5000 20000 4000 2000 46.002 55.813 12.597 41.344 54.156 23.586 41.364 14.583 10.553 2000 2000 4000 6000 4000 4000 20000 4000 4000 20000 2000 77.612 18.872 17.174 37.724 14.891 20.557 35.270 12.743 12.925 42.287 9.943 4000 2000 23000 4000 4000 4000 36000 7000 7000 8000 20000 4000 4000 4000 20000 4.5174 3.6148 18.5311 7.1321 4.56449 5.214 30.0367 10.5012 16.079 59.1416 36.5311 4.36151 4.36151 4.33066 15.6796 3-107

Chapter 3.5 Biological Environment Floral Elements

Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment Commelina benghalensis Galium elegans Setaria palmifolia Pteris subquinata Brachiaria reptans Houttuynia cordata Selaginella indica Pimpinella diverssifolia Nepeta ciliaris 8000 4000 21000 6000 4000 3000 4000 8000 3000

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7.31635 4.25759 15.6394 8.46345 4.56449 4.0186 4.36151 6.44681 4.36112

Across both stands/sites the total tree density ranged from 280 trees/ha (powerhouse site) to 290 trees/ha (dam site). The sapling density was more (520 plants/ha) on dam site (Purying, left bank of Yarjep) compared to powerhouse site (320 plants/ha). The total density of shrubs varied from 2600 to 4120 individuals ha-1. It was comparatively higher at power house site (4120 individual ha-1) as compared to dam site (2600 individual ha-1). The maximum individual shrub density was recorded for Melocalamus compactiflorus at both the sites (Table 3.5.3). The total basal cover ranged from 75.762 m2/ha at power house site to 101.614 m2/ha at dam site. The lowest mean basal area was recorded for Macaranga denticulata (0.0783 m2/tree) at the dam site, whereas the highest mean basal area was recorded for Altingia excelsa (0.7850 m2/ tree) at the power house site. Macaranga denticulata was the single dominant tree species at power house site with an IVI of 75.433. Similarily, Saurauia punduana was the dominant species at the dam site with an IVI of 72.735 (Table 3.5.3).

Among herbs, on proposed dam site, Phragmites karka was the most dominant species having maximum density during winter (90000 plants/ha) and premonsoon (80000 plants/ha). It was followed by Miscanththus nepalensis (64000 plants/ha) during winter. Digitaria cruciata (112000 plants/ha) was the dominant species during monsoon (Table 3.5.4). As per IVI values, Phragmites karka (135.677) was the dominant species during winter and premonsoon (134.912). Arthraxon lancifolius was the dominant species during monsoon (43.559). The lowest IVI of 2.530 was noted in Sida rhombifolia during monsoon.
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At power house site, Capillipedium assimile was the dominant species having maximum density during winter and premonsoon (20000 plants/ha). Pilea umbrosa was the most dominant during monsoon (36000 plants/ha). Maximum value of IVI was observed in Amomum subulatum (55.813) during winter. It was followed by Artemisia nilagirica (54.156) and Musa bulbisiana (46.002) during the same season. The minimum IVI of 3.614 was noted for Ageratum conyzoides during monsoon.

Table 3.5.5 Number of herb species encountered on two project sites in different seasons
Seasons Site V1 Winter Premonsoon Monsoon 7 10 28 No. of species Site V2 9 11 24

ii)

Species Diversity The species diversity (H) in the tree stratum ranged from 2.059 (dam site) to 2.209 (power

house site). The species diversity for sapling and shrub strata ranged from 1.378 to 1.733 and 0.986 to 1.882, respectively (Table 3.5.6). The diversity for tree layer decreased from dam site to power house site. The shrub diversity was maximum on dam site and minimum at power house site. The herb species diversity increased from 1.046 (at dam site) during winter to 2.636 during monsoon (Table 3.5.6). Table 3.5.6 Species Diversity Indices (H) for different vegetation components at different sampling sites in Heo HE Project
Vegetation component Shannons Index (H) Winter Dam site (Purying, left bank of Yarjep) Trees Saplings Shrubs Herbs 2.059 1.378 1.882 1.046 2.059 1.378 1.882 1.559 2.059 1.378 1.882 2.636 3-109 Premonsoon Monsoon

Chapter 3.5 Biological Environment Floral Elements

Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment Powerhouse site (Meyning, left bank of Yarjep) Trees Saplings Shrubs Herbs 2.209 1.733 0.986 1.866 2.209 1.733 0.986 2.020 2.209 1.733 0.986 2.881

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iii)

Plant Biodiversity A total of 86 species of plants were recorded under the ecological investigation during

different sampling seasons. Out of which 19 were trees, 12 shrubs and 55 herbs. The ground vegetation comprised of ephemeral, annual and perennial species of grasses, sedges, legumes and non legume forbs.

iv)

Lower Plant Diversity (Cryptogams) Cryptogamic flora of Arunachal Pradesh is very rich with a diverse species composition.

However, studies on this component of the flora are largely lacking. As many as 54 species of algae belonging to 23 genera have been reported from the area. The lichen flora of Arunachal Pradesh is also rich in species composition with nearly 331 species of lichens belonging to 72 genera and 41 families. Pteridophytes are important constituents of the floristics of Arunachal Pradesh (Table 3.5.7). The Botanical Survey of India has recorded about 452 species of fern and fern allies from Arunachal Pradesh Himalaya.

Table 3.5.7 Some common pteridophtes of the Heo HEP influence zone (based on available literature)
Sl.No. Species 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Equisetum ramosissimum Selaginella indica Marsilea minuta Alsophila spinulosa Gymnosphaera gigantea Dicranopteris linearis Lygodium japonicum Adiantum edgeworthii Family Equisetaceae Selaginellaceae Marsileaceae Cyatheaceae -doGleicheniaceae Lygodiaceae Adiantaceae Habit herb herb herb herb tree herb creeping herb herb Altitude (m) Up to 3000 Up to 2800 Up to 1200 300-1500 Up to 1200 Up to 1500 200-2000 500-1000 3-110

Chapter 3.5 Biological Environment Floral Elements

Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 15. 16. A. lunulatum Vittaria sikkimensis V. flexuosa Pteris vittata Pteridium aquilinum Coniogramme caudata Pyrrosia adnascens Colysis pedunculata Lepisorus nudus -doVittariaceae -doPteridaceae Pteridiaceae Hemionitidaceae Polypodiaceae -do-doherb epiphytic herb epiphytic herb terr. fern terr. fern terr. Fern epi. fern epi. fern ep. fern Up to 1500 600-2000 300-4000 Up to 1500 600-2700 1200-2100 Up to 1200 up to 2000 1000-3600

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v)

Taxonomic diversity The proposed Heo H.E. Project area extends from nearby Meing (opposite of Gapo) to Purying

village. Out of the total number of about 17000 flowering plant species estimated to occur in India about 4,156 species of flowering plants are reported from Arunachal Himalaya (Mudgal & Hajra, 1999; BSI, 2006). There are nearly 330 species of angiosperms and gymnosperms in the Yarjep basin upstream of Meing (powerhouse site) (Annexure-III). The angiosperms are represented by about 93 families in these areas of which 77 are dicots and 16 are monocots. The dicotyledons are represented by 231 plant species belonging to 190 genera and 77 families (out of 2,917 genera and 327 families in India), while the monocotyledons are represented by 16 families, 65 genera and 98 species. Gymnosperms are represented by a single family, 1 genera and 1 species. The ratio of monocot to dicot species is 1:2.35 (98 monocots and 231 dicots). For monocots, family to genera, family to species and genera to species ratios are 1: 4.06, 1: 6.12 and 1: 1.50, respectively. The genus to species ratio for this region is around 1: 1.50 which is nearly similar to that of Arunachal Pradesh (1:3.17) (BSI, 2006). However, this ratio is much less in comparison to the corresponding ratio of 1:13 for the world and 1: 6 for India (Raizada and Saxena, 1978; Mudgal & Hajra, 1999). This result confirms the general view that within the same floral region flora of smaller areas has lower genus-species ratio.

Poaceae with 30 genera and 42 species and Asteraceae with 18 genera and 22 species are the largest families of monocots and dicots, respectively. Among Gymnosperms, Pinaceae is the single family represented by 1 genera and 1 species. The dominant genera represented by 5 or more species in the area are Impatiens (5), Rubus (6), Carex (5) and Cyperus (6). Many of these species were observed during our field visits conducted between February, 2009, April 2009 and September,
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2009. Besides the primary surveys in the influence area of the project, we sourced our data on the floral diversity of this region from the literature cited above.

vi)

Rarity and Endemism The project area is degraded due to high human pressure, large scale lopping, tree felling,

construction of roads, jhum, grazing, etc. Due to impact of jhum and shifting cultivation, some rich primary forest stands are destroyed and developed into degraded secondary forests. Nayar and Sastry (1987-1990) have reported some rare and endemic species viz., Cymbidium eburnum, Livistona jenkinsiana, Paphiopedilum fairrienum, Pschotriya aborensis, Xanthophyllum burkillii, etc. from low hills in the altitudinal range of 300-1500 m elevation (Table 3.5.8). Since the project falls within this altitudinal range there is possibility that some of these species may be present in the project area though they were not encountered during field sampling and survey. Given the level of human activity around the Intake and PH sites, and taking into account that the project land is mostly degraded forest or scrubs, the probability to encounter rare species on the project land itself is low. Table 3.5.8 Rare, vulnerable, endangered and endemic plants of low hills in the Heo HE project influence area (As per Red Data Book)
Species Family Altitude (m) 1000-1500 Up to 1000 1400-2000 300-1200 800-1400 Habit Status

Cymbidium eburnum Livistona jenkinsiana Paphiopedilum fairrienum Psychotria aborensis Xanthophyllum burkillii

Orchidaceae Arecaceae Orchidaceae Rubiaceae Xanthophyllaceae

Herb Tree Herb Shrub Tree

Vulnerable Endangered Endangered Endangered/ Endemic Rare/ endemic

vii)

Epiphytes Epiphytes are often attached to the trunks and branches of trees. Angiospermic epiphytes in the

project area mostly belong to the families Orchidaceae and Araliaceae. Some species of the epiphytic orchids belonging to the genera Bulbophyllum, Cymbidium, Dendrobium, etc. were observed on trees in the project area. The area is also rich in epiphytic ferns such as Colysis, Lepisorus, Polypodioides, Pyrrosia, Vittaria, etc. A large number of non vascular epiphytes such as a variety of mosses and lichens are also seen growing on the barks of many trees and rocks in the forests.
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viii)

Parasitic Flora During the field surveys in different areas of the proposed Heo HE project, a few parasitic

plant species were observed belonging to the families Cuscutaceae and Loranthaceae. Cuscuta reflexa (Cuscutaceaae) was found growing on a wide range of hosts in the area such as, Chromolaena odorata, Maesa chisia and Saurauia roxburghii, while Scurrulla elata was found growing on Ficus semicordata in the project area.

ix)

Physiognomic Diversity The diversity of vegetation in Meing and its adjacent areas was assessed in terms of

physiognomy of its floral elements. Some of the families that showed diverse habit forms of trees, shrubs and climbers include Rosaceae and Euphorbiaceae. Rosaceae, for example, was represented by Fragaria nubicola (herb), Rubus ellipticus (shrub), Rubus niveus (climber) and Photinia cuspidata (tree). On the contrary, some of the families such as Magnoliaceae, Anacardiaceae, Aqifoliaceae, Bignoniaceae, Lauraceae, Betulaceae, Fagaceae, etc. were represented by tree species only. Leeaceae, Hydrangeaceae, Melastomataceae, Caprifoliaceae and Myrsinaceae are some of the families which were mostly comprised of shrubby species. Members of Menispermaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Vitaceae, Dioscoreaceae and Smilacaceae exclusively comprised climbers. Herbaceous species formed the bulk of flora (59.39%) followed by trees (17.87%), shrubs (14.84%), climbers (7.75%) and stem parasites (0.60%).

Predominance of herbaceous species even at the lower altitudes indicates that the biotic pressure has been responsible for arresting woodland formation. The ecosystems in the entire valley are highly disturbed due to anthropogenic activities like conversion of forests into agricultural fields (shifting cultivation), collection of fodder and firewood by local inhabitants and road building and hydro-power projects activities. These activities result in the formation of scrubs and secondary forests in the region.

x)

Phytogeography The floral elements in Heo H.E. Project area were analysed for their floristic similarities with

other regions of the world and to find out the nature and composition of the flora. Clarke (1889) suggested that Eastern Himalaya and Assam are distinct sub areas based on his studies on the distribution of the family Cyperaceae. Hooker (1906) in the description of the flora of the Indian
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sub-continent, has attributed the great floristic diversity largely to the immigration of plants from widely different border countries, notably of Chinese and Malayan on the east and south, of Oriental, Europian and African on the west and of Tibetan and Siberian on the north. Rao (1974) described close affinities between the flora of Assam and Myanmar and treated them as a part of the Eastern border lands. Takhtajan (1986) placed Arunachal Pradesh in the Eastern Himalayan Province within Eastern Asiatic region of Boreal sub-kingdom along with parts of eastern Nepal in the west up to Kali river valley, Darjeeling, Sikkim, Bhutan, large parts of Assam Himalaya, certain south and southern parts of Tibet.

The flora of Arunachal Pradesh has close affinities with the tropical South-East AsianMalayan, temperate Himalayan-Chinese and the Japanese floras and has some elements common with peninsular India, Sri Lanka, Tibet and Euro-Siberian region. Floral elements from South East Asian-Malaysian region, which include Myanmar, Thailand, Indo-China, Indonesia and Malaysia, were found in the subtropical forests of the proposed project area. These include many trees, shrubs and climbers such as Engelhardtia spicata, Hedychium coccineum, Oroxylum indicum, etc. This region harbours many Himalayan, Chinese and Japanese elements which overlap between these regions and making it difficult to drow clearcut boundaries. Stanton (1972) has shown that even within Himalyan region there exist distinct Eastern and Western elements. The eastern elements mostly confined to the East Himalaya and have species common with China are Neillia thyrsiflora, Schima wallichii, Saurauia punduana, etc. The taxa distributed from North West Himalaya to China in the region are Alnus nepalensis, Arisaema tortuosum, Fragaria nubicola, Lyonia ovalifolia, Rhus succedanea, etc. European and Mediterranean elements are represented by the species of Anemone, Artemisia, Ranunculus, etc. The New World elements are represented by weeds of cultivated lands, open forest areas and waste places such as Ageratina adenophora, Agertum conyzoides and Chromolaena odoratum.

xi)

Economically Important Plants The economic dependence of the local people in Arunachal Himalaya which comprises

mostly tribals, is primarily plant resource based. They use various wild plants in their day to day life as food, medicine, fiber, fodder, fuel wood and timber and to some extent horticultural purposes. The

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usage of various plant species by the local tribes varies with the altitude and availability of resources in the surrounding areas. A comprehensive account of these plant resources is given below:

Medicinal Plants This region harbours a wide range of medicinal plants used in Ayurvedic, Homoeopathic and Unani medicines also used by the local people. Some of the medicinal plants like Achyranthes aspera, Acorus calamus, Artemisia nilagirica, Bergenia ciliata, Cuscuta reflexa, Cyperus rotundus, Houttuynia cordata, Paspalum scrobiculatum, Viola betonicifolia and Zanthoxylum acanthopodium are quite common in the sub-tropical parts of proposed project area (Plate 3.5.1.d, 3.5.1.e). Ajuga macrosperma, Berberis asiatica, Hedera nepalensis, Lyonia ovalifolia, Valeriana jatamansi etc. are important medicinal plants occurring in the temperate areas. The people inhabiting this remote area have accumulated knowledge related to the utilization of plants surrounding their settlements. The list of some common medicinally important plant species found in the project area given in Table 3.5.9. Table 3.5.9 Some common medicinal plants of the project area
Sl. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Bot. name Achyranthes aspera Acorus calamus Ageratum conyzoides Artemisia nilagirica Bergenia ciliata Centella asiatica Cuscuta reflexa Hedychium spicatum Houttuynia cordata Lyonia ovalifolia Molineria capitulata Phyllanthus emblica Sida rhombifolia Solanum nigrum Viola betonicifolia Zanthoxylum acanthopodium Family Amaranthaceae Acoraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Saxifragaceae Apiaceae Cuscutaceae Zingiberaceae Saururaceae Ericaceae Hypoxidaceae Euphorbiaceae Malvaceae Solanaceae Violaceae Rutaceae Vern./ Local (m) Chir-chita Kilatolyo Rogpungon Tite pati Pasanved Brahmi Akas Bel Ruksana Mombaring Angeri Wurdo lago Aonla Kharenti Makoi Vafsa Yokhung Altitude Upto 2400 1600-2000 Up to 2000 to 1800 to 2000 900- 2400 800-2400 Up to 1600 1000-1400 1400-2500 Up to 1600 to 1000 Up to 1500 Up to1600 to 1500 1000-2000 Part/s used whole plant Rhizome Leaves Twigs Tuber Whole plant Stem Roots whole plant Leaves Roots Seeds Roots Roots Leaves Whole plant

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Food Plants The important crops of the region are finger millets, rice, maize, potato etc. Many wild vegetables and fruits are also consumed locally. Among the wild edible plants consumed are the leaves and young twigs of Amaranthus spinosus, Fagopyrum esculentum, Girardinia diversifolia, Rumex nepalensis, etc. The tubers and rhizomes of Colocasia esculenta and Dioscorea bulbifera are commonly consumed as vegetables. Fruits of Castanopsis indica, Garcinia cowa, Ficus auriculata, Musa bulbisiana, Phyllanthus emblica, Rubus ellipticus, etc. are eaten raw or after ripening.

Horticultural Fruits Citrus limon (Nimbu), C. reticulata (Suntala), Morus indica (Mulberry), Musa balbisiana

(Kaul), Phyllanthus emblica (Aonla), Psidium guajava (Guava), Prunus persica (Peach), Pyrus communis (Naspati ), etc are some of the fruit yielding cultigens in the area .

Fodder Plants The human population of the catchment area depends essentially on naturally growing trees, shrubs, herbs and grasses for the fodder requirements of their cattle and livestock. Some fodder trees like Bauhinia purpurea, Ficus auriculata, F. semicordata and Morus laevigata are grown as fodder plants in the proposed project area. In addition to these, there are many shrubs and herbs viz., Bambusa tulda, Capillipedium assimile, Debregeasia longifolia, Digitaria ciliaris, Eleusine coracana, Oryza sativa, Setaria palmifolia, etc are also used for this purpose.

Timber Trees and Fuelwood The wood used for timber includes Altingia excelsa (Singri), Castanopsis indica (Hingori), Pinus wallichiana (Blue pine), Quercus lamellosa (Aule Katus), Schima wallichii (Chilone), etc. In addition to these trees, some woody bamboos like Bambusa tulda and B. pallida are also used for this purpose.

Miscellaneous uses The local inhabitants make use of many plant species for various purposes. A list of some commonly occurring plant species and their miscellaneous uses are given in Table 3.5.10.

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Table 3.5.10 List of some common useful plant species of the project area
Sl.No. Plant species 1 2. 3 4 5. 6. 7. 8. 9 10. 11. 12. Acorus calamus Brassiopsis aculeatea Calamus erectus Castanea sativa Colocasia esculenta Eleusine coracana Hedychium spicatum Houttuynia cordata Macaranga denticulata Phyllanthus emblica Rubus ellipticus Saurauia punduana Miscellaneous uses Rhizomes are used as biopesticide in storage of seeds. Leaves are used for fodder to domestic animals. Stem of this plant used for furniture purposes. The seeds of this tree species are eaten after roasting. Tubers of this plant are eaten as vegetables. Cultivated for seeds in Jhum areas. Planted on pots for ornamentation purposes. Plant is used as condiment. Foliage used as cattle fodder. Fruits are edible and very good source of vitamin C. Ripe fruits are eaten. Ripe fruits are edible

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Plate 3.5.1a. Engelhardtia spicata (in degraded Jhum area)

Plate 3.5.1b. Musa bulbisiana thickets with other shrubs

Plate 3.5.1c Albizia odoratissima with Alnus nepalensis (riverine sub-tropical forest)

Fig. 3.5.1d. Paspalum scrobiculatum (poisonous grass)

Plate 3.5.1.e. Commelina benghalensis (seasonal herb)

Plate 3.5.1f. Elatine ambigua (Perennial aquatic herb on fan lobes)

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3.5.2 FAUNAL ELEMENTS


3.5.2.1 General Arunachal Pradesh is an eastern Himalayan state of India, covered under the 2D Eastern Himalaya biotic province. The region is located at the boundary of Indo-china and Indo-Malayan bio-geographic region and is one of the richest areas in habitat and species diversity. The state has wide variation in altitude, topography and climatic conditions, which result in a rich floral and faunal diversity. Therefore, the fauna and flora of the region show close affinities with the Indo-china (Rhododendron spp., Takin etc.) and Indo-Malayan biogeographic regions (Dipterocarpus spp, Gibbon etc).

Habitat loss, habitat degradation and fragmentation are considered as most common drivers of wildlife depletion in Arunachal Pradesh, also, customary hunting and shifting cultivation are most prevalent among the tribes of Arunachal Pradesh and are considered to be main threats to the wildlife so far. In recent years a large number of hydro-electric power projects have been proposed on the various rivers of Arunachal Pradesh. The topography of the State and huge water resources provides very ideal conditions for development of hydro-electric power projects. As per the preliminary ranking study done by the Central Electricity Authority (CEA), the total potential from 89 major projects is estimated to be about 49,126MW. The harnessing of energy from large number of river valley projects has opened a new area of debate that whether these projects are threats to the biodiversity or not. Because animal hunting and slash and burning are most prevalent in the region, these activities are generally attributed to the illiteracy, poverty and unemployment. One of the views look positive impact on the wildlife due to construction of the projects, which would provide employment to the locals and could divert the habit of animal hunting by tribes. However, overall negative impacts due to developmental activities on the biodiversity can not be denied.

The present study was carried out for EIA study of Heo H.E. Project on Yarjep River in West Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh. This contribution highlights the zoogeographical distribution, conservation status, endemism of the faunal species in catchment area, influence zone and project area. Also, the likely impacts of the proposed project on the faunal elements are outlined. The phenomenon of hunting and shifting cultivation and the way of participation of tribal population in the biodiversity conservation are also addressed in this section.
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Heo H.E. Project is located between Tato I H.E. project and Pauk H.E. Project, thus, having a small free draining catchment area. In this section we described the fauna of the catchment area (instead of free draining catchment area), influence and project areas.

3.5.2.2 Catchment and Influence Areas i) Mammals: Mammalian fauna of the catchment area comprises of monkeys, loris, cats, dogs, fox, civets, mongoose, bear, deer, wild boar, takin, bats, squirrels, rats, etc. A total of 35 species are expected to inhabit in the catchment area of Heo H.E. Project. Out of 35 species 30 are common in the catchment area and influence areas. The diversity, distribution and conservation status of the mammalian species are given in following heading.

Primates Primates are comprised of 4 species coming from two families. All four species are commonly distributed in the catchment and influence areas. The Semnopithecus pleateus (Capped langur) and Macaques are found near agricultural fields, settlement area while Nycticebus coucang (Slow loris) inhabits dense forest in the altitudinal range up to 1000 m. The former three species are hunted for food and hide while Slow loris is rarely spotted (Table 3.5.11).

Semnopithecus pleateus (Capped Langur) and Nycticebus coucang (Slow loris) are Schedule I animals and categorized under the vulnerable category of ZSI (1994) and IUCN (2010), respectively.

Carnivora Carnivora is represented by 12 species, grouped under the families Felidae, Canidae, Viverridae, Mustelidae and Ursidae. Panthera uncia (Snow leopard) inhabits alpine meadows of the catchment and descends nearly down to 4000 m. Panthera pardus (Common leopard), Prionailurus bengalensis (Leopard cat), Felis chaus (Jungle cat), Herpestes javanicus (Small Indian mongoose) and Ursus thibetanus (Black bear) are common in the influence area. They are hunted for hides, trophies, and food by tribal people (Plate 3.5.2a). Neofelis nebulosa (Clouded leopard), Cuon alpinus (Wild dog) and Vulpes bengalensis (Indian fox) get shelter in inner forest area, and therefore, are rarely sighted.
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As per Wildlife Protection Act (WPA 1972) 6 species of carnivora in the catchment area are Schedule I while 5 are Schedule II (Table 3.5.11). Zoological Survey of India (ZSI 1994) listed 3 species under the vulnerable category and one under endangered category. International Union of Conservation for Nature (IUCN 2010) red list categorized 2 species under vulnerable category and 2 under endangered category. Other species are under near threatened or least concerned. Four species, viz. Panthera pardus, Panthera uncia, Neofelis nebulosa, Felis chaus and Prionailurus bengalensis were considered as threatened species by all organizations mentioned in Table 3.5.11.

Artiodactyla Artiodactlyla includes 8 species under three families, viz. Suidae, Bovidae and Cervidae. Out of 8 species 6 are common in influence zone and catchment area. Muschus chrysogaster and Budorcas taxicolor inhabit upper reaches above 3000 m. The remaining 6 species are common around the influence zone. Wild boar, Barking deer, Mainland serow and Goral are most hunted animals in the surrounding area. They are hunted for diet, hides and trophies (Plate 3.5.2b). Bos frontalis (Mithun) is a semi domesticated animal and a large number of mithuns are slaughtered at the occasion of festivals and ceremonies.

As per WPA (1972) criterion Schedule I and III categories include 3 species each. Only Capricornis sumatraensis has been mentioned as Vulnerable category while 2 are categorized under insufficient known as per ZSI criterion. In IUCN categorization Capricornis sumatraensis and Budorcas taxicolor are vulnerable species while other species are least concerned and near threatened.

Chiroptera The presence of three species of bats could be confirmed in the catchment area and influence area. Though, this group is less explored in this region and there is a fair possibility of more existing species of bats. The secondary evidences of their presence in the region are not sufficient because tribal people are reluctant to hunt them so that their remnants as hides and trophies are not available inside the households of tribes. None of the species is vulnerable and endangered as per the criteria of different organizations.

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Rodentia in the catchment and influence areas comprises of four species of squirrels and three species of rats. Except Marmota himalayana, all species are common in the catchment and influence areas. Squirrels are arboreal and inhabit dense forest, while rat species are common in settlement and agricultural fields. None of the species is vulnerable and endangered as per the criteria of different institutions. IUCN (2010) categorized most of the species as least concerned. Table 3.5.11 Mammalian species and their conservation status in the catchment and influence areas of Heo H.E. Project.
Scientific Name English Name WPA (1972) Cercopithecidae Semnopithecus pleateus Macaca assamensis M. mulatta Loridae Nycticebus coucang Felidae Panthera pardus Panthera uncia Neofelis nebulosa Prionailurus bengalensis Felis chaus Canidae Cuon alpinus Canis aureus Vulpes bengalensis Viverridae Viverricula indica Herpestidae Herpestes javanicus Small Indian mongoose IV LC + + Small Indian Civet II LC + + Wild dog Jackal Indian fox II II II EN LC LC + + + + + + Common leopard Snow leopard Clouded leopard Leopard cat Jungle cat I I I I II VU VU EN VU NT EN VU LC LC + + + + + + + + + Slow loris I IK VU + + Capped Langur Assames macaque Rhesus macaque I II II VU LC NT LC + + + + + + Status In ZSI (1994) IUCN (2010) Distribution CA IA

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Mustelidae Lutra lutra Martes flavigula Ursidae Ursus thibetanus Suidae Sus scrofa cristatus Cervidae Muntiacus muntjak Cervus unicolor Muschus chrysogaster Bovidae Bos frontalis Nemorhaedus goral Guar Goral III I I VU IK NT VU VU + + + + Barking dear Sambar Musk deer III III I LC NT EN + + + Wild boar III IK LC + Black bear I VU + Common otter Himalayan marten I NT + +

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+ +

+ + -

+ + + -

Nemorhaedus sumatraensis Mainland Serow Budorcas taxicolor Pteropodidae Cynopterus brachyotis Rousettus leschenaultia Rhinolophidae Rhinolophus ferrum-equinum Horseshoe bat Sciuridae Tamiops macclellandi Petaurista magnificus Hylopetes alboniger Dremomys lokriah Marmota himalayana Muridae Mus booduga Mus musculus Rattus rattus Indian field mouse House mouse House rat Himalayan stripped squi. Hodgson's flying squir. Particolored flying squir. Fulvous fruit bat Takin

V -

LC LC

+ +

+ +

LC

LC -

LC LC LC

+ + + + +

+ + +

Orange-bellied Himalayan squir LC Himalayan marmot -

LC -

+ LC

V V V

LC LC LC

+ + +

+ + +

LC = least concerned, NT = near threatened, VU = vulnerable, EN = endangered, IK = insufficient known

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Avifauna of catchment and influence areas comprises of pheasants, partridge, hawk, eagle, hornbill, barbets, cuckoo, woodpeckers, hoopoe, owl, crow, magpie, tree pie, drongo, swallows, myna, pitta, shrike, sparrow, tits, bulbuls, flycatcher, thrushes, laughing thrushes, warblers, babblers, redstarts, sun birds, flower peckers, rose finches, pipits, scarlet etc. Catchment and influence areas are represented nearly by 75 species belonging to more than 25 families. Above 90% of the species are common in the catchment and influence areas (Table 3.5.12). Only Lophophorus sclateri, Tragopan temminckii and Lerwa lerwa are confined in the catchment area above 3000 m while species like Gracula religiosa and Picus chlorolophus are found in the lower part of the influence area. Sylviidae and Timalidae are largest families represented by 14% and 11% of the total species. About 44.8% of the total species are sparse resident while 37.7% are widespread resident. A detailed account on the distribution pattern and conservation status of different taxa is described in the following headings.

Galliformes Galliformes category in the study area is represented by a single family: Phasianidae, which itself comprises of 4 species. Out of 4 species three (Lophophorus sclateri, Tragopan temminckii, Lerwa lerwa) are confined to the upper catchment (above 3000 m) while Lophura leucomelana is found in the influence area. Except Lerwa lerwa, all species are widespread resident in distribution. Three species fall under the Schedule I of WPA while IUCN red list includes three species under the least concerned threat category (Table 3.5.12).

Falconiformes The presence of only 2 species belonging to family Accipitridae could be confirmed in the catchment and influence areas. Accipiter nisus is a sparse resident and sparse winter visitor while Ictinaetus malayensis is a widespread resident species. The former species is categorized as Schedule I and least concerned species as per the criteria of WPA (1972) and IUCN (2010).

Columbiformes Columbiformes comprises of 2 species belonging to the family Columbidae. Both are common species of the study area and considered as Schedule IV. Due to their common appearance in the settlement area and alongside the roads, these species are hunted by children for thrill of joy.
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Order Cuculiformes is represented by two species. Both are commonly found in catchment and influence areas, however, they are rarely sighted. Both species are widespread resident in distribution and are not threatened.

Bucerotiformes Only one species of hornbill (Anthracoceros albirostris) could be confirmed in the study area. It is sparse resident and categorized as Schedule I. It is the most hunted bird species in the area, hunted mainly for its unique beak used by tribes as trophy.

Piciformes Piciformes comprises of 4 species belonging to families Picidae and Megalaimidae. The species are widespread residents and categorized as Schedule IV. They inhabit woody forest in inner area. They are rarely hunted due to their habitat.

Upupiformes Upupiformes is represented by Upupa epops species. It is very common in distribution, dwells agricultural fields. It is widespread in distribution.

Coraciformes A single species of the order has been identified in the catchment and influence area. It is a widespread species in the distribution.

Strigiformes Glaucidium cuculoides represents the order Strigiformes in the catchment and influence areas. It is a sparse resident species and categorized as Schedule IV species.

Passeriformes Passeriformes is a largest group, accounts for 77% of the total species in the catchment and influence areas. Of 17 families, Sylviidae and Timalidae are largest accounting respectively for 18.9% and 13.7% of the total species. About 53% of the total species are sparse residents followed by widespread residents (25.8%). A single species - Zoothera wardii (Pied Ground Thrush) is a
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sparse summer visitor in the catchment area. A total of 19 species are considered as least concerned as per IUCN (2010) criterion. Besides, Beautiful Nuthatch (Sitta formosaesi) and Parus nuchalis (White-napped Tit) have been placed under the vulnerable category by Birdlife International (2000). Table 3.5.12 Avifaunal composition and their conservation status in the catchment and influence area of the proposed Heo H.E. project
Scientific name Common Name Status Distribution Habit CA Phasianidae Lophophorus sclateri Lophura leucomelana Tragopan temminckii Lerwa lerwa Accipitridae Accipiter nisus Ictinaetus malayensis Columbidae Columba hodgsoni Streptopelia chinensis Cuculidae Cuculus micropterus Eudynamys scolopacea Bucerotidae Anthracoceros albirostris Picidae Picoides macei Picus chlorolophus Megalaimidae Megalaima virens M. asiatica Upupidae Upupa epops Hoopoe R + + IV 3-125 Great barbet Blue-throated Barbet R R + + + + IV IV LC LC Indian Fulvousbreasted Lesser Yellownape R R + + + IV IV LC Great Indian Pied Hornbill r + + I LC Indian Cuckoo Indian Koel R R + + + + IV IV Speckled Wood Pigeon Spotted Dove r R + + + + IV IV LC Northern Sparrow Hawk Black Eagle rw R + + I LC Scalater's monal Kaleej pheasant Temmincks Tragopan Snow partridge R R R r + + + + + I I I LC LC LC IA Conservation WPA IUCN

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Meropidae Nyctionornis athertoni Strigidae Glaucidium cuculoides Pittidae Pitta nipalensis Hirundinidae Hirundo rustica Delichon nipalensis Corvidae Corvus macrorhynchos Dicrurus aeneus Cissa chinensis Dendrocitta formosae Sturnidae Gracula religiosa Pycnonotidae Pycnonotus jacosus P. leucogenys Laniidae Lanius schach L. tephronotus Sylviidae Phylloscopus proregulus P. trochiloides P. chloronotus Seicercus castaniceps S. burki S. xanthoschistos Yuhinia nigrimenta Y. gularis Y. occipitalis Heterophasia picaoides Actinodura egertoni Pallas Leaf Warbler Greenish Leaf Warbler Lemon-rumped Warbler Chestnut-headed Flycatcher Spectacled Warbler Grey-hooded Warbler Black-chinned Yuhina Striped-throated Yuhina Rufous-vented Yuhina Long-tailed Sibia Rusty-fronted Barwing rW rW rW r rW rW R R r r r + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV Long-tailed Shrike Grey-backed Shrike R rW + + + + IV IV Redwhiskered Bulbul Whitecheeked Bulbul R R + + + + IV IV Hill Myna r + IV Jungle Crow Bronzed Drongo Green Magpie Himalayan Treepie R r r R + + + + + + + + IV IV IV IV Eastern Swallow Nepal House martin RW + r + + + IV IV Blue-naped Pitta r + + IV Barred Owlet r + + IV Blue-bearded bee eater R + IV

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LC

LC -

LC LC LC

LC

LC -

LC LC -

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Timaliade Garrulax striated Garrulax albogularis Alcippe castaneceps Alcippe nipalensis Pteruthius melanotis Pellorneum ruficeps Stachyris ruficeps S. nicriceps Cisticolidae Prinia hodsonii P. criniger Turdidae Myophonus caeruleus Zoothera wardii Turdus albocinctus T. boulboul Muscicapidae Muscicapa rubecoloides Eumyias thalassina Rhyacornis fuliginosus Chaimarrornis leucocephalus Cinculus pallasii Enicurus scouleri Paridae Parus monticolus P. nuchalis* Sittidae Sitta himalayensis Sitta formosaes* Certhiidae Tichodroma muraria Nectariniidae Dicaeum ignipectus Aethopyga saturate Firebreasted Flowerpecker Black-throated Sunbird r r + + + + IV IV Wall Creeper rw + + IV Himalayan Whitetailed Nuthatch Beautiful Nuthatch r r + + + + IV IV Greenbacked Tit White napped Tit r r + + + + IV IV Bluethroated Flycatcher Verditer Flycatcher Plubeous Redstart White Capped Redstart Himalayan Brown-dipper Little Forktail R R r r r r + + + + + + + + + + + + IV IV IV IV IV IV Blue Whistling Thrush Pied Ground Thrush Whitecollared Blackbird Greywinged Black Bird R s r r + + + + + + + + IV IV IV IV Ashy Grey Wren Warbler Himalayan Brown Hill Warbler R R + + + + IV IV Striatus Laughing Thrush White-throated Laughing Thrush Chestnut-headed Tit-babbler Nepal Quaker Babbler Black-eared Shrike Babbler Puff-throated Babbler Pygmy Wren Babbler Grey-throated Babbler r R r r r r r r + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV

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LC LC LC

LC

LC

LC 3-127

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Passeridae Passer montanus Anthus hodgsoni A. godlewiskii Fringillidae Carduelis spinoides Carpodacus rubescens C. thura femininus Pyrrhoplectus epaulette Haematospiza sipahi Himalayan Greenfinch Blanfords Rosefinch Yunan Whitebrowed Rosefinch Goldheaded Black Finch Scarlet Finch R r r r r + + + + + + + IV IV IV IV IV Tree sparrow Olive-backed pipit Blyths Pipit R W w + + + + + + IV IV IV

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LC LC LC

R = Resident, r = Local resident, W = Widespread winter visitor, w = Sparse winter visitors, s = sparse summer visitors

The hunting of the birds in the area is a common phenomenon, however, it can not be attributed to the livelihood. Only teenagers of Adi tribe are engaged in the bird hunting. Anthracoceros albirostris (Great Indian Pied Hornbill) is most hunted bird species in the catchment, hunted for its beak.

iii)

Herpetofauna: Distribution & Conservation Status Herpetofauna in Arunachal Pradesh is comprised of 78 species (12 families) of reptiles

(Sanyal and Gayen, 2006) and 39 species (6 families) of amphibians (Sarkar and Ray, 2006). Out of the 78 species of reptiles, 6 are common in West Siang district while out of 39 species of Amphibia only three species occur in the district (Table 3.5.13). There is no earlier record of herpetofauna from Siyom Yarjep valley. Primary surveys for three seasons also indicate poor diversity of herpetofauna in the catchment and influence areas. Hemidactylus brookii (reptilian) and Bufo himalayana, Rana cyanophlyctis and Rana limnocharis (Amphibia) are common herpetofauna species of influence area. Bungarus nigers is reported near the settlement. Other species of reptilian fauna includes Ahaetulla prasinus, Xenochrophis piscator, Amphiesma stolata and Psammodynastes pulverulentus. Among these species Xenochrophis piscatori (Checkered Keelback) is placed under the Schedule II, while Rana spp. are categorized as Schedule IV. None of the species inhabiting the catchment is threatened as per criterion of ZSI.

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Table 3.5.13 Herpetofaunal elements occurring in the catchment area of Heo H.E. Project Reptile Hemidactylus brookii Ahaetulla prasinus Xenochrophis piscator Amphiesma stolata Psammodynastes pulverulentus Bungarus nigers Amphibia Bufo himalayana Rana cyanophlyctis Rana limnocharis

iv)

Other Invertebrates Other invertebrates in the catchment and influence area of Heo H.E. Project comprise of

protozoan, crab, nematodes, insects, leeches, oligochaets etc. Giardia lamblia, Plasmodium vivax, P. falciparum Assulina muscorum and Eimeria are predominant species in the study area. Crustacean fauna in the region comprises crabs only. Crabs are widely distributed, found in larger part of surroundings. They are represented by Carcinus sp., Portunus sp. etc. Annelids in the region comprise of leeches and earthworms. The common leech species of project and catchment areas are Haemadipsa montana, H. sylvestris and H. montivindicus (Mandal, 2006). They are found up to 3000 m. In addition, there are many species of earthworms having ethno-zoological importance. Insecta is the largest group, comprises of more than 1000 species in Arunachal Pradesh. The important groups in the study area are Diptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera etc. Lepidoptera is the largest group followed by Diptera. The project areas and catchment area have a good share of insect diversity. Lepidoptera is comprised of nearly 20 species, Pieris canidia, Eurema hecabe and Gandaca harina assamica are most common species in the study area. Among the Diptera Chironumus sp., Simulium spp. Limonia spp. Gonomyia spp. Conosia irrorata are predominant species in the catchment. Ephemeroptera is represented abundantly by Cynigmula sp. Heptagenia spp., Baetis spp. etc. Plecoptera and Trichoptera are dominated by Perla spp. abd Hydropsychae spp. Hymenoptera in the catchment comprises of bees, wasps, ants and spiders. Apis spp., Pachycondyla spp. Tiphia spp., Camponotus spp. Solenopsis geminate, Ampules spp. are common Hymenopterans of the region. Coleoptera are mainly represented by Epilachna bipunctata and Acanthosese decipiens.

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Primary surveys revealed the presence of Jungle cat (Felis chaus), Common leopard (Panthera pardus), Black bear (Ursus thibetanus), Barking deer (Muntiachus muntjak), Wild boar (Sus scrofa), Assamese macaque (Macaca assamensis) and Small Indian mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) in and around the project components. Such species are common in the project component areas. Jungle cat was directly spotted near road site ay Gapo during monsoon season while call of barking deer was recorded in monsoon season. Other species mentioned above were confirmed by indirect evidences like presence of hides, skulls, jaws etc in households. In addition, we observed hides and trophies of other species like Mainland Serow (Capricornis sumatraensis), Takin (Buceros taxicolor) but reportedly they were not from project components. None of these species are classified as endangered or vulnerable.

ii)

Avifauna Avifauna of project area of Heo H.E. Project comprises of 32 species, coming from 16

families (Table 3.5.14). Streptopelia chinensis, Megalaima virens, Hirundo rustica, Dendrocitta vagabunda, Pycnonotus jacosus, P. Leucogenys, Stachyris ruficeps, Chaimarrornis leucocephalus, Passer montanus etc are common species of the project component areas, of which Passer montanus (5.6 9.6%), Hirundo rustica (6.9 8.9%) and P. Leucogenys 4.2 7.7%) made their abundance. Sparse resident species account for 50% of the total species while nearly 37% of the species are widespread residents.

Table 3.5.14 Avifaunal species of project component area of Heo H.E. Project.
Scientific Name Common Name Distribution W Phasianidae Lophura leucomelana Columbidae Columba hodgsoni Streptopelia chinensis Cuculidae Cuculus micropterus Indian Cuckoo R + Speckled Wood Pigeon Spotted Dove r R + + + + + Kaleej pheasant R + Seasons PrM M

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Megalaimidae Megalaima virens Picidae Picoides macei Hirundinidae Hirundo rustica Corvidae Dicrurus aeneus Dendrocitta vagabunda Pycnonotidae Pycnonotus jacosus P. leucogenys Sylviidae Yuhinia nigrimenta Phylloscopus proregulus Timalidae Garrulax striated Garrulax albogularis Alcippe castaneceps Stachyris ruficeps S. nicriceps Muscicapidae Zoothera wardii Turdus albocinctus T. boulboul Rhyacornis fuliginosus Chaimarrornis leucocephalus Paridae Parus monticolus P. nuchalis Sittidae Sitta himalayensis Sitta formosaes Sturnidae Gracula religiosa Hill Myna r + Himalayan Whitetailed Nuthatch Beautiful Nuthatch r r + + + Greenbacked Tit White napped Tit r r + + + + Pied Ground Thrush Whitecollared Blackbird Greywinged Black Bird Plumbeous Redstart White Capped Redstart SV r r r r + + + + + + + + + Striatus Laughing Thrush White-throated Laughing Thrush Chestnut-headed Tit-babbler Pygmy Wren Babbler Grey-throated Babbler r R r r r + + + + + + + + + + + + Black-chinned Yuhina Pallas Leaf Warbler R rW + + + + + Redwhiskered Bulbul Whitecheeked Bulbul R R + + + + + + Bronzed Drongo Northern Treepie r R + + + + + Eastern Swallow RW + + + Indian Fulvousbreasted Pied Woodpecker R + + Great Barbet R + + +

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Passeridae Passer montanus Anthus hodgsoni Fringillidae Carduelis spinoides Carpodacus rubescens Himalayan Greenfinch Blanfords Rosefinch R r + + Tree sparrow Olive-backed pipit R W + + + + + -

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R = widespread resident, r = sparse resident, W = widespread winter visitor, SV = summer visitor

iii)

Herpetofauna Hemidactylus brookii (reptilian) and Rana cyanophlyctis (Amphibia) are common

herpetofaunal species of project component areas. Former was recoded during all seasons in the area while Rana cyanophlyctis was observed from river Yarjep in monsoon season.

iv)

Butterflies Lepidopteran fauna comprises of 22 species of 4 families (Table 3.5.15). The maximum

numbers of species were recorded in pre-monsoon season. Tree yellow (Gandaca harina assamica), Indian cabbage white (Pieris canidia), Himalayan fivering (Ypthima sacra sacra), Indian red admiral (Vanessa indica indica), Common sailer (Neptis hylas varmona) and Sullied Sailer (Neptis soma) (Plate 5.3.2c) were most common species of the project component areas, recorded in all seasons. Common sailor was most abundant species, accounting 15.3%, 8.9% and 11.6% of the total species in winter, pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons respectively. Open and settlement areas recoded high diversity as compared to forested areas and river sites. A few species like Redbreasted, Common peacock, Great blackvein, Circe, Orange staff sergent (Plate 5.3.2d) etc were restricted to upper part of influence area while some (Common grass yellow, Metallic cerulean, Purple sapphire etc.) were found in lower part.

Table 3.5.15. Butterfly species at various sites of influence area of Heo H.E. project
Families/Common Name Scientific Name Conservation Status (WPA, 1972) Papilionidae Redbreast Common peacock Pieridae Chapter 3.5 Biological Environment Faunal Elements 3-132 Priceps alcmentor P. castor + + + W Seasons PrM M

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Great blackvein Greenvein Tree yellow Common grass yellow Indian cabbage white Lycaenidae Indian oakblue Purple sapphire Metallic cerulean Dark cerulean Pointed line blue Pale 4 line blue Nymphalidae Circe Common leopard Common yeoman Himalayan fivering Indian red admiral Sullied sailer Common sailer Orange staff sergeant Grassy tiger Hestina nama Phalanta phalanta Cirrochroa aoris Ypthima sacra sacra Vanessa indica indica Neptis soma N. hylas varmona Parathyma cama Parantica aglea melanoides + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Narathura bazalus Heliophorus epicles indicus Jamides alecto eurysaces J. bochus Nacaduba helicon N. hermus II + + + + + + + + + Aporia agathon Pieris melaina Gandaca harina assamica Eurema hecabe Pieris canidia + + + + + + + + +

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3.5.2.4 Tribes and Biodiversity Tribal population of the Arunachal Pradesh is integrally associated with forest and forest products. Similarly, tribes of the influence area of Heo H.E. Project have customary rights on the forest and forest resources. Most of the tribal families are engaged in exploitation of forest resources including animal hunting. The people are unique in culture and customs, in which hunting of animal is an essential part of their life style, especially on the occasion of festivals, function and ceremonies. Mostly people use licensed air gun for hunting, however, traps in the forest are also used. The important species which are hunted for are Leopard, Barking deer, Black bear, Wild boar, Serow and Hornbills. Bird hunting by children can be attributed to their learning behaviour, for which they were found to use Gulel to hunt birds.

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Catchment and influence areas of Heo H.E. Project are covered with dense sub tropical wet hill forest housing a rich faunal diversity. The Project component sites are mainly covered with degraded / open Forest and shrubs. The area is sparsely populated with tribal families. Like other areas of Arunachal Pradesh animal hunting and jhum cultivation are one of the main stresses on the biodiversity. The enforcement of forest rules are not strict in these areas because of the customary rights of the people on the forest and forest products. Indeed, the enforcement of strict rules is not a sound alternative for the biodiversity conservation. It needs comprehensive awareness programmes and some alternatives, which could fulfill the fondness of tribes towards the ornaments and trophies. The artificial trophies made up of fiber glass may be one of the alternatives. Also, the traditional knowledge of tribes on forest and forest products can be used as a tool of biodiversity conservation.

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(a) Hide of black bear

(b) Horns of barking deer

(c) Sullied Sailer

(d) Orange Staff Sergent

Plate 3.5.2 The presence of some common species of animals were confirmed by direct and indirect evidences

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3.6

SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT

3.6.1 INTRODUCTION
Socio-cultural and economic statement in an EIA report essentially covers the demography, education, occupation, history, culture, ethnography, and lifestyle of the inhabitants which are directly and indirectly affected due to the project activities. The part is useful in predicting the impacts and subsequently in formulating a most acceptable management plan, which must cover not only the community development, but aspiration of the people also.

Heo H.E. Project is located in the Mechuka circle of West Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh. The influence area of the proposed project extends in both Tato and Mechuka circles. Socio-economic profile of concerned administrative units (Arunachal Pradesh, West Siang district, Mechuka, Tato circles) are briefly described while a detailed account on the demography, education, occupation, culture, ethnography etc. of influence area, affected villages and affected families is given in the following paragraphs.

3.6.1.1 Arunachal Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh covers an area of 83,743 sq. km and lies between latitudes 260 28 to 290 30 N and longitudes 910 30 to 970 30 E. Arunachal Pradesh is bordered by Bhutan in the west, China in the north and north-east, Myanmar in the southeast, and the Indian State of Assam in the south. The total population of Arunachal Pradesh is 13,82,611 with a sex ratio of 920 (females to 1000 males) (Census, 2011). The average population density is 16.5 persons per sq km. Average literacy in Arunachal Pradesh is 57.09% with maximum in males (69%). Administratively, Arunachal Pradesh is divided into 16 districts, namely Tawang, West Kameng, East Kameng, Papum Pare, Lower Subansiri, Upper Subansiri, West Siang, East Siang, Upper Siang, Dibang valley, Lohit, Changlang, Tirap, Lower Dibang Valley, Anjaw and Kurung-Kumey. Itanagar is the State capital of Arunachal Pradesh, which is located in Papum Pare district.

3.6.1.2 West Siang District The proposed Heo H.E. project is located in West Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh. Prior to 1970, West Siang was a part of Siang Frontier Division and was recognized as Siang district after 1971. Later on Siang district was divided into West Siang and East Siang districts. As per Census
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2001 (provisional) district West Siang is divided into 6 sub-divisions, 10 blocks, 20 administrative circles and 397 villages. The district headquarter of West Siang is located at Aalo. As per Census (2011) the total population of West Siang district is 1,12,272 with sex ratio of 916 (females to 1,000 males), which is marginally lower than the State average of 920. The population density of the district is 12 individuals per sq. km, nearly same as that of the State (14 person/sq km). West Siang district is one of the districts which recorded lowest decadal growth of 8%. The scheduled tribe (ST) population accounts for 81.7% of the total population in the district. The district recorded a total literacy rate of 59.47%, which is slightly higher than the state average.

3.6.1.3 Mechuka Circle Mechuka sub-division of the West Siang district is comprised of four circles including Tato, Mechuka, Pidi and Monigong circles. The proposed project is situated in the Mechuka circle. According to the 2001 Census data, the total population of Mechuka subdivision is 9,973 with a significantly better sex ratio of 995 compared to the district and the State. Considering the 8% decadal growth of West Siang district, the total population of Mechka as per Census 2011 is 10770. The average literacy rate in Mechuka circle is 35.8% with considerably higher rates in males (45.4%), but overall literacy in the Circle is rather significantly lower compared to the state average of 54%. The age group of 0-6 year accounts for 19.3% of total population. About 42% of the total population is of worker category in which 24% are males and 18% are females. Of the total workforce, main workers are about 91%. Most of the workers are cultivators.

3.6.1.4 Tato Circle According to Census 2001 (most complete survey available today, that we use in our studies) the total population of Tato Circle is 2132 with a sex ratio of 925, while Census 2011 gives total population of nearly 2300. The sex ratio is marginally lower than the figures of the Sub-division (Mechuka), but better than the State average. The average literacy rate of Tato circle is 37.23% with maximum in males (44.95%). These figures are significantly lower than the literacy rates of the State. Age group of 0-6 year constitutes 22.6% of total population. Total workers account for 47.6% of the population of which 26.6% are males and 21% are females. Out of the total workforce, main workers are about 82%.

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Tato Circle is catered to by one middle and five primary schools. The Circle lacks educational institution of secondary or college level. The health facilities comprise of one primary health centre and a pharmacy, located in Tato village.

3.6.2 INFLUENCE AREA The influence area of Heo H.E. Project includes a total of 18 villages in which 13 come under the jurisdiction of Mechuka circle and remaining 5 are under Tato circle. Detailed socioeconomic profiles of these villages are given in the following paragraphs.

3.6.2.1 Demographic Profile Total population of the villages of the influence area is 1899 coming from 339 households (Table 3.6.1) (Census, 2001). Tato village and Tato headquarters are the largest settlements in the influence area. Average sex ratio in these villages is 1018 that is higher than state average. Age group 0-6 is 23.9% of the total population. Scheduled tribe population accounts for 98% of the total population. All villages except Tagur and Tato H. Q. are inhabited by Scheduled tribe population. Table 3.6.1 Demographic profile of the villages located in the influence area of Heo H. E. Project as per Census 2001
Population Structure Village HH Total Male Female T 0-6 M 0-6 F 0-6 Sex Ratio SC ST

Mechuka Circle Karte Lingdungnoti Sekor Rego Rapum Hiri Purying Lipusi Padusa Gapo Meying* Chengrung Pauk 5 4 13 18 16 7 10 3 10 25 4 10 5 20 18 81 97 100 27 65 17 51 127 21 58 30 8 10 33 48 51 14 31 6 26 64 11 32 14 12 8 48 49 49 13 34 11 25 63 10 26 16 4 5 20 30 13 3 10 2 12 32 6 16 2 0 2 7 14 5 1 5 1 6 19 1 10 2 4 3 13 16 8 2 5 1 6 13 5 6 0 1500 800 1455 1021 961 929 1097 1833 962 984 909 813 1143 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 18 81 97 100 27 65 17 51 127 21 58 30 3-137

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Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment Tato Circle Tato Village Heyo Tagur Quying Tato H.Q. Total 50 12 12 16 119 339 287 58 56 115 671 1899 132 35 25 54 347 941 155 23 31 61 324 958 83 9 11 17 179 454 34 4 7 7 95 220 49 5 4 10 84 234 1174 657 1240 1130 934 1018 0 0 0 0 0 0 287 58 45 115 648 1865

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SC=Scheduled Castes, ST=Scheduled Tribes * In Census 2001, Meying was not considered as a revenue village and its figures were included in Gapos figures. For the purpose of clarity, Gapos and Meyings population were split in the above table, keeping in mind the same final figures.

3.6.2.2 Education Profile Educational infrastructures are poorly developed in the villages of influence area. Nearest centers for secondary education are located at Tato and Mechuka. Average literacy rate in these villages is 47.9%, considerably higher in male population (58.7%) (Table 3.6.2). Table 3.6.2 Educational profile of the villages located in the vicinity of Heo H. E. Project
Literates Village Mechuka Circle Karte Lingdungnoti Sekor Rego Rapum Hiri Purying Lipusi Padusa Gapo Meying Chengrung Pauk Tato Circle Tato Village 80 53 27 39.2 54.1 25.5 3-138 8 2 26 39 51 9 24 4 10 41 2 30 14 5 2 15 20 29 5 17 2 9 21 2 19 8 3 0 11 19 22 4 7 2 1 20 0 11 6 50.0 15.4 42.6 58.2 58.6 37.5 43.6 26.7 25.6 43.2 13.3 71.4 50.0 62.5 25.0 57.7 58.8 63.0 38.5 65.4 40.0 45.0 46.7 20.0 86.4 66.7 37.5 0.0 31.4 57.6 53.7 36.4 24.1 20.0 5.3 40.0 0.0 55.0 37.5 T M F Literacy Rate % T M F

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Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment Heyo Tagur Quying Tato H.Q. Total 25 8 23 296 692 16 5 12 183 423 9 3 11 113 269 51.0 17.8 23.5 60.2 47.9 51.6 27.8 25.5 72.6 58.7 50.0 11.1 21.6 47.1 37.2

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(Source: Census of India 2001)

3.6.2.3 Occupation and Cropping Patterns The majority of the main workers are involved in cultivation including jhum. Maize, Millets and rice are main crops in these villages. Very rare are involved in households industry and government services. Nearly 43.8% of the inhabitants are employed in various works. The main workers population accounts for 88.3% of total worker population (Table 3.6.3). Main as well as marginal workers are dominated with male populations. About 56% of the total population is non workers, in which nearly 24% is 0-6 year old age group.

3.6.2.4 Other Amenities The villages of influence zone under Mechuka and Tato circles like Sekor, Rego, Hiri, Gapo, Padusa, Tato, Tadogito and Tato head quarters etc. are connected to the national highway. The villagers of other villages have to move 2 to 7 km to approach the road. Most of the villages have facilities of tap water, supplied from springs. The water is not treated. To avail the facilities of bank, post office, secondary school and primary health facilities Mechuka and Tato are main centres in the area.

3.6.3 AFFECTED VILLAGES The lands near six villages namely Hiri, Purying, Lipusi, Padusa, Gapo and Meying are affected by the various project components. The dam site would be located near Hiri and Purying villages. The power house site is located near the Meying and Gapo villages and other project components near Padusa and Lipusi villages. The socio-economic profile of these villages is given in the following paragraphs.

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Table 3.6.3 Occupation pattern in the villages located in the vicinity of Heo H. E. Project
Work Force Village Total Workers T Mechuka Circle Karte Lingdungnoti Sekor Rego Rapum Hiri Purying Lipusi Padusa Gapo Meying Chengrung Pauk Tato Circle Tato Village Heyo Tagur Quying Tato H.Q. Total 132 22 28 54 246 833 70 14 12 25 142 429 62 8 16 29 104 404 121 19 26 53 166 736 69 13 10 25 117 400 52 6 16 28 49 336 11 3 2 1 80 97 1 1 2 0 25 29 10 2 0 1 55 68 155 36 28 61 425 1066 62 21 13 29 205 512 93 15 15 32 220 554 10 8 39 39 45 18 39 8 26 69 11 23 16 4 4 17 19 22 10 21 2 10 32 7 11 7 6 4 22 20 23 8 18 6 16 37 4 12 9 10 8 39 39 45 18 39 8 26 69 11 23 16 4 4 17 19 22 10 21 2 10 32 7 11 7 6 4 22 20 23 8 18 6 16 37 4 12 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 10 42 58 55 9 26 9 25 58 10 35 14 4 6 16 29 29 4 10 4 16 32 4 21 7 6 4 26 29 26 5 16 5 9 26 6 14 7 M F Main Workers T M F Marginal Workers T M F Non Workers T M F

T=Total, M=Male, F=Female. (Source: Census of India 2001)

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Gapo and Meying villages areas are also impacted by Tato-I HEP components and structures whereas Purying and Hiri are also impacted by Pauk H.E. Project. In order to avoid any double counting in the EMP plans of Heo, Tato-I and Pauk HE Projects, Gapo and Meying villages will be considered as affected villages exclusively for the Tato-I H.E. Project whereas Hiri, Purying, Lipusi and Padusa villages will be considered as affected villages exclusively for the Heo H.E Projects, for the purpose of Rehabilitation and Resettlement plan.

3.6.3.1 Demography Total population of affected villages is 308 people belonging to 59 households. The average sex ratio is 1026 (Table 3.6.4). Age group 0-6 year accounts for 21.1%. The entire population of affected villages belong to Scheduled tribes, comprises of Adi and its sub tribes.

Table 3.6.4 Demographic profile of the affected villages of Heo H.E. project
Population Structure Village Hiri Purying Gapo Meying Lipusi Padusa Total HH Total Male 7 10 25 4 3 10 59 27 65 127 21 17 51 14 31 64 11 6 26 Female T 0-6 13 34 63 10 11 25 156 3 10 32 6 2 12 65 M 0-6 F 0-6 1 5 19 1 1 6 33 2 5 13 5 1 6 32 Sex Ratio SC 929 1097 984 909 1833 962 1026 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ST 27 65 127 21 17 51 308

308 152

Source: Census 2001

3.6.3.2 Education Profile Average literacy rate in the affected villages 37%, which is considerably lower than state and district averages. Low literacy can be related to the poor infrastructure. Male population records considerably high literacy rate as compared to that of female (Table 3.6.5). Table 3.6.5 Educational profile of the affected villages of Heo H.E. Project
Literates Village Hiri T 9 M 5 F 4 T 37.5 Literacy Rate % M 38.5 F 36.4 3-141

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Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment Purying Gapo Meying Padusa Lipusi Total
Source: Census 2001

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24 41 2 10 4 90

17 21 2 9 2 56

7 20 0 1 2 34

43.6 43,2 13.3 25.6 26.7 37.0

65.4 46.7 20.0 45.0 40.0 47.1

24.1 40.0 0.0 5.3 20.0 27.4

3.6.3.3 Occupation and Cropping Patterns About 56% of the total population of affected villages is employed in various works. All of them are main workers. The main workers form the majority of the population in these villages (Table 3.6.6). Cultivation, including jhum, is main occupation in these villages. Shifting cultivation is main practice in these villages. Non workers including age group 0-6 account for 44.4% of the total population. Millets, rice maize and pulses are main crops in the region. Table 3.6.6 Occupation pattern in the affected villages of Heo H. E. Project
Work Force Total Villages T M F T M Main F T Marginal M F Non- Wor. T M F

Hiri Purying Padusa Gapo Meying Lipusi Total

18 39 26 69 11 8 171

10 21 10 32 7 2 82

8 18 16 37 4 6 89

18 39 26 69 11 8 171

10 21 10 32 7 2 82

8 18 16 37 4 6 89

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

9 26 25 58 10 9 137

4 10 16 32 4 4 70

5 16 9 26 6 5 67

3.6.3.4 Other Amenities Hiri and Gapo are located on the right bank of the river, alongside the national highway connecting Aalo and Mechuka. Though, transportation facilities are very poor, they are mainly facilitated by light vehicles. Tato headquarters are main centre of secondary education, primary health facility and telecommunication for these villages. The villages are not electrified. The potable water is supplied by springs, which is untreated.
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3.6.4 AFFECTED FAMILIES The ultimate purpose of identifying Affected Families is to properly implement a well targeted Rehabilitation plan. A total of six villages are directly affected due to the Heo H.E. Project. In order to avoid double counting of the families in the EMP plans of several projects, the villages deemed affected by the Heo H.E. Project are Hiri, Purying, Padusa and Lipusi villages.

Therefore the families belonging to the Communities of Hiri, Purying, Padusa and Lipusi villages areas or having holding rights on such lands (or from whom individual land is to be acquired under the project land requirement, if any) will be considered affected families of the Heo H.E. Project. A detailed socio-economic profile of the affected families of these Communities is given below.

A detailed social survey will be performed again during the procedure for land acquisition, and before the time of implementation of the plan in order to have the most up to date information and in order to implement the most targeted and efficient R & R plan.

3.6.4.1 Demographic Profile Total of 230 persons come from 43 households (66 families) are affected in Heo H.E. Project. The sex ratio in the project affected families is 1029. Age group 0-6 year accounts for 22.2%. All project affected persons belong to Scheduled Tribe (Table 3.6.7).

Table 3.6.7 Demographic profile of project affected families of Heo H.E. Project
Villages Purying Hiri Padusa Lipusi Total HH 15 11 11 6 43 Total 88 51 62 29 230 Male 45 26 30 11 112 Female 0-6 yrs 43 25 32 18 118 17 12 18 4 51 ST 88 51 62 29 230 SC 0 0 0 0 0 Sex ratio 956 962 1067 1636 1054

3.6.4.2 Education Profile Average literacy rate in the project affected families is 46.9%. The present literacy rate indicates a significant decadal increase (Table 3.6.8). The education level extends from primary to post graduate level.
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Table 3.6.8 Education profile of project affected families of Heo H.E. Project Village Purying Hiri Padusa Lipusi Total P 14 7 9 2 32 M 24 3 2 3 32 HS 2 4 4 2 12 SS 2 1 0 0 3 Grad PG 2 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 1 2 Total Literacy (%) 44 16 15 9 84 62.0 41.0 34.1 36.7 46.9

P= Primary class, M= middle class, HS = Higher secondary, SS Senior secondary, Gr = graduation, PG = Post Graduate

3.6.4.3 Occupation Pattern The members of project affected families are mainly employed in cultivation, and government jobs. About 18.3% (42 people over 230) are engaged in cultivation mainly slash and burning while a few are employed in the government jobs (Table 3.6.9). Millets, rice, maize are main crops of the affected families.

Table 3.6.9 Occupation Pattern among the project affected families.


Village Purying Hiri Padusa Lipusi Total Govt 2 1 0 1 4 Pensioner 0 0 0 0 0 Cultivation 18 11 9 4 42 Business 0 0 0 0 0 Labour 0 1 0 0 1 Total %age 20 13 9 6 48 22.7 25.5 14.5 19.2 20.9

3.6.4.4 Livestock Population Livestock population comprises of cows, mithuns, goats, pigs and chicken. Cows are the main source of milk in the area while mithun, pigs, and chicken are used as food. Mithuns are semi domesticated. High number of mithuns reared in the household is a status symbol in the area. The number of mithuns in the affected families indicates poor status of the families. Table 3.6.10 Livestock population in the project affected families
Villages Purying Cow 2 Mithun Ox 10 0 Goat 28 Sheep Horse Mule 0 0 0 Chicken 17 Pig Total 8 65 3-144

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3.6.4.5 Vulnerable Persons All project affected families are Scheduled Tribe, thus considered as vulnerable group. Among these families 6 are categorized as BPL (below poverty level) while 6 persons are widow.

3.6.4.6 Fuel Use Pattern No project families have facility of LPG connection while 11 families from Purying, Padusa and Lipusi are users of kerosene. All families use fuel wood for cooking and other purposes (Table 3.6.11).

Table 3.6.11 Fuel use pattern in the project affected families of Heo H.E. Project
Villages Purying Hiri Padusa Lipusi Total Gas 0 0 0 0 0 Kerosene 4 0 4 3 11 Wood 9 5 5 3 22

3.6.5 LIVING STANDARD Most of the project affected families are located near the Tato-Mechuka road. Among the project affected villages Hiri, Padusa and Lipusi are connected to the road, however, transport facilities are very poor in the region. The State Transport buses and private light vehicles are main means of transport. The majority of the families in the area owns kaccha houses, which consist of bamboo poles and thatched grasses. A few inhabitants located along the road sides own pucca houses. Aalo, district head quarters, is the main market, located more than 150 km away. Majority of the households are not electrified. Villages are connected to the tap water facilities with few common points. The water is tapped from nearby springs which are untreated. Regarding the education, health, telecommunication, and transportation, the infrastructure facilities are very poor in the influence zone. Regarding the other amenities like access to telephone, television and other
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goods only a few families have such facilities. Living standard of inhabitants is not satisfactory and entire area needs strengthening in infrastructure facilities and empowerment.

3.6.6 CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT

3.6.6.1 Brief History Well documented history of Arunachal Pradesh starts with 16th century, when Ahom kings ruled the region. The population comprised mostly of Tibeto Burmese linguistic origin. In 1826 British took over Assam after Yanlaboo treaty. Before 1962 Arunachal Pradesh was known as North Eastern Frontier Agency (NEFA) and was constitutionally a part of Assam State. It was administered by the Indian Ministry of External Affairs until 1965 and subsequently by the Ministry of Home Affairs through Governor of Assam. On 20th January 1972 it was declared as Union Territory and renamed as Arunachal Pradesh. On 20th February 1987, it became 24th State of the Indian Union.

Before 1970 West Siang was a part of Siang Frontier Division, which was recognized as Siang district after census 1971. Later on Siang district was divided into West Siang and East Siang districts. On the 23rd November, 1994 Upper Siang district was formed by carving out a few administrative circles from East Siang district. The head quarter of West Siang district is located at Aalo.

3.6.6.2 Ethnography The Galo and Adi are the major tribal groups constitutionally reorganized in West Siang District of which former is the dominant group in the district. They both have their respective dialects also called Galo and Adi, respectively. However, they both belong to a common origin and ancestor known as Abo/ Abu Tani. Mopin and Solung, respectively are their main festivals. The traditional village panchayat of Galo and Adi locally called Keba and Kebang respectively is a Judico-administrative body consisting of mature and influential elders, generally presided over by Gaon Budha. They look after the administration of justice by settling all matters of dispute. People are very fond of handicrafts, which can be seen in their cane and bamboo works like basket, trays, mats headgears etc.

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The surrounding areas of the Heo HE project are inhabited by the Bokar, Pailibo Ramo, Memba and Khamba subgroups. These people worship Donyipoolo barring the Memba and Khamba who are Mahayana Buddhists by faith. Fairs and festivals like Podi Barbi, Losar, etc reflect their rich cultural heritage. In general the dances are performed in groups. The arranged marriages with mutual consent are prevalent among the tribes. The offer for alliance is made would be from groom side. Gifts are exchanged between both the sides during the marriage. After marriage, the elder sibling separate in appropriate time and establish a new family while the younger stays with parents to look after.

Last rite is completed in the graveyards where all required personal belongings of the deceased are also buried with Ceremonial programme. The ceremonial programme, if required is organized by the family members of the deceased after one year or so. The Buddhist sub group however follows their universally well-known customs.

3.6.7 CONCLUSION The village level data has been provided with the help of Census 2001 while data on project affected families was provided with door to door survey. Since, average decadal growth in West Siang district is only 8%, and area is sparsely populated, therefore, significant difference in the population is not anticipated. Some data of Census 2011 have also been provided but they are not sufficient to lead a proper study on socio cultural environment in West Siang District.

The tribal population is known as unique culture and customs and considered as an integral part of forest ecosystem. Due to poor infrastructure facilities like road network, transportation, communication, education facilities, the living standard and lifestyle of the people are not satisfied. Thus, strong efforts are required towards empowerment of people especially females.

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4
ASSESSMENT OF IMPACTS
4.1 INTRODUCTION Impact statement in EIA study is a core part, which facilitate a platform for the mitigation measures. Impact statement comprises of four dimensions namely impact identification, impact prediction, impact evaluation, and identification of mitigation measures and communication of information. Impact identification brings together project characteristics and baseline environmental characteristics with the aim of ensuring that all potentially significant environmental impacts (adverse or favorable) are identified and taken into account.

The prediction of impacts emphasizes the nature and significance of the impacts like positive or negative, reversible or irreversible, direct or indirect, short term and long term and temporary or permanent. The prediction may be qualitative and quantitative. The identification and prediction of likely impacts form the base of identification of monitoring requirements and mitigating measures. It includes the legal standard, suggestions, implementation procedure of mitigation measures, etc.

Finally quantitative data and qualitative information on impacts are presented, which enables non expert to comprehend them. There are a large number of methods of impact information like checklists, matrices, quantitative methods, networks and overlay maps. The application of method depends upon the types of the project and project area. The Environmental Impact Statement of Heo H.E. project is described in the following headings.

4.2

IDENTIFICATION OF IMPACTS Considering the project activities of Heo H.E Project, the impacts were identified on various

environmental baseline characteristics. A detailed account of these environments is given below:

4.2.1 Land Environment The project activities like dam structure, new approach roads, submergence, dumping yards, colony area, labour camps, etc directly affect the land environment. These activities would result into deforestation and land use changes etc. Total land required for the various project activities is
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about 55.7 ha, out of which 2.7 ha of land is underground and remaining 53 ha land would be required for the surface work. Total submergence area is about 8.4 ha including 5.6 ha of riverbed. These activities would have adverse impacts on the plant species and wildlife.

4.2.2 Geophysical Environment The construction of about 3.6 km long HRT, new approach roads, Dam and power house complexes would require frequent blasting activities. These actions may lead to some geophysical consequences like disturbance in the underground water table, activation of new and old landslides and induction of earth vibration in the nearby area or villages.

4.2.3 Aquatic Ecology Submergence, diversion of water, temporary settlement of migrant population (work camps during construction), leaching of loose soils in the water bodies would have direct impacts on the Yarjep (Shi) River and its tributaries. There will be changes in flow patterns of water in the upstream and downstream parts of the river, and therefore the river water would lose its capacity to self purify and there are also possibilities of sewage outfall due to migrant population of the work camps during construction. These activities have been identified as the catalysts of changes in the water quality, potability, and species composition.

4.2.4 Air Environment The project activities like excavation, increased vehicular movement, operation of a large number of equipment and machines are supposed to increase the concentration of air pollutants, suspended particulate matter and sound level, which are harmful not only for human health but wildlife and plant species.

4.2.5 Downstream Impacts The diversion of water through HRT would lead to the various downstream impacts not only on aquatic ecosystem and flow regime but livelihood of the natives and riparian zone.

4.2.6 Anthropogenic Impacts A large number of outside workers may exert the additional pressure on the natural resources. The anthropogenic pressures are identified for the wildlife, plant species, water quality etc.
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4.2.7 Social and Human Environment The temporary demographic changes, employment opportunities to locals, peripheral development etc are anticipated to exert the pressure on the natural resources, demography of the area, local economy and to change the living standard and lifestyle of the inhabitants. Some of the impacts are beneficial while others are harmful. In addition, migrant population may have many social consequences like increase in the rate of crime, social evils, cultural confliction, etc.

4.3

PREDICTION OF IMPACTS The likely impacts of various actions were predicted for the following environment.

4.3.1 Terrestrial Ecosystem i) Land Use and Land Cover As earlier stated, a total of 53 ha of land would be required for the surface works and project components. Forest area will be cleared for the purpose, which would result into land use and land cover changes. It is considered as a negative, direct and permanent impact, which, however, is small in magnitude. This activity is confined to the construction phase.

ii)

Submergence Including the river bed area a total of 8.4 ha land would be required for the submergence. A

significant number of trees would come under the submergence. Tree canopy in the submergence area is comprised of Actinodaphne obovata, Albizia odoratissima, Alnus nepalensis, Altingia excelsa, Cinnamomum glaucscens, Engelhardtia spicata, Ficus semicordata, Macaranga denticulata and Saurauia punduana. Understorey is represented by small trees and shrubs. Boehmeria macrophylla, Debregeasia longifolia, Hydrangea robusta, Leucosceptrum canum, Luculia pinceana, Melocalamus compactiflorus, Maesa chisia and Rubus burkillii are important shrubs. Though none of the species is threatened and endemic to the region, however the impact is long lasting and permanent in nature. iii) Other construction Area In addition to the submergence, there would be requirement of about 47.1 ha of land for dumping, road, power house, quarry etc. The surrounding area houses dense forest or open forest. The predicted number of trees like Albizia odoratissima,
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Cinnamomum glaucescencolonies, Eurya acuminata, Ficus semicordata, F. Oligodon, Schefflera bengalensis Schima wallichi, Xylosma longifoli etc., come under these activities would be around 15000. Most of the land required for the project would be used permanently, while small area can be restored in the operation phase.

iv)

Wildlife Project activities would likely lead not only to the shrinkage of the wildlife habitat but also

disturb and damage the corridors and habitats of animals. Regular turmoil like human population, blasting, vehicular movement etc. in and around the project areas may keep animals away from the area. The most affected animal species in the surroundings are Common leopard, Leopard, cat, Jungle cat, Barking deer, Wild boar, etc. Notably the wildlife in the surrounding areas is under stress due to customary hunting by the people. The hunting habit of locals may encourage the migrant workers to practice. On the other hand, the engagement of local people in the project work may divert them from the customary hunting, therefore, may lead a positive impact on the wildlife.

The majority of the impacts on wildlife are temporary because the activities and human population would last up to the end of construction period only. Contrarily, the diversion of water in the downstream part of the river may open new corridors for the movement of animals. It is considered as positive impact.

v)

Habitat / species loss The various activities like quarry, road construction, colony, etc. would have direct impacts on

the habitat and plant species. The important tree species in and around the construction sites are mentioned above. A large number of trees would be removed from these areas. It is considered as habitat loss, however, the area required for the project is small. Considering the species, no permanent loss is anticipated because no threatened and endemic species have been observed in the area. The loss of habitat would adversely affect the animal species like mammals, birds, butterfly etc.

vi)

Phyto-retardation High concentration of suspended particulate matters (SPM) would lead to the phyto-

retardation in and around the activity area, which will reduce the physiological process in the plant

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species. Many plant species are intolerant to phyto-retardation and will be wiped out from the area. Such impacts are short term impacts (construction phase) and reversible in nature. vii) Introduction of Invasive Species The introduction of alien species may be intentional and/or unintentional. Such species come along the migrant labourers as ornamental plant, along with food grains, etc. These species become invasive and spread over a large area. There are some invasive plant species like Ageratina adenophora, Ageratum conyzoides, Chromolaena odoratum, which already grow in the area. These species are highly tolerant and grow well in degraded sites and spread rapidly. They may trigger the loss of biodiversity. The impacts due to alien species are negative, permanent and irreversible.

viii)

Pressure on Natural Resources Due to the influx of migrant workers, there may be sharp temporary increase in the human

population, which may affect the natural resources adversely. There are fair possibilities of overexploitation of fuel wood, poaching and animal hunting because a part of the migrant population will be from other parts of Arunachal Pradesh. The tribes of Arunachal Pradesh are fond of animal hunting. Labourers require fuel wood for cooking, water heating etc. The extraction of fuel wood would exert the additional pressures on the natural resources.

ix)

Visual Effect The quarrying sites, roads, and other construction sites would decrease the scenic beauty of

the area. The construction sites would be obnoxious till the restoration. During the construction phase the area would loss the aesthetic importance.

x)

Generation of Solid Waste The peak labor force along with their family members would comprise of nearly 1300

persons and expected to generate 220 tones of solid waste per year. The solid wastes are recyclable and non recyclable. Such wastes spread over the land surface, if not handled properly and become obnoxious, decrease the scenic beauty of landscape and deteriorate the water and air quality.

4.3.2 Geophysical Environment The working areas are close to contact of marble, gneiss, garnetiferous mica schist gneiss and quartzite. Therefore, these gneisses are good tunneling media and are likely to come under Fair to
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Good category on Q value parameters as values derived from right bank surface exposures. The HRT would not pass through major nallahs. However, there are very improbable possibilities for damage of underground water tables. No major land slide was observed in the nearest surroundings; construction activities like excavation, road construction, quarrying may trigger small landslides and slips. Apart from the environmental consequences, special care must be taken for structural aspects because MCT (Main Central Thrust) passes from a nearby locality Yapik, which is close to the Heo dam site.

4.3.3 Aquatic Ecology i) Water Quality Downstream impacts would be considered in a separate section. In the upstream section no major drivers of deterioration are foreseen. However, inundation may bring some changes in the physical and chemical characteristics of the water. These changes would occur for long term. But a few impacts like dumping and labor camps along side the river water are anticipated in the construction phase only.

ii)

Generation of Waste Water The predicted quantity of waste water is nearly 1,30,000 liters per day due to the migrant

population. The outfall of waste waters would occur in the Yarjep (Shi) river that would deteriorate the water quality and lead to the adverse impacts on the potability of water and aquatic biodiversity.

iii)

Habitat/Species composition During construction, flow regime would change in a small stretch of the Yarjep (Shi) River,

which is supposed to trigger the changes in algal and macro-invertebrates. But in the operation phase it would occur considerably due to the diversion of water from the main river channel. A dearth of water in the main channel is not expected to allow rich diversity and to sustain column feeder fish species like Garra sp., and Schizothorax sp. Low water discharge in the downstream stretch would destroy the breeding grounds of fish species if a minimum environmental flow is not ensured.

iv)

Fish & Fisheries The important fish species like Schizothorax richardsonii and Garra naganensis, are column

feeder and take a long course of movement. A dam of 15 m height is expected to hamper the fish
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movement and exert a negative impact on the fish fauna. In addition, reservoir would also be non conductive and act as area of fragmentation for bottom dwellers. The proposed reservoir would increase the possibilities of reservoir fisheries, therefore, it is considered as a positive impact. These impacts are foreseen in the operation phase of the projects. The impacts are permanent in nature.

4.3.4 Air Environment The actions like operation of large number of equipment, excavation, quarrying, dumping and transportation of muck are anticipated to pollute the air quality. It has not only consequences on the environment, but also on human health.

i)

Increase in SPM Level The excavation of tunnels, roads and quarry sites, dumping, transportation of muck and fossil

fuel based equipments are the main drivers of SPM. The concentration of SPM decreases along the peripheral gradient and thus is maximum at the point source. The existing level in the surrounding is very low as compared to that at Aalo. During the construction phase the SPM level may increase significantly (up to 500 g m-3) High concentration of SPM would likely create health problems in the region. It is a temporary and reversible impact. After the construction activities, the level of SPM is anticipated to be restored.

ii)

Increase in the Level of NOx, SOx and CO The operation of large number of machines, equipment like DG sets, loaders, cranes,

compressors, vehicular movement is foreseen to increase the level of NOx, SOx and CO. The majority of equipment would be based on the fossil fuel which is the main source of such pollutants. At the point source the concentrations of such pollutant may reach from 20 to 30 g m-3, which would decrease gradually along the peripheral gradient. It exerts negative impacts on the human health especially on the workers of the project. It is a temporary and reversible impact. After the construction activities a significant decrease in concentration of NOx, SOx and CO is foreseen.

iii)

Increase in Noise Level No point source of noise was observed in the entire Yarjep (Shi) valley. During the

construction phase operation of machines like compressor, loader, roller, bulldozer, vehicles,
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blasting would increase the sound level significantly. These activities would disturb the human population as well as wildlife. Such negative impacts would remain for short time during construction phase only. Cumulative sound level produced by various equipment would be maximum at the source but would decrease with increase peripheral distances. These need to be monitored strictly during the construction activities in the region. The safe minimum standards in this region would need that the sound level of the instruments should not be more than 60 dBA beyond 1000m. During night time strict silence needs to be observed and there should be minimum use of light. Table 4.1 gives the sound levels at different distances from various project sources). Table 4.1 Sound level at different distance from the source
Distance (m) 100 200 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Note: 1. Day time is reckoned in between 6.00 AM and 9.00 PM 2. Night time is reckoned in between 9.00 PM and 6.00 AM 3. Silence zone is defined as areas up to 100 m around such premises as hospitals, educational institutions and courts. The silence zones are to be declared by competent authority. Ambient noise level (dB) 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 Probable noise level due to activity 70 68 60 55 52 50 49 47 Increase in noise level (dB) 20 18 10 5 2 -

Source: EIA report of Tato II H.E. project

iv)

Visual Impact During the construction phase SPM are clearly visible in the air. It becomes irritating and

obnoxious in a wider range. It affects the human health adversely.

4.3.5 Human Environment

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Arrival of a relatively large number of non local workers for the construction work would have an immense effect on the human population of the surrounding area. The effects are positive as well as negative in nature. The major impacts on the human environment are described below. i) Demographic change A total of nearly 1300 persons including the family members of peak labour force are expected to enter the area of the project works, for various periods. It would be nearly a 65% increase of the total population in influence area during the labor force peak of the construction period. The demographic change leads to various impacts, described in the following paragraphs. Thus, demographic change itself is not considered as an impact.

ii)

Cultural Aspects Change in the demography may trigger the cultural confliction between natives and outsiders

because the area is dominated by Adi tribes and its sub-tribes. These tribes are unique in their culture, customs and their traditions. The high number of migrant population of different culture may bring the anxiety among these tribes, which may result in conflicts.

iii)

Social Evils and threats of new disease

Sometimes a temporary and numerous outsider population is associated with social evils in a context of confliction. The natives may be affected adversely. In addition, the migrant population is expected to be carrier of new diseases. To mitigate the negative impacts project authorities have proposed proper quarantine procedure for screening and detecting such cases.

iv)

Interaction An interaction between natives and migrant population is anticipated to facilitate an exposure

to natives. Such types of exposure would have positive impacts on the local population. v) Small Scale Business & Employment Opportunities The migrant population would provide a fair possibility of a surplus income for natives. The local people could start small scale business for daily needs in the area. A number of marginal activities and jobs opportunities would be available to the locals. The locals would be beneficiaries of all infrastructures like schools, hospitals, roads, free electricity, buses, etc. provided by the project authorities.
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4.3.6 Downstream Impacts i) Water quality, Species/Habitat Loss, Fish and Fisheries Water diversion from the main channel is anticipated to generate various impacts on the aquatic ecosystem. The scarcity of the water in the downstream stretch would decrease the self purification capacity of water and most of the physical and chemical characteristics like dissolved oxygen, BOD, pH, hardness, TDS etc would be affected adversely. The water may be prone to deterioration due to project activities and workers. The physical and chemical characteristics would affect the biological composition of the water and fisheries. The dearth of water would not be able to sustain the large column feeder fishes and would affect the fish movement adversely. These impacts are anticipated in operation phase mainly during the lean season. They are long term, permanent and irreversible. A minimum environment flow will be left in the river in order to mitigate such adverse impact.

ii)

Change in Flow Regime Change in the flow regime may have many environmental consequences, which are

described above. In addition, there are many unseen impacts like changes in species composition of changed environmental flow. Major water from the main river channel would be diverted through HRT, thus a river stretch of 4.5 km would suffer from the scarcity of water. The reduced water flow would trigger the changes in physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the water. High water temperature, changes in species composition, low concentration of dissolved oxygen is anticipated in the downstream section. The reduced flow would also lead to the isolation of breeding pools of fish and deposition of the sand bars at the mouth of tributaries. The intermediate tributaries namely Sarak Korong (upper), unnamed and Sarak Korong (lower) join the Yarjep (Shi) river at distances of 1.65 km, 3.28 km and 3.73 km, respectively. Water discharge of these tributaries ranges from 0.68 to 9.1 cumec, 0.13 to 1.71 cumec and 0.28 to 3.28 cumec, respectively..

iii)

Livelihood The livelihood of people largely depends on the river water, if irrigation and fisheries depend

on the river water. In the downstream stretch no irrigation land falls while fishing activities are very low. Thus, no adverse impacts on the livelihood of the people are anticipated.
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iv)

Drinking Water Villagers do not depend on the river for drinking water. They exploit drinking water from

springs, therefore, no negative impacts are foreseen on drinking water after diversion of water.

v)

Bank Erosion After the diversion of water, the possibility of bank erosion increases because downstream

stretch of river would receive turbid free water from weir and tail race channel. The turbid free water has more eroding capacity.

vi)

Riparian Vegetation Low water flow in the downstream channel is anticipated to affect the riparian vegetation

adversely. Number of bryophytes, pteridophytes and herbs which grow in the downstream stretch would be affected adversely.

4.3.7 Social Empowerment In order to mitigate or to avoid adverse predicted impacts, project authorities would implement many mitigation measures related to environment and societies. Implementation of Rehabilitation and Resettlement Plan is one of them, which includes a detailed peripheral development plan. The details of measures for the social upliftment are described in the following paragraphs.

i)

Employment There would be good share of employment for local people as mentioned in the

Rehabilitation and Resettlement policy of Arunachal Pradesh depending on eligibility. In addition to the direct employment in the project activities, the inhabitants would benefit indirectly from various activities like small contract, etc. It is a positive, long term and strategic impact.

ii)

Social Values and Development of Basic Amenities

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There will be significant changes in the infrastructure facilities like transportation, education, health, etc. The Rehabilitation and Resettlement Plan in EMP report is directly related to the local people and their upliftment. In addition to the relief package, project authorities would implement a peripheral or social development plan. The provisions would have been made towards local participation in the project activities, infrastructure development like school, health centre, adoption of village, scholarship scheme, play ground, etc. development of small scale business, etc. The social development plan would play an important role in empowering the vulnerable groups of the region. It would put in positive impacts on the tribal community for long time and would be strategic in the nature.

4.4

IMPACT INFORMATION After a detailed analysis, the predicted impacts were divided on the basis of their nature,

magnitude, longevity and significance. Each impact was analyzed under the categories mentioned above and quantified using modified Leopold matrix. Each impact was assigned with a score using a scale of 1-5, depending on the magnitude and potential. A positive and negative sign was provided for beneficial and harmful nature of the impacts, respectively. The rows totals of matrix- reflect the total impacts of an action on the various environmental components while the columns totals reflect the impact of all actions on one environmental variable.

Table 4.2 indicates relative comparison of impacts of various actions on the different environmental components during the construction as well as operation phases. Details are provided in the Matrix 4.1 and 4.2. Majority of the impacts is negative but minor in their potential. Notably, the magnitude of negative impacts decreases considerably in the operation phase. In the construction phase, total score is -88, of which 111 stands for negative impacts and 23 for positive impacts. During the operation phase total score decrease to 41 of which negative impacts score for 63 and positive for 22. In the construction phase migrant population and excavation/tunneling are major activities which pose major impacts on the environmental and social components while community development is the most positive impact. In operation phase, diversion of water leads to maximum negative impacts. The downstream impacts are long lasting and permanent in the nature. Table 4.2 Summary of impacts of various actions in construction and operation phases
Actions Construction Phase Operation Phase 4-12

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Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment Positive Dam structure Road construction Submergence Power house Adits Dumping Excavation/Tunnel. Quarrying Colony Diversion Migrant population Construction method/ Vehicular Movement Community Development Total 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 2 3 11 23 Negative 0 13 4 13 2 12 18 12 3 0 19 12 3 0 111 Positive 0 1 4 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 1 3 10 22 Negative 5 5 6 5 2 5 3 4 4 11 10 1 2 0 63

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Table 4.3 shows relative impacts on the various environmental and social components. In the construction phase wildlife and ambient air quality are the most adversely impacted environmental variables while employment opportunities and infrastructure development are the most benefited social components. Table 4.3 Summary of impacts on various environmental variables in construction and operation phases
Environmental/ Social variables Construction Phase Positive Negative Operation Phase Positive Negative

Land use /land cover Habitat loss/ Degradation Wild life Phytoretardation Exploitation of resource Visual Effect Ground Water Level

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

9 6 12 6 2 6 2

0 0 1 0 0 0 2

10 2 6 0 2 8 2 4-13

Chapter 4 Assessment of Impacts

Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment Weathering Landslides/slip Stability Deterioration of water Species/Habitat loss Fish Movement Fisheries NO2, SO2 Level SPM Noise Level Visual Impact Demographic changes Cultural confliction Social evils Interaction Small scale business Downstream Impact* Habitat /species loss/ Flow regime Livelihood Drinking water Bank erosion Riparian vegetation Employment Social values Basic amenities Marketing Total 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 4 7 1 23 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 111 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 7 1 22 6 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 63 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 4 2 4 6 3 0 2 7 13 11 10 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 2 0 3 1 3 1 2 1 2 6 1 1 1 0 0

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*some of the downstream impacts are mentioned in aquatic environment

4.5

IDENTIFICATION OF MITIGATION MEASURES After the identification, prediction and evaluation of impacts some mitigation measures are

identified to ameliorate the negative impacts. Some of the important mitigation measures which are warranted to conserve the environment are listed below. i). Adequate safeguard measures for wildlife conservation and preservation of biodiversity
4-14 Chapter 4 Assessment of Impacts

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ii).

The activity like blasting must be scheduled and controlled taking the animal behaviour like movement time, breeding, corridor, etc. into account

iii). iv).

Afforestation in degraded land and catchment area Adequate engineering measures at construction sites, catchment area, dumping areas, land slides to arrest the soils

v). vi).

Restoration of quarry sites, colony area, road sites and other construction sites Maintenance of water quality, air quality and noise level

vii). Fish and Fishery development viii). Regular monitoring of migrant population to prevent the overexploitation of forest resources, poaching, crime, social evils, and cultural confliction. ix). Development of infrastructure in the surrounding area towards education, health, transportation, etc. x). xi). Adequate measures for disposal of waste Suitable mitigation measures for downstream impacts

All mitigation measures are taken into account in the Environment Management Plan of Heo H.E. project.

4.6

CUMULATIVE IMPACT ASSESSMENT Generally assessment of the impacts is addressed in isolation considering a particular project.

Sometimes it becomes insignificant when there are other existing or/and proposed projects in the close vicinity. Therefore, in order to achieve the aim evaluation of impacts is carried out in context of combined effects of all past, present and reasonably foreseeable future activities. Cumulative impact assessment also provides valuable and important inputs particularly in monitoring of environmental sustainability impacts. Thus, the process of analyzing cumulative effects is an enhancement of the traditional environmental assessment components: (i) scoping, (ii) describing the affected environment, and (iii) determining the environmental consequences.

The cumulative impacts are broadly divided into two categories namely additive cumulative impacts and synergistic cumulative impacts. In this contribution, synergistic cumulative impacts are described because the combined effects of the projects are considerably larger than the impact of an

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individual project. The present contribution deals with the impact assessment of cascade development on the Yarjep (Shi) river in West Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh.

Though, there are other projects like Tato II, Tato I. Heo, Pauk, Rego, Tagurshit projects proposed in the basin but hence, a cumulative impact assessment for three projects, namely Tato I, Heo, and Pauk H.E. projects is formulated as per the scope of the study. These projects are owned by a same agency so that the main purpose of cumulative impact assessment is to mitigate the adverse impacts of the projects under the comprehensive and coordinated system. The mitigation measures for these projects are given separately, however, an approach of coordination for the implementation of the various management plan has been followed.

4.6.1

Brief Description of the Projects The cumulative impacts of three projects on the surrounding environment are addressed in

this contribution. Prior to highlight the identification and prediction of impacts, an account of comparative salient features of these projects is given in Table 4.4.

Table 4.4 Salient features of the projects proposed on Yarjep (Shi) river in cascade

Tato I HEP Location of Intake/dam/barrage Latitude Longitude Location of Power House Latitude Longitude Catchment area at dam site Design Flood Weir/dam top River Bed Level at Intake site : 28 31 53 : 94 21 31 : 1154 sq km : 3400 cumecs : 1195.5 m : 1188 m : 28 32 32 : 94 18 43

Heo HEP

Pauk HEP

283220N 941631E 283232N 941843E 1065 sq. km 3200 cumecs 1400 m 1385 m 15 m 130.2 cumecs 8.4 ha 3.55 km

28 32 46N 94 14 43E 28 3219N 94 16 01E 985 sq km 3700 cumecs 1550 m 1445 m 105 m 118 cumecs 34.1 ha 2.8 km 4-16

Height of dam/weir (above river bed level): 7.5 m Design discharge Submergence Length of HRT Chapter 4 Assessment of Impacts : 133 cumecs : 3 ha : 3.9 km

Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment PH Type Installed capacity Construction period Total land to be acquired : Surface : 186 MW : 4 Years : 52.8 ha Surface 240 MW 4 years 55.7 ha Surface 145 MW 4 years 91.7 ha

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4.6.2 Identification & Prediction of Cumulative Impacts Cumulative impact assessment is a part of strategic environmental assessment, provides better scope than project level impact assessment. Such types of studies address the impacts of development on environment and helpful in assessing the effect of policy, plan and programme on the environment. This section deals with the identification of impacts of Pauk, Heo and Tato I H.E. projects on the surroundings. Table 4.5 summarizes the various actions of three projects cumulatively during construction phase and operational phase.

4.6.2.1 Construction phase Various activities mentioned in the Table 4.5 would lead to cumulative impacts on the various environments like biological, social, human, air, human environments with different magnitudes in construction and operational phases. Nature of all impacts are same for all projects, however, magnitude of impacts would increase while considering cumulatively. Major adverse

impacts on the flora and fauna are anticipated in the construction phase. Apart from the ecosystem services provided by plant species, many species of economic importance like Actinodaphne obovata, Albizia odoratissima, Alnus nepalensis, Altingia excelsa, Brassiopsis aculeate, Cinnamomum glaucscens, Castanopsis tribuloides, Casearia glomerata, Engelhardtia spicata, Eurya acuminata, Ficus semicordata, F. Oligodon, Garcinia cow, Lyonia ovalifolia, Macaranga denticulata, Saurauia Schefflera bengalensis Schima wallichi, Xylosma longifoli, , Carpinus

viminea, Quercus glauc, etc. will be under the direct influence of the project.

Project activities have direct as well as indirect impacts on the wild animals. Generally activities of river valley project are concentrated in the lower reaches of valley but cascade development covers a larger area thus, leads to adverse impacts on the faunal species in large area. The important animal species like Panthera pardus, Prionailurus bengalensisCanis aureus Neofelis nebulosa, Macaca assamensis, Felis chaus, Lutra lutra, Sus scrofa cristatus Muntiacus muntjak,

Chapter 4 Assessment of Impacts

4-17

Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment

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Lophura leucomelana will be directly affected due to activities of all three projects. In addition, project activities during construction and operational phases are described below.

Chapter 4 Assessment of Impacts

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Table 4.5 Combined actions of three projects in Yarjep (Shi) valley of Arunachal Pradesh
Parameters Construction Phase Operation Phase Nature of Impact

Land Environment Influence Area Land use Changes Submergence Generation of Solid Waste Quantity of Muck to be generated Water Environment Hydaulic Changes Generation of Waste Water No. of Intermediate Tributaries Anthropogenic Pressure Total Migrant Population Biological Environment No of Trees Affected (approx.) 50,000 Negative, Temporary, Reversible 4000 / Negative, Temporary, Reversible 4,00,000 L/day 08 14 km d/s 80,000 L/day 08 Negative, Permanent, Irreversible Negative, Temporary, Reversible Positive, Permanent 581 sq. km 156.1 ha 1868 kg/day 28,27,293 m
3

581 sq. km 44.1 ha 44.1 ha 373 kg/day -

Negative, Permanent, Irreversible Negative, Permanent Negative, Temporary, Reversible Negative, Permanent, Reversible

Social Environment of cumulated three projects Villages in Influence Area (Census, 2001) Total Population of Influence Area (Census, 2001) No of Affected Villages (Census, 2001) 29 2899 10 29 2899 Negative, Temporary, Reversible

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Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment

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No. of Affected Families (Social Survey)/HH Population of Affected Families (Social Survey) Geophysical Environment Total Length of HRT Total Land required for Road Total Area required for Quarry Sites Total No of Nalahs Crossed By HRT

209/144 733

Negative, Temporary, Reversible -

6.8 km 45.3 ha 2.6 ha -

6.8 km 4

Negative, Permanent, Irreversible Negative/Positive, Permanent, Irreversible Negative, Permanent, Irreversible Negative, Temporary, Reversible

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Total expected population of migrant workers would be higher that the existing population of influence area. The various professional and social activities of migrant workers are anticipated to lead the negative as well as positive impacts on the local population. These impacts in construction phase can be identified and predicted as demographic changes, cultural confliction, extraction of natural resources, social evils, threats to heath etc. The generation of solid waste and waste water is secondary impact of migrant population. On the other hand high population and ancillary activities would provide fair possibilities of development of small scale business. The additional requirement of food grains, milk, white goods, and other daily needs can provide a source of surplus income for locals.

Air quality is anticipated to be affected most adversely as compared to other parameters of environment. The ambient air pollutants are more concentrated at the source and their concentration decreases along the peripheral gradient. In case of cascade development, there would be many source of these pollutants, therefore, Yarjep (Shi) valley up to Mechukha would be affected. The obnoxious clouds of dust are foreseen to be visible in the valley. The air pollutants have impacts on human health and plant species, described earlier. Table 4.6 gives a summary of activities, their impacts and nature of impacts in the construction phase.

Table 4.6 Construction activities and their impacts


Construction Phase a) Site work / other facilities. i) Activity Cleaning and grading Potential Environmental Impact Deforestation Dust emission and change in traffic intensity

ii) Temporary facilities, such as sheds, approach roads, sanitary facilities iii) Earth work comprising of excavation and trenches iv) Foundation work, piling and construction of check dams v) Construction of permanent structures like roads, colony, etc.

Soil erosion, run off, increase in traffic, dust emission Dust, visual and noise pollution

Dust and noise pollution Deforestation

Chapter 4 - Assessment of Impacts

4-20

Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment vi) Mechanical erection and utility systems i) Excavation Dust, soil erosion, wastewater generation and noise ii) Drilling & Blasting b) Construction of approach roads tunneling works and foundations i) Dumping ii) Transportation c) Disposal of muck iii) Excavation iv) Road Construction i) Due to rehabilitation and d) Socio-economic disturbances e) Installation of Equipment like loader, cranes, crushers, compressors, heavy vehicle, DG sets Adverse impacts on flora, entomofauna Visual impact, beautification Soil pollution, visual impact Generation of solid waste, visual impact resettlement aspects ii) Due to labour influx i) Operation Dust, noise and health hazards, change in the course of course of water source, Wildlife disturbances Dust, noise and visual Dust, noise and visual Dust, SPM level Dust, SPM level, Noise Impact on human health, cultural, aesthetics, etc. Various social, cultural changes Increase in NOx, SOx and CO2 Disturbance to wildlife Add to social services Dust, noise and visual impact

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ii) Running

f) Other works

i) Lighting iii) Landscaping iv) Solid waste disposal v) Finishing activities like removal of temporary works

4.6.2.2 Operational Phase Permanent acquisition of land, downstream and upstream activities are major impacts which would remain during the operational phase. After the construction phase, most of the project activities would cease, thus, magnitude of associated impacts would decrease significantly. There would be no more removal of plant species. In case of wild animal species permanent impacts like habitat fragmentation and habitat shrinkage due to structural units, vehicular movement would occur
Chapter 4 - Assessment of Impacts 4-21

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but the source of high noise (blasting, tunneling) would come to end. Major part of the vehicles and machines running in the area will be removed. Similarly, most of the migrant workers (about 90%) will be homed. All the labour camps and temporary colonies will be dismantled and the project authorities would carry out the phytoremediation of those sites. The degraded habitats will be stabilized during the operational phase. The pressure on the aquatic ecosystem will reduce due to the decreasing anthropogenic pressure. Air pollutants will decrease due to closing of construction activities.

The diversion of water is major impact during the operational phase, which would result into the scarcity of water from nearly 14 km river stretch. Paucity of water in downstream stretch would have adverse impacts on ichthyofauna, and other biotic communities. Diurnal variation in the flow would destabilize biotic communities of the river.

The implementation of local area development and community development plans is expected to be most beneficial activity of the project. Such types of plans work in the construction as well as operational phases. Joint efforts of all projects are expected to help a large area in West Siang district. The provisions of schools, health centres, footpaths, roads, income generation schemes, training programme, etc. would put in to empowerment of society and development of infrastructure.

Most of the management plans suggested to restore the environment are implemented in the operational phase of the project. Table 4.7 gives a summary of activities, their impacts and nature of impacts in the operation phase.

Table 4.7 The major impacts identified during the operational phase
Operational Phase a) Site work / other facilities. Activity i) Creation of reservoir Potential Environmental Impact i) Leads to submergence of a large number of plant, causes habitat shrinkage and fragmentation, helpful in fishery development

Chapter 4 - Assessment of Impacts

4-22

Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment ii) Construction of permanent structures like roads, colony, etc. iii) Dam structure i) in affected villages b) Construction of footpath i) There will be reduction in the water over a 14 km stretch c) Downstream impacts i) It will help the local people in the transportation

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ii) Sewage outfall, vehicular movement, which would disturb wild animals. iii) Hampers fish migration

i) It would cause habitat fragmentation for fish and provide new corridors for wildlife ii) Low dilution of pollutants would lead to deterioration of water quality

d) Socio-economic impacts

i) Amenities

i) The establishment of new schools, health centres and market complex, provision of drinking water, electricity etc. would empower the tribal population, improve the quality of life in the region and provide fair job opportunities

e) Implementation of EMP

CAT, Biodiversity Management Fisheries, Landscaping etc

Reduce the negative impacts, restoration of environment, etc.

Chapter 4 - Assessment of Impacts

4-23

00

-12

-4

-13

-2

-12

-18

-12

-3

-13

-10

11

-88

Total

Marketing

Economic Upliftment

Basic amenities 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 -1 0 -2 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 -2 -2 -1 0 -1 -1 -1 0 0 -1 -1 -2 0 0 0 0 0 -2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -2 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 -2 0 -1 -1 -1 0 0 -1 -1 0 0 0 0 -1 0 -1 -2 0 -1 -1 -1 0 -2 -3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 -2 0 -1 -1 -1 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 -1 -1 0 0 -2 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -2 0 -2 0 -2 -2 -2 0 0 -1 -1 -2 0 -1 -1 0 0 0 0 0 -2 0 -2 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 -3 -1 0 0 -2 -3 -2 -2 0 0 -1 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -2 0 0 -1 0 0 -1 -2 -2 -2 0 0 -1 -1 0 -1 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -3 0 0 0 -3 0 -10 -11 -13 -7 -2 0 -3 -6 -4 -2 -4 -2 -6 -2 -6 -12 -6 -9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -3 0 0 0 -3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 3 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 7 Social value Employment Riparian vegetation

Downstream Environment
Drinking water Livelihood Flow regime Habitat /species loss/Fish

Bank Erosion

Human Environment

Small scale business Interaction - Social evils - Cultural confliction Demographic changes Visual Impact Noise Level SPM NO2, SO2 Level Fisheries

Matrix 4.1 Modified Leopold Matrix to study the environmental impacts in construction phase

Aquatic Environment
Fish Movement Species/Habitat loss Deterioration of water

Air Environment & Noise Geophysical Environment


Landslides/slip Weathering Ground Water Level Visual Effect Exploitation of resource Stability

Land Environment

Phytoretardation Wild life Habitat loss/ Degradation Land use /land cover

Environmental effects

Community Development Construction method/ Vehicular Movement

Developmental Activities

Excavation/Tunnel.

Migrant population Road construction Submergence Power house Quarrying Diversion Dumping Colony

Total Adits Dam

-5

-4

-2

-5

-2

-5

-3

-4

-3

-10

-8

-41

Total

Marketing Basic amenities 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 -1 0 -2 0 2 0 0 0 -2 -1 -2 0 0 0 -1 -1 0 0 -1 0 -2 -1 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 -1 0 -1 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 -1 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -2 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 -1 -1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 -2 0 0 1 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 -1 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 -2 -1 -1 1 -1 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 -1 -1 -5 -2 -1 -2 1 -3 -1 -3 0 -2 0 0 -8 -2 0 -5 -2 -10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 -3 -1 -6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 7

Economic Upliftment
Social value Employment Riparian vegetation Bank Erosion Drinking water

Downstream Environment
Livelihood Flow regime Habitat /species loss/Fish Small Scale business - Interaction - Social evils Cultural confliction Demographic change Visual Impacts Noise Level SPM NO2, SO2 Fisheries

Air Environment & Noise Aquatic Environment


Species/Habitat Loss Deterioration of Water Stability Fish Movement

Matrix 4.2 Modified Leopold Matrix to study the environmental impacts in operation phase

Human Environment

Geophysical Environment
Weathering Ground Water Visual Effects Exploitation of resource

Land Slide/slips

Land Environment

Phytoretardation Wild life Habitat loss/ Degradation Land use /land cover

Environmental effects

Community Development Vehicular Movement Construction method

Developmental Activities

Excavation/Tunnel.

Migrant population Road construction Submergence Power house Quarrying Diversion Dumping Colony

Total Adits Dam

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment

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CISMHE

Ogbeibu, A.E. and Oribhabor, B.J. (2002). Ecological impact of river impoundment using benthic macro-invertebrates as indicators. Water Research; 36; 24272436 Pennak, R. W. (1953). Freshwater Invertebrates of United States (2nd edition). John Willey & Sons, New York. 512-733 pp. Poff, N. L, Allan, J. D., Bain, K. M. B., Prestegaard, K. L., Richter, B. D., Sparks, R. E., and Stromberg, J. C. (Dec., 1997). The Natural Flow Regime, BioScience, Vol. 47, No. 11. pp. 769-784. Postel, S. L. (1998). Water for food production: Will there be enough in 2025?. BioScience 48: 629-637 Power, M.E, Sun, A., Parker, M., Dietrich, W.E. and Wootton, J. T. (1995). Hydraulic foodchain Models: an approach to the study of food-web dynamics in large rivers, BioScience 45: pp 159-167. Prater, S.H. (1971). Book of Indian Animals. Bombay Natural History Society, Mumbai, India. Raizada,. B. and Saxena, H. (1978). Flora of Mussoorie Vol. I. Bishen Singh mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra dun Rao, A. S. (1974). The vegetation and phytogeography of Assam-Burma. In Ecology and Biogeography in India. Ed. M. S. Mani, Netherlands (Hague), 204-246. Resh, V.H., Brown, A.V., Covich, A.P., Gurtz, M.E., Li, H.W., Minshall, G.W., Reice, S. R., Sheldon, A.L., Wallace, J.B., Wissmar, R. (1988). The role of disturbance in stream ecology, Journal of the North American Benthological Society; Vol. 7: pp 433455. Sanyal, D.P. and Gayen, N.C. (2006). Reptilia. In: Alfred, J.R.B (ed.). Fauna of Arunachal Pradesh. Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata. pp. 247-284. Sarkar, A.K. and Ray, S. (2006). Amphibia. In: Alfred, J.R.B (ed.). Fauna of Arunachal Pradesh. Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata. pp. 285-316. Sarod, P. T. & Kamat, N. D. (1984). Fresh Water Diatoms of Maharashtra. Saikripa Publications, Aurangabad. 338 pp. Sassaman, R.W. 1981). Threshold of Concern: A Technique for Evaluating Environmental Impacts and Amenity Values. J. of Forestry, 79(2), pp.84-6. Sen, T. K. (2006). Pisces. In: Fauna of Arunachal Pradesh. Part 1. Edited by J.R.B. Alfred, Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata. Shannon, C.E. and Wiener, W. (1963). The Mathematical Theory of Communication. Univ. of Illinois Press, Illinois, U.S.A.
Bibliography B-4

Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment

CISMHE

Stoermer, E. F. and Smol, J. P. (1999). Applications and uses of diatoms:prologue. In:The Diatoms: Applications for the Environmental and Earth Sciences. (Stoermer E. F. and Smol, P. J., Eds.). Cambridge University Press. Strahler, A. N. (1957). Quantitative analysis of watershed geomorphology. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union (38):913-920. Takhtajan, A. (1986). Floristic regions of the world. Univ. California Press. Berkeley. Vogel, S. (1981). Life in moving fluids. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. Ward, J. V. and Stanford, J. A. (1995). Ecological connectivity in alluvial river ecosystems and its disruption by flow regulation. Regulated Rivers: research & Management, 11(1), 105-119. WPA (2003). The Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972. Professional Book Publishers, New Delhi. Zomer, U. S. and Ives, J. (2002). Using satellite remote sensing for DEM extraction in complex mountainous terrain: Landscape analysis of the Makalu Barun National Park of Eastern Nepal. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 23:125 143. ZSI, (1994). The Red Data Book on Indian Animals (Part I). Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta.

Bibliography

B-5

ANNEXURES

Annexure I QUESTIONNAIRE FOR SOCIO-ECONOMIC SURVEY OF AFFECTED VILLAGES DUE TO PROJECT RELATED ACTIVITIES OF PROPOSED HEO H.E. PROJECT, ARUNACHAL PRADESH 1. Village Name a) District b) Tehsil 2. 3. 4. Area (ha) Number of households Population Profile: Total population: a) Male b) Female c) Scheduled Castes d) Scheduled Tribes 5. Workers: a) Main workers b) Farmers c) Marginal workers d) Others 6. 7. 8. 9. Total Cultivable area (ha) Net Sown area (ha) Net Irrigated area (ha) Cropping Pattern: Area (ha) under principal crops and yield (per ha) b) d) Development Block Panchayat

Cereals a) Wheat b) Maize c) Rice d) Others Pulses Rajmah Others 10. Horticulture: Area (ha) under principal crops and annual production a) b) c) d) 11. Medical Facilities: a) Allopathic institutions 1) 2) 3) Hospitals Community Health Centres Primary Health Centres No. No. of Beds No. of Doctors Other Staff

4) Dispensary 5) Health Sub-centre

b) Ayurvedic Institutions: 1) Hospitals 2) Dispensary c) Health & Hygiene: Prevalent Diseases Endemic Diseases Epidemic Diseases 12. Educational Institutions: a) Primary schools b) Middle schools c) High / Higher Secondary schools d) Colleges

Nos.

No. of Beds

Number

Student Strength

No. of Teachers

If there is no school, then nearest school and distance from the village. 13. Veterinary Facilities: a) Hospitals b) Dispensary c) Artificial Insemination Centres 14. Sewage & Sanitation Facilities, if any

15. Whether Electrified Any electrical sub-station

Yes / No

If not electrified, then the nearest electrified village

16. Roads a) Unmetalled b) Metalled c) Jeepable

Length (km)

d) If not connected by any road, then the nearest road head (distance)

17. Post Office Yes / No If the answer is No, then the location and distance of nearest post office 18. Telegraph Office 19. Banks 20. Police Post 21. State Government Employees 22. Central Govt. Employees 23. Drinking water availability: Source (River, Well, Hand-pump, Tap, Public Standpost, springs and others) Quality : Quantity : Satisfactory : Adequate/ Inadequate Yes/ No (Nature of problem, if No)

For drinking water (litres) For other use (litres) Any other specific drinking water problem If the water is not fit for drinking, how do you purify it. (filtering through cloth, boiling, alum treatment, disinfectant, decantation) etc. Water borne diseases, if any (Dysentary, Diarrhoea, Jaundice, Gastroenteritis, others, etc.)

24. Livestock: - Sheep - Goat - Cows 25. Co-operative Societies & NGOs 26. Village Panchayat 27. Fair Price Shop 28. Tourist/Recreational Spot (Religious place, historical monument, sanctuary, others, etc.) 29. Fertilisers used and consumption 30. a) Forest Range/Division Forest Check Post/s b) Forests & Forest Produce: Forests: Reserve Forest Protected Areas Revenue Forest Forest produce: Medicinal herbs Misc. 31. Natural Water Sources: a) Springs b) Brooks c) Water Quality Buffaloes Horses & Mules

32. Literacy 33. Income Pattern: a) Farming b) Salaried: - Government - Private c) Businessman/Shops/Trading 34. Government Schemes (Both Central & State Govt.) like IRDP, etc.

35. Vocational Training Centres, if any

36. Meteorological Data: a) Rainfall i) Average Annual b) Temperature Mean: Daily record, if available c) Snowfall d) Hailstorms a) Intensity b) Frequency b) Frequency ii) Daily (mm) Max.
o

Min.

e) Flashfloods a) Historical 37. Fishery Resources: Type of Fish Licenced Fisherman, if any

Fish catch 38. Small Scale Industries: a) b) Medicinal herbs collection Handicrafts

c) Shawl making d) Carpet weaving e) Paper Machie f) Wooden carving

g) Apiary h) Others 39. Mode of transport : 40. Vehicles: a) Bicycles b) Tractors c) Scooters/Bikes 41. Marketing Facilities: Local Trading Centre 42. Non-conventional Energy Sources: Solar lighting etc. 43. Recreational facilities (Library, Club, TV, Cinema, etc.) 44. Wastewater How do you dispose-off watewater (Drainage, Sewer, Soak pit, No organised system, etc.) Any specific problem related to waterwater Suggestions for improvement

45. Sanitation and Health No. of families : Latrine proper sanitation facilities Soakpit : Septic tank : Any other :

(If No, where do you go for defecation) Open space: 46. Solid waste disposal: (Unused land, road side, community dustbin, composting, any other) Field: Road side: Public latrine:

Annexure II QUESTIONNAIRE FOR SOCIO-ECONOMIC SURVEY OF AFFECTED FAMILIES DUE TO PROJECT RELATED ACTIVITIES OF PROPOSED Heo H.E. PROJECT, ARUNACHAL PRADESH Village Name a) District b) Tehsil 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Name of the head of the family Religion of the family Caste of the family: General Number of Family Members Age group of the family members: Adults Children (0-6) Children (6-17) 6. 7. 8. Number of earning members Number of non-earning members Number of dependants & relationship with head of the family Male Male Female Children: (Male : 0-6) (Female : 0-6) 9. Marital status of dependants : Married : Male Female Female Female SC ST OBC b) d) Development Block Panchayat

Unmarried : Male 10. Occupation of family members: Father Mother Children : Daughter Son Others

11. Occupation details: Service Agriculture Business Any other 12. Educational qualifications of family members: Primary Higher Secondary Graduate Post-graduate and above 13. Homestead Land: No. of house/houses a) Owner b) Tenant 14. No. of houses affected due to construction of project 15. No. of houses left 16. Land holding: Total Land under cultivation Location of land Same village Other village 17. Land self tilled or by labourers 18. Whether living in village or not, permanently/temporarily Acres/ hectare/ any other ( Acres (Area in acres/ha/any other) (Area in acres/ha/any other) ) Area (Acres) Governmetn/ Non-government

19. No. of shops/mills to be acquired/affected 20. No. of shops left 21. No. of animals : Sheep Goat Cow Bull Horse Pig Others 22. Income: a) Source/s b) Total annual income including agriculture, self employment, salaries, casual wages, etc. 22. Cropping Pattern 23. Income /expenditure Pattern 24. Details of government grants, if availed under Indian Rural Developmental Programme (IRDP) or other such schemes

25. Health Status: Name major diseases by which family members fell sick in last 3 years Type of treatment, family generally avails (allopathy, homoeopathy, ayurvedic, unani, etc.) Does family knows preventive measures of the above diseases (Immunisation, water treatment, personal hygiene, do not know, etc.) Where does family go for treatment (Household treatment, Pvt. medical practitioner, Govt. hospital, PHC, etc.)

Have any member got vaccinated in the last one year (Cholera, Jaundice, any other)

26. Land aquisition a) Total land of the owner b) Land to be acquired (ha) c) Land left (ha) d) Type of land acquired (ha)- Landuse e) Type of land left (ha) - Landuse f) Estimated loss due to loss of agricultural land, if any

27. Immovable Properties: a) Houses b) Wells c) Ponds d) Water- mills e) Others 28. Willingness to Accept: a) Willing to accept the loss of land (homestead/agricultural) b) Is ready to accept the proper compensation offered for the loss as per the State policy c) If answers to above questions are No, then give reasons Yes/No Yes/No

29. Would you welcome the project. (If No, give reasons) Surveyor Name: Date :

Yes/ No

Signature of the respondent

Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment

CISMHE

Annexure-III List of gymnosperms and angiosperms in the study area of Heo HE Project

Genus Gymnosperms Pinus Angiosperms Dicots Anemone Clematis

Species

Family

Habit

Altitude (m)

wallichiana

Pinaceae

tree

to 2000

vitifolia buchananiana gouriana

Ranunculaceae Ranunculaceae Ranunculaceae Ranunculaceae Ranunculaceae Ranunculaceae Magnoliaceae Magnoliaceae Magnoliaceae Magnoliaceae Magnoliaceae Menispermaceae Menispermaceae Fumariaceae Berberidaceae Brassicaceae Brassicaceae Brassicaceae Capparaceae Violaceae Flacourtiaceae Flacourtiaceae Caryophllaceae Caryophllaceae Caryophllaceae

herb climber climber herb herb herb tree tree tree tree tree climber climber climber shrub herb herb herb herb herb tree tree herb herb herb

1500-2700 800-1600 to 2000 1000-2500 to 1800 to 2100 1500-2500 1300-1700 300-1200 1200-1800 1000-1500 to 1800 850-1700 1500-2500 1000-2000 to 1500 1000-1200 1800-2500 800-1200 800-1500 800-1200 800-1100 800-2000 1100-2500 1000-1400

Ranunculus Thalictrum

cantoniensis foliolosum javanicum

Magnolia Michelia

pterocarpa doltsopa glabra oblonga punduana

Stephania

elegans glandulifera

Dicentra Berberis Brassica

scandens asiatica nigra juncea

Cardamine Capparis Viola Casearia Xylosma Arenaria Brachystema Drymaria

scutata assamica betonicifolia vareca longifolium neelgherrensis calycinum diandra

(i)

Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment Stellaria Hypericum decumbens elodeoides uralum Garcinia Camellia pedunculata caudata kissi Eurya siangensis acuminata cerasifolia nitida Schima Saurauia wallichii punduana roxburghii napaulensis Abelmoschus Kydia Sida manihot calycina acuta rhombifolia Urena Sloanea Hiptage Geranium Impatiens lobata toentosa benghalensis polyanthes angustiflora arguta drepanophora racemosa tripetala Oxalis Zanthoxylum Ilex corniculata acanthopodium dipyrena sikkimensis Celastrus Euonymus Berchemia championii theifolius floribunda Caryophllaceae Hypericaceae Hypericaceae Cluciaceae Theacee Theaceae Theaceae Theaceae Theaceae Theaceae Theaceae Actinidiaceae Actinidiaceae Actinidiaceae Malvaceae Malvaceae Malvaceae Malvceae Malvaceae Elaeocarpacdeae Malpighiaceae Geraniaceae Balsaminaceae Balsaminaceae Balsaminaceae Balsaminaceae Balsaminaceae Oxalidaceae Rutaceae Aquifoliaceae Aquifoliaceae Celastraceae Celastraceae Rhamnaceae herb herb herb tree shrub shrub shrub tree tree tree tree tree tree tree herb tree shrub herb herb tree climber herb herb herb herb herb herb herb shrub tree tree climber shrub shrub 1000-1600 1100-3000 1500-2500 800-1200 1000-1800 1100-1800 1150-1800 900-1500 1500-1800 1000-2000 to 2000 900-1800 800-1500 800-1200 800-1200 800-1400 800-1200 800-1500 to 1500 1400-1600 to 1800 to 1900 1000-1500 900-2130 600-1500 1500-2000 to 1500 to 2800 1000-2500 1000-1800 1500-2000 to 1400 1500-2500 1400-1700

CISMHE

(ii)

Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment Cayratia Cissus Tetrastigma Parthenocissus Leea Acer Rhus japonica heyneana serrulatum semicordata asiatica campbellii succadanea chinensis Crotolaria Desmodium cajan polistachya microphyllum Bauhinia purpurea variegata Albizia lebbeck odoratissima Cotoneaster acuminatus bacillaris Photinia Fragaria Potentilla cuspidata nubicola nepalensis sundersiana Prunus cerasoides persica Rubus burkillii hamiltonii ellipticus lineatus rosifolius niveus Rosa Bergenia Dichroa Hydrangea Altingia brunonii ciliata febrifuga robusta excelsa Vitaceae Vitaceae Vitaceae Vitaceae Vitaceae Aceraceae Anacardiaceae Anacardiaceae Papilionaceae Papilionaceae Papilionaceae Caesalpiniaceae Caesalpiniaceae Mimosaceae Mimosaceae Rosaceae Rosaceae Rosaceae Rosaceae Rosaceae Rosaceae Rosaceae Rosaceae Rosaceae Rosaceae Rosaceae Rosaceae Rosaceae Rosaceae Rosaceae Saxifragaceae Saxifragaceae Hydrangeaceae Hamamelidaceae climber climber climber climber shrub tree tree tree shrub shrub herb tree tree tree tree herb shrub tree herb herb herb tree tree shrub shrub shrub shrub shrub shrub shrub herb shrub shrub tree to 1500 800-1200 1500-2000 1200-1900 800-1200 1600-1800 to 1650 to 2000 to1500 1000-1500 to 1600 to 1500 to 1750 to 1200 to1500 2000-3000 1600-2000 1500-2200 1800-2500 1500-2500 1800-3600 1200-3000 800-1500 to 2000 900-1500 1500-1800 to 2000 1000-1500 to 1100 to 2599 to 2000 to 2500 to 2500 800-1600

CISMHE

(iii)

Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment Exbucklandia Melastoma populnea erythrophylla malabathricum Osbeckia normale chinensis Oxyspora Ludwigia Benincasa Cucumis Centella Hydrocotyle Oenanthe Pimpinella Brassiopsis Hedera Pentapanax Schefflera paniculata octavalvis hispida melo asiatica nepalensis javanica diversifolia aculeata nepalensis leschenaultii bengalensis impressa wallichiana Alangium Viburnum Galium Hedyotis Knoxia Luculia Mussaenda Ophiorrhiza Paederia Wendlandia Valeriana Artemisia Aster Conyza chinense colebrookianum asperuloides scandens sumatrensis pinceana roxburghii glabra foetida sikkimensis jatamansi nilagirica molliusculus bonariensis japonica Hamamelidaceae Melastomataceae Melastomataceae Melastomataceae Melastomataceae Melastomataceae Onagraceae Cucurbitaceae Cucurbitaceae Apiaceae Apiaceae Apiaceae Apiaceae Araliaceae Araliaceae Araliaceae Araliaceae Araliaceae Araliaceae Alangiaceae Caprifoliaceae Rubiaceae Rubiaceae Rubiaceae Rubiaceae Rubiaceae Rubiaceae Rubiaceae Rubiaceae Valerianaceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae tree shrub shrub shrub shrub shrub herb climber climber herb herb herb herb tree climber shrub shrub tree tree tree shrub herb herb herb shrub shrub shrub shrub shrub herb herb herb herb herb 1000-2000 900-1800 500-1400 to 1500 to 1700 to 1600 1000-2000 1500-2200 1500-2000 1500-2500 to 1500 800-1500 1500-2600 1500-1800 1500-2000 to 1000 800-2000 1200-2400 800-1700 1100-1800 to 1500 800-1500 800-1200 2000-3000 2000-3000 to 2500 to 2000 to 2450 900-2500 to 2000 600-1500 400-1400 to 2000

CISMHE

(iv)

Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment Dichrocephala Circium Carduus Sonchus Ageratum Ageratina Chromolaena Bidens Eclipta Galinsoga Inula Anaphalis integrifolia wallichii edelbergii oleraceus conyzoides adenophora odoratum bipinnatus prostrata parviflora cappa busua contorta triplinervis Gnaphalium affine hypoleucum Tagetes Vernonia Campanula minuta cinerea sylvatica pallida Gaultheria Lyonia Rhododendron Maesa Myrsine Symplocos Jasminum Cryptolepis Trachelospermum Buddleja nummularioides ovalifolia arboreum chisia semiserrata theifolia multiflorum buchanani fragrans paniculata asiatica Cynoglossum Crawfurdia Ipomoea glochdiatum speciosa purpurea Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Campanulaceae Campanulaceae Ericaceae Ericaceae Ericaceae Myrsinaceae Myrsinaceae Symplocaceae Oleaceae Apocynaceae Apocynaceae Loganiaceae Loganiaceae Boraginaceae Gentianaceae Convolvulaceae herb herb herb herb herb herb shrub herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb shrub tree tree shrub shrub tree climber climber climber shrub shrub herb climber climber 1200-2200 1400-2400 1500-2000 1900-2400 to 2000 to 2900 to 2000 to 2000 to 1500 to 2500 to 2400 1500-3300 2100-4000 1800-4000 1200-3000 1500-2400 to 2000 to 1500 to 1800 1200-3000 1200-2400 1400-2400 1700-4000 900-1800 1000-2700 1500-2800 to 1500 1000-1800 1000-2100 900-1500 900-1500 1200-2400 1400-2100 800-1600

CISMHE

(v)

Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment carnea Cuscuta Solanum reflexa nigrum viarum Physalis Datura Verbascum Mazus minima stramonium thapsus surculosus pumilus Lindera Scrophularia Mimulus antipoda urticifolia nepalensis anagallisVeronica Aeschynanthus Chirita Didymocarpus aquatica gracilis pumila andersonii pulcher Oroxylum Thunbergia Strobilanthes indicum coccinea thomsonii hamiltoniana Dicliptera Plantago Leycestera Ocimum Plectranthus Anisochilus Elsholtzia bupleuroides erosa formosa gratissimum barbatus pallidus fruticosa ciliata strobilifera Perilla Salvia Scutellaria frutescens plebeia plectranthoides Scrophulariaceae Gesneraceae Gesneraceae Gesneraceae Gesneraceae Begnoniaceae Acanthaceae Acanthaceae Acanthaceae Acanthaceae Plantaginaceae Caprifoliaceae Lamiaceae Lamiaceae Lamiaceae Lamiaceae Lamiaceae Lamiaceae Lamiaceae Lamiaceae Lamiaceae herb shrub herb herb herb tree climber shrub shrub herb herb shrub herb herb herb shrub herb herb herb herb herb to 2100 to 1500 1200-2400 800-1700 900-2500 to 1550 800-1500 800-1900 to 1500 to 1600 800-2400 1500-3000 to 2000 1400-2200 900-1600 2100-3000 1600-2800 2100-2700 to 2300 to 1525 1200-2400 Convolvulaceae Cucutaceae Solanaceae Solanaceae Solanaceae Solanaceae Scrophulariaceae Scrophulariaceae Scrophulariaceae Scrophulariaceae Scrophulariaceae Scrophulariaceae shrub climber herb shrub herb shrub herb herb herb herb herb herb 800-1600 800-2400 800-1800 800-1500 800-1600 800-1400 800-1400 1200-2400 1200-1600 ca 1250 1800-3000 900-1800

CISMHE

(vi)

Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment Colquhounia Leucosceptrum Ajuga Deeringia Amaranthus Cyathula Achyranthes Alternanthera Gomphrena Chenopodium coccinea canum macrosperma celosioides spinosus prostrata aspera sessilis celosoides album aromaticum Polygonum Persicaria plebium barbata posumbu capitata chinense Aconogonum Fagopyrum Rumex Houttuynia Pepromia molle esculentum nepalensis cordata heyneana reflexa Piper Phoebe Cinnamomum pedicellatum hainesiana tamala glauscescens Litsea Actinodaphne Loranthus Scurrula Euphorbia kingii obovata odoratus umbeliflora hirta stracheyi Malotus Macaranga philippensis denticulata Lamiaceae Lamiaceae Lamiaceae Amaranthaceae Amaranthaceae Amaranthaceae Amaranthaceae Amaranthaceae Amaranthaceae Chenopodiaceae Chenopodiaceae Polygonaceae Polygonaceae Polygonaceae Polygonaceae Polygonaceae Polygonaceae Polygonaceae Polygonaceae Saururaceae Piperaceae Piperaceae Piperaceae Lauraceae Lauraceae Lauraceae Lauraceae Lauraceae Loranthaceae Loranthaceae Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae herb shrub herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb shrub herb herb herb herb herb shrub tree tree tree tree tree shrub shrub herb herb tree tree 1500-2700 1500-2500 1200-3000 to 2500 to 2000 to 1800 to 1800 to 1500 800-1700 800-2100 800-2400 to 1500 800-2000 800-1500 800-2600 800-2600 800-2000 1500-2000 800-3000 1000-1350 to 1800 to 1890 to 1400 800-1600 1400-1700 to 1200 2100-2900 to 1400 to 1500 to 2000 to 1200 to 2700 800-1600 to 1800

CISMHE

(vii )

Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment Morus Ficus laevigata semicordata oligodon auriculata Urtica Gerardinia Pilea Lecanthus Elatostema Boehmeria parviflora diversifolia umbrosa peduncularis sesquifolium pendulifera macrophylla Debregeasia Engelhardtia Carpinus Alnus Quercus longifolia spicata viminea nepalensis semiserrata glauca Moraceae Moraceae Moraceae Moraceae Urticaceae Urticaceae Urticaceae Urticaceae Urticaceae Urticaceae urticaceae Urticaceae Juglandiaceae Betulaceae Betulaceae Fagaceae Fagaceae tree tree tree tree herb herb herb herb shrub shrub shrub shrub tree tree tree tree tree tree tree tree tree tree tree tree tree tree to 2000 to 1500 to 1400 to 1500 800-1600 to 2000 to 1600 to 1600 to 1600 to 1400 to 1800 to 1800 to 2300 to 2600 1500-2200 1600- 2300 1200-1800 1200-2600 1700-2700 900-2200 1500-2300 800-1500 2000-2300 1200-2400 1700-2700 to 2000

CISMHE

leucotrichophora Fagaceae lamellosa Lithocarpus elegans pachyphyllus Castanopsis indica hystrix tribuloides Salix Populus wallichiana australis Fagaceae Fagaceae Fagaceae Fagaceae Fagaceae Fagaceae Salicaceae Salicaceae

Monocots Hydrilla Bulbophyllum Dendrobium verticillata affine porphrochilum amoenum longicornu Calanthe ovalis Hydrocharataceae herb Orchidaceae Orchidaceae Orchidaceae Orchidaceae Orchidaceae ep. Herb ep. Herb ep. Herb ep. Herb ep. Herb 1200-1400 1200-2000 1000-2000 1000-1500 1000-1500 800-1800
(viii )

Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment Amomum Curcuma Hedychium subulatum aromatica spicatum coccinneum Zingiber Musa offiinale bulbisiana paradisiaca Dioscorea Smilax oppositifolia glabra aspera Polygonatum Molineria Pothos Raphidophora Colocasia oppositifolium capitulata cathcartii decursiva esculenta affinis Arisaema tortuosum concinum Commelina Murdania benghalensis scapiflorum nudiflorum Cyanotis Floscopa Pollia Juncus Calamus Arenga Pandanus Eriocaulon Kyllinga Cyperus cristata scandens hasskarlii inflexus erectus saccharifera nepalensis cristatum brevifolia niveus squarosus compressus cyperoides Zingiberaceae Zingiberaceae Zingiberaceae Zingiberaceae Zingiberaceae Musaceae Musaceae Dioscoreaceae Smilacaceae Smilacaceae Liliaceae Hypoxidaceae Araceae Araceae Araceae Araceae Araceae Araceae Commelinaceae Commelinaceae Commelinaceae Commelinaceae Commelinaceae Commelinaceae Juncaceae Arecaceae Arecaceae Pandanaceae Eriocaulaceae Cyperaceae Cyperaceae Cyperaceae Cyperaceae Cyperaceae herb herb herb herb herb shrub shrub climber climber climber herb herb climber climber herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb shrub shrub tree herb herb herb herb herb herb 800-1600 to1500 to1800 to1500 cult. to 1500 to 1400 1200-2400 800-1700 800-2300 1200-2400 800- 2300 to 1200 to 1400 to 2000 to 1200 800-2600 1200-2000 800-1600 800-1400 800-1600 800-1600 800-1700 1000-1600 1000-1400 to 1400 to 1500 to 1500 to 1500 to 1700 Throughout Throughout Throughout to 1500

CISMHE

(ix)

Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment densa irria Fimbristylis dichotoma junciformis Scirpus Schoenoplectus teratanus mucronatus triqueter Eriophorum Carex comosum nubigena longipes myosurus cruciata filicina decora Saccharum spontaneum longisetosus Paspalum scrobiculatum paspalodes Isachne Panicum Thysanolaena Oplismenus Arundinella Setaria albens sumatrense latifolia compositus nepalensis glauca verticillata palmifolia Zea Imperata Digitaria mays cylindrica ciliaris cruciata Pogonatherum Arthraxon Apluda Capillipedium paniceum hispidus mutica assimile Cyperaceae Cyperaceae Cyperaceae Cyperaceae Cyperaceae Cyperaceae Cyperaceae Cyperaceae Cyperaceae Cyperaceae Cyperaceae Cyperaceae Cyperaceae Cyperaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb to 1800 to 1500 to 1700 300-2400 to 1700 to 1800 to 1800 300-3000 1500-4000 1000-3000 1200-2000 to1500 1000-1800 800-1600 to 1500 to 1600 to 2000 to 1800 to 2000 to 1800 to 1400 to 1800 to 1800 to 2000 to 1200 to 1600 to 2000 to 2000 to 1600 to 2300 to 1700 to 1700 to 1600 to 1500

CISMHE

(x)

Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Impact Assessment Chrysopogon gryllus acicularis Themeda arundinacea anathera Sporobolus Agrostis diander micrantha vinealis gigantea Calamagrostis Cynodon Eleusine emodensis dactylon indica coracana Brachiaria Helictotrichon Arundo Eragrostis ramosa parviflorum donax nigra tenella Poa Brachypodium Bambusa Melocalamus Dendrocalamus annua sylvaticum tulda compactiflora hamiltonii Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb herb shrub shrub shrub to 2000 to 1700 to 1500 to 1600 to 1800 to 1900 to 2000 to 1900 to 2100 to 2300 to 1500 to 1400 to 1500 to 2000 to 1500 to 2300 to1800 to 2800 to 1800 to 1500 to 1400 to 1500

CISMHE

(xi)

DRAFT FINAL REPORT JUNE 2012

C CIIS SM MH HE E

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF HEO HYDROELECTRIC PROJECT, Arunachal Pradesh

Volume-II Management Plan


Prepared for: Heo Hydro Power Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi CENTRE FOR INTER-DISCIPLINARY STUDIES OF MOUNTAIN & HILL ENVIRONMENT University of Delhi, Delhi

CONTENTS Page No. CHAPTER 5.1 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 5.1.4 CATCHMENT AREA TREATMENT PLAN INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES SOIL EROSION AND CAUSES ESTIMATION OF SOIL EROSION 5.1.4.1 Drainage 5.1.4.2 Slope 5.1.4.3 Land use/ Land cover 5.1.4.4 Soil Class and Soil Depth 5.1.4.5 Erosion Intensity Assessment PRIORITISATION OF SUB-WATERSHEDS FOR TREATMENT 5.1.5.1 Year-wise Treatment of Watersheds ACTIVITIES TO BE UNDERTAKEN 5.1.6.1 Preventive Biological Measures 5.1.6.2 Treatment Measures: Engineering Measures SCHEDULE OF TREATMENT PLAN 5.1.7.1 Monitoring and Evaluation PERIOD AND SCHEDULE OF IMPLEMENTATION COST ESTIMATES

5.1.5 5.1.6

5.1.7 5.1.8 5.1.9 CHAPTER 5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.2.4

5-1 5-2 5-3 5-3 5-3 5-4 5-5 5-7 5-8 5-10 5-11 5-12 5-12 5-17 5-21 5-21 5-22 5-22

5.2.5 5.2.6 5.2.7 5.2.8 CHAPTER 5.3 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.4

BIODIVERSITY MANAGEMENT & WILDLIFE CONSERVATION PLAN INTRODUCTION 5-24 OBJECTIVES 5-24 STATUS OF BIODIVERSITY IN THE SURROUNDINGS 5-25 PROPOSED PLAN 5-26 5.2.4.1 Definitions 5-26 5.2.4.2 Management Measures 5-27 WILDLIFE CONSERVATION & FOREST PROTECTION PLAN 5-29 SAFEGUARD MEASURES 5-30 BIODIVERSITY MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE 5-31 FINANCIAL OUTLAY 5-31 MUCK DISPOSAL PLAN INTRODUTION SELECTION OF DUMPING SITES GENERATION OF MUCK

3-33 3-33 3-34

5.3.5 5.3.6

5.3.7 CHAPTER 5.4 5.4.1 5.4.2 5.4.3

MUCK DUMPING AREAS REHABLITATION OF DUMPING SITES 5.3.6.1 Engineering Measures 5.3.6.2 Biological Measures COST ESTIMATES RESTORATION OF CONSTRUCTION AREAS AND LANDSCAPING INTRODUCTION DISTURBED SITES AND THEIR RESTORATION RESTORATION OF QUARRY SITES 5.4.3.1 Removal of Top Soil 5.4.5.2 Filling of Depressions 5.4.5.3 Diversion of Run-off 5.4.5.4 Construction of Retaining Walls 5.4.5.5 VAM Fungi for Soil Reclamation 5.4.5.6 Revegetation RESTORATION OF CONSTRUCTION SITES, COLONY AND OFFICE COMPLEX ROADS COST ESTIMATES GREEN BELT DEVELOPMENT PLAN INTRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT OF GREEN BELT GUIDELINES & TECHNIQUES FOR NURSERY DEVELOPMENT 5.5.3.1 Size of Nursery 5.5.3.2 Nursery site selection 5.5.3.3 Transportation 5.5.3.4 Fertilizer application 5.5.3.5 Soil and Soil Fertility 5.5.3.6 Water Supply and Drainage 5.5.3.7 Cost estimates for raising 1 ha plants in a Nursery 5.5.3.8 Species to be planted 5.5.3.9 Precautions for Plantations GREEN BELT DEVELOPMENT 5.5.4.1 Road side Plantation 5.5.4.2 Green belt around intake site 5.5.4.3 Green belt around power house 5.5.4.4 Green belt around pond periphery 5.5.4.5 Schedule BUDGET

5-34 5-35 5-36 5-37 5-40

5.4.4 5.4.5 5.4.6 CHAPTER 5.5 5.5.1 5.5.2 5.5.3

5-41 5-41 5-42 5-42 5-42 5-43 5-43 5-43 5-44 5-44 5-46 5-48

5.5.4

5.5.5

5-50 5-50 5-51 5-51 5-51 5-51 5-51 5-52 5-52 5-52 5-52 5-52 5-56 5-56 5-57 5-57 5-57 5-59 5-59

CHPATER 5.6 5.6.1 5.6.2 5.6.3 5.6.4

5.6.5

5.6.6 5.6.7 CHAPTER 5.7 5.7.1 5.7.2 5.7.3

FISHERY DEVELOPMENT PLAN INTRODUCTION HEO H.E. PROJECT FISH & FISHERIES PROPOSED PLAN 5.6.4.1 Fishery Development 5.6.4.2 Fish Pass/ Ladder DOWNSTREAM MANAGEMENT PLAN 5.6.5.1 Maintenance of Flow 5.6.5.2 River Channelization 5.6.5.3 Maintenance of Pools 5.6.5.4 Maintenance of Tributaries FINANCIAL OUTLAY BUDGET PUBLIC HEALTH MANAGEMENT INTRODUCTION EXISTING FACILITIES PROPOSED PLAN 5.7.3.1 Hospital 5.7.3.2 Primary Health Centre MEDICAL SERVICES 5.7.4.1 Immunization Programme 5.7.4.2 First Aid Boxes 5.7.4.3 Mobile Medical Vans SAFEGUARD MEASURES FINANCIAL OUTLAY SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN INTRODUCTION MIGRANT POPULATION GENERATION OF WASTES WASTE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL PLAN 5.8.4.1 Septic tanks (Soak pits) 5.8.4.2 Community Toilets 5.8.4.3 Bathrooms and Washing Places 5.8.4.4 Sewage Treatment Plant 5.8.4.5 Segregation of Waste & Placement of Dustbins 5.8.4.6 Landfills 5.8.4.7 Dumpers and Wheelbarrows 5.8.4.8 Service staff 5.8.4.9 Water and Toilet Facilities for the Villages

5-60 5-60 5-61 5-61 5-61 5-63 5-64 5-64 5-65 5-65 5-65 5-66 5-66

5.7.4

5.7.5 5.7.6 CHAPTER 5.8 5.8.1 5.8.2 5.8.3 5.8.4

5-68 5-69 5-69 5-69 5-70 5-70 5-70 5-72 5-72 5-72 5-73

5-74 5-74 5-76 5-77 5-77 5-77 5-78 5-78 5-78 5-79 5-79 5-79 5-79

5.8.5 CHAPTER 5.9 5.9.1 5.9.2

TOTAL COST FUEL WOOD ENERGY & BIO-RESOURCE CONSERVATION INTRODUCTION PROPOSED PLAN 5.9.2.1 LPG Depot and Distribution of LPG Connections 5.9.2.2 Kerosene Depot 5.9.2.3 Community Kitchens/ Canteens 5.9.2.4 Installation of Solar Panels 5.9.2.5 Distribution of improved Chullahs and solar cookers FINANCIAL OUTLAY

5-80

5.9.3 CHAPTER 5.10 5.10.1 5.10.2

5-82 5-82 5-82 5-82 5-83 5-83 5-83 5-84

MANAGEMENT OF AIR, WATER QUALITY AND NOISE LEVEL INTRODUCTION 5-85 PROPOSED MEASURES 5-85 5.10.2.1 Air Quality 5-85 5.10.2.2 Water Quality 5-86 5.10.2.3 Noise Level 5-87 REHABILITATION & RESETTLEMENT PLAN & PERIPHERAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN INTRODUCTION 5-89 GENERAL METHODOLOGY 5-90 BRIEF SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE 5-91 AREA OF EXECUTION OF PERIPHERAL 5-93 DEVELOPMENT PLAN PROPOSED PLAN 5-92 5.11.5.1 Rehabilitation & Resettlement Plan 5-92 5.11.5.2 Rights and Privileges 5-103 5.11.5.3 Peripheral Development Plan 5-104 5.11.5.4 Financial Outlay 5-111 MONITORING & EVALUATION 5-112 DEVELOPER MESSAGE 5-113 TOTAL BUDGET 5-113 DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN INTRODUCTION HEO DAM & HYDROLOGY OTHER HYDRO PROJECTS ON YARJEP RIVER PROPOSED PLAN 5.12.3.1 Prevention 5.12.3.2 Preparedness

CHAPTER 5.11 5.11.1 5.11.2 5.11.3 5.11.4 5.11.5

5.11.6 5.11.7 5.11.8 CHAPTER 5.12 5.12.1 5.12.2 5.12.3 5.12.3

5-114 5-115 5-116 5-117 5-117 5-118

5.12.6 CHAPTER 5.13 5.13.1 5.13.2 5.13.3 5.13.4 5.13.5 5.13.6 5.13.7 5.13.8 5.13.9 5.13.10 5.13.11 5.13.12 CHAPTER 5.14 5.14.1 5.14.2 5.14.3 5.14.4

5.12.3.3 Response and Recovery 5.12.3.4 Mitigation and Rehabilitation 5.12.3.5 Notifications COST ESTIMATES GOOD PRACTICE Environmental Training for the project Workers Awareness Programme Rules and Guidelines Conservation of Natural Resources Waste Management Health Aspects Social Aspects Storage, Handling and Emergency Response for Hazardous Chemicals, Explosives Cultural Meet & Renovation of Cultural Sites Establishment of Cretch Videography Public Relation Cell IMPLEMENTATION AND ENVIRONMENT MONITORING PROGRAMME INTRODUCTION ENVIRONMENT CELL & CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY CELL IMPLEMENTATION MONITORING & EVALUATION 5.14.4.1 Independent Committee 5.14.4.2 Project Level Committee MONITORING SCHEDULE BUDGET SUMMARY OF COST ESTIMATES

5-121 5-122 5-122 5-123

5-124 5-124 5-124 5-124 5-125 5-125 5-125 5-125 5-126 5-126 5-126 5-126

5-127 5-127 5-127 5-130 5-130 5-130 5-131 5-132 5-133

5.14.5 5.14.6 CHAPTER 5.15

ANNEXURE-I, II, III PLATES 5.1.1, 5.1.2, 5.3.1

LIST OF TABLES Table 5.1.1 Table 5.1.2 Slope class and its associated area in the free-draining area of Heo H.E. Project Land cover/ Land use class and its associated area in the free-draining area of Heo H.E. Project Table 5.1.3 Sub-watershed and area associated with different soil class in the Heo H.E. Project Table 5.1.4 Area under different intensity of erosion in the free-draining area of Heo HE Project area Table 5.1.5 SYI for different sub-watersheds for Heo HE Project free draining catchment Table 5.1.6 Year-wise treatment of the sub-watersheds Table 5.1.7 Watershed-wise details of various activities Table 5.1.8 Budget for development of State Forest Department infrastructure Table 5.1.9 Component-wise cost estimate for catchment area treatment works Table 5.1.10 Physical and Financial layout plan of Catchment Area Treatment for Heo H.E. Project Table 5.3.1 Quantities of muck to be generated and rehabilitated from the different components of Heo H.E. Project Table 5.3.2 Location and capacity of muck dumping areas Table 5.3.3 Cost estimates for retaining walls at the dumping sites in the Heo H.E. Project. It includes the labourers wages Table 5.3.4 Financial requirements for the biological measures to rehabilitate dumping sites of Heo H.E. Project Table 5.3.5 Break down of overall cost for muck disposal plan Table 5.4.1 Areas of storage and colonies and other sites in the proposed Heo H.E. Project Table 5.4.2 Some important plant species for plantation in the colony area/office complex and along the road sides Table 5.4.3 Cost estimates for Restoration Works and Landscape Designing Table 5.5.2 Summary of cost for green belt development Table 5.5.1 (a) Species wise details of trees indicating planting techniques and their usages Table 5.5.1 (b) Species wise details of shrubs indicating planting techniques and their usages Table 5.5.1 (c) Species wise details of medicinal plants indicating planting techniques and their usages Table 5.5.2 Land use/ land cover of green belt layers Table 5.5.3 Physical and financial break-up for the creation and maintenance of green belt around the periphery of reservoir of Heo H.E. Project Table 5.5.4 Summary of cost for green belt development Table 5.6.1 Year-wise break up of cost estimates for proposed hatchery of the proposed Heo H.E. Project Table 5.6.2 Total cost for Fisheries and Downstream Flow Management Table 5.7.1 Estimated cost for the setting up of a Primary Health Centre (PHC) at Heo H.E. Project area

Table 5.7.2 Table 5.7.3 Table 5.8.1 Table 5.8.2 Table 5.9.1 Table 5.11.1 Table 5.11.2 Table 5.12.1 Table 5.12.2 Table 5.12.3 Table 5.12.4 Table 5.14.1 Table 5.14.2 Table 5.15.1

EPI schedules as recommended by Government of India Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) time schedule of routine vaccination Total migrant population (peak time) expected for the Heo H.E. Project Estimated cost for the solid waste management Budget allocation for fuel wood energy management and conservation of the Heo H.E. Project area Break up of land to be acquired for various components in Heo H.E. Project Relief package for the affected families of proposed Heo H.E. Project Salient features of Heo H.E. project in West Siang District of Arunachal Pradesh Estimated distances from Heo H.E project to proposed HE project on the u/s and d/s Estimated cost of satellite communication system Cost estimates of disaster management plan of Heo H.E. Project Detailed implementation plan for Heo H.E. Project Detailed plan for evaluation and monitoring of various environmental variables and mitigation measures Cost estimates for the implementation of EMP

LIST OF FIGURES Figure 5.1.1 Figure 5.1.2 Figure 5.1.3 Figure 5.1.4 Figure 5.1.5 Figure 5.1.6 Figure 5.1.7 Figure 5.1.8 Figure 5.1.9 Figure 5.1.10 Figure 5.3.1 Figure 5.3.2 Figure 5.3.3 Figure 5.3.4 Figure 5.3.5 Figure 5.5.1 Figure 5.6.1 Index map of free-draining area of Heo H.E. Project Drainage map of free-draining area of Heo H.E. Project Slope map of the Heo H.E. Project free-draining area False Colour Composite (FCC) generated from IRS-P6 LISS-III, 2006 of the proposed Heo H.E. Project Land use/ land cover map of the Heo H.E. Project free-draining area Soil map of the Heo H.E. Project free-draining area Soil-depth map of the Heo H.E. Project free-draining area Erosion intensity map of the Heo H.E. Project free-draining area Treatment map of the Heo H.E. Project free-draining area Year-wise treatment map of the Heo H.E. Project free-draining area Muck dumping sites (MDA-1) near dam site of the proposed Heo H.E. Project Muck dumping sites (MDA-2) near Adit No.1 site of the proposed Heo H.E. Project Muck dumping sites (MDA-3) near Adit No.2 site of the proposed Heo H.E. Project Muck dumping sites (MDA-4) near powerhouse site of the proposed Heo H.E. Project Cross section of retaining wall of muck dumping site Map showing green belt layers around proposed reservoir of Heo H.E. Project Schematic diagram of proposed hatchery for Heo H.E. Project

Heo H.E Project - Environment Management Plan

CISMHE

5.1
CATCHMENT AREA TREATMENT PLAN
5.1.1 INTRODUCTION Developmental projects can be followed by a number of related activities like deforestation, urbanization and faulty management practices, etc. which cause degradation of the catchment area. All these processes damage soil environment which ultimately leads to rapid sedimentation of reservoirs. Accelerated soil erosion in the catchment areas of the reservoir and transport of detached materials through the drainage network give rise to a series of problems, notably steady loss of storage capacity, consistent drop in hydro-electric power generation in lean season and landslides. The loss of active storage leads to heavy economic losses due to reduced lean season generation. Therefore, extensive soil conservation and watershed management programmes are needed to minimize the damages to the catchment area and to mitigate soil erosion problems. Erosion and sediment yield in Yarjep valley and sediment accumulation in the fertile flood plains of Brahmaputra and lower regions represent a loss and gain phenomenon. In the upper regions of the valley, active processes of slope denudation are operative and loss of fertile soil is taking place. The so generated sediments are brought down into the man-made reservoir which gets filled with silt and other channel eroded materials.

In the catchment area of the proposed Heo HE project, there is a very large plain in the upstream of the proposed Heo Dam, known as Mechuka Plain where both slope of the river bed (average of 0.26% over 16km long stretch) and velocity of the water in the river (0.5m/s to 2 m/s) are very low. Most of the silts get deposited there. Downstream of this plain and upstream of Heo HEP, Pauk HEP is being developed by Velcan Energy Ltd. The Arch Dam of Pauk HEP creates a reservoir 11.5 Mm3 storage capacity, covering a 34 ha area. The water velocity in the reservoir will fall down to less than 0.05 m/s, whereas the water velocity is never less than 0.2 m/s even in a desilting basin. Hence the upstream Mechuka Plain and Pauk Reservoir will be acting as a desilting basin for the HEO HEP.

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However, as an additional precautionary environmental measure, a treatment of the catchment area of the proposed Heo HE project is proposed. In such catchment, splash, sheet, rill and gully are the main types of erosion. The total catchment area of the proposed Heo HE project up to dam site is around 106 500 ha and the free draining catchment area of the project is around 8400 ha. In this defined region the total area under different categories of erosion intensity (very severe, severe, moderate and slight) is 8372 ha the remaining mere amount is constitute of river and snow. However, only the area under very severe and severe erosion has to be considered for treatment in free draining catchment, which is around 1364.93 ha. Indeed, traditionally, only the area with very severe and severe erosions is considered for treatment. However, in the present CAT plan we have considered only 927.27 ha for treatment, which is around 11.04 per cent of the total effective free draining catchment area and around 68 per cent of the area under very severe and severe erosions. Only 927.27 ha out of 1364.93 ha will be treated, because they come below 3000 m elevation and are made of slopes of less than 45o. The remaining 32 per cent are not suitable for treatment, either due to high elevation (above 3000 m) or too steep slopes (slopes above 45%). The part of the catchment area which is taken for treatment is divided into 9 sub-watersheds. Various biological and engineering measures have been suggested for the treatment of these areas. Total budget for the catchment area treatment plan is kept Rs. 491.08 lakhs and proposed schedule for the execution of the planned work is 4 years and thereafter, I year is kept for the maintenance of the work carried out in the catchment. Zero year is also considered in the schedule for the development of nursery, raising of saplings.

5.1.2 OBJECTIVES The CAT plan has been prepared sub-watershed-wise. In all, 9 sub-watersheds have been considered for CAT plan. In the present plan, thrust has been given for sustainable development of the catchment area as well as to protect and conserve the local environment with the active involvement of local people. In the CAT plan equal emphasis has been given to the economic needs of the local people, greening of the region, strengthening the local wildlife management and the integration of these activities with a view to finally avoid soil erosion and decrease the silt load, if any, in Yarjep River and silt load in its tributaries. Various mechanical and biological measures have been suggested to treat the region to meet the following objectives. 1. Ecological rehabilitation of the region for the sustainable development of local economy. 2. Greening the region.
Chapter 5.1 Catchment Area Treatment Plan 5-2

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3. To protect the region from soil loss. 4. Enrichment/rejuvenation of water resource in the region. 5. Increase the employment opportunities for local communities to decrease their dependency on natural resources for their livelihood. 6. Management plan to protect the wildlife. 7. Initiation of research activities to use and protect natural resources in a scientific way.

5.1.3 SOIL EROSION AND CAUSES Different types of erosion that are observed in the catchment are: i) sheet erosion, i.e. washing of surface soil from arable land; it is considered to be the first step in soil erosion, ii) gully erosion; it is the aggravated form of rill erosion (heavy rainfall associated with rainstorms, the overland flow or sheet flow is transformed into linear flow), and iii) stream bank erosion.

Water, which comes in the form of precipitations or drainage, is the single most important agent of erosion. Whenever water moves, it erodes the boundaries alongside. Rainfall, streams and rivers all scour soil with their action. The erosion, therefore, is essentially a process of smoothening or leveling in which soil and rock particles are carried, rolled or washed down the slope under the influence of both gravity and water.

5.1.4 ESTIMATION OF SOIL EROSION In order to formulate appropriate soil conservation measures, it is essential to estimate the extent of soil erosion and its spatial context in the treated catchment area. Brief description of various factors (Drainage, Slope, Soil & soil depth and Land use/ Land cover) that are responsible for soil erosion are being discussed below. Sub-watershed of the free draining area was delineated from the Survey of India Toposheets and nine sub-watershed were delineated (Fig. 5.1.1).

5.1.4.1 Drainage Left Bank of Yarjep: As shown in the Fig. 5.1.2, the headwater region of the Songshi Bu originates from the Northern part of the free draining area. It flows from the Northern part of the free draining area and flows southwards and meets with Libong Sokong near the Showongshi Comp. Libong Sokong also originates from the snow clad mountains. Showong Sokong flows for 5 km southwestwards and drains into Songshi Bu. There are several un-named tributaries joining from the
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both banks. Some of the tributaries have slopes susceptible to landslide. Tributaries along the right bank are smaller and lesser dendrite in pattern. Songshi Bu flows southeastward for ~9 km and drains into Yarjep River near the dam site.

Right Bank of Yarjep: Right bank tributaries are smaller in nature and short traversed. There are two prominent rivers along the right bank. Shene Korong flows northwards and drains into Yarjep near Purying. Besides in the upstream Shuku Sokong also flows northwards and drains into the main river channel.

5.1.4.2 Slope Slope was extracted from the digital elevation model (DEM). DEM is in turn extracted from contour map. The contour map was digitized on computer for further processing and analysis using combination of ArcGIS 9.0 and GeoMedia Professional 5.2. Digitization of the contour map was carried out and later contour interpolation technique was use to create DEM. Further, slope map (percentage) was extracted from the DEM. As shown in the Fig. 5.1.3 and Table 5.1.1 the moderately steep is prevalently spread in the free draining area, covering about 61% of the total free draining area. This slope class is more prominent in the sub watersheds of Sb6 and Sb9 with area coverage of 760.79 ha and 879.94 ha respectively. Steep slope class is the second prominent slope class in the free draining area with area coverage of about 27% of the total free draining area. Sub watersheds Sb3, Sb6 and Sb8 have area coverage in the range of 365.04 ha, 416.35 ha and 338.13 ha respectively. Loose soils on steep slope and moderately steep slope are more susceptible to soil erosion than other slope classes.

Table 5.1.1 Slope class and its associated area (ha) in the free draining area of Heo HE Project
Subwatershed Sb1 Sb2 Sb3 Sb4 Sb5 Sb6 Gently Sloping 0.99 1.37 3.99 1.63 2.31 1.62 Moderately Sloping 11.00 45.35 41.3 12.21 13.03 21.65 Strongly Sloping 56.54 179.86 103.38 62.92 85.44 96.52 Moderately Steep 495.46 726.3 691.29 309.53 535.05 760.79 Steep 255.78 119.59 365.04 89.13 238.28 416.35 Very Steep 0.00 0 31.51 0 0.24 1.00

Chapter 5.1 Catchment Area Treatment Plan

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Heo H.E Project - Environment Management Plan Sb7 Sb8 Sb9 0.38 0.7 0.3 0 10.37 33.68 9.12 50.8 109.18 216.32 546.32 879.94 200.42 338.13 218.8

CISMHE

0 7.81 1.29

5.1.4.3 Land use/ Land cover The project area designated for the free draining catchment area treatment plan covers 8400.02 ha. The recent land use/ land cover of this area was interpreted from the satellite images and confirmed by the field surveys. A false color composite (FCC) was generated for the entire free draining area as well as for all the 9 sub-watersheds (Fig. 5.1.4). The land use /land cover of the free draining area of HE project area as well as of all the 9 sub-watersheds was classified under Dense Forest, Open Forest, Scrub, Degraded Forest, Cultivation, Moraines, Barren, River and Snow (Fig. 5.1.5).

Land use and land cover mapping was carried out by standard methods of analysis of remotely sensed data followed by ground truth collection and interpretation of satellite data. For this purpose digital data on CDROMs were procured from National Remote Sensing Agency, Hyderabad. Digital image processing of the satellite data and the analysis of interpreted maps were carried out at the Computer Centre at CISMHE using ERDAS Imagine 8.7. Several techniques and geo statistical approaches were used for the image processing of the Catchment area. Techniques such as supervised classification and later on a spatial statistic model (Maximum likelihood classifier) applied for the sample set of the trained pixel were used to classify the satellite imagery.

Digital data of IRS P6 LISS-3 and Landsat-7 full scene were used for image processing and thematic map preparation. For the secondary data, Survey of India toposheets on 1:50,000 and 1:25,000 were referred to for the preparation of base map and drainage map. With the objective of preparation of environment management plan and an action plan for watershed management and a catchment area treatment, the classification scheme adopted for the preparation of land use/ land cover maps and related thematic maps on 1:50,000 scale is as follows. Two forest density classes were interpreted for the forest cover mapping. The forests with >40% canopy cover were delineated as dense forests and between 10% and 40% crown density as open forest. Furthermore, degraded forests (with <10% canopy cover) and scrubs were also delineated for the purpose of erosion

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mapping. The cropland (agriculture) was also delineated for the calculation of erosion intensity classification.

The base map, drainage map and land use/land cover map were prepared using the satellite data. The sub-watershed boundaries were then overlaid on the drainage map and land use map of the free draining area in order to extract the drainage and land use of the sub-watersheds, which were further used for overlay analysis by Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. In the free draining area of Heo H.E. Project the most prominent form of land cover is dense forest with area coverage of 48% of the total free draining area of Heo H.E Project ( Fig. 5.1.5). In northern part of the watershed this land cover is prevalently spread in the sub-watershed of Sb1, Sb2 and Sb3 with area coverage of 445.45 ha, 805.86 ha and 502.2 ha respectively. Similarly sub watersheds Sb5, Sb6 and Sb9 in the southern part have area in the range of 459.47 ha, 610.74 ha and 523.12 ha respectively (Table 5.1.2).

The second prominent land cover in the free draining area is the degraded forest with area coverage of almost 20% of the free draining area with largest area coverage of about 300 ha in the sub watershed of Sb3. Sb5, Sb6, Sb8 and Sb9 have area coverage in the range of about 250 ha. Subsequently scrub and open forest are spread in an area of 16.8% and 13.8% of the total free draining area, respectively. Open forest is more prominent in the sub watersheds of Sb3, Sb6, Sb8 and Sb9 having area coverage in the range of 150 ha to 200 ha. Likewise scrub is proportionately spread in all the sub-watersheds, except sub-watersheds of Sb4 and Sb7 all the sub watersheds have a scrub area larger than 100 ha.

The remaining land use such as cultivation, settlement and erodible land classes such as barren land and moraines are merely present in the free draining area. Therefore the lands on the slopes in the free draining area are lesser susceptible to soil erosion.

Table 5.1.2 Land cover/ land use class and its associated area (ha) in the free draining area of Heo HE project
Subwatershed Sb1 Sb2 Dense Forest 445.45 805.86 Open Forest 113.07 59.75 Scrub 128.23 145.23 Degraded Forest 33.20 60.83 Cultivation 11.17 0.81 Moraines 48.13 0 Barren 35.24 0 River 0 0 Snow 5.29 0

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Sb3 Sb4 Sb5 Sb6 Sb7 Sb8 Sb9

502.2 254.56 459.47 610.74 150.85 312.09 523.12

163.03 27.52 40.66 193.13 93.61 171.02 293.76

256.6 98.95 166.37 228.36 48.94 199.58 144.54

302.08 94.3 204.99 264.7 132.84 260.14 277.25

0.42 0.08 0.34 1.01 0 1.85 3.78

0 0 0.17 0 0 0 0

0 0 2.35 0 0 0.17 0

12.18 0 0 0 0 9.27 0.73

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

5.1.4.4 Soil class and Soil depth As shown in the Fig. 5.1.6 and Table 5.1.3 all the soil classes are proportionately spread in the free draining area. In the northern part of the free draining area the soil class S3 is more prominent. It is largely spread in the sub-watershed of Sb2 with area coverage of 1010.39 ha of land and it is completely devoid in the sub-watersheds of Sb5, Sb7, Sb8 and Sb9 in the southern part. Subsequently, S1 is more prominent in the southern part of the catchment with largest area coverage of 1243 ha in the sub-watershed of Sb9. Again it is devoid in the sub-watersheds of the northern part and therefore Sb1, Sb2, Sb4 and Sb5 are completely devoid of this soil class. However, soil class S4 is more prevalent in the middle part of the free draining part of the catchment. Hence, S4 soil class is more prevalently spread than the former ones with largest area coverage in the sub-watershed of Sb6 with area coverage of 1215.94 ha.

Table 5.1.3 Sub watershed and area (ha) associated with different soil class in the Heo H.E project.
Sub watershed Sb1 Sb2 Sb3 Sb4 Sb5 Sb6 Sb7 Sb8 Sb9 S1 0 0 641.04 0 0 25.95 352.98 927.36 1243.19 S3 819.78 1010.39 192.98 201.24 0 56.04 0 0 0 S4 0 62.07 402.5 274.17 874.35 1215.94 73.26 26.76 0

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The whole free draining catchment area is characterized with shallow soil (Fig. 5.1.7). 5.1.4.5 Erosion Intensity Mapping Soil erosion intensity mapping was carried out using the above thematic layers. Soil erosion is mainly caused by moving water and gravity. It varies from place to place. Furthermore, it is intensified by human induced developmental projects. Within the Himalayan river basins, water is the main agent of erosion. Erosion by water is most complex process and takes place due to rain splash, sheet wash or rill wash, channel erosion in rivers or gullies. The catchment area of the proposed Heo HE Project experiences silt loads in the major river and its tributaries. In the present context, one of the significant negative impacts of soil erosion is the reduction of the life of reservoir of a hydroelectric project. The increased silt in the rivers has severe adverse impacts on the microand macro-organisms, above and below ground as well as for the aquatic biodiversity including fishes. There are a number of factors in the Yarjep river basin which are responsible for extensive soil erosion and heavy silt load in the river. In the following section we have described on how to use soil erosion process on Silt Yield Index (SYI).

5.1.4.5.1 Estimation of Soil Erosion in Catchment The entire catchment area has been delineated into 9 sub-watersheds. Detailed drainage map for the entire free draining as well as for each sub-watershed was prepared at 1:50,000 scale. All the rivers and streams have been delineated in each sub-watershed. The areas under different erosion intensities were calculated using GIS software. For the estimation of erosion intensity three spatial factors, soil depth, slope and land use, each with five to seven parameters, were considered during hierarchical querying. For soil depth, deep (score 1), moderately deep (score 2) and moderately shallow (score 3), were used. In case of slope, five parameters, Gently Sloping (score1) to Steep (score 5) were considered and similarly for land use, seven categories of Dense forest (score 1), Open Forest (score 2), Scrub (score 3), Degraded Forest (score 4), Cultivation (score 5), Settlements (score 6), moraines and Barren (score 7) was taken into account for calculating erosion in the catchment area. After running the queries, an area with the final score of 12 or above was designated as having very severe erosion, the score 10 to 12 was designated as severe, 7 to 9 was classified as moderate erosion and score up to 6 was classified as having slight erosion.

As shown in the Fig.5.1.8, area with moderate erosion is largely spread in the free draining area with a coverage of 6901 ha of land i.e., 82% of the total free draining area. It is prevalently spread
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throughout the sub-watersheds. Very severe erosion is the second prevalent form of soil erosion in the free draining area with area coverage of almost 1000 ha of land, i.e 11%. It is more prominent on the left bank of Yarjep River immediately upstream of the dam site. Very severe erosion is prevalently spread in the sub watersheds of Sb3, Sb4, Sb5, Sb6, Sb7 & Sb8 respectively. Severe erosion is spread in an area of about 400 ha of land. It is also prevalent on left bank (see Table 5.1.4).

Table 5.1.4 Area (ha) under different intensity of erosion in the free draining area of Heo HEP
Erosion class Slight Moderate Severe Very Severe River Snow Total Area (ha) 106.52 6901.08 405.78 959.15 22.19 5.29 8400.01 % 1.27 82.16 4.83 11.42 0.26 0.06 100.00

5.1.4.5.2 Sediment Yield Index To calculate sediment yield index, methodology developed by All India Soil & Land Use Survey (Department of Agriculture, Govt. of India) was followed, where each erosion intensity unit is assigned a weightage value. When considered collectively, the weightage value represents approximately the relative comparative erosion intensity. A basic factor of K = 10 was used in determining the weightage values. The value of 10 indicates a static condition of equilibrium between erosion and deposition. Any addition to the factor K (10+X) is suggestive of erosion in ascending order whereas subtraction, i.e. (10-X) is indicative of deposition possibilities.

Delivery ratios were adjusted for each of the erosion intensity unit. The delivery ratio suggests the percentage of eroded material that finally finds entry into dam/ reservoir or river/ stream. Area of each composite unit in each sub-watershed was then measured.

Sediment yield index (SYI) was calculated using following empirical formula (for SYI of individual sub-watersheds see Annexure-I).

(Aei x Wei x DR)


SYI = AW
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Heo H.E Project - Environment Management Plan where, SYI Aei Wei DR AW =Sediment yield index = Area of composite erosion intensity unit = Weightage of composite erosion intensity unit = Delivery ratio = Total area of the sub-watershed

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5.1.4.5.3 Erosion Intensity and Delivery Ratio Determination of erosion intensity unit is primarily based on the integrated information on soil characters, physiography, slope and land use/land cover. This is achieved through superimposition of different thematic map overlays. Based on the ground-truth, carried out during the field work, weightage value and delivery ratio were assigned to each erosion intensity unit.

Delivery ratio, which depends on the type of material, soil erosion, relief length ratio, land cover conditions, etc. were assigned to all erosion intensity units depending on their distance from the nearest stream. The criteria adopted for assigning the delivery ratio are as follows: Nearest Stream 0 - 0.9 km 1.0 - 2.0 km 2.1 - 5.0 km 5.1 - 15.0 km 15.1 - 30.0 km Delivery ratio 1.00 0.95 0.90 0.80 0.70

5.1.5 PRIORITISATION OF SUB-WATERSHEDS FOR TREATMENT As previously seen, only the area under very severe and severe erosion has to be considered for treatment in free draining catchment, which is around 1364.93 ha. Out of 1364.93 ha, only 927.27 ha will be treated, because they come below 3000 m elevation and are made of slopes of less than 45o. The remaining 437.66 ha are not suitable for treatment, either due to too high elevation (above 3000 m) or too steep slopes (slopes above 45%).

Based on the Sediment Yield Index (SYI), sub-watersheds that require treatment measures were prioritized using the simple rule that the sub-watersheds with a higher SYI were ranked higher
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in priority for treatment (Table 5.1.5; see Annexure-I). The sub-watersheds would be treated on priority basis in the treatment scheme to be followed (Table 5.1.5). An index map giving physical targets of the year-wise treatment measures to be undertaken in different sub-watersheds according to their priority ranking for treatment was prepared and is given in Fig. 5.1.9.

Table 5.1.5 SYI for different sub-watersheds for Heo H.E Project free draining catchment
Subwatersheds Sb1 Sb2 Sb3 Sb4 Sb5 Sb6 Sb7 Sb8 Sb9 Area* (ha) 814.49 1072.48 1224.34 475.41 874.35 1297.94 426.25 944.85 1242.46 Gross silt yield 11381 15585 17389 6634 9703 17595 5217 10600 14387 Sediment yield index 1397.37 1453.15 1420.30 1395.46 1109.68 1355.61 1223.94 1121.85 1157.94

5.1.5.1 Year-wise Treatment of Watersheds Silt yield index (SYI) has been calculated for all the 9 sub-watersheds, following the All India Soil and Land Use Survey (AISLUS) method and the sub-watershed were accordingly prioritized for treatment (Table 5.1.6).

Table 5.1.6 Year-wise treatment of the sub-watersheds


Years Sub-watershed Name SYI Priority Ranking Treatment Area (ha) 29.91 241.28 271.19 Sb1 Sb4 Sb6 Chapter 5.1 Catchment Area Treatment Plan 1397.37 1395.46 1355.61 3 4 5 7.57 28.16 144.67 5-11

Ist

Sb2 Sb3

1453.15 1420.30

1 2

Total IInd

Heo H.E Project - Environment Management Plan Sb7 Total IIIrd Sb9 Sb5 Total IVth Grand Total Sb8 1121.85 8 1157.94 1109.68 7 9 1223.94 6 85.77 266.17 150.76 44.00 194.76 195.15 927.27

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5.1.6 ACTIVITIES TO BE UNDERTAKEN For undertaking soil conservation measures in the Heo H.E. Project catchment area up to barrage site various indirect or preventive measures like biological measures and direct or remedial measures like engineering measures have been discussed in the following paragraphs. Even as suggestions have been made regarding certain specific treatment measures to be undertaken in a particular sub-watershed, these measures, however, may require further micro-planning during the implementation stage (Table 5.1.7).

5.1.6.1 Preventive Biological Measures It is always better to undertake preventive measures than to mitigate the factors that ultimately lead to soil erosion. Such preventive measures will indirectly help to conserve soil in the long run, keeping in view the importance of integrating eco-restoration strategy with socio-economic needs of the local community wherein both ecology and economics are developed. The preventive measures that are suggested for the project area have been discussed below.

a)

Afforestation In the upland region like this project area, the trees and vegetation cover play an important

role in the conservation of soil and ecology. Afforestation program would be taken up in such forest areas that contain large patches of barren grassy slopes and are generally devoid of trees. In critically degraded areas, plantation of locally useful, diverse and indigenous plant species such as Alnus nepalensis, Alangium chinense, Altingia excelsa, Bischofia javanica, Pterospermum acerifolium, etc. would be undertaken. Afforestation measures would be taken up under catchment area treatment plan on 256.36 ha. An outlay of Rs.112.80 lakhs (0.44 Lk / ha) has been provided to cover various areas under afforestation in different sub-watersheds.

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Table 5.1.7 Watershed-wise details of various activities


S.No. Name of Sub-watershed Component Engineering Measures Gully Control Brushwood Check dams (Nos.) DRSM checkdams (Nos.) Contour Bunding (ha) (ha) Bench Terracing Biological Measures Afforestation NTFP Regeneration/ Medicinal Plants Cultivation (ha) (ha) Assisted Natural Regeneration (ha) Pasture Improvement Total

(ha)

(ha)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Sb1 Sb2 Sb3 Sb4 Sb5 Sb6 Sb7 Sb8 Sb9 Total

2 6 12 3 11 20 15 28 21 118

5 4 20 9 13 25 11 30 28 145

1 5.25 35.50 10.15 5.50 28.25 10.67 42.20 27.45 165.97

3 8.46 48.70 5.75 4.25 35.50 16 55.35 32.28 209.29

2.07 6.75 75.42 5.72 9.85 30.80 21.10 48.80 55.85 256.36

1 2.82 25 3 8.10 15 12 12 14 92.92

0 1.80 20.16 1 7.10 12.17 8 15.70 11.10 77.03

0.5 4.83 36.50 2.54 9.20 22.95 18 21.10 10.08 125.70

7.57 29.91 241.28 28.16 44.00 144.67 85.77 195.15 150.76 927.27

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Afforestation Programme Different types of plantations would be undertaken under afforestation programme according to the methodology described below. The plantations that would be undertaken in the forest (scrub/degraded forest) would have a planting density of 1600 plants per ha and vegetative hedge in contour trenches. Contour planting conserves soil and enhances moisture regime and adverse effect of surface run off of rain water is reduced considerably. Trenches, pits and plants along the contour reduce velocity of water, increase soil moisture and facilitate seepage of water in soil and reduce soil loss resulting in better growth of plants. Hence, soil working and planting along contours would be strictly followed in the project.

In the afforestation areas, the digging of trenches and pits would be along the contour. About 20 to 30 m long contour trenches would be dug leaving a space of 50 cm (septa) between the two consecutive trenches. Soil would be dug on the lower side of the trench and after removing pebbles and weeds, the trench would be half refilled with soil and remaining soil would be collected to form berm on lower side of trench. On the berm, seeds of shrubs/hedges like Arenga saccharifera, Calamus erectus, Bambusa tulda, Debregeasia longifolia, Mussaenda roxburghii, etc. would be sown to raise vegetative barrier. The size of pits would be 45 cm3. The contour trenches would be at an interval of 5 m.

For digging 1600 pits per ha, pits would be dug 15 cm uphill side from the contour trenches. The spacing of pits along contour trench will not be closer than 1.25 m. In afforestation areas soil working would be started in October-November and would be completed by March. It is important that filling of pits and half filling of trenches is completed before the onset of monsoon, otherwise dug soil will be washed away by rains leaving only stones and pebbles near the pit. Extreme care would be taken in transporting the plants from nurseries to the plantation site to avoid any damage. Planting would be completed before the monsoon period is over. With a view to conserve not only soil and water but also for fuelwood production, it is important to raise the vegetative barrier of hedge plants. The seeds of hedges like Bambusa, Debregeasia, Melocalamus, Pinanga, etc. will be sown in contour trenches before the onset of monsoon. When the water of surface run-off reaches the line of hedges, its speed is checked and silt is stopped by the hedge plants and only percolated water passes down slowly. Hedges spread and grow well in the silt left behind and form a natural terrace. The plants planted in the pits near contour trenches get more moisture and grow fast.
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Choice of Species The species for plantations would be selected after considering altitude, aspect, biotic pressures, soil depth, moisture, etc. As there is pressure of cattle grazing, non-fodder/ fuelwood species would also be planted in suitable proportion in between the fodder species. The tree species that would be planted under this programme are: Actinodaphne obovata, Altingia excelsa (Jutli), Castanopsis indica (Hingori), Cinnamomum tamala (Tej Pata), Ficus benjamina, Gynocardia odorata, Toona ciliata (Poma), etc.

There are many shrubby plant species which are suitable for fodder/ fuelwood plantations, which are: Bambusa tulda, B. pallida, Bauhinia variegata, Ficus auriculata and Morus alba. The important legumes and grasses that would be planted are Chrysopogon gryllus, Lolium perenne, Pennisetum purpureum, Thysanolaena latifolia and Themeda arundinacea among grasses and White clover (Trifolium repens), Red clover (Trifolium pratense), Lucerene (Medicago sativa), Vetch (Vicia villosa), and Caucasian clover (Trifolum ambiguum) among legumes. The plant species suitable for avenue and ornamental purposes are: Altsonia scholaris, Bauhinia variegata, Cassia fistula, Delonix regia, Erythrina stricta, Exbuclandia poulnea, Hibisicus rosa-sinensis and Polyalthia longifolia.

Fencing Stone wall 120 cm high and 45 cm wide or 4 strand barbed wire fencing would be erected during first year along with soil working. The cooperation of local villagers would be sought for the success of the plantation programmes.

Weeding and Mulching Weeding, hoeing and mulching would be carried out during October-November. Weeding and loosening of soil by hoeing break the capillary action in soil and thus reduce the moisture loss. Mulching reduces evaporation and conserves soil moisture and adds humus to soil. Cut and uprooted weeds and grasses used as mulching material would be spread around the plant.

Watch and Ward and Fire Protection Protection of plantation is the greatest challenge as some inhabitants and their livestock may damage the plantation before it is established. Hence the protection of plantation particularly in the
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juvenile stage is of paramount importance and watchmen/ guards would be engaged from the nearby villages for the required job. Besides the above, other appropriate measures would be adopted to ward off these potential threats.

b)

Assisted Natural regeneration in existing forest In some of the forest areas, conditions are conducive to natural regeneration provided that

some sort of assistance is provided. Such areas shall be taken up under this component. The areas shall be closed to exclude biotic interference. Forest floor will be cleared of slash; debris and felling refuse to afford a clean seedbed to the falling seed. At certain places some soil raking may also have to be done to facilitate germination of seeds. Where natural regeneration is found deficient, it will be supplemented by artificial planting. Patch sowing in suitable areas may also be done. Bush cutting & cleaning operations are done depending on necessity. Up to 800 plants or patches per hectare will be planted /sown to hasten the process of regeneration in the area uniformly. An outlay of Rs.9.06 lakhs @ Rs 11762/- per ha (see Annexure II) has been made to cover 77.03 ha.

c)

NTFP Regeneration Arunachal Forest Division is rich in a variety of Non Timber Forest Produce (NTFP).

However, because of over-exploitation of NTFP in the past there has been depletion of this valuable resource. Therefore, in order to augment natural stock of NTFP in the forests, it is proposed to take up planting of NTFP and establishing nurseries. An outlay of Rs.40.38 lakhs @ Rs. 36563/- per ha (Annexure II) has been suggested to cover about 92.92 ha for establishing (Rs.33.97 lakhs) and maintenance (Rs.6.41 lakhs) of this facility for three years.

d)

Grazing Land/Pasture Improvement The livestock owned by the local communities exert significant pressure on the natural

habitats. In order to improve the grazing areas/pastures and to make these sustainable, the degraded areas, particularly among community lands will be taken up for treatment under silvi-pastoral model. An outlay of Rs.25.82 lakhs @ Rs.19935/- per ha (Annexure II) has been earmarked for this purpose and it will cover about 125.70 ha of land for development at a cost of Rs.25.06 lakhs and its maintenance will cost Rs.0.76 lakhs for four years.

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e)

Forest infrastructure development For efficient management of forest resources, it is essential that field infrastructure of the

State Forest Department of the area is adequately developed. Given the rugged mountainous terrain, there is a need to improve the existing forest roads and paths. Motorable roads would be avoided in the forests of the catchment area as this would lead to habitat fragmentation, degradation and soil erosion will lead to increased siltation. Only bridle paths, inspection paths and footbridges shall be constructed or improved for which an amount of Rs. 59.50 lakhs has been earmarked (Table 5.1.8). Similarly, in remote localities of the Forest divisions there are no places for shelter for the staff, local people, tourists or trekkers. Therefore, following provisions will be undertaken in the CAT Plan.

5.1.6.2 Treatment Measures: Engineering Measures Gully erosion is one of the concerned soil erosion in the slope and hilly areas. The gullies would be treated with the help of engineering/ mechanical as well as vegetative methods. Check dams would be constructed in some of the areas to promote growth of vegetation that will consequently lead to the stabilization of the slopes/area and prevention of further deepening of gullies and erosion. For controlling the gullies, the erosive velocities are reduced by flattening out the steep gradient of the gully. This is achieved by constructing a series of checks which transform the longitudinal gradient into a series of steps with low risers and long flat treads. Different types of check dams would be required for different conditions comprising different materials depending upon the site conditions and the easy availability of material at local level.

In addition to the vegetative measures used for stabilization of gullies, temporary or permanent mechanical measures will be used as supplementary measures to prevent the washing away of young plantations by large volume of runoff. The gullies get stabilized over a period of time with the establishment and growth of vegetation cover. With the passage of time mechanical structures weaken and vegetative measures get strengthened.

For engineering measures following types of checkdams are suggested.

a)

Brushwood checkdams The main advantage of brushwood checkdams is that they are quick and easy to construct

and are inexpensive as they are constructed by using readily available materials at the site. In
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brushwood checkdams, small branches preferably of coppice species are fixed in two parallel rows across the gully or nala and packed with brushwood between the rows of these vertical stakes. The vertical stakes are tied down with wires or fastened with sticks across the top. The important consideration in erecting brushwood checkdams is to pack the brushwood as tightly as possible and to secure it firmly. This type of checkdam is generally constructed over small gullies or at the starting stretch of gullies (see Plate 5.1.1). In all, 118 brushwood checkdams/ vegetative spurs would be constructed to check gully erosion, stream bank protection and slope stabilization works (Table 5.1.7).

b)

Dry Rubble Stone Masonry (DRSM) checkdams The site where DRSM checkdams are to be constructed is cleared and the sides are sloped

1:1. The bed of gully is excavated for foundation to a uniform depth of 0.45 m to 0.60 m and dry stones are packed from that level. Over the foundation, DRSM super structure of checkdam is constructed. The stones are dressed and properly set in with wedges and chips. The width of checkdam at the base should be approximately equal to maximum height and successive courses are narrower so the section is roughly a trapezium. It is common to find upstream face of checkdams vertical with all slopes on the downstream face but while there is sound engineering reason for this in case of large checkdams, it is not of any use in small gully control dams. In the centre of the dam portion sufficient waterway is allowed to discharge the maximum run off. The dry stone work should go up to 0.30m to 0.60m in the stable portion of the gully side to prevent end-cutting. Sufficient apron is provided to prevent scouring of the structure. The thickness of the apron packing would be about 0.45 m and gully sides above the apron have to be protected with packing to a height of at least 0.30 m above the anticipated maximum water level to prevent side scour being formed by the falling water. For gully control measures, 145 DRSM checkdams would be constructed (Table 5.1.7, Plate 5.1.2). c) Slope modification by Stepping/ Bench Terracing Bench terracing is one of the most popular mechanical soil conservation practices adopted by farmers in India and many other countries. It is constructed in the form of step like fields along contours by half cutting and half filling and would result in the conversion of the original slope into leveled fields. Thus, hazards of erosion are eliminated and manure and fertilizers applied are retained in the leveled fields. The sloping fields in the valley need to be bench terraced by cutting and filling
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with the latter supported by retaining stone walls. While making bench terraces, care will be taken not to disturb the top soil by spreading earth from the lower terraces to higher terraces. The vertical intervals between the terraces will not be more than 1.5 m and cutting depth would be kept at 50 cm. The minimum average width of the terrace would be 4 to 5 m to enable the usage of prolong hinge. The shoulder bunds of 30 x 15 cm would also be provided. The excess water from the terraces will be drained off by staggered channels. An area of 209.29 ha will be covered under this plan. 5.1.6.2.1 Administrative Setup The catchment area treatment (CAT) project involves intensive and highly technical operations, which require the expertise of technical personnel. It is, therefore, recommended that the existing forest staff of Arunachal Pradesh Forest Division in the area look after all the works to be carried out under the CAT plan including plantation and maintenance as all the areas to be covered under CAT plan fall under these divisions. However, temporary staff may be engaged for the purpose during the project implementation period, i.e. for about five years.

Beside, several parallel activities should be undertaken to meet the various biological and engineering measure in process. These activities are Nursery development and forest infrastructure development. Other than that, some financial activities are also projected in the CAT plan. Activities such as Ecotourism and Eco-restoration can be promoted, and are formulated to improve the unemployment situation at local level. a) Nursery Development Proper development of nursery and allied services, like drip irrigation or micro-irrigation, will be crucial for successful execution of CAT plan. It will be important to prepare a stock of plant material for the supply of saplings for afforestation program and various other activities. Main nursery may be developed near the dam site and the proposed colony areas, preferably along the road side for easy accessibility. This area possesses necessary infrastructure and various raw materials for nursery development can be easily made available. In addition, provision will also be made for two greenhouses/chick houses for maintaining plant saplings. The estimated cost for the development of nursery and greenhouses will be around Rs.15 lakhs. Development of nursery will start from the zero year and will continue for 5 years. During maintenance year (2 to 5 year) nursery will supply plants wherever required for the replacement.

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b)

Forest Infrastructure Development The works of the catchment area treatment plan will be executed by the Forest Department,

Government of Arunachal Pradesh. These works will be an additional responsibility for the Forest Department that may not have adequate facilities and infrastructure to execute the work as suggested in the plan. Therefore, provision has been made in the CAT plan to develop the infrastructure of Forest Department in the region and accordingly a budget of Rs. 59.50 lakhs is proposed for this purpose (Table 5.1.8).

Table 5.1.8 Budget for development of State Forest Department infrastructure


Total Amount S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 4. 4. 5. 6. 7. Components Forest Office Establishment (one office) Forest Fire Fighting System Office Vehicle Road and Foot Path Development Machinery & Equipment* W&W Monitoring & Evaluation Adm. Cost Contingency Total Qty./Unit 1 No. 8 Nos. (Rs. In Lakhs) 20.00 5.00 6.00 6.50 5.00 5.00 3.00 5.00 4.00 59.50

* Machinery & Equipment : Computers, Laptop, Photocopier, Digital Camera, etc.

5.1.6.2.2 Eco-restoration There is urgent need to reduce the dependency of local population on the forest and other natural resources which are under severe pressure. The eco-restoration works and other activities related to area development and employment generation are suggested and should be carried out through community welfare committees (CWC) of local villages. These should include the following measures, which would help in rejuvenating the ecosystems and in reducing the soil erosion in the region. Plantation in the degraded patches of community/civil/ forest land. Water conservation and harvesting in the villages. Soil conservation measures in village areas. Improvement in agricultural and horticultural practices.
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Technical and financial support for harnessing alternate energy sources such as micro-hydel and non-conventional energy (solar power and solar heating) to reduce pressure on the forest for fuel wood

Rural technology support programmes. Awareness programmes for conservation of wildlife and natural resources. Promotion of income generating schemes like ecotourism. The total cost estimate for these activities is proposed as Rs. 3.46 lakhs (Table 5.1.9).

5.1.7 SCHEDULE OF TREATMENT PLAN The total time scheduled for the execution of the planned CAT works has been kept at 5 years (including 1 year for maintenance). Accordingly, areas from each sub-watershed have been prioritized for treatment and a year-wise plan has been assigned (Fig. 5.1.10). Zero Year has been kept for the development of nursery and raising sapling for plantation. Maximum area for treatment will be taken up in the first year and minimum will be taken up in the third year. In the first and second years the areas taken up for treatment are 271.19 ha and 266.17 ha, respectively and in the fourth year the area to be taken up for treatment is 195.15 ha. Accordingly, a separate budget for the maintenance is given in Table 5.1.9.

5.1.7.1 Monitoring and Evaluation Monitoring and evaluation will be developed as in built part of the project management. Thus, a process of self-evaluation at specified intervals of time will ensure the field worthiness and efficacy of the CAT plan.

Annual work plan for each sub-watershed would be prepared well in advance specifying physical and financial targets, sites, locations and beneficiaries of each component of the project activity. Month-wise work scheme of various items of each component for the financial year would also be prepared in advance and its timely implementation would be ensured. Monthly progress report on all activities would be submitted by the Range Officers to Divisional Forest Officer for its subsequent submission to the project authorities and Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India. The monitoring committee appointed for this purpose would also monitor on a regular basis the quality and quantity of works carried out in the area.

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For monitoring, reference points of silt load observation in the river are suggested to install silt recording station upstream of dam site in Yarjep River to evaluate the impact of the soil conservation measures. A sum of Rs. 30.00 lakhs has been provided for monitoring and evaluation.

5.1.8 PERIOD AND SCHEDULE OF IMPLEMENTATION The execution of CAT plan in Heo H.E. Project area would require extensive efforts on the part of executing agencies. Keeping in view the local topography and climate, it is being estimated that the entire treatable area would require at least 4 years to be completed. However, the maintenance of plantations would continue for one year and accordingly CAT plan has been prepared for 5 years. All these works would have to start with the pre-construction activities especially the studies in respect to micro-planning for each sub-watershed, which would require further detailed investigations. Based on the silt yield index of the sub-watersheds, the conservation measures would be first taken up in sub-watershed Sb2, Sb3, etc. (For details see Annexure-1). The year-wise index map of schedule of implementation of different conservation measures under CAT plan has been given in Figure 5.1.10. Table 5.1.10 gives the year-wise physical details of various engineering and biological treatment measures to be undertaken.

5.1.9 COST ESTIMATES The total estimated cost of catchment area treatment plan to be spent over a period of five years is Rs. 491.08 lakhs. The details of cost estimates and physical work schedule as well as phasing of expenditure are given as follows in Tables 5.1.9. All the costs towards the administration during the implementation work have been included in the cost estimates of CAT (Table 5.1.9). Table 5.1.9 Component-wise cost estimate for catchment area treatment works
S. No. A. 1. Item of Work Engineering Measures Gully Control a) Brushwood checkdams b) DRSM checkdams c) Contour Bunding Bench terracing Total (1+2) Add 5% for maintenance of structures Sub-total (A) Unit Qty. Rate (Rs.) Amount (Rs. in lakhs)

2.

Nos. Nos. ha ha

118 145 165.97 209.29

26,000/33,281/25,000/7,500/-

30.68 48.26 41.49 15.70 136.13 6.81 142.94 5-22

Chapter 5.1 Catchment Area Treatment Plan

Heo H.E Project - Environment Management Plan B. 1. Biological Measures Afforestation i) Creation ha ii) Maintenance Assisted natural regeneration in existing forests i) Creation ha ii) Maintenance (see Table 2.14) NTFP Regeneration i) Creation ha ii) Maintenance (see Table 2.15) Pasture development i) Creation ha ii) Maintenance Nurseries Sub-total (B) Sub-Total (A+B) Micro-planning @ 3% of (A+B) Establishment Cost @ 7% Forest Infrastructure Vehicles, machinery & equipment, paths, etc. Eco-restoration @ 1% Contingency @ 5% Monitoring and evaluation Grand Total (A to H)

CISMHE

256.36

39,000/5,000/11762/250/36,563/6900/19,935/607/-

99.98 12.82 9.06 0.19 33.97 6.41 25.06 0.76 15.00 203.25 346.19 10.39 24.23 59.50 3.46 17.31 30.00 491.08

2.

77.03

3.

92.92

4.

125.70

5.

C. D. E. F. G. H.

Chapter 5.1 Catchment Area Treatment Plan

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Table 5.1.10 Physical and Financial layout plan of Catchment Area Treatment for Heo H.E. Project
S. Item No. A. ENGINEERING MEASURES 1. Gully Control a) Brushwood Check Dams b) c) DRSM Check Dam Contour Bunding Unit 0th Year Phy Fin Ind Year Phy Fin IIrd Year Phy Fin IIIth Year Phy Fin IVth Year Phy Fin Vth Year Phy Fin

(Amount in lakhs)
Total Phy Fin

Nos. Nos. ha ha

34 42 48.13 60.69

8.84 13.98 12.03 4.55

33 41 46.47 58.60

8.58 13.65 11.62 4.40

26 32 36.51 46.04

6.76 10.65 9.13 3.45

25 30 34.86 43.95

6.50 9.98 8.71 3.30

118 145 165.97 209.29

30.68 48.26 41.49 15.70 136.13 6.81 142.94

2. Bench Terracing/ Bally Benching Total (1+2) Add 5% for maintenance of structures Sub-total (A) B. BIOLOGICAL MEASURES 1. Afforestation i) Creation ii) Maintenance 2. Assisted Natural Regeneration in existing forests i) Creation ii) Maintenance 3. NTFP Regeneration i) Creation ii) Maintenance 4. Pasture Development i) Creation ii) Maintenance 5. Nursery (Creation & Maintenance) Sub-total (B) Total (A+B) C. Micro-Planning & Overhead expenditure @ 3% D. Establishment Cost @ 7% E. Forest Infrastructure Vehicles, Machinery & equipment, plants, etc. F. Eco-restoration @ 1% G. Contingency @ 5% H. Monitoring and Evaluation GRAND TOTAL (A to H)

ha -

74.34 -

28.99 -

71.78 -

27.99 3.72

56.40 -

22.00 3.59

53.84 -

21.00 2.82

2.69

256.36 -

99.98 12.82

ha -

22.34 -

2.63 -

21.57 -

2.54 0.06

16.95 -

1.99 0.05

16.17 -

1.90 0.04

0.04

77.03 -

9.06 0.19

ha -

26.95 -

9.85 -

26.02 -

9.51 1.86

20.44 -

7.47 1.80

19.51 -

7.14 1.41

1.34

92.92 -

33.97 6.41

ha ha 3.75

36.45 -

7.27 3.30

35.20 -

7.02 0.22 2.55

27.65 -

5.51 0.21 2.25

26.40 -

5.26 0.17 1.80

0.16 1.35

125.70 -

25.06 0.76 15.00 203.25 346.19

3.12 7.27 17.85

2.60 6.05 14.87

2.08 4.85 11.90

1.56 3.63 8.93

1.03 2.43 5.95

10.39 24.23 59.50

1.04 5.19 9.00

0.87 4.33 7.50

0.69 3.46 6.00

0.52 2.60 4.50

0.34 1.73 3.00

3.46 17.31 30.00 491.08

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5.2
BIODIVERSITY MANAGEMENT AND WILDLIFE CONSERVATION PLAN
5.2.1 INTRODUCTION The ecological consequences of biodiversity loss have been a main focus worldwide. Major advances have been made in describing the relationship between species diversity and ecosystem processes, in identifying functionally important species, and in revealing underlying mechanisms. Biodiversity also has significant social, cultural and spiritual values, especially for indigenous peoples in Arunachal Pradesh where the protection and management of biodiversity has important livelihood and cultural implications. In recent decades ecosystems have been degraded more rapidly and extensively, due to human pressures like deforestation for agricultural expansion, road construction, urban development, transportation, industrial developments, etc. which has placed serious threats on the basic ecosystem services we all depend upon. The biodiversity conservation strategies like in Situ strategy, ex Situ strategy, reduction of anthropogenic pressure and rehabilitation of endangered species generally cover the support of researchers, industry groups and consultants undertaking biodiversity studies, developing human resources, skills and knowledge in areas that could assist in these complex matters developing partnerships with communities, conservation groups and other organizations to address this issue encouraging young graduates in biodiversity investigation and research through traineeships, studies and partnerships developing. These strategies will be followed for the biodiversity management plan in Heo H.E. Project located on Yarjep River in West Siang district. Notably, there are 2 other hydro-electric projects developed by Velcan Energy Group, which are proposed upstream and downstream of Heo HEP. The influence areas (10 km radius) of such projects overlap one with each other, and therefore, care was taken to avoid any dual plan for a particular area.

5.2.2 OBJECTIVES The main objectives of Biodiversity Management and Wildlife Conservation Plan for Heo H.E. Project are given below. 5.2 Biodiversity Management and Wildlife Conservation Plan
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i)

To maintain a sustainable approach between customs and culture of tribes and biodiversity conservation,

ii)

To establish inventory for the voucher specimen of threatened, new and endemic plant species,

iii)

Special efforts for conservation of critical/important plant/animal species, if any, affected by the project, To maintain data on vaids (Kennapanna) and traditional knowledge on medicines, To provide incentives for research, training and public education to increase awareness with respect to biodiversity.

iv) v)

vi)

To prepare a Forest Protection Plan

5.2.3 STATUS OF BIODIVERSITY IN THE SURROUNDINGS The vegetation in the influence area comprises sub-tropical wet hill forests in the lower valleys of the project area, while wet temperate and dry temperate coniferous forests in the mid and higher hills. There are nearly 330 species of angiosperms and gymnosperms plants. The angiosperms are represented by about 93 families in these areas of which 77 are dicots and 16 are monocots. The dicotyledons are represented by 231 plant species belonging to 190 genera and 77 families (out of 2,917 genera and 327 families in India), while the monocotyledons are represented by 16 families, 65 genera and 98 species. Gymnosperms are represented by a single family, 1 genera and 1 species. The ratio of monocot to dicot species is 1:2.35 (98 monocots and 231 dicots). Detailed description of flora of the influence area has been provided under chapter 3.5 of the EIA.

The faunal diversity of influence area is represented by 35 species of mammals, 75 species of birds, 9 species herpetofauna (6 reptiles and 3 amphibians) and 22 species of butterflies. Common leopard, Clouded leopard, Leopard cat, Black bear, Mainland Serow, Northern Sparrow Hawk, Great Indian Pied Hornbill etc are important threatened and scheduled species in the area. Detailed description of fauna of the influence area has been provided under chapter 3.5 of the EIA.

Tribal population of Arunachal Pradesh is integrally associated with forest and forest products. Our field observations reveal that the tribal people have a vast knowledge of medicinal plants, cultivar, folk varieties and land race, which they use for various purposes like food, medicines, etc. This knowledge may play an important role in the biodiversity conservation. 5.2 Biodiversity Management and Wildlife Conservation Plan
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Shikar hills are nearby conservation priority site in the region. The region harbours rich floral and faunal diversity, however, it is favorite spot of hunting and trapping of animals.

5.2.4 PROPOSED PLAN The proposed biodiversity management plan has been formulated in view of the scope of other projects in the area. Some of the mitigation measures have been covered in other projects, owned by the same authorities and located immediately upstream or downstream of the Heo HEP, and therefore not provided in the Heo HEP as the influence areas are overlapping. Similarly, the measures suggested in this section under the Heo HEP will be implemented in the influence areas of other projects.

5.2.4.1 Definitions In view of the biodiversity conservation we have used a few terms, mentioned in the Biological Diversity Act (2002). Only those terms are defined in the following section, which are relevant to the proposed biodiversity Management Plan. Biological diversity means the variability among living organisms from all sources and the ecological complexes of which they are part of and includes diversity within species or between species and of ecosystem. ii) Biological resources means plants, animals and micro-organisms or parts thereof, their genetic material and by-products (excluding value added products) with actual or potential use or value but does not include human genetic material. iii) Bio-survey means survey or collection of species, sub species, genes, components, and extract of biological resources for any purpose and includes characterization, inventorisation and bioassay. iv) v) Local bodies means panchayats, and municipalities. Cultivar means a variety of plant that has originated and persisted under cultivation or was specifically bred for the purpose of cultivation. vi) Folk variety means a cultivated variety of plant that was developed, grown and exchanged informally among farmers. vii) Land race means primitive cultivar that was grown by ancient farmers and their successor.

i)

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5.2.4.2 Management Measures Following measures for the biodiversity management and conservation plan are proposed in Heo H.E. Project

5.2.4.2.1 Establishment of Task Force This is a well known fact that tribal inhabitants have traditional rights over the forest and forest products. The practice of shifting cultivation and animal hunting in the region is related not only to food requirement but is also associated with their culture, customs, thrills and festivals. The restriction on hunting through laws is not realistic and even efficient in Arunachal Pradesh. The most effective way of biodiversity conservation in the area is natural resource management, joint forest management and awareness programme involving the local people with full responsibilities. In this regard, the project authorities would constitute a task force with four components like Locals, project authorities, forest department and a well know NGO. This task force will be active in the entire catchment and influence areas as defined for EMP.

The task force will be headed by a well educated local member of tribal groups. The head of task force will constitute a team having 5-10 members. The teams will be paid with salaries and wedges for 5 years. Forest Department would provide the training, skills and necessary equipments like camera, binocular etc. to task force. Forest Department would also prepare a plan for sustainable exploitation of forest resources. Also, it would encourage the active hunters to surrender their hunting guns at the cost of good incentives. The NGO will run awareness programmes towards continued survival and importance of wildlife and forests. NGO would run awareness programme through research documents, pamphlets, brochures, hoardings, teaching and training programmes for the local communities. The task force would inform the Forest Department om forest fire, hunting etc. Total financial outlay for the natural resource management would be Rs. 82.00/- (Rs. Eighty Two lakhs). The break up of budget is given below. All infrastructure and finance would be provided by project authorities.

Particulars i). Salaries for Task force (for 6 members) (@ Rs. 15,000 per member-consolidated + annual increment 4 years) ii).Assistance to NGO

Amount (in Lakhs) 57.00

10.00 5-27

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iii). Infrastructure facilities (temporary office, equipment etc.) iv). Miscellaneous Total

10.00 05.00 82 .00

5.2.4.2.2 Documentation on Bioresources A research team is proposed to carry out a bio-survey on the traditional knowledge of tribal groups. The team will document the record of parataxonomists, local vaids (Kennapanna), cultivars, land race, folk variety and traditionally used medicinal plant species. The bio-survey will be carried out for two years. The recording and exchange of traditional knowledge is expected to play an important role in the biodiversity conservation.

The plan will be implemented by the State Forest Department with the help of a reputed research institute or University of Arunachal Pradesh or other part of India. Project authorities provide the budget for the assignment. Report will be submitted to Project authorities, State Forest Department, and other relevant departments of state and central governments like MoEF, Medicinal Board etc. Total Financial outlay for the biodiversity register would be Rs. 20.00 Lakhs.

5.2.4.2.3 Removal of Invasive Species Migrant population may be carrier of invasive and non native species, and become one of the causes of biodiversity loss. Ageratina adenophora, Ageratum conyzoides, Bidens bipinnata, Chromolaena odoratum already exist in the region. This trend may prove to be adverse for the native plant diversity, leading to a decline in number of endemics in the future. In order to understand this problem and successfully manage it the following measures are suggested: (i) (ii) (iii) Identify the areas where biological invasions have occurred and are threatening. Identify the exotic invasive species that are invading these habitats. Identify the institutions/experts who can undertake inventorisation and researches to suggest management measures to control the negative impacts of invasion. (iv) Inventorise the native species which are threatened by invasions and that require rehabilitation and management. (v) Removal of exotic invasive plant species and obnoxious weeds.

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This plan will be implemented by the Environment Cell of project authorities in consultation with the State Forest Department. Total budget for these activities is suggested to be Rs. 20.00 (Rs. Twenty lakhs).

5.2.5 WILDLIFE CONSERVATION & FOREST PROTECTION PLAN The surrounding area of Heo H.E. Project is a difficult terrain. The main problems come in the way of wildlife conservation and forest protection because of poor amenities, such as road and communication network. The wildlife protection force is not adequately equipped with watching towers, wildlife personnel and other field work facilities. Considering all these facts various activities which are necessary for the wildlife conservation and forest protection plan are described in the following paragraphs. This plan will be implemented in the free draining catchment area of Heo H.E. Project because a separate plan is proposed for each project in the basin. i). For improvement of vigilance and measures to check poaching, check posts and watch towers will be needed. In order to strengthen their working capacity, the officers of the State Forest/Wildlife Department must be provided with necessary equipment such as a camera, wireless sets, binoculars and other minor equipment (altimeter, spotscope, search lights, sleeping bags, health kits, etc.) that would increase their capability and efficiency. ii). Under the reward for informers program it is proposed to engage the workers of the proposed task force who are well acquainted with the area and are resourceful in gathering information for anti-poaching (particularly of butterflies, medicinal herbs and endangered species) and better vigilance. iii) The construction of bridges, inspection paths for more effective and meaningful patrolling of the staff should be undertaken. iv). Creation of veterinary facilities and rescue camps for healthcare of wild animals and for controlling diseases. For this purpose it is essential to maintain a stock of medicines in addition to setting up of a mobile-rescue-cum-publicity-van. v). Provision of fire lines within critical areas to protect the forest from accidental fires.

It would be a joint venture of the proposed task force and the State forest department. Project authorities would provide funds to the State Forest Department. This plan would be implemented in the free draining catchment of Heo H.E. Project. Total financial outlay under this head would be Rs. 55.00 Lakhs (Fifty Five Lakhs) only. The break up of budget is given below. 5.2 Biodiversity Management and Wildlife Conservation Plan
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Particulars i. ii. iii. iv. v.

Total Amount (in lakhs) 15.00 20.00 05.00 05.00 10.00 55 .00

Equipment (Camera, health kit, search light, binocular, etc) Watch Tower, patrolling path, bridges Veterinary facilities Mobile-rescue-cum-publicity-van Reward for informers Total

5.2.6 SAFEGUARD MEASURES In addition to the various proposed plans, project authorities are suggested to furnish an appropriate guideline to their workers as safeguard measures. Some of the measures to be followed are mentioned below. i. A strict order must be issued by the project authorities to the workers not to be involved in hunting, poaching and exploitation of any forest resources like medicinal plants, fuel wood, etc. ii. Each worker shall be provided with identity card and would not be allowed access to forest areas without permission. iii. The workers shall be discouraged for plantation of non native species in the surroundings of labour colony. iv. Possession of firearms by project workers shall strictly be prohibited, except for dedicated security personnel. v. It is to be ensured that the noise levels in no case go above 100-150 dB in the project area. One of the proposed measures is to restrict the blasting operations during nights, early mornings and late afternoons, which are the feeding times of most of the fauna. Blasting will be resorted to in such periods only if necessary. For this strict blasting regime i.e. controlled blasting under constant and strict surveillance is to be followed. The suggested methodologies for reduction and mitigation of noise aim to cause as little disturbance to the animals as possible. vi The project authorities will be bound by the rules and regulations of the Wildlife Protection Acts or any such agency of the State, which may exist or will be promulgated from time to time for the preservation of habitats and protection of wild animals.

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5.2.7 BIODIVERSITY MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE (BMC) In order to monitor the progress of biodiversity management and wildlife conservation plan, a Biodiversity Management Committee (BMC) is proposed for Heo H.E. Project. The committee will follow the guidelines of National Biodiversity Authority, State Biodiversity Conservation Strategy Action Plans (SBCSAP) and State Forest Department to implement, monitor and evaluate the Biodiversity Management Plan of the proposed project. The activities of BMC shall be under the direct administrative control of the Chief Wildlife Warden/Principal Chief Conservator of Forests, Arunachal Pradesh. The BMC will comprise of following members.

i. Chief Wildlife Warden/Principal Chief Conservator of Forests, Arunachal Pradesh ii. Chief (Environment), Heo H.E. Project iii. DFO (s) (wildlife) of the concerned Division iv. Two experts form University or renowned R & D Institutions v. Local Bodys Representatives from at least 3 villages on a rotational basis vi. Representative of a well known local NGO

Chairman

Member Secretary Member(s) Member Member

Member

The Chairman of the committee will have the right to assign various activities to various members for proper functioning and result-oriented tasks. The committee will monitor the progress of the proposed plan for all three projects, viz. Tato I, Heo and Pauk H.E. projects. The major share of budget for the BMC is provided in the Tato I H.E. projects, however, an amount of Rs. 5.00 Lakhs (Five lakhs) only has been separately provided for Heo H.E. Project.

5.2.8 FINANCIAL OUTLAY Total budget for Biodiversity Management and Wildlife Conservation Plan would be Rs. 182.00 Lakhs (One hundred eighty two lakhs). The breakup is given below:

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Head i. ii. iii. iv. v. Establishment of Task Force Documentation on Bioresources Removal of invasive Species Wildlife Conservation & Forest Protection Plan Biodiversity Management Committee Total

Amount (in Lakhs) 82.00 20.00 20.00 55.00 5.00 182.00

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5.3
MUCK DISPOSAL PLAN
5.3.1 INTRODUCTION Muck disposal plan is a given priority to address imperatively in the developmental projects because its unsound disposal may lead to large consequences on various environments like air, water, human and landscape. Loose muck increases the concentration of suspended particular matter in the air and causing adverse health effects. It may leach out in the nearby water bodies and increase the silt load and leads to adverse effects on the biotic communities of water environment. Sometimes, its high concentration triggers the phytoretardation in the close vicinity of the project and causes not only environmental but economic losses. During the peak concentration it spreads in the atmosphere and becomes highly obnoxious.

Therefore, muck requires not only a sound environmental disposal but a suitable rehabilitation also. Disposal includes transportation of muck and dumping. Here, only dumping of muck and its rehabilitation are described, the transportation measures are given in other chapters of EMP.

5.3.2 SELECTION OF DUMPING SITES During the selection of the dumping sites the following criteria were given preference from the environment as well as economic point of view: i) The dumping sites shall be located nearby the structures to be excavated to avoid the long distance transportation. The long distance transport costs not only more funds but more area becomes exposed to be deteriorated. ii) The sites shall be free from active land slides or creeps and care shall be taken so that the sites do not have a possibility of toe erosion related slope failure. iii) The base levels of the sites shall be adequately higher elevation than the maximum flood level. iv) v) vi) The sites shall be on the concave side of a meander belt. There shall not be any channel of small streams flowing through the dumping sites. These sites shall not be pristine habitats containing threatened species.
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The dumping sites chosen by the developer in the DPR meet all of the requirements mentioned above.

5.3.3 GENERATION OF MUCK The total quantity of muck to be generated from the different components of HEO H.E. Project would be 8,13,217 cum (Table 5.3.1). Considering the swelling factors (20% for underground and rock excavations, 10% for common excavations), the volume of muck to be rehabilitated would increase to 9,70,456 cum. A part of the muck generated will most probably be used for construction material purpose and therefore, only a part of the 9,70,456 cum will need to be rehabilitated in adequate dumping sites. However, as a cautious approach it has been decided to consider that the full muck generated will have to be dumped so that in practice there will be a capacity margin.

Table 5.3.1 Quantities of Muck (in cum) to be generated and rehabilitated from the different components of Heo HE Project
Qty. of material excavated (in m3) Barrage / Spillway / Road Adits HRT Surge Shaft Pressure Shaft Powerhouse TOTAL 1,53,325 58,570 1,91,472 8,662 22,714 3,78,473 8,13,217 Qty. Of muck to be rehabilitated (with swelling factor) in m3 1,82,133 69,835 2,29,766 10,395 27,257 4,51,070 9,70,456

5.3.4 MUCK DUMPING AREAS (MDA) Four dumping sites have been identified for the disposal of muck (see Fig. 2.2. of EIA report) The MDA-1 is located near the dam site with a total area of 2.6 ha. This site is proposed to rehabilitate the muck of dam structure and partly of HRT that amounts to 1,95,656 cum of muck after considering the swelling factor (Table 5.3.2). MDA-2 and MDA-3 are located near the Adit having total area of 2.2 ha (0.8 + 1.4 ha). These sites would retain the muck of HRT and adit. Total
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amount of the muck to be disposed off at these sites is 1,80,000 cum. The MDA-4 with a total area of 3.5 ha is located near the proposed power house site to accommodate the muck of power house components. The total quantity of muck (after considering the swelling factor) to be rehabilitated at this site would be 5,94,800 cum from Heo power house components.

Table 5.3.2 Location and capacity of muck dumping areas


Site Total Area (in ha) 2.6 0.8 1.4 3.5
8.3

Capacity of muck Total Muck To be accommodated to be dumped 2,02,547 cum 87,945 cum 1,09,345 cum 6,03,110 cum
10,02,947 cum

No of X-sections 3-1444-1490 m 2-1447-1515 m

HFL (m)

MDA-1 MDA-2 MDA-3 MDA-4


TOTAL

1,95,656 cum 80,000 cum

1415 Sub. 1400m 1393 1190

1,00,000 cum 3-1412-1445 m 5,94,800 cum


9,70,456 cum

3-1207-1235 m

The lower base of MDA-1 expands from 1444 m to 1490 m while the highest flood level (HFL) at this site is in the range of 1415m (Fig. 5.3.1). The horizontal distance between HFL and dumping area is measured to be 25m. MDA-2 is located downstream of the Dam on the right bank and and is located between 1447m and 1515m while the water level is considered as submergence of Heo. The minimum distance between the base of the dumping area and submergence is 67 m horizontally (Fig. 5.3.2).

MDA-3 is located near the adit site, with an elevation located between 1412m and 1445m while the HFL is at 1393m. The minimal distance between the base of the dumping area and HFL is about 19m horizontally (Fig. 5.3.3). MDA-4 is located near the proposed power house of Heo and the intake site of Tato-I HE Projects. The site is located between 1207-1235 m with minimal horizontal distance of 55m from HFL (Fig. 5.3.4).

5.3.5 REHABILITATION OF DUMPING AREAS The location of dumping areas near water bodies has many environmental consequences on the water bodies. Also, improper relocation of dumping areas may lead to high concentration of suspended particulate matters in the air and may get eroded in the river water. In order to avoid any type of erosion, dumping areas would require engineering as well as biological rehabilitation measures.
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5.3.5.1 Engineering Measures 5.3.5.1.1 Compaction In the compaction, dumping piles are forced down so that loose soils would be compressed and the volume of muck would be reduced as well. The compaction also makes it suitable for the plantation and other biological measures. Top surface would be leveled and graded to make the alternative use. Total budget for the compaction would be Rs. 9.0 lakhs only.

5.3.5.1.2 Precautionary measures All precautionary measures will be followed during the dumping of muck. All dumpers must be well maintained so that loose soil could be well protected during the transportation. All routes should be wetted prior to the dumping. Dumping would be avoided during the high speed wind, so that suspended particulate matters (SPM) level could be maintained. Before the application of dumping area, the dumping piles will be protected from three sides with wind barriers of suitable porosity. After the dumping, the surface of dumps must be wetted with the help of sprinklers. Care should be taken so that the loose soil could not be leached out in the nearby water body.

5.3.5.1.3

Construction of retaining walls

Carefully packed rock toe of 3 m height with side slope of 1.5:1 is enough to withstand the stress caused by the muck. However, the natural ground terrain varies from gentle to semi slope and steep slope. Hence, Random Rubble masonry in cement mortar 1:5 is proposed to be constructed 2.5 m high continuous wall along the edge of rock dump towards the river side.

The total length of retaining wall at four dumping sites has nearly been calculated to be 1882 m including the side walls at a few places (Respectively for MDA-1 to MDA-4: 644m, 372m, 381m, 485m). The average height of walls would be 2.5 m, including a 1 m foundation wall (Fig. 5.3.5). The wall will be filled with plum concrete, provided with stone masonry of grade M15 (1:2:4). The foundation of retaining walls structures shall be of cement concrete of grade M10 (1:3:6). A stone filled layer will be placed at the side facing the dumped materials. They should catty weep holes for the discharge of surface water during rainy season. These holes will be provided with filters. Total estimated volume of the excavated materials for the foundation would be around 2823 cum and volume of retaining wall would be around 4366 cum (2281 cum for foundation wall + 2085 cum).
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Total financial outlay for the retaining walls is Rs. 208.76 lakhs, given in Table 5.3.3.

Table 5.3.3 Cost estimates for retaining walls at the dumping sites in Heo H.E. Project. It includes the laborers wages
S.No. 1 Particular Earth work excavation for foundations 2. 3 Cement concrete for foundation Cement concrete for retaining walls 4 Total Stone filling and filter Lumpsum 20.00 208.76 2,281 2,085 4000.00 4000.00 91.24 83.40 Volume (cum) 2,823 Rate per cum 500.00 Cost in Lakhs 14.115

5.3.5.1.4

Fencing

Project authorities would ensure the protection of dumping piles from human disturbances and domestic as well as wild animals. Unmanaged dumping piles are generally considered to be harmful for health. To prevent the dumping sites, fencing over the muck deposits is required. Barbed wire strands with two diagonal strands, clamped to wooden/ concrete posts placed 3 m distance are proposed around the dumping piles. Approximately 2000 m barbed wire with 4 strands horizontal and two strands diagonal would be required for the fencing. Project authorities would establish temporary wind barrier around 3 sides of the dumps, if the area is close to the settlement area. Total cost for the fencing will be Rs. 5.00 lakhs only.

5.3.5.2 Biological Measures After the construction of the retaining wall, dumping and compaction, a total available surface area including tops and slopes of all dumping area would be left with about 8 ha. This area will be used for the plantation so that vegetation cover could control the mechanical and hydrological effects on the slopes and would give the permanent stability to the muck. The biological measures include the following measures.

5.3.5.2.1 Soil treatment Generally the excavated soils are not fertile, if not treated vegetation cannot be grown
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properly on such soil surfaces. In order to make it nutrient rich, the following Integrated Biotechnological Approach is required. i) Analysis of dumped material for their physical and chemical properties to assess the nutrient status to support vegetation. ii) Formulation of appropriate blends of organic waste and soil to enhance the nutrient status of rhizosphere. iii) Isolation and screening of specialized strains of mycorrhizal fungi, rhizobium, azotobacter and phosphate solubilizers (biofertilizers inoculum) suitable for the dumped material. iv) Mass culture of plant specific biofertilizer and mycorrhizal fungi. v) Use of locally available manure and compost.

The project authorities are suggested to consult a well reputed organization for implementation of VAM (Vascular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza) technology, which can supply the strains of mycorrhizal fungi, rhizobium, azotobacter and phosphate solubilizers (biofertilizers inoculum). The important institutions are IMTECH, Chandigarh and IARI, New Delhi. The total cost for the soil treatment would be Rs. 3.00 Lakhs only.

5.3.5.2.2 Selection of species To stabilize the muck and restore the disposal sites, fast growing plant species are suggested. The grasses are suited to bind loose soil and shrub and trees hold soil up to deeper level. Taking the climate, soil and drainage conditions of the sites into account, selection of local plant species is generally preferred. Important tree species which can be used to rehabilitate the loose soil are Alnus nepalensis, Altingia excelsa, Brassiopsis aculeata, Castanopsis indica, Erythrina arborescens, Gymnema arborea, Saurauia punduana and Schima wallichii. Shrubs that can be useful as soil binders are Bambusa tulda, Boehmeria macrophylla, Debregeasia longifolia, Hydrangea robusta and Oxyspora paniculata. Among tuft forming and fast growing grasses useful in soil binding are Chrysopogon gryllus, Digitaria setigera, Eleusine coracana, Eragrostis nigra, Eulaliopsis binata, Saccharum longisetosum and Thysanolaena latifolia.

5.3.5.2.3 Use of Geo-textile After treatment of soils, mats of coir jute will be spread over the dumping slopes and wetted
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suitably. These mats increase the water holding capacity and retain the water (Plate 5.3.1). After decomposition, they increase the fertility of soils. In all dumping areas, such types of geo textiles methodology will be adopted. Total budget for the use of geo textiles would be Rs. 7.00 lakhs only.

5.3.5.2.4 Plantation The selected species will be planted after their nurseries have been developed. The dumping areas are very small, therefore, separate nursery would not be required. The nurseries developed for the implementation of CAT plan can be used for the rehabilitation of dumping areas. Nearly 1-2 years old saplings would be used for the plantation. The plantation can be carried out in lines across the slopes. Grass and herb species would be used in the inter space of tree species. They will help in providing the continuous chain of support in retaining debris, reinforcing soil and increasing the infiltration capacity of the area. Plant saplings would be raised in biodegradable pots and transplanted as such. The plantation should be done in the monsoon season. Pits of 0.45 x 0.45 x 0.45 m will be dug and filled with some nutrients rich soil. The compost from local organic waste can be used.

An area of approximately 8 ha would be required for phyto-remediation measures. A total of nearly 8,000 plant saplings (@1000 plants per ha) including trees and herbs will be planted at different dumping sites. Total cost estimates for the biological measures are given in Table 5.3.4. This cost includes the cost of turfing of slopes, preparation of ground, spreading of manure, etc., providing 5 cm of soil cover and transportation and carriage. It also includes the cost of watch and ward and irrigation, etc. The total cost for the biological measures would be Rs. 15.05 lakhs.

The methodology consists in developing the formation width in half cutting and half filling, so that the materials obtained from cutting are utilized in filling. The excavation on hill side will be done to get a stable slope for the materials encountered. At places where there is a problem of retaining the hill slope, breast walls, gabion walls shall be constructed in natural slope to retain the fill materials.

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Table 5.3.4 Financial requirements for the biological measures to rehabilitate dumping sites of Heo H.E. Project
Sl.No. 1. 2. Pitting Raising of plants (including nursery cost, manure, transport, etc.) Turfing, spreading of manure etc Maintenance, watering, transport, etc Total Item Quantity 8,000 pits 8,000 plants Lump sum lump sum Rate Rs. 33.08/pit Rs. 30.00/plant Amount (Rs. in lakhs) 2.65 2.40 5.00 5.00 15.05

3 4

5.3.6

COST ESTIMATES The total financial outlay for the relocation of muck and rehabilitation of the dumping sites

including engineering and biological measures would be Rs. 248.00 Lakhs only (Table 5.3.5).

Table 5.3.5 Break down of overall cost for Muck disposal plan
S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Particulars Compaction Cost of retaining wall Fencing Soil texture Geo Textile Plantation Total Total cost in Lakhs 9.00 208.76 5.00 3.00 7.00 15.05 247.8, say 248 Lakhs

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Plate 5.3.1 Examples of use of geo textiles on slopes to avoid erosion

Fig.5.3.1 Muck dumping sites (MDA-1) near dam site of the proposed Heo H.E. Project

Fig.5.3.1 Muck dumping sites (MDA-2) near Adit-1 site of the proposed Heo H.E. Project

Fig.5.3.1 Muck dumping sites (MDA-3) near Adit-2 site of the proposed Heo H.E. Project

Fig.5.3.1 Muck dumping sites (MDA-4) near Powerhouse site of the proposed Heo H.E. Project

Fig. 5.3 Cross section of retaining wall of muck dumping site

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RESTORATION OF CONSTRUCTION AREAS AND LANDSCAPING


5.4.1 INTRODUCTION The word restoration refers to to bring back into a former or original state. The Society for Ecological Restoration (SER) has defined ecological restoration as the process of renewing and maintaining ecosystems that have been degraded, damaged or destroyed (SER, 2002). The activities necessary to bring a disturbed site into former or original state involves manipulation of nature to recreate species composition and ecosystem processes close to the state that existed before disturbance. It re-establishes the structure, productivity and species diversity of the original community.

5.4

The proposed Heo HE Project would involve construction of colonies for staff and laborers, roads linking to various components of project, offices, etc. During construction these activities could also result in accumulation of large amount of unused material at various sites which require proper restoration measures. Total area likely to be disturbed due to these activities is around 55.7 ha, including the river bed area and submergence area. This land also includes areas likely to be disturbed due to quarries and dumping of unused muck, dam complex area and power house area. At present, the proposed project areas are covered with open or dense sub-tropical forest or degraded forest. This existing landscape will be totally modified or changed due to the proposed project. Therefore, all areas disturbed by the construction activity including access roads will be landscaped to reflect natural contours, restore suitable drainage paths and encourage the reestablishment of vegetation.

5.4.2 DISTURBED SITES AND THEIR RESTORATION Around 47.1 ha of surface land (all surface land required excluding river bed area) will be directly disturbed due to various construction activities of the proposed project, like access roads, muck dumping sites, quarry sites, colonies, offices, etc which will change the existing land cover in the area . After completion of the construction work, it is required to restore the disturbed area to its original conditions wherever it is possible. Dam and Power House civil structures cannot be restored 5.4 Restoration of Construction Areas and Landscaping
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in their original shape, but Quarry sites, Colony and Office Complex and part of the roads have been proposed for the restoration. These areas can be resumed from restoration measures, even though their entire areas cannot be restored in their original shape. Restoration of dumping sites area has been given separately in the chapter 5.3 of the EMP. Here restoration of quarry sites, colony area, office complex and roads are addressed and a detailed plan is given for the landscaping of the region. Various engineering and biological measures have been suggested for the restoration of these areas. Proposed mitigation measures will also help to arrest soil erosion in the region.

5.4.3 RESTORATION OF QUARRY SITES The quarry sites (QS1& QS2) are located near the proposed pond and power house areas for the excavation of land and rock material. Total area of the proposed quarry sites is around 0.6 ha (2 x 0.3 ha). After excavation of the required material, these quarry sites will require restoration. Appropriate engineering, bio-engineering and biological methods are proposed for effective restoration of the quarry sites.

Removal of rocks from the quarry sites for different construction works will result in the formation of depression and craters. These will be filled up by the dumping materials consisting of boulders, rock, gravel and soil from nearby sites. To achieve this, appropriate measures would be adopted at various sites in the project area so that the restoration work will be scientifically executed. Various biological, bio-engineering and engineering measures are proposed for the restoration of the quarry sites and their costs are presented in the cost estimates of the EMP plan .

5.4.3.1 Removal of top soil The top soil (top 6-12 inch soil) would be removed before excavating the sand or rocks from the quarry sites. This soil contains all microbes (including earth worms) and important nutrients and organic matters. After removing, the soils will be preserved at nearby area temporarily. The

preserved soil will be required at the time of restoration of these quarry sites.

5.4.3.2 Filling of depressions Removal of rocks from quarry sites for different construction works will result in formation of depression and/or craters. These depressions will be filled up by the dumping materials consisting of boulders, rock, gravel and soil from the nearby sites. After filling these craters, the top soil 5.4 Restoration of Construction Areas and Landscaping
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collected prior to quarrying will be spread as top layer. The top soil then should be covered with geo-textiles like coir, jute or by other locally available bio-degradable material. This will protect the top soil from erosion.

5.4.3.3 Diversion of run-off Effective drainage system will be provided to avoid the infiltration of run-off and surface waters into the ground of quarry sites.

5.4.3.4 Construction of Retaining walls Retaining walls will be constructed at the filled up depressions of quarry sites to provide necessary support particularly where there are moderately slopes. The same materials and construction methodology of retaining wall will be adopted as in case in the case of dumping area.

5.4.3.5 VAM Fungi for Soil Reclamation Top soil obtained from the project sites, before the start of quarrying activity would be reclaimed by using VAM fungi. The saplings of trees and shrubs should be raised using microbial inoculum like, VAM (Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza), bacterial and fungal strains. The steps for raising plant saplings with mycorrhizal colony are given below:

A brief description of the procedure to be followed for the colonization of seedlings with VAM fungi and other soil microbes is given below: 1) Top soil collection from quarry sites before start of quarrying. 2) This soil which is rich in microbes should be used for the preparation of seed beds and should also be filled in polybags for raising saplings. 3) Isolation of VAM from the roots of juvenile seedlings particularly dominant tree species which are available in the region. 4) Suitable strain of VAM and other microbe can also be obtained from IARI, New Delhi and/or IMTECH, Chandigarh. 5) Preparation of mother culture and their appropriate dilution. 6) Growing of plant species which will be inoculated by specific and efficient strains, 7) Mixing the soil with the VAM inoculum and filling in the polybags.

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8) Planting of saplings in the polybags two days after inoculating the soil with fungal microbial strains. 9) After thirty days of inoculation these saplings can be planted at the quarry sites.

5.4.3.6 Revegetation In addition to the use of VAM fungi isolated from the roots of plant species growing in these areas and organic manure for enrichment of the top soil, revegetation of quarry sites would require the initial establishment of fast growing grasses like Cynodon dactylon, Pennisetum antidotale and Saccharum longisetosum. These grasses spread by creeping rootstocks and will also help in binding soil. Perennial species such as Chrysopogon gryllus, Eulaliopsis binata, Coix lacryma-jobi and Themeda arundinacea will be established subsequently by seeding and planting them directly into the annual crop residue.

Along with annuals and perennials, nitrogen fixing herbaceous legumes (Trifolium repens, Lespedeza juncea) and non legume shrubs like Dichroa fabrifuga will be planted at quarry sites to increase the nitrogen levels of soil. Trifolium repens and Lespedeza juncea are also desirable food plants and are less aggressive and persistent as compared to other herbaceous legumes. These legumes with dense cover will retard or prevent the invasion and establishment of native plant species. Temporary crop cover of annuals and perennials will thus help in stabilization of the quarry sites, which will take approximately 5-6 years.

Once the initial establishment of perennials is complete and quarry sites are stabilized, the sites would be ready for plantation of tree species. Alnus nepalensis, Carpinus viminea, Terminalia myriocarpa, etc would be first among tree species that would be planted. In open areas mixed perennial shrubs and herbs such as Bambusa pallida, Leucosceptrum canum, Saccharum longisetosum, Themeda arundinacea and Thysanolaena latifolia will be planted which grow well on rocks and on open slopes.

5.4.4 RESTORATION OF CONSTRUCTION SITES, COLONY AND OFFICE COMPLEX Nearly 13.5 ha of land will be disturbed due to construction of dam storage and colony areas, power house office and colony, (Table 5.4.1). Storage and colony sites are located on the right bank of Yarjep River and downstream of dam site and then downstream of PH sites. The land will be 5.4 Restoration of Construction Areas and Landscaping
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cleared of vegetation for the movement of heavy equipments required for different project related activities which would lead to degradation of slopes.

Table 5.4.1 Areas of Storage and colonies and other sites in the proposed Heo H.E. Project
Sl. No. 1 2 3. 4. Site specification Dam complex area Dam storage, office and colony area Powerhouse area PH storage, office and colony Area 1.8 ha 1.2 ha 9.2 ha 1.3 ha

Notably, on account of construction of office complexes, some area of the right bank near Purying and Gapo will be disturbed. Engineering and biological measures are suggested for the stabilization and beautification of the disturbed area. Following measures should be adopted for the restoration and landscaping of colony areas and construction sites.

1)

Proper roads and lanes would be provided inside the colony area. Open area should be covered with vegetation. Ornamental plants and avenue trees should be planted along the roads and lanes.

2)

The choice of the tree species for plantation will depend on agro-climatic conditions of the area.

3)

Retaining walls should be built to avoid landslides and slips. Proper drainage would be provided inside colony for the outlet of the domestic/rain water.

4) 5)

Parks and play grounds would be developed. After the completion of all the construction activities, the construction sites and other temporary settlements would be covered with the top soil which would support the growth of plant species.

Engineering Measures: During the construction phase, some locales near Padusa and Hiri areas on the right bank area are likely to be prone to soil erosion. Construction of retaining walls would be necessary to stabilize the slopes. The budget kept for the construction of retaining walls and for other engineering measures is around Rs. 8.00 lakhs.

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Biological Measures: The project construction would involve congregation of large labour and staff population. To meet the requirement of fuel and material for construction, dependency on forest resources is inevitable. These activities would also involve substantial clearing of forest land unless proper arrangement for fuel supply is done. Therefore, significant adverse impacts on terrestrial flora are anticipated if proper mitigation measures are not taken. There is possibility that after construction, these degraded forests existing in the area will be further destroyed or damaged. Plantation of the tree species and shrubs are suggested in the colony area. Some of the local plant species are mentioned in Table 5.4.2. Total budget allocated for the purpose is around Rs. 8.00 lakhs which includes maintenance cost also (see Table 5.4.3).

5.4.5 ROADS Most of the project components are located away from the highways connecting village Tato to Mechuka and there is a requirement of around 12 km of additional roads to access the project sites. At the new road areas, plantation of tree seedlings grown in nurseries will be done in rows alternating with rows of herbaceous plants. The tree growth and the growth of shrubs and herbaceous species will provide adequate erosion control and provide the habitat for wildlife, birds and insects. Around 21.1 ha land will be disturbed due to construction of new roads. Due to construction of roads, the region will be disturbed and may also trigger minor slips and downfall movement of soil aggregates. Various measures are suggested for the stabilization of the disturbed area.

Engineering Measures: Road construction in the proposed project will disturb the hill slopes and result in excavated material (muck). Retaining walls and wire crate walls are proposed in the region to avoid slippage and land slides.

Biological Measures: Even though a muck disposal plan has been proposed, some of the excavated muck is likely to form thin apron on mountain slopes along the road. Provisions are made to cover such slopes with vegetation. Tree saplings and shrubs should be planted along the road. Seeds of herbs and grass species should be spread over the loose soil. Some plants for plantation are suggested in the Table 5.4.2.

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Table 5.4.2 Some important plant species for plantation in the colony area/office complex and along the road sides
Botanical name 1. Trees 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Colonies/ Office complex Albizia lebbeck Altingia excelsa Beilschmiedia roxburghiana Citrus aurantium Elaeocarpus sphaericus Exbuclandia populnea Gmelina arborea Magnolia hodgsonii Michelia champaca Polyalthia longifolia Prunus domestica Pyrus communis Siris Singri Bonjolockia Ribosinking Rudraksh Gomari Tita Sopa Asok Plum Naspati Mimosaceae Hamamelidaceae Lauraceae Rutaceae Elaeocarpaceae Hamamelidaceae Verbenaceae Magnoliaceae Magnoliaceae Anonaceae Rosaceae Rosaceae landscaping landscaping landscaping landscaping landscaping landscaping landscaping landscaping landscaping landscaping landscaping landscaping Local name Family Use

Shrubs 1 Ardisia macrocarpa 2 Asparagus racemosus 3 Bambusa tulda 4 Calamus erectus 5 Mussaenda roxburghii 6 Zanthoxylum acanthopodium Herbs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Satvari Bijli Jati bet Yokhung

Myrsinaceae Liliaceae Poaceae Arecaceae Rubiaceae Rutaceae

landscaping landscaping landscaping landscaping landscaping landscaping

Achyranthes aspera Anemone vitifolia Centella asiatica Crowfurdia speciosa Eleusine coracana Hedychium spicatum Molineria capitulata Musa bulbisiana Ocimum sanctum Pennisetum purpureum

Chirchita Brahmi Finger millet Ruksana Wurdo lago Kargok Tulsi Fox tail

Amaranthaceae Ranunculaceae Apiaceae Gentiniaceae Poaceae Zingiberaceae Hypoxidaceae Musaceae Lamiaceae Poaceae

landscaping landscaping landscaping landscaping landscaping landscaping landscaping landscaping landscaping landscaping

2 Roadside/Avenues Trees 1 Albizia. odoratissima 2 Alnus nepalensis 3 Castanopsis indica 4 Dysoxylum excelsum 5 Engelhardtia spicata 6 Exbucklandia populnea 7 Juglans regia 8 Lannea coromandelica 9 Phyllanthus emblica

Kalo Siris Utis Katus Lahsune Mahwa Okhar Jia Aonla

Mimosaceae Betulaceae Fagaceae Meliaceae Juglandaceae Hamamelidaceae Julandaceae Anacardiaceae Euphorbiaceae

landscaping landscaping landscaping landscaping landscaping landscaping landscaping landscaping landscaping 5-47

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10 11 12 Prunus persica Quercus glauca Terminalia myriocarpa Aru Musre Phalant Panisaj Rosaceae Fagaceae Combretaceae landscaping landscaping landscaping

CISMHE

Shrubs 1 Alsophila spinulosa 2 Calamus floribundus 3 Dichroa febrifuga 4 Hydrangea robusta 5 Oxyspora paniculata 6 Schefflera bengalensis Herbs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Tree fern -

Cyatheacae Arecaceae Saxifragaceae Hydrangeaceae Melastomataceae Araliaceae

landscaping landscaping landscaping landscaping landscaping landscaping

Achyranthes aspera Chrysopogon gryllus Cymbopogon jwarancusa Cynodon dactylon Eulaliopsis binata Panicum antidotale Pennisetum purpureum Saccharum longisetosum Tagetus erecta Themeda arundinacea

Doob Genda -

Apiaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Poaceae Asteraceae Poaceae

landscaping landscaping landscaping landscaping landscaping landscaping landscaping landscaping landscaping landscaping

5.4.6 COST ESTIMATES Cost estimates for different components of the landscaping and restoration are given in the Table 5.4.3. Around Rs. 84.56 lakhs would be required to restore the disturbed area to its near original state.

Table 5.4.3 Cost estimates for Restoration Works and Landscape Designing
S.No. A. Item of Work Quarry Sites (i) Engineering measures a) Removal of top soil (transplantation and stockpiling) b) Filling of crates with muck, stones, etc. c) Retaining walls, diversion channels (ii) Bio-engineering measures a) Carpeting with geo-textiles (coir, jute and other local fibers) b) Mulching (iii) Biological measures (a) Planting of herbs and grass species (b) Planting of trees and shrubs (@ Rs. 18.64/plant (1600plants/ha) Including maintenance and transportation Total (A) Amount
(Rs. in lakhs)

5.00 6.00 10.00 3.20 2.40 1.40 5.36 33.36 5-48

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B. Colony Area, Office Complexes (i) Engineering measures (a) Retaining walls (b) Leveling the area (c) Development of parks, etc. (suggested in Muck disposal chapter) (ii) Biological measures (a) Planting of trees and shrubs (@ Rs. 18.64/plant (1600plants/ha) including maintenance and transportation (b) Planting of flowering plants and other herbs Total (B) Roads Engineering (i) (a) Retaining walls ( 360 m3 @ 1211/m3) (b) Wire crates (3 x 2 x 1.5 Cum 50 / 2400.00) (ii) Biological measures Planting trees, shrubs and herbs Total (C) Development of Nursery (i) Infrastructure including land cost (Provision has been made under the CAT plan) (ii) Collection of seeds (Lump sum) (iii) Raising of plants (Lump sum) (iv) Manpower to maintain the nursery (Lump sum) Total (D)

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6.00 2.00 Nil 5.00 3.00 16.00

C.

4.40 10.80 5.00 20.20

D.

Nil 3.00 8.00 4.00 15.00 84.56

Total (A + B + C + D )

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5.5
GREEN BELT DEVELOPMENT PLAN
5.5.1 INTRODUCTION A green belt development is generally proposed around hydro electric power projects sites, as the project construction process emanates lot of dust due to excavation works, crushing of material and batching of aggregates. In addition, during construction and operation, the burning of fossil fuels by automobiles and trucks produces several pollutants as well as large quantities of particulates. The green canopy has the inherent capacity to absorb pollution, increase water retention by soil and decrease sediment transport. In order to combat different kind of pollutions and avoid land slips from the portion of catchment draining directly into the reservoir, the green belt in and around the project areas is an obvious choice.

Heo HE Project envisages the construction of a 15 m high dam over the Yarjep River, downstream of the Purying village, and will create a reservoir of 8.4 ha (at FRL 1400 m elevation and including 5.6 ha of river bed). During the 4 years construction period, the area will be disturbed, vegetation in the impacted land will be destroyed and soil will become prone to erosion. There will be increased silt flow in the river from these surrounding areas. The plantation along the reservoir periphery will serve many purposes, such as it will protect the reservoir from soil erosion and shall provide a shelter to birds and wildlife. Therefore, a green belt development plan has been proposed around the project area and along the project components in particular using the local flora.

5.5.2 DEVELOPMENT OF GREEN BELT The green belt is proposed to be developed within the project area at the following places viz., along the network of approach roads, dam sites, power house site and around the periphery of reservoir, wherever these components are not already naturally surrounded by trees and local flora. Different kinds of strategies will be necessary for developing a green belt around different components of the project. The general considerations for green belt plan are: Planting of trees should be undertaken in appropriate encircling rows around the project sites wherever the forest is not already present.
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Generally local/indigenous fast growing trees should be planted. The trees should be protected by plantation of non palatable shrub species to avoid browsing by animals.

Placement of Bamboo/ Iron tree guards around the trees. The Plantation should be at a spacing of 2.5m x 2.5m and about 1600 trees per hectare should be planted.

5.5.3 GUIDELINES AND TECHNIQUES FOR NURSERY DEVELOPMENT Extensive survey in the project area was undertaken to observe the vegetation types and its density. The soil characteristics were also kept in mind. Based on this survey and environmental conditions, suitable plant species have been proposed for green belt development. To meet the requirement of plants sapling for development of green belt, a nursery is a prerequisite and calls for following considerations:

5.5.3.1 Size of Nursery The size of nursery depends upon the number and type of seedlings to be produced. To produce 1,00,000 plants a nursery of about 1.0 ha area would be required.

5.5.3.2 Nursery site selection The selection of site has been done keeping in mind the availability of land and perennial water source. The area near the power house site would be appropriate for nursery development so that the same could be used for Tato-I project also. Alternatively Project developers can extend the area of nursery proposed for CAT plan. Therefore, separate budget has been earmarked for the purpose.

5.5.3.3 Transportation The nursery should be readily accessible all the year round in order to facilitate transportation of materials required in the nursery and dispatch of seedlings from the nursery.

5.5.3.4 Fertilizer application The organic fertilizer produced through domestic organic waste can be utilized for the nursery. Farmyard manure (FYM) can also be used but chemical fertilizer should be avoided.
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5.5.3.5 Soil and Soil Fertility The best site for raising the nursery is the area which got a thick layer of humus. The fertile and well-drained soil with sandy loam to loamy texture, pH varying from 5.5-7.5 should always be preferred for nursery sites.

5.5.3.6 Water Supply and Drainage The site should have perennial water supply. The drainage of soil has important bearing on the health of seedlings.

5.5.3.7 Cost estimates of raising 1 ha (100,000) plants in a nursery


1. Gardening equipments (polybags, implements, pipes, germination trays, etc.) 2. Barbed wire fencing 3. FYM/fertilizer, insecticides, etc. 4. Soil layering in Nursery 5. Purchase of implements and construction of working sheds 6. Labour charges* (soil working, watering, weeding, transplanting, etc) 7. Miscellaneous Total
*Labour charges @ 250/person/day

= = = = = = = =

Rs. 1,00,000 Rs. 1,50,000 Rs. 25,000

Rs. 1,00,000 Rs. 2,00,000 Rs. 2,50,000 Rs. 75,000

Rs. 9,00,000

5.5.3.8 Species to be Planted A list of indigenous tree, shrubs and herbs was made after identification of species suitable for raising in nurseries and for development of a green belt around the project area and along the periphery of the reservoir. The species wise details of the plant are presented in Table 5.5.1 (a, b and c) indicating their season of flowering and method of propagation and other characteristics.

5.5.3.9 Precautions for Plantations Some important precautions to be taken during the plantation as under Polyculture should be practiced. Species mentioned as special should be planted in sufficient numbers so as to increase their population size in the area. Multipurpose species should be planted in large numbers, so as to provide direct benefit like extraction of fodder, fruits or medicines, to people living around.

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Table 5.5.1(a) Species wise details of trees indicating planting techniques and their usages
Sl. No. Botanical name Common name Furit/seed collection season Seed longevity Pre sowing seed treatment Sowing season Germ inatio n% Age of normal planting stock (months) 9 12-24 Planti ng season Method of Planting Uses

1 1

2 Actinodaphne obovata Aglaia spectabilis Albizia lebbeck

3 Pajihuta

4 April-May

5 Short lived (1-6 months) Short lived (1-6 months) Very long lived (2years) Very long lived(2years) Short lived (1-3 months) Short lived (1-6 months) Moderate long lived

6 Not required

7 Soon after collection Soon after collection MarchJuly MarchJuly Soon after collection Soon after collection May

8 50

10 JuneJuly JuneJuly July

11 Direct sowing, entire planting Direct sowing, entire planting Direct sowing, entire planting Direct sowing, entire planting Direct sowing, entire planting Direct sowing, entire planting

12 Timber, fuel-wood Timber

Amari

Sept.-Oct.

Not required

60

12-24

Siris

JanuaryFebrurary JanuaryFebrurary May-June

Scarification Hot water Scarification Hot water Not required

60-90

12-24

Timber, fuel

A. lucida

Moz

70-80

12-24

July

Timber, fuel

Altingia excelsa

Singri

40-50

12-24

July

Timber

Artocarpus lacucha Bauhinia variegata

Deb chali

April-May

Not required

50-60

12-24

Timber; fruits edible Flower bud edible, fodder Nuts edible; Timber, fodder Timber, fuel

Kanchon

May-June

Not required

95

2-3

JuneJuly

Direct sowing, entire planting

Castanopsis indica

Hingori

May

Moderate long lived

Not required

June

90

2-3

June July

Direct sowing, entire planting

Engelhardtia spicata

Tongtamasok

April-May

Short lived (1-6 months)

Not required

Soon after collection

60

12-24

June July

Direct sowing, entire planting

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Juglans regia

Thitcha

April-May

Moderate long lived

Not required

soon after collection

80

12-24

June July

Direct sowing, entire planting, Stump planting direct sowing, entire planting direct sowing, entire planting

Seeds, Timber, medicinal Timber, fuel, ornamental Timber, fuel, ornamental Ornamental

Kydia calycina

Pichola

Feb.-March

Short lived (1-6 months) Short lived (1-6 months)

Not required

Soon after collection Soon after collection

60

12-24

JuneJuly JulyAugust

Lannea coromandelica

Jia

May-June

Not required

50

12-24

10

Magnolia grandiflora

Boromthuri

March-May

Short lived (1-6 months)

Not required

Soon after collection

60-70

12-18

July

Direct sowing, entire planting, branch cutting direct sowing, entire planting Direct sowing, entire planting, branch cutting direct sowing, entire planting

11

Mesua assamica

Sia-Nahar

May-June

Short lived (1-6 months) Short lived (1-6 months)

Not required

Soon after collection Soon after collection

70

12-24

July

Ornamental

11

Morus alba

Sahtut

April-May

Not required

40

12-15

JuneJuly

Fodder, fuel, ornamental

12

Phoebe hainesiana

Bola Bonsum

May

Short lived (1-6 months)

Not required

Soon after collection

50

12-24

JuneJuly

Timber

13

Pinus wallichiana

Blue pine

March-May

Very long lived (2years)

Scarification

June-July

70

12-24

Aug.Sept.

Direct sowing, entire planting

Timber, fuel, ornamental Timber, fuel, ornamental Timber, fuel, ornamental Timber, fuel, ornamental

14

Pterospermum acerifolium Schima wallichii

Hathipayle

Feb-March

Very long lived(2years) Very long lived(2years) Very long lived(2years)

Not required

soon after collection soon after collection soon after collection

60-70

12-24

JulyAugust JuneJuly JuneJuly

Direct sowing, entire planting, branch cutting Direct sowing, entire planting, branch cutting Direct sowing, entire planting

15

Chilone

Oct.-Dec.

Not required

75

12-24

16

Terminalia myriocarpa

Panisaz

Oct.-Nov.

Not required

75

12-24

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Table 5.5.1(b) Species wise details of shrubs indicating planting techniques and their usages.
Sl. No. 1 Common name Makal Plantation method Through seeds, cuttings, rootshoot cutting Through seeds, cuttings, rootshoot cutting Through seeds, cuttings, rootshoot cutting Through seeds, cuttings Through seeds, cuttings Through seeds, cuttings Through seeds, cuttings Through seeds, cuttings Through seeds, cuttings, rootshoot cutting Through seeds, cuttings Through seeds, cuttings Through seeds, cuttings Plantation time Aug.-Sept.

Botanical Name Bambusa pallida

Uses Afforestation of forest lands Culms are used for construction; leaves as fodder Soil conservation, fencing, fuelwood Soil conservation, fencing, furniture Fodder, fuel wood Fodder, fuel wood

Bambusa tulda

Shingane Bans Kamli

In any season In rainy season In rainy season In any season In any season In rainy season In rainy season In any season In any season In rainy season In any season

Boehmeria macrophylla

4 5 6

Calamus erectus Debregeasia longifolia Desmodium caudatum

Bent Tusare -

Luculia pinceana

Ornamental, fuel wood Reforestation of forest lands Ornamental

Mahonia acanthifolia

Melastoma malabathricum

Key Sengs

10

Mussaenda roxburghii

Tengmeng

11

Rubus ellipticus

Jellying

Ornamental, leaves used as vegetables Reforestation of forest lands Medicinal

12

Zanthoxylum acanthopodium

Yokhung

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Table 5.5.1(c) Species wise details of medicinal plants indicating planting techniques and their usages
Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 Botanical Name Achyranthes aspera Acorus calamus Agave sisalana Aloe vera Asaparagus racemosus Family Amaranthaceae Acoraceae Agavaceae Liliaceae Liliaceae Flowering Time June-Aug. Aug. -Sept. Feb.-March Feb.-March Apr.-May Fruiting Time Sept.Oct. Sept.Nov. MarchApril Apr. May JulyAug. Parts used for curing the Disease Plant is used as medicinal; diuretic and purgative. Rhizomes/roots are medicinal Leaf juice is used as insecticide

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Centella asiatica Costus speciosus Curcuma longa Cynodon dactylon Datura stramonium Hedychium spicatum Molineria capitulata Musa bulbisiana Osbeckia stellata Rubia cordifolia Sida rhombifolia Viola betonicifolia

Apiaceae Araceae Zingeberaceae Poaceae Solanaceae Zingeberaceae Hypoxidaceae Musaceae

May-July Sept. -Oct. Aug.-Sept. May-June Aug.-Sept. Sept.-Oct. May-June Jan. -Feb.

Melastomiaceae May-oct. Rubiaceae Malvaceae Violaceae June-Aug. June-Aug. June-Aug.

Leaves juice used in skin treatment; facial Roots are medicinal; root bark has antibacterial and antifungal properties. JulyLeaf juice is used as a tonic; Aug. intellect promoting for children. Nov.-Dec Rhizome is used in gout; as stimulant. Oct-Nov. Rhizome/root powder is useful in wound healing. Aug.Decoction of leaf juice is given Sept. in piles disease Set.-Oct. Flowers are showy; Seeds are narcotic. Oct.Roots are medicinal. Nov. Sept.Roots are medicinal; fruits are Oct. edible. Oct.Fruits are nutritious and edible Nov. Oct.Flowers are aesthetic; roots are Nov. medicinal. Aug.Plant juice is taken in skin Sept. diseases. Sept.Roots are medicinal. Oct. Sept-Oct. Whole plant is medicinal; cough and asthma.

5.5.4 GREEN BELT DEVELOPMENT 5.5.4.1 Road side Plantation One row of each tree, shrub and biofencing has been proposed with a spacing of 2.5 m x 2.5 m for trees and 2m x 2m for shrubs (to take care of the mortality in the next season). The pit size has been recommended as 45 cm x 45 cm x 45 cm for trees and 30 cm x 30 cm for shrubs. Along the access roads, on a 21.1ha stretch (roads cumulated areas), plantation will be done on both sides
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wherever feasible and about 33760 plants will be planted by planting 1600 saplings per ha. The budget for planting trees along the road sides is given in chapter 5.4 (Landscaping and restoration of construction area).

5.5.4.2 Green belt around dam site Plantation at the dam site for about 2 ha has been proposed for control of erosion and siltation of the reservoir and aesthetic importance. The total cost of planting 3200 saplings @ Rs. 24.38 (including transportation) per sapling works out to be Rs. 0.78 lakhs.

5.5.4.3 Green belt around power house Plantation around powerhouse need to be done in 3 lines i.e. first line of only flowering herbs/shrub, second line should be of shrub/hedge in close spacing and along the road of powerhouse a row of small trees. The planting cost of 2000 saplings @ Rs. 24.38 works out for Rs. 0.48 lakhs.

5.5.4.4 Green belt around pond periphery Total area for the creation of green belt around the reservoir rim is around 29.54 ha which is divided into two layers/zones for the purpose of plantation taking into consideration the microclimatic condition that will develop after the creation of reservoir in the region (see Fig 5.5.1 Table 5.5.2). The total length of the green belt along the pond will be around 761.13 m. The maximum width between the green belt and the river is about 904 m and the minimum distance is about 162.99m. Degraded forest and scrub of each layer need plantation. These forests land together constitute 6.52 ha and 7.34 ha in G1 and G2 layer, respectively (Table 5.5.2).
Table 5.5.2 Land use/ land cover of green belt layers Land use/ Land cover categories Dense forest Open forest Degraded forest Scrub Water body Total Area to be treated (Degraded forest and scrub) 0.30 6.81 6.52 0.26 13.89 6.52 Bottom layer (ha) 1.49 6.82 7.33 0.01 15.65 7.34 Top layer (ha)

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The green belt will start from the immediate vicinity of the reservoir rim on both banks wherever moderately steep slopes are available for plantation. In the proposed green belt, area has been divided into two layers for plantation of plant species depending upon the microclimatic condition that will develop after creation of the reservoir in the region (Fig.5.5.1). The bottom layer (G1), which starts just above the water level (at 1440 m contour line) and considered up to 1480 m contour line is around 13.89 ha in area. The upper layer (G2) is considered between contour lines 1480-1520 m with total area 15.65 ha (Fig. 5.5.1). Out of the total 29.54 ha, plantation will be done only on 13.86 ha of degraded forest (the balance are being covered with existing and sufficiently dense forest). Water and high humidity loving plants like Actinodaphne obovata, Albizia odoratissima, Oroxylum indicum, Populus ciliata, Saurauia punduana, and many shrubs and herbs have been suggested for plantation in the bottom (G1) layer. The upper layer (G 2) will be planted with species of mesic habitats such as Altingia excelsa, Castanopsis indica, Engelhardtia spicata, Lithocarpus elegans, Michelia chamapaca, Terminalia myriocarpa and many shrubs and herbs. In all 22,176 plants over a stretch of 13.86 ha on both the flanks of the periphery of the reservoir will be done by planting 1600 saplings per ha. The planting cost for 22,176 saplings works out for Rs. 8.4 lakhs @ 24.38/sapling (Table 5.5.3).

Table 5.5.3 Physical and financial break up for the creation and maintenance of green belt around the periphery of reservoir of Heo HE Project Item Ist layer (G1) (12-24 months) area: 6.52 (ha) IInd layer (G2) (24-36 months) area: 7.34 (ha)

Biological measures (Afforestation and Maintenance) 1. Raising plants i) Physical (Nos) 10432 (@1600 plants/ha) ii) Financial (Rs. in lakhs) 2.54 (@Rs. 24.38/plant) 2. Watering, maintenance and transport (Rs. in Lakhs) Total (Rs. lakhs) Grand Total (Rs. lakhs) (G1+G2) 1.00

11744 2.86

2.0

3.54

4.86 8.40

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5.5.4.5 Schedule The construction period of the project is around 48 months. All engineering measures like retaining walls, wire crate walls, etc to stabilize landslips around reservoir will be carried out under the CAT plan. Plant saplings will be required for biological treatment measures. Plantation and maintenance will be carried out between 12-48 months from the date of inception of the project. Between 1-12 months all the engineering measures for stabilization of slopes will be carried out under the proposed CAT plan.

5.5.5 BUDGET The overall cost of green belt development is Rs. 29.76 lakhs (Table 5.5.4). The budget also includes maintenance of the executed work.

Table 5.5.4 Summary of cost for green belt development


Sl.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5 7. 8. 9. 10. Component Nursery Development over 1 ha Maintenance of Nursery @ 2.00 lakhs/year for 3 years Cost of planting of sapling along roadside Cost of planting of sapling around dam site Cost of planting of sapling around power house areas Maintenance cost for 3 years-2 supervisor @150.00/day Cost of planting of sapling along reservoir periphery (including maintenance cost) Celebration of World Environment Day, etc @ Rs. 1.00 lakhs Contingency Total Cost (Rs. in Lakhs) 9.00 6.00 Nil 0.78 0.48 0.10 8.40 3.00 2.00 29.76

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5.6
FISHERY DEVELOPMENT & DOWNSTREAM FLOW MANAGEMENT PLAN
5.6.1 INTRODUCTION A dam and its ancillary activities have various negative as well as positive impacts on the land, water, air, socio-economic and biological environments. The most adverse impacts are foreseen on the biotic communities of water environment, in which fish are highly vulnerable. Construction of a dam/barrage triggers habitat alteration or modification in the upstream as well as downstream stretches of the river. It hampers the spawning movement of fish and its downstream impacts lead to the habitat fragmentation and modification of the water stream characteristics. Also, the livelihood of the fishermen community, if any, may be affected adversely. A fishery management plan would require the knowledge of area specific impacts of the project on the fish, fish composition in the river and its tributaries, spawning grounds and fishing activities in the area.

The main objective of fishery development plan is to improve the habitat, to ensure the upstream and downstream movement of fish, especially Schizothorax richardsonii as it constitutes the main fishery in the surroundings, and to improve the capture fishery status in the area.

5.6.2 HEO H.E. PROJECT The Heo HE project is proposed to harness the potential in Yarjep River which is a major tributary of river Siyom. Heo H.E. Project involves a 15 m high concrete gravity dam with installed capacity of 240 MW. In order to generate energy it would utilize 211 m head on the Yarjep River. Heo H.E. Project is the middle scheme of a cascade development, located between Pauk H.E. Project upstream and Tato I H.E. Project downstream. Thus, considering the project planning, river flow and fish composition in Yarjep River, a sustainable approach has been adopted in the fishery development plan of Heo project. In order to avoid any double implementation of the plan, the same plans of both upstream and downstream projects were taken into account.

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Ichthyofauna in the catchment and influence areas of Heo H. E project comprises of 6 species belonging to 4 families. Schizothorax richardsonii (Snow trout) and Garra naganensis are widely distributed in the catchment and influence areas. They prefer to inhabit the main rivers, like Yarjep and Siyom. Other species like Nemacheilus multifasciatus, Schistura rupecola, Botia berdmorei and Glyptothorax annandeli are bottom dwellers and prefer to inhabit tributaries. Only Schizothorax richardsonii is of fishery interest and contributes in most capture fishery in the area.

Fishing intensity is very low in the area under discussion. In different seasons, during the field survey, 4 fishermen were found to engage in fishing activities between the proposed dam site and the proposed power house site and in tributaries joining in between. The door to door social survey of affected families has also confirmed that fish is not widely used for food by the local people.

5.6.4 PROPOSED PLAN The plan of fishery development was also formulated for Tato I and Pauk H.E. Projects. The measures suggested in Tato-I H.E. and Pauk H.E. Projects were not included in the plan of Heo H.E. Project and vice versa, to avoid any dual measures because the three projects are owned by the same developers. Regarding the downstream management plan, both projects stand for the same types of measures.

5.6.4.1 Fishery Development 5.6.4.1.1 Establishment of hatchery A hatchery is suggested for the conservation of indigenous species especially for Schizothorax richardsonii and Garra naganensis. The hatchery would be constructed in consultation with the State Fishery Department. The department can use the proposed hatchery for the ova production of other indigenous species. Main objective of the hatchery is to propagate fry in the proposed reservoir and tributaries in the surrounding area. Also, the ova and fry of fish could be supplied at no cost for the farmers, interested in fish culture in the area, if any.

Proposed hatchery unit would comprise of indoor spawnery for hatchlings, nursery tanks (10m x 5m x 0.5m) for fry, rearing tanks (20m x 10m x 1m) for juveniles and stocking tanks (30m x
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15 m x 1.5m) for brooders. Separate spawneries will be used for snow trout and Garra naganensis. The hatchery is of small size, comprising of 8 nursery tanks, 3 rearing tanks and two stocking tanks. Total production capacity of spawneries would be 1.5 million ova and seeds of two species. The hatchery will be developed on a total area of 1 ha land with a water spread area of 2000 sq. m. The hatchery complex will include office complex, spawneries, water supply channel, nursery tanks, rearing tanks and stocking tanks, etc. Prior to stocking all tanks will be treated by liming and manuring with the mixture of organic and inorganic fertilizers in the divided doses.

After complete digestion of yolk, the spawns would be transferred into the nursery tanks. From nursery tanks and rearing tanks fry and fingerlings would be propagated into the reservoir and other water bodies. The stocking tanks would be used to develop brooders for induced breeding.

5.6.4.1.2 Selection of site for Hatchery The hatchery unit would be developed on a land area of 10,000 sq. m including office complex, and water channel. Our observation reveals that there is no appropriate site in the close vicinity of Yarjep River, due to presence of dense forest, therefore, hatchery can be established at uphill on the left bank of Yarjep River near Purying village, and the water can be supplied from a left bank tributary. However, State Fishery Department will be the final authority to select the site in consultation with Project authorities. The land for hatchery will be provided by Government of Arunachal Pradesh. The budget will be provided by the project authorities for 4 years only. Thereafter, it will be handed over to State Government. A schematic diagram of the proposed hatchery is given in Fig. 5.6.1. The total cost estimates for the fishery development is given in the Table 5.6.1.

5.6.4.1.3 Selection of Brooders The brooders will be selected from Yarjep River and Siyom rivers. The varieties of selected species should be well adapted to the climatic condition of Siyom and Yarjep rivers. 5.6.4.1.4 Reservoir Fishery A 15 m high dam would create a reservoir of nearly 8.4 ha (including 5.6 ha of river bed), where an organized fishery can not be developed. However, the propagation of seeds in the reservoir can be a benefit for the local people of the area. The State Fishery Department may take the
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responsibility of managing the reservoir fishery with the cooperation of project authorities. State Fishery Department may take up propagation of indigenous species in the reservoir and the surrounding rivers in order to conserve the native fish species and sustenance fishery.

Prior to the stocking of seeds, there would be requirement of a detailed physical, chemical and biological analysis of the water of the reservoir. After estimating the mortality rate, the reservoir may require stocking of the 4000 - 5000 spawns or 400 to 500 fingerlings of different species per ha surface area. Total requirement of fry or fingerlings for the reservoir would nearly be 30,000 fry or 3000 fingerlings in the first year. The proposed hatchery would be the main source of seeds for the reservoir. The propagation of seeds would be repeated in successive years on the basis of the survival rates of the spawns.

The organized fishery can not be developed in a small reservoir. However, as per the provision of National Policy on Rehabilitation and Resettlement (NPRR) the fishermen belonging to the affected villages of Tato-I, Heo and Pauk H.E. Projects would have right of fishing in the reservoir at no cost while in other case the Fishery Department may issue the licenses for the fishing at nominal cost.

5.6.4.2 Fish Pass/Ladder


Fish passes are one of the most important remedies for assisting fish migration. Types and nature of fish passes/ways in the river depend on the fish composition, structure of barrage/dam and height

of the structure. The height of proposed dam is 15 m from the deepest foundation level, The fish pass may be feasible in the proposed dam. The detailed studies shall be made at the stage of detailed designs of the dam and the provision shall be made since at the DPR stage it has not been done. The size of slot would depend on the amount of water to be released from the dam as environmental flow. The fish pass like simple sluice, rock rump fish ways, pool and weirs, vertical slot fish pass and baffle fish ways are used in the rivers. A fish pass in the dam of Heo H.E. Project if required should meet the following criteria It should be adapted to the requirements of the species concerned It should be of a pool type, rocky ramp type, or a vertical slot Flow velocities must not exceed the swimming capacity of fish
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Heo H.E Project - Environment Management Plan It should provide passage for all fish sizes - large and small It should be provided with proper fencing, with total ban on fishing It should b provided with fish attractors like light or sound

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The project authorities are suggested to explore expertise of fish passes having vast experience of designing of fish passes. No additional budget is kept for the provision of fish pass to the dam as it is the part of the Dam structure. 5.6.5 DOWNSTREAM MANAGEMENT PLAN 5.6.5.1 Maintenance of Flow The diversion of water from the downstream stretch would directly affect about 5.5 km of river stretch that would undergo the paucity of water. The scarcity of water in the downstream stretch may lead to various adverse impacts on the biotic communities of the river, water quality, society, and livelihood of the people. Field investigation reveals that the major impacts are foreseen for the biotic communities especially fishes of Yarjep River, as no agricultural land depending on the river water falls in the downstream stretch. Also, fishing activities are very low so major impacts on the fishermen communities are not foreseen.

In order to mitigate the anticipated adverse impacts in the downstream environment, a minimum environmental flow, which can be able to maintain ecosystem integrity and can sustain the life, will be required. In order to conserve the fish fauna of Yarjep River, a minimum flow will be maintained from the proposed dam site of Heo H.E. Project. For this reason, a dedicated environmental flow study of Heo H.E. Project is under progress. The recommended flow must have adequate water discharge, water current velocity and depth of water column to sustain both column and bottom feeder species. The final recommendation will be approved by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, New Delhi.

In addition to the suggested flow, a few tributaries like Sarak Korong, unnamed nallah and other Sarak Korong nallah join Yarjep river at 1.8 km , 3.3 km and 3.8 km downstream on right bank will contribute to certain amount of water, which will be taken into account in a separate minimum flow study.

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River channel in terms of gradient and slope varies from the dam site to the power house site, which result in the variation of water current. Despite the suggested minimum flow in the downstream stretch and contribution of tributaries to the main River, there are possibilities of insufficient depth, width and water current velocity at a few sites. Such types of obstacles may cause problems to the integrity of the ecosystem. These sites would require a few engineering measures like river channelization. It would include removal of large boulders and cutting to provide sufficient water current velocity and channel depth. Total budget for this measure would be Rs. 25.00 lakhs only.

5.6.5.3 Maintenance of Pools If water flow reduces significantly in the downstream stretch, it triggers isolation of many pools, which may be of breeding importance. In the Yarjep River, a detailed survey was carried out to find out the potential breeding pools. Though, breeding pools could not be encountered during the survey but fry and fingerlings were observed from the shallow water zones indicating Yarjep River as spawning ground. Probably fry and fingerlings belonged to Schizothorax richardsonii. In addition, fry and fingerlings were observed from tributary like Sarak Korong. These findings reveal that there should be certain pools where fish lay their ova. The project authorities are suggested to mark these pools after a detailed survey and to maintain them through engineering measures. The isolated pools would be connected to regular and adequate water currents. The total financial outlay for this measure would be Rs. 15.00 lakhs only.

5.6.5.4 Maintenance of Tributaries The deformation of the main river channel due to low flow results into the deposition of sand bar at the mouth of tributaries, which may hamper the movement of fish into tributaries. The removal of sand bars is an engineering solution, though it would be a regular practice because in every monsoon season, sand bar deposition would occur. Alternatively, the main river channel can be diverted in such a manner that it would confluence with tributary at its mouth so that sand bar deposition is prevented. Total budget for this exercise would be Rs. 15.00 lakhs.

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Financial outlay for hatchery development would be Rs. 157.00 lakhs (Table 5.6.1). The project authorities would provide the funds for 4 years for the wages and maintenance of the hatchery. After 4 years it would be handed over to the State Fishery Department. Budget for downstream management plan has been earmarked as Rs. 55.00 lakhs. Total financial outlay for fishery development and downstream management plan would be Rs. 212.00 lakhs only.

5.6.6 BUDGET Total budget for the fishery development and downstream management plan would be Rs. 212 lakhs only.

Table 5.6.1 Year-wise break up of cost estimates (Rs. in lakhs) for proposed hatchery of the proposed Heo H.E. Project
Sl.No. A. i) ii) iii) i) ii) iii) Components Non Recurring Cost 1. Land Maintenance of Land Water intake Channels etc Sedimentation tank Office Staff quarters Inspection hut 3.00 2.00 2.00 5.00 10.00 5.00 50.00 10.00 10.00 5.00 10.00 112.00 3.00 2.00 2.00 5.00 10.00 5.00 50.00 10.00 10.00 5.00 10.00 112.00 1st Yr 2nd Yr 3rd Yr 4th Yr Total

2. Office Complex.

3. Hatchery (Spawnery, Nursery, Rearing and stocking) 5. Feed Mill 6. Laboratory and equipments 7. Miscellaneous 8. Contingency (Equipment purchasing, import duty, etc.) Sub Total (A) B. Recurring Cost 1. Salaries i) Farm Manager (1)

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(@ Rs. 30,000/- lump sum) (Basic pay Rs. 20,280/-) iii) Clerk (1) (@ Rs. 15,000/-lump sum) (Basic pay Rs. 11,170/-) iv) Peon (1) (@ Rs. 12,000/-lump sum) (Basic pay Rs. 7,330) vi) Feed mill operator (1) (@ Rs. 15,000/- lump sum) (Basic pay Rs. 7,330) 2. Travel (lump sum @ 50,000 per year) 3. Pelleted Feed (lump sum @ 50,000 per year) Sub Total (B) Grand Total (A+B) 0.50 9.64 121.64 0.50 10.72 10.72 0.50 11.80 11.80 0.50 12.84 12.84 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 1.80 2.04 2.28 2.52 1.44 1.56 1.68 1.76 1.80 2.04 2.28 2.52 3.60 4.08 4.56 5.04

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17.28

8.64

6.44

8.64

2.00 2.00 45.00 157.00

*A lump sum amount has been suggested in the salary head considering the revised scale *There are many hydro-electric projects in the region, the State Fishery Department will appoint an Assistance Director, Fishery for the region. He/she will look after all the projects in Siyom and Yarjep rivers.

Table 5.6.2 Total cost for Fisheries and Downstream Flow Management
1. Hatchery 2. Downstream Flow TOTAL 157.00 55.00 212.00

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Spawneries

Desilting Chamber

Spawneries

Nursery Tank

Nursery Tank

Nursery Tank

Nursery Tank

Nursery Tank

Nursery Tank

Nursery Tank

Nursery Tank

Rearing Tank

Rearing Tank

Rearing Tank

Rearing Tank

Stocking Tank

Stocking Tank

Fig. 5.6.1 Schematic diagram of proposed hatchery for Heo H.E. Project
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5.7
PUBLIC HEALTH DELIVERY SYSTEM
5.7.1 INTRODUCTION Health, transportation, communication, drinking water facilities and energy related facilities are indicators of the development level in a particular area. The North eastern states of India, including Arunachal Pradesh, are poor with regard to the availability of the said facilities, and such lack can be attributed to the mountainous landscape, inaccessible area and sparse population. Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and the absence of diseases or infirmity (United Nations World Health Organization). In India, public health facilities especially in rural areas are always unnoticed due to various reasons. It can be confirmed by the budgetary outlay for the public health system in India which is less than 2% of the Gross Domestic Production (GDP). The conditions are more non satisfactory in states like Arunachal Pradesh. Though some efforts have been made to improve the health infrastructures under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) by Government of India, such improvements are still far away from the goal. For providing effective services and strengthening the existing health delivery system in Arunachal Pradesh, Central and State Governments are running a Public Private Partnership Project (PPPP). This program is a joint activity of the government at tandem with a private organization committee to improve health delivery system in the various areas of the state. Moreover, one of the parent health organizations of India, Voluntary Health Association of India (VHAI) has been a crucial body in improving the health infrastructure in the State.

The main objective of the public health delivery system in Heo H.E. Project is not only to provide the medical facilities to project workers and staff but also to deliver effective and sustained health care to the rural population, especially to women and children in the surrounding areas. Major diseases recorded in the area are malaria, cholera, skin diseases and other water born diseases. The proposed Heo H.E. Project is located in a remote area of Arunachal Pradesh, where existing medical facilities are in bad condition, insufficient and highly inadequate. The developer of the Heo H.E Project would participate in developing and strengthening the public health management by establishing a new health centre in the affected zone, opening up immunization centers in the villages and laborer camps, providing services for pre-/ post-natal check up, etc. The developer of the Heo H.E. Project would develop the following health infrastructure facilities in the project area.
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5.7.2 EXISTING FACILITIES Most of the villages are connected to the roads. Tele-communications are being implemented in Tato and surrounding villages (up to Gapo at least) will take benefit from this coming infrastructure. Conditions are more difficult for people form Purying, Meing and Heyo villages that are on left bank. Only a Primary Health Sub Centre (PHSC) is located at Tato HQ, and none of the affected village has primary health centre and primary health sub centre. To access hospital facilities people living in the rural areas have to move to Along, which is more than 150 km from the project site.

5.7.3 PROPOSED PLAN Proposed plan of Health Delivery System has been prepared in purview of the same plan for Tato-I and Pauk H.E Projects. These three projects are located in the same area one after another in a cascade way on a 14 Km river stretch which extends approximately between the area near Chengrung village (Upstream of Pauk HEP dam) and not far from Tato village (Tato-I HEP Power House site). The projects are owned by same developing authority. Therefore, one single consistent approach may be considered to cover the zone of the three projects. The plan implementation and costs are proposed to be divided between in the Heo H.E. Project and the Tato-I H.E. Project, but will also benefit to the affected area and villages of Pauk HEP. To avoid double measures and to cover maximum population under this plan, project authorities of Heo H.E. Project are suggested to implement this plan in consultation of the State Health Department. The infrastructure facilities suggested in the area are described in following paragraphs.

5.7.3.1 Hospital The project developer would build a 20 bed hospital proposed for the Tato-I H.E. Project. The hospital would provide its facilities to the project staff and workers of Tato-I, Heo H.E. and Pauk H.E Projects. Also, the facilities would be extended to the inhabitants of villages located in influence zone of the three projects. Thus, no separate hospital is proposed for Heo H.E. and Pauk H.E projects.

5.7.3.2 Primary Health Centre A primary health centre (PHC) would be built at one of the closest affected villages (Padusa, Lipusi, Purying and Hiri) to provide the health and medical services to the local people. State Government would provide the land for construction of the PHC in the village. The running cost of the PHC has been proposed for 4 years. After the construction period of the Heo H.E.
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project is over, the PHC would be handed over to the State Health Department. For the construction of the public health centre and its operation for 4 years, the total cost is estimated to be around Rs. 231.40 lakhs (Table 5.7.1). If there would be any escalation in the rates mentioned Table 5.7.1, project authority would consider it with a judicious approach.

Table 5.7.1

Estimated cost for the setting up of a Primary Health Centre (PHC) at Heo H.E. Project area
Amount (Rs. in lakhs)

S.No.

Particulars

A.

Non-Recurring Cost i) ii) iii) Building 3,000 sq ft Ambulances (1 No. including running cost) Equipments for laboratory facility, furniture (Lump sum) 75.00 15.00 35.00 125.00 Salaries/ wages

Total (A) B. Recurring Cost i) Medical Staff (a) (b) (c) (d) 1 Doctor x 4 yrs x Rs. 40,000/- x 12 months +AI 1 Pharmacist x 4 yrs x Rs. 30,000/- x 12 months +AI 2 Nurses x 4 yrs x 25,000/- x 12 months + AI 1 Ward boy + 1 Ward girl x 4 years x Rs. 15,000/- + 12 months +AI ii) Medicines and miscellaneous expenditure @ Rs. 3 lakhs per annum for 4 years iii) Maintenance @ Rs. 2.0 lakhs per annum per ambulance Total (B) Total (A + B)
Allocation of salary budget includes annual increment (AI) on 20 % of the salary.

23.04 17.28 28.80

17,28

12.00

08.00 106.40 231.40

Total financial budget is prepared for 4 years only, however, it would be run by the State Government and budget would be provided by the project developers for 4 years. The salaries are on the basis considering the revised pay band.

5.7.4

MEDICAL SERVICES

5.7.4.1 Immunization Programme To immunize and vaccinate against the main deadly diseases, a door-to-door immunization and vaccination programme will be run in co-ordination with district
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administration in the surrounding villages that would be fixed for a particular day (Health day) of the month. The names of the surrounding villages (villages of the peripheral development plan) are given in Chapter 5.11.3 of EMP report. In remote and rural areas in the region, the common diseases are measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis B, polio, diphtheria and tetanus. Immunization by means of vaccines may be given imperatively i.e. as a preventive measure, before exposure to a disease as in the case of polio or rabies. Vaccines also follow a specific time schedule that must be strictly adhered to for effective immunity to be conferred on an individual. The vaccination requirement for babies and young persons recommended by the Govt. of India under the Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) and the Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) is provided in Heo H.E. Project (Table 5.7.2, 5.7.3). The work would be carried out by two teams with the help of village Anganwari workers in coordination with the State Government. These teams will be based in the nearby health centres or hospital. The medical teams would also conduct the regular pre- and post-natal checkups in the villages. The project authorities would provide funds for this immunization programme. A total amount estimated under this plan for four years would be Rs. 10.00 lakhs. The same plan has been proposed for the Tato I H.E. Project, therefore, care must be taken to avoid overlapping in the vaccination programme. Table 5.7.2 EPI schedules as recommended by Government of India
Age 0 -15 days -6 weeks - 8 weeks -10 weeks - 12 weeks -14 weeks - 16 weeks -6 months -9 months (completed) -15 months - 18 months -4 years - 6 years -10 years -16 years Vaccine scheduled BCG + OPV (ZERO DOSE) + Hep B1 OPV1 + DPT1 + Hep B2 OPV2 + DPT2 OPV3 + DPT3 Hep B3 Measles vaccine 1st booster of OPV/ DPT DT vaccine Tetanus Toxoid Tetanus Toxoid

Table 5.7.3 Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) time schedule of routine vaccination Age Birth -15 days -6 weeks - 8 weeks -10 weeks - 12 weeks
5.7 Public Health Delivery System

Vaccine scheduled BCG + OPV (zero dose) Hepatitis B 1st Dose OPV1 + DPT1Hepatitis B 2nd dose + Hib 1st dose OPV2 + DPT2 + Hib 2nd dose
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-14 weeks - 16 weeks -9 months (completed) -15 - 18 months - 4 - 6 years -10 years -16 years

OPV3 + DPT3 + Hepatitis B 3rd dose + Hib 3rd dose Measles vaccine 1st Booster dose of OPV + DPT + Hib + MMR vaccine 2nd booster dose of OPV + DPT Tetanus toxoid Tetanus toxoid

5.7.4.2 First Aid Boxes In the affected and surrounding villages (villages of the influence area) of the proposed Heo H.E. Project, standard first aids kits of durable plastic boxes, fabric pouches or in wallmounted cabinets would be distributed by the trained people of the villages (Training will be provided by State Health Department). The trained people would receive medicines from nearby health centre after submitting utilization records of the medicines used. The trained people will be paid a nominal amount as incentive. All kits to be stored in a clean, waterproof container to keep the contents safe and aseptic and the kits should also be checked regularly and restocked, if any items are damaged or expired out of date. Project authority would provide funds to the State Health Department for four years. The project authorities are suggested to provide ORS (Oral Rehydration Salts) packs with first aid boxes at each village. Total budget allocated for the distribution of the first aid boxes and ORS is around Rs. 8.00 lakhs. The project authorities would run this program with the help of the State Health Department and also taking the other projects like Tato I and Pauk H.E projects into consideration, so that this facility could be extended to a maximum number of villages.

5.7.4.3 Mobile Medical Van The project authorities are suggested to provide one mobile van in the region of the proposed Heo H.E. project. The van would help the patients especially children and women to be taken to the nearby health centre or hospital. The facility would be provided under Heo HE Project for all the 3 projects developed by the same authority. Therefore, the plan would be extended to the Pauk and Tato-I HE Projects areas. Total financial allocation calculated for the van including its running cost for 4 years would be Rs 15.00 lakhs.

5.7.5 SAFEGUARD MEASURES The following measures are suggested to minimize the incidence of vector borne diseases.

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i) Before joining the project, the migrant labourers and technical staff will have to pass through medical check up, which would be arranged by the project authorities. ii) The site selected for labour camps should not be located along any natural drainage. iii) Adequate arrangements should be in place to dispose storm water from the labour colonies. iv) Adequate vaccination and immunization facilities to be provided for the workers at the construction sites. v) Rapid deployment of sanitary inspectors and teams to disinfect an area of concern, if any. vi) The labour camps and resettlement site to be located sufficiently far away from any water body. vii) The project authorities are advised to address environmental sanitation and personal hygiene to the project workers and to the local people to reduce vector-borne diseases taking helps from experts.

5.7.6 FINANCIAL OUTLAY Total financial outlay estimated for the health management system of the proposed Heo H.E. Project is Rs. 264.40 lakhs. This includes setting up of a primary health centre (Rs. 231.40 lakhs), immunization and vaccination programs (Rs. 10.00 lakhs), distribution of first aid boxes in the surrounding villages (Rs. 8.00 lakhs), and mobile medical van (Rs. 15.00 lakhs).

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5.8
WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN
5.8.1 INTRODUCTION Generally, waste management is defined as the system or procedure of collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal and monitoring of waste materials. It is categorized into solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive substances of which each requires different fields of expertise and methods such as recycling programs, dumps and incinerators. In some cases, waste management is also undertaken to recover resources from it.

The growing concerns of waste management in the developmental projects are due to construction activities, increasing human population etc. which would generate a huge amount of waste in the form of muck, garbage, sewage, medical waste, etc. Because the proposed project area is located in a preserved ecosystem, therefore, small quantity of waste may deteriorate the characteristics of ecosystem. The disposal of the waste including the solid and liquid waste in unsound manner is expected not only to harm the aesthetic beauty and clean environment of the region but also to have adverse impact on the human health.

Based on the information from Census data (2001) a total of 1899 persons from 339 households were recorded within the 10 km radius of the project area. The influx of migrant laborers along with their families required for the construction of the proposed Heo H.E. project would add more pressure on the existing natural resources and the ecosystem. To make proper planning for collecting, treating and disposing of all types of wastes generated by all groups of population in the labor camps, colony areas and other sites of the proposed project a proper waste management plan has been planned for Heo H.E. Project. This plan includes management of solid and liquid waste except muck. There is a separate plan for the rehabilitation of muck in EMP report.

5.8.2 MIGRANT POPULATION The construction of the proposed Heo H.E. project would take about 4 years to complete. The number of required laborers and technical staff for the project would keep on changing each year depending upon the construction phase. Even though all of them will not spend the 4 years of
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construction period on site, approximately 450 migrant laborers, including technical staff, will be required for the Heo H.E. Project. These workers along with their families will increase the total population of the influence area by more than 50% of the existing population of the influence area. Considering the periodic requirement of laborers for the construction of the proposed project expected migrant population has been estimated following the assumptions given below. (i) It is assumed that 50% of laborers and 50% technical staff are likely to have families, (ii) (iii) 80% of the married laborers will comprise of both husband and wife 50% of the technical staff will come with their families, and only husband will work, (iv) (v) (vi) 2% of the total migrating population are assumed as service providers, and 50% of service providers will have families. The average family size of laborers and technical staff is assumed to be of five persons. Details of the expected migrant population in the region are provided in Table 5.8.1. Calculation following the above assumption, a total population of nearly 1,300 is expected to come in the region. This figure is more than 50% of the existing population of the villages of the influence area and the migrants would likely reside in the region at any given time of construction phase of the project.

Table5.8.1 Total migrant population (peak time) expected for the Heo H.E. Project S.No. A Particulars Migrant workers i) ii) iii) iv) iv) Peak migrant workers Single migrant workers (50% of 380) Married migrant workers (50% of 380) Husband and wife both working (80% of 190) 380 190 190 152 Family/ Population

Number of dependent family members @ 3/ family (190 x 3) 570 988

Total Population of A = 190 + 152 + (190-152) x 2 + (190 x 3) B. Migrant Technical staff i) ii) Total migrant technical staff Single technical staff (50% of 70)

70 35
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iii) iv)

Married migrant technical staff (50% of 70) Number of dependent family members @ 3/ family (35 x 3)

35 105 210

Total population of B = 35 + (35 x 2) + (35 x 3) C. Service Providers i) ii) iii) iv) v) Total service provider (2% of the total population, i.e., A+B) Single persons (50% of 30) Married service providers (50% of 30) Number of families Number of dependent members (15 x 3)

30 15 15 15 45 90 1,288

Total population of C = 15 + (15 x 2) + (15 x 3) Grand Total of A + B + C =

5.8.3 GENERATION OF WASTE In the region of the proposed Heo H.E. project all the expected migrant individuals, estimated to be 1288 persons, would stay for, at least, a period of two years and maximum a period of four years. To keep a cautious approach of the estimates for waste generation, it has been considered that the entire migrant population would stay at site for 4 years. These migrant populations would definitely generate a large quantity of wastes, which are to be disposed off in a sound manner without polluting the land, air and water resources of the region. In India, the average dry weight per capita solid waste generated per day is reported to be around 468 g (Singhal and Pandey, 2001). For the proposed Heo H.E. Project, the annual generation of solid wastes by a migrant population of 1,288 persons is estimated to be nearly 220 tones (0.468 x 1,288 x 365 days). It is suggested that the project authorities would ensure the proper collection and disposal of this large amount of wastes, besides providing proper sanitary facilities to the labour colonies in the project area.

In India, it is reported that the consumption of water per capita per day is nearly 135 litres including water for drinking, cooking, bathing and washing etc... Of these, nearly 100 litres of consumed water goes into sewage in the form of unusable water body and finally it is released into the river system. The total wastewater (unusable water) produced by the migrant population is calculated to be 1,28,800 litres per day that would drain into the rivers. It is suggested that the project authorities would ensure treatment of this wastewater (unusable water) before releasing it into the water body. The provision for the solid waste and liquid waste disposal has been made in
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this contribution. The following quantity of different types of solid muck are anticipated in the surrounding of the project. Per day generation of solid waste of the estimated 1288 migrant workers in the project area is based on World Bank Development Sector, Unit Solid Waste Management in Asia, 1999).

Type of waste Metal Glass Plastic Papers Compostable waste Others waste TOTAL

Quantity (in kg) 12.0 12.0 24.0 36.0 252.8 264.8 601.6

5.8.4 WASTE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL PLAN

5.8.4.1 Septic Tanks (Soak pits) Generally, sewage is collected in the septic tank and allowed to decompose in it. The septic tank is used for treating domestic sewage from individual households both in suburban and rural areas, wherein a piped-sewage system (i.e., a public sewer) is unavailable. In the septic tank, solid particles in sewage settle down to the bottom of the tank by means of sedimentation and partial or complete digestion of the sludge with the help of bacterial activities before its disposal. Standard municipal design septic tanks would be developed in the colonies of the project area by the project authorities. Usually, septic tanks of not less than 25 m3 would be developed at appropriate sites in the colony areas. The generated organic wastes in the septic tanks would be decomposed and used as manure for landscaping the project area. However, non degradable waste would be incinerated. At least one septic tank or soak pits are suggested for each set of toilet. A total estimated cost allocated for the purpose is Rs. 17.00 lakhs.

5.8.4.2 Community Toilets In the region, urination and defecation in open areas should be prohibited. The project authorities would make provisions for community toilets in the labor colonies. For the colony sites of the
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labourers, a total of around 35 low cost public toilet sets have been proposed. In addition to this, around 10 sets of temporary toilet facilities should also be provided at the working sites, which must be furnished with a proper water facility. Each set will have 8 to 10 seats (WCs) depending on the number of users. A total estimated outlay under this plan is about Rs 26.75 lakhs.

5.8.4.3 Bathrooms and Washing Places Bathrooms and washing places are necessary for migrant workers. Proper facilities of bathing and clothes washing should be provided in the colony areas. A total of around 15 bathrooms/ washing places fitted with the proper water supply system are proposed for the 2 colony areas. Under this plan, a total budget of Rs 10.00 lakhs is estimated.

5.8.4.4 Sewage Treatment Plant A small sewage treatment plant has been proposed for the Dam colony area. Such plant would be used for the Pauk Colony PH Site, which is located in the same area as the one of Heo Dam site colony. Wastewater released from the kitchens, bathrooms and washing places would drain off in the nearby streams or river channels if it is not managed properly, which can cause severe pollution in water ecosystem. Properly treated water should either be reused or released into the draining channels. The total budget for setting up one sewage treatment plants is estimated to be around Rs 40.00 lakhs. The running cost for 4 years is calculated to be around Rs 12.00 lakhs. A small sewage treatment is planned under the downstream project, at the Tato-I HEP intake colony site, and will be used for the colony site of the Heo HEP Power House site.

5.8.4.5 Segregation of Waste & Placement of Dustbins The provision of segregation of waste has been made at the source. For these reasons, dustbins (capacity of each dustbin would be 5 m3) will be installed at colony areas, working sites, along the roadside and camp areas to collect organic, plastic, glass and other garbage separately. The dustbins will be marked and colored separately to collect the biodegradable and non bio degradable wastes. The organic garbage would be converted into organic manure. Metal and glass garbage would be sent for the recycling and other garbage can be dumped at landfills. A total budget estimated for the installation and maintenance of dustbins in colony area is Rs 2.10 lakhs for four years.
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5.8.4.6 Landfills In order to dump the solid waste other than biodegradable and recyclable, there are provisions of landfills in the project area. The landfill areas would be established in remote locations, adequately away from the settlement and forested areas. To prevent the landfill areas from stary and wild animals, they will be fenced with barbed wire. To reduce the volume of waste, the process of combustion will be followed in the landfills in a regular interval. Project authority would apply all measures to prevent the leachate from the landfill area. After the construction of project (4 years) most of the workers would be homed, the project authority would ensure the closure and restoration of landfills in environmentally sound manner. Total budget for the landfill areas would be Rs. 2.00 lakhs only

5.8.4.7 Dumpers and Wheelbarrows Dumpers and wheels barrows will be required for the collection and transportation of garbage from one spot to another in the colony and other areas. One dumper and six wheelbarrows (double wheel) are proposed in the plan. A total estimated cost would be Rs 13.50 lakhs, which includes purchase and maintenance of dumpers and wheelbarrows. Salary estimated for the driver of dumper for four years would be Rs 6.50 lakhs.

5.8.4.8 Service Staff Maintenance, cleaning and upkeep of various facilities/ services at various places like colony areas, construction sites, etc. is required. Operating staff for garbage collection, dumping, sewage treatment plant and incinerators has been included under this plan. Salary for the staff who would keep the project area clean for the period of four years is estimated to be Rs 16.00 lakhs.

5.8.4.9 Water and Toilet Facilities for Villages Six villages namely, Padusa, Lipusi, Gapo, Meying, Hiri, and Purying comprising of 59 households with a total population of 308 individuals (Census 2001) will be directly affected by the proposed project. However, among the affected villages in the proposed Heo H.E. Project, Gapo and Meing villages also fall under the affected villages in Tato-I H.E. project. To facilitate some of the services for this village, the project authorities set up the common infrastructures with the Tato-1 H.E Project.
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In these villages, majority of the households do not have access to proper sanitation. The proposed facilities like community toilets, septic tanks, dustbin would be extended to these affected villages. In addition, the project authorities would provide adequate water supply and sanitary facilities to these villages. This will go a long way in extending the help and assistance of the local population and enhance the acceptability of developmental projects among them. Providing services of these kinds, development activities or facilities to the affected communities would play an important role in local development. Therefore, a separate budget of Rs 37.50 lakhs has been included under this plan for the purpose of water supply schemes.

At various places, in the project area, community toilets are lacking and the provision for this facility has been included under this plan. Around 10 sets of public toilets are proposed for these villages; however, the number of seats in each set may vary according to the number of users in the villages. A total cost calculated for the setting up of these facilities including maintenance charges for the period of four years is around Rs. 4.50 lakhs.

5.8.5 TOTAL COST A total amount of Rs 198.85 lakhs is proposed under the solid waste management plan. The estimates for the solid waste management for Heo H.E.P. are given in Table 5.8.2.

Table 5.8.2 Estimated cost (rupees in lakhs) for the solid waste management
Particulars Number Installation Maintenance Total cost

1. Septic tanks and soak pits (@ Rs. 0.45 lakh per pit) a) Labour colony at Barrage site 2. Community toilets a) Labour colonies at Barrage site (@ Rs. 0.45 lakh per set (one set with 8 to 10 seats) 35 sets 15.75 5.00 20.75 45 pits 20.25 4.75 25.00

b) Community toilets at construction site (@ Rs. 0.45 lakh per set (one set 8-10 seats) 10 sets 3. Bathrooms and washing places (@ Rs. 0.50 lakh per bath room) a) Labour colonies at Barrage site 4. Sewage treatment plant a) Labour colonies at barrage site 5.8 Waste Management Plan 1 40.00 12.00 52.00 5-80 15 sets 7.50 2.5 10.00 4.50 1.5 6.00

Heo H.E. Project - Environmental Management Plan 5. Landfills 6. Dustbin (@ Rs 5000 per dustbin) a) Labour colonies at bararage site b) Roadsides c) Working sites 7. Compost pits 8. Dumper a) Labour colony at Barrage site 9. Wheel Barrows a) Labour colony at Barrage site 10. Driver for Dumper Salary for 4 years @ Rs 11716/ + AI 1 Person 11. Staff for cleaning and maintenance (Salaries and wages for 4 years) 5 16.00 6.50 6 1.50 1 9.00 3.00 10 10 10 15 0.50 0.50 0.50 6.00 0.20 0.20 0.20 1.50 1 1.50 0.50

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2.00

0.70 0.70 0.70 7.50

12.00

1.50

6.50

16.00

12. Facilities extended to affected villages including septic tanks, community toilets Vats and water supply system Total 04 37.50 167.50 31.35 37.50 198.85

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5.9
FUEL WOOD ENERGY MANAGEMENT & CONSERVATION
5.9.1 INTRODUCTION Fuel wood is the main source of energy in the Arunachal Pradesh especially in rural areas. Per capita fuel wood consumption is three-fold higher in Northeastern states of India including Arunachal Pradesh as compared to the Northwest Himalayan region (Bhatt et al, 1994). Extraction of wood in the absence of alternatives exerts immense pressure on the forest resources. The high consumption of fuel wood can be related to the design of traditional equipments like cooking stove, kilns which are poor in quality, smoky, unhygienic and are not considered to be energy efficient.

The migrant population for the purpose of project work would lead to additional pressures on forest resources if not provided with alternatives. Understanding patterns of resource consumption in the local area plays an important role in enabling conservation strategies of bioresources, which would provide benefits particularly on woodland conservation. In order to conserve the fuel wood energy, a plan is proposed for the inhabitants in the surroundings and project workers. The proposed plan would include the alternative source of energy and efficient means of energy consumption. Keeping in view the fuel requirements of migrant workers and households of the affected and influenced villages located around the project, the project authorities are suggested to provide the following alternatives.

5.9.2 PROPOSED PLAN

5.9.2.1 LPG Depot and Distribution of LPG Connections A LPG depot has already been proposed in Tato-I H.E. Project. The services of the depot can be extended to the villages of the surroundings of Heo H.E. Project. Therefore, no separate depot is proposed for the Heo H.E. project. The project authorities are suggested to provide one time grant for LPG connection including chullahs to the inhabitants of the influence area of the Heo H.E. Project. A total of 339 households are located in the influence area, most of which fall under the Tato I H.E Project influence area. Considering the fact there is provision of nearly 200 LPG connections excluding the beneficiaries of Tato-I H.E. project. In addition, migrant workers
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having families would also be provided with these connections. Total budget for nearly 500 LPG connections would be Rs. 20 Lakhs.

5.9.2.2 Kerosene Depot The project authority would open three kerosene depots at a regular interval of distance so that all villagers could access to these depots. The cost estimated for the plan would be Rs. 2.50 lakhs.

5.9.2.3 Community Kitchens/ Canteens Community kitchen is an efficient way of energy conservation, which not only saves time but also increases working efficiency of the workers. The community kitchens / canteens are proposed for areas such as colony, camp and hostel. Project authority would provide all necessary infrastructures for the community kitchens/ canteens while ownership of the kitchen/ canteen would be given at contract basis for a time period. Total cost allocated under this plan would be Rs. 5.00 lakhs.

5.9.2.4 Installation of Solar Panels The proposed Heo H.E. project falls in the colder region. During winter, consumption of hot water is necessary. The installation of solar panels in colony areas (roof of staff quarters or field hostel) would definitely reduce the consumption of fuel wood, coal, LPGs, etc. It is expected that there would be common staff colonies, and field hostel, therefore, solar panels are proposed to be set up and funded only under the EMP for Heo H.E. Project. It is recommended that migrant workers and staffs would be encouraged for maximum use of solar energy. A total financial outlay including running and maintenance cost estimated under this plan would be Rs. 20.00 lakhs.

5.9.2.5 Distribution of Chullahs and Solar Cookers Improved chullahs and solar cookers are also efficient means of energy conservation. The project authorities of the proposed Heo H.E. project would provide pressure cookers, solar cookers and installation of smokeless chullahs for all the affected and the influence areas families who are not connected by roads and remotely located and do not have access to LPG connections. There would be provision of 400 improved chullahs (@Rs. 800/chullah), 300 pressure cookers (@Rs.1500/cooker) and 100 solar cookers (@Rs. 15,000 per cookers) for affected families and families of influence area. These chullahs would also be provided to the
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labourers and other workers. A total budget allocated for the above plan is around Rs. 19.00 lakhs.

5.9.3 FINANCIAL OUTLAY Total financial outlay for the provision of fuel wood conservation would be Rs. 70.20 lakhs. The financial break up of this plan is given in Table 5.9.1.

Table 5.9.1 Budget allocation for fuel wood energy management and conservation of the Heo H.E. Project area
S.No. 1 2. 3 4. 5. 6. 7. Particulars LPG + Cylinder cost @ Rs. 4000/Kerosene Depots (3 No.) Installation of solar panels Community Kitchens / Canteens (3 Nos.) Pressure cookers Solar Cookers Installation of Smokeless chullahs Total Amount (Rs. in lakhs) 20.00 2.50 20.00 5.00 4.50 15.00 3.20 70.20

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5.10
MANAGEMENT OF AIR, WATER QUALITY AND NOISE LEVEL
5.10.1 INTRODUCTION Air and water are the major and most important components of life support system and are needs of all living forms on Earth. The deterioration of air and water qualities has been one of the major issues in urban areas for long time. Recently developmental projects are being considered to be major threats for air and water qualities in rural and remote areas also. Air and water environments are severely prone to be deteriorated due to the construction activities. The influx of additional work force, a large number of machines, vehicles, construction activities like transportation of muck, excavation, etc exert additional pressures on the nearest water bodies and air. The pollutants generated by the activities outlined above are considered to be harmful to human health, wildlife and other biotic communities and also create an obnoxious environment in the surrounding area. In order to avoid the negative impacts of the project activities on the water quality, air quality and noise level, monitoring of these parameters at regular intervals are warranted for the proposed Heo H.E. Project. The main reason for the management of the quality of the aquatic, air and noise environments is to maintain the observed water and air quality and noise level parameters properly within desirable limits. Most of the aspects of water quality has been covered under the various plans like waste management, muck disposal plan, health delivery system etc. however, some precautionary measures are suggested in the following paragraphs.

5.10.2

PROPOSED MEASURES

5.10.2.1 Air Quality The following mitigation measures for air quality would be followed during the construction of the project. Air quality monitoring at regular intervals is required. Detailed budget for monitoring is given in section 5.14 of EMP report. The contractor(s) will be responsible for maintaining properly functioning construction equipment to minimize exhaust.
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Construction equipment and vehicles will be turned off when not used for extended periods of time. Unnecessary idling of construction vehicles will be prohibited. Effective traffic management to be undertaken to avoid significant traffic jams and delays in and around the project area. Road damage caused by sub-project activities will be promptly attended with proper road repair and maintenance work. Pre wetting of the ground to the depth of anticipated cuts should be followed. The grading operation shall be suspended when the speed of wind is very high. Water shall be applied prior to any land cleaning and on the roads of frequent movements. The roads near the residential areas shall be paved or blacktopped. All storage piles shall be adequately wetted or covered with plastic to ensure that no visible dust crosses the residential areas. Wind barriers of 50% porosity shall be installed on three sides of all storage piles. All workers must be provided with dust mask. Most of the measures are precautionary while a few are included in the construction

methodology. However, financial outlay for the miscellaneous work towards the maintenance of air quality would be Rs. 15.00 Lakhs only.

5.10.2.2 Water Quality The following mitigation measures would be followed during the construction of the project. Water quality monitoring at regular interval would be required for decision making. The provision of budget is given in section 5.14 of the report. Adequate river water shall be secured to meet the requirements of riparian people, livestock, and wild animals and to sustain the aquatic ecosystem. Accumulation of oil wastes in depressions should be minimized in order to avoid possible contamination of the ground water system. Surface runoff from oil handling areas/devices should be treated for oil separation before discharge into the river. If oil wastes are combined with sanitary sewage, oil separation will be necessary at the wastewater treatment facility.
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All effluents containing acid/ alkali/ organic/ toxic wastes should be processed by treatment methods. The treatment methods may include biological or chemical processes. The impact due to the suspended solids may be minimized by controlling discharge of wastes that contain suspended solids; this includes sanitary sewage and other wastes. Also, all activities that increase erosion or contribute nutrients to water (thus stimulating algal growth) should be minimized.

For wastes containing high TDS (Total Dissolved Solids), treatment methods including removal of liquid and disposal of residue by controlled land filling to avoid any possible leaching of the fills. All surface runoffs around quarries and excavation areas should be properly channelized and taken care of.

The growth of aquatic weeds is to be monitored in the reservoir and excess weeds will be removed. Fish production in the reservoir will be monitored for any possible decrease. If any unexpected negative impact occurs, fish will be restocked. Technical support will be provided to the fish farming activities in the reservoir.

The budgetary provision has been made under the waste management section of EMP. However, a budget of Rs. 10.00 Lakhs only is kept for the miscellaneous activities.

5.10.2.3 Noise Level The following mitigation measures for noise level are suggested to be followed during the construction of the project. If construction work occurs within 100-150 meters of a residential area, the work hours should be limited depending on convenience of the local people. Depending on market availability, the construction equipment to be used should be designed, with a high quality muffler system to the extent possible. All stationery noise generating equipment such as air compressor, power generator should be kept away from the residential area. Regular monitoring of equipments and vehicles shall be carried out. The total sound power level, Lw, of a DG set should be less than, 94+10 log10 (KVA), dB(A).
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Noise from the DG set should be controlled by providing an acoustic enclosure or by treating the enclosure acoustically. The Acoustic Enclosure should be made of CRCA sheets of appropriate thickness and structural/ sheet metal base. The walls of the enclosure should be insulated with fire retardant foam so as to comply with the 75 dBA at 1m sound levels specified by CPCB, Ministry of Environment & Forests.

The DG set should also be provided with proper exhaust muffler with insertion loss of minimum 25 dB(A). Proper efforts will be made to bring the noise levels due to the DG set outside its premises, down within the ambient noise requirements by proper setting and control measures. A proper routine and preventive maintenance procedure for the DG set should be set up and followed in consultation with the DG set manufacturer which would help prevent noise levels of the DG set from deteriorating with use.

All the measures are precautionary, therefore, no special budget has been provided for the maintenance of noise level. It is advisable to the project authorities to appoint an officer, not below the rank of Senior Manager to look after these precautionary measures in and around the project components area. A total budget of Rs. 15.00 lakh is suggested for the monitoring work. It includes salaries and wages of workers for four years.

Total financial allocation towards the water, air and noise management would be Rs. 40.00 lakhs only.

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5.11
RESETTLEMENT & REHABILITATION PLAN
5.11.1 INTRODUCTION An effective resettlement and rehabilitation plan (R & R plan) relies on the baseline data on the socio-cultural and economic profile of the target region. R & R plan is a document that formulates not only the mitigations measures of adverse impacts on the project affected families but it includes a detailed layout of community development, local area development, infrastructure development, employment to local youth and protects the rights and privileges of tribal people. The main objectives of the National Policy on Resettlement and Rehabilitation are to minimize the displacement, to focus the development of tribal and vulnerable sections of the society, to improve the living standards of local people and to facilitate the harmonious relationship between developers and locals. The implementation of an effective R & R plan is challenging but most warranted in Arunachal Pradesh because areas are mountainous landscape and dominated with tribal population, villages are remotely located and poor in infrastructure facilities, road network is poor and literacy rate is low. The tribal populations of the influence zone of the Heo H.E. Project are considered to have strong reservations on the customs, culture and tradition therefore proposed plan is framed out to minimize the negative impacts of the project, improve living standards to the benefit of affected families or persons, to compensate the loss of livelihood of people, if any, and to consider all cultural, traditional and social aspects and to furnish infrastructure development in the project area.

In order to provide better relief packages for project affected families, to empower the tribal societies and to include the local concerns, Government of Arunachal Pradesh has proposed its own R&R policy for the implementation. Thus proposed R & R plan is mainly based on the Resettlement & Rehabilitation Policy of Arunachal Pradesh Government (2008). However, in order to provide an effective plan some of the clauses outlined in National Policy on Rehabilitation and Resettlement (2007) have been taken in the proposed plan. The plan addresses all regional and national issues. It includes relief package to project affected families, compensation against rights and privileges, and a comprehensive social development plan.

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General methodology used for Pauk H.E and Tato-I H.E projects has been adopted for the Heo HE project also (all the three projects form a cascade developed by the same developer). Because of the absence of preexisting land revenue records in the area, the survey was carried out taking the community lands into account. Families belonging to the concerned communities were considered as affected families. The land impacted by the project was ascertained by the project authority and the concerned communities were identified with the help of panchayat members, Gram Budha and local people of concerned villages/areas.

In order to collect the latest baseline data for project affected families door to door sociocultural and economic survey was conducted. Discussion was held with all project affected families/persons, who have expressed their willingness to accept the project. In addition, other people of the area were also interviewed to understand the general perception about the project. A detailed socio-economic profile of the project-affected area has been given in the EIA Report Chapter 3.6.

Proposed R&R plan is based on the primary surveys carried out in the project area, however, an updated plan will be implemented in the area. For this reason, all affected families will be resurveyed during the implementation of plan. The survey will be conducted with the help of district administration. Developer has applied to the State Government for acquisition of land and has requested the State Government to conduct a property survey. The procedure for land acquisition will be conducted under the exclusive authority and jurisdiction of the State Government.

The land required for project construction falls under the communities of six directly affected villages, i.e. Hiri, Purying, Padusa, Lipusi, Gapo and Meing villages. Land of Gapo and Meing villages areas will also be affected by Tato-I HEP components and structures. In order to avoid any double counting and repetition in the EMP plans of Heo and Tato-I HE Projects, Gapo and Meing villages will be considered as affected villages exclusively for the Tato-I H.E. Project for the purpose of Rehabilitation and Resettlement plan of the EMP. Therefore only the families belonging to the Communities of Hiri, Purying, Padusa, and Lipusi, villages (or from whom individual land is to be acquired under the project land requirement, if any) will be considered as affected families of the Heo H.E. Project.
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The influence area of Heo H.E. Project falls under the administrative boundary of the Mechuka subdivision in West Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh. The detailed socio-cultural and economic profile of the region, affected villages and affected families is given in EIA report (chapter 3.6). In this contribution, a brief discussion on socio-economic profile of the influence area that is relevant to R & R plan is given in the following paragraphs.

Influence area: Influence area of Heo H.E. Project is inhabited by a total of 18 villages in which 13 come under the jurisdiction of Mechuka circle and remaining 5 are under Tato circle. The total population of villages of influence area is 1899, coming from 339 households (Census, 2001). Average sex ratio in these villages is 1018, that is higher than state average. Scheduled tribe population accounts for 98% of the total population. All villages except Tagur and Tato H. Q. are inhabited only by Scheduled tribe population. Educational infrastructures are poorly developed in the villages of influence area. The nearest centers for secondary education are located at Mechuka and Tato. Average literacy rate in these villages is 47.9%.

The majority of the main workers are involved in cultivation including jhum. Maize, Millets and rice are main crops in these villages. Very few are involved in households industry and government services. Nearly 43.8% inhabitants are employed in various works. The main workers population accounts for 88.3% of total worker population. The villages of influence zone under Mechuka and Tato circles like Sekor, Rego, Hiri, Gapo, Padusa, Lipusi, Tato, Tadogitu and Tato head quarters etc. are connected to the national highway. The villagers of other villages have to move 2 to 7 km to approach the road. Most of the villages have facilities of tap water, supplied from spring. The water is not treated. To avail the facilities of bank, post office and secondary school and primary health facilities Mechuka and Tato are main centres in the area.

Affected Villages: Land near six villages, viz. Hiri, Purying, Padusa, Lipusi, Gapo and Meying are affected by the various project components. The total population of affected villages is 308 belong to 59 households (census, 2001). The average sex ratio is 1026. The entire population of affected villages belongs to Scheduled tribes, comprising of Adi and its sub tribes. Average literacy rate in the affected villages is 37%. Male population records considerably high literacy rate as compared to that of female.
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About 56% of the total population of affected villages is employed in various works. All of them are main workers. The main workers form the majority of the population in these villages. Cultivation, including jhum, is the main occupation in these villages. Shifting cultivation is the main practice in these villages. Non workers including age group 0-6 year account for 44% of the total population. Millets, rice maize and pulses are main crops in the region. Hiri, Padusa and Lipusi are located alongside the national highway connecting Aalo and Mechuka. Though, transportation facilities are very poor, they are mainly facilitated by light vehicles. Tato headquarters are main centre of primary and secondary education, primary health facility and telecommunication for these villages. The villages are not electrified. The tap water is supplied by springs, which is untreated.

Affected Families: A total of six villages are directly affected due to the Heo H.E. project. However, the communities of Gapo and Meying villages areas are considered under the R&R plan of Tato-I H.E. Project. In order to avoid double counting, only the communities of Hiri, Purying, Lipusi and Padusa villages will be considered as affected families in Heo H.E. Project R&R plan. Therefore, the families belonging to the Communities of Hiri, Purying, Lipusi and Padusa villages areas, or having individual holding rights on such lands, if any, will be considered affected families of the Heo H.E. Project.

A total of 230 persons come from 43 households (66 families) are affected in Heo H.E. Project. The sex ratio in the project affected families is 1054. Average literacy rate in the project affected families is 46.9%. The present literacy rate indicates a significant decadal increase. The members of project affected families are mainly employed in cultivation, and government jobs. Nearly 19% are engaged in cultivation mainly slash and burning. Livestock population comprises of cows, mithuns, goats, pigs and chicken. Cows are the main source of milk in the area while mithun, pigs, and chicken are used as food. All project affected families are Scheduled Tribe, thus considered as vulnerable group. Among these families 6 are categories as BPL while 6 persons are widow. None of the project affected families have facility of LPG connection while 11 families from Purying, Lipusi and Padusa are users of kerosene. All families use fuel wood for cooking and other purposes.

A detailed social survey will be performed again during the procedure for land acquisition, and before the time of implementation of the plan in order to have the most up to date information and in order to implement the most targeted and efficient R & R plan.
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Heo H.E. Project is located between Tato-I H.E. project and Pauk H.E. Project. The influence area of Heo overlaps with that of Pauk and Tato-I H.E Projects. In order to avoid overlapping of R & R plan and peripheral development plan, the area of implementation of these plans has been demarcated. The villages which will be included under the plan of Heo H.E Project are Karte, Lingdungloti, Sekor, Hiri, Purying, Lipusi, Padusa and Pauk. Total population of these villages is 309 belonging to 57 households (Census 2001).

5.11.5 PROPOSED PLAN The proposed plan is described under three sections Rehabilitation & Resettlement Plan Rights & Privileges Peripheral Development Plan

5.11.5.1 Resettlement & Rehabilitation Plan Resettlement and Rehabilitation plan for Heo H.E. Project is based on the Resettlement and Rehabilitation policy of Arunachal Pradesh Government (2008) which has been supplemented by National Policy on the Resettlement and Rehabilitation (2007).

However, the Project land requirement does not require any displacement of families, and therefore the Plan proposed by the Developer involves Rehabilitation measures only. Such measures aim at compensating the concerned families whenever their land holdings have been adversely affected by the Project, whether the rights of the said families over such land are community rights, customary rights over forest or agricultural lands or individual rights.

It is to be understood that the various compensations under this rehabilitation plan will be provided in addition to the rightful compensation to be made under the Land Acquisition Act (1894) under the exclusive authority of the State Government, or any equivalent applicable regulation as the case may be, whenever applicable. The proposed rehabilitation measures also aim at directly improving the socio-economic situation of the affected families.

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The various terms which are relevant to the proposed project are described in following paragraphs. The definition of the various expressions used in this policy is the same as defined under the chapter III of NPRR (2007) except community, Affected area, Affected Villages and Jhum. The definition of the Affected Families is also larger in this R&R plan than in the National R&R policy: - in order to take into account the particularities of the tribal areas of Arunachal Pradesh, the definition includes the families members of a community / clan, in case of acquisition of community land (which belongs collectively to a clan).

(a)

"Administrator for Rehabilitation and Resettlement" means an officer not below the rank of District Collector or commissioner in a State appointed for the purpose of rehabilitation and resettlement of affected persons.

(b)

"Affected family" means: (i) a family whose primary place of residence or other property or source of livelihood is adversely affected by the acquisition of land for a project or involuntary displacement for any other reason or (ii) any tenure holder, tenant, lessee or owner of other property, who on account of acquisition of land (including plot in the abadi or other property) in the affected area or otherwise, has been involuntarily displaced from such land or other property; or (iii) any agricultural or non-agricultural labourer, landless person (not having homestead land, agricultural land, or either homestead or agricultural land), rural artisan, small trader or self-employed person; who has been residing or engaged in any trade, business, occupation or vocation continuously for a period of not less than three years preceding the date of declaration of the affected area, and who has been deprived of earning his livelihood or alienated wholly or substantially from the main source of his trade, business, occupation or vocation because of the acquisition of land in the affected area or being involuntarily displaced for any other reason. (iv) Any family member of a community / clan, to whom community land is acquired (case of acquisition of community land, i.e which belongs collectively to a clan).

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(v) Any family which is permanent inhabitant of Hiri Padusa, Lipusi or Purying Villages for a period of not less than three years preceding the date of declaration under section 4 of the Land Acquisition Act or any equivalent declaration as per applicable regulations from time to time.

(c)

"Affected area" means area of village or locality notified by the state government as affected by the Project. ;

(d)

"Agricultural labourer" means a person primarily resident in the affected area for a period of not less than three years immediately before the declaration of the affected area who does not hold any land in the affected area but who earns his livelihood principally by manual labour on agricultural land therein immediately before such declaration and who has been deprived of his livelihood.

(e)

"Agricultural land" includes lands being used for the purpose of (i) agriculture or horticulture; (ii) dairy farming, poultry farming, pisciculture, breeding of livestock or nursery growing medicinal herbs; (iii) raising of crops, grass or garden produce; and (iv) land used by an agriculturist for the grazing of cattle, but does not include land used for cutting of wood only;

(f)

"Appropriate Government" means(i) in relation to the acquisition of land for the purposes of the Union, the Central Government; (ii) in relation to a project which is executed by the Central Government agency or undertaking or by any other agency on the orders or directions of the Central Government, the Central Government; (iii) in relation to the acquisition of land for purposes other than (i) and (ii) above, the State Government; and (iv) in relation to the rehabilitation and resettlement of persons involuntarily displaced due to any other .reason, the State Government;

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'BPL family The below poverty line (BPL) families shall be those as defined by the Planning Commission of India from time to time and included in a BPL list for the time being in force.

(h)

"Commissioner for Rehabilitation and Resettlement" means the Commissioner for Rehabilitation and Resettlement appointed by the State Government not below the rank of Commissioner' or of equivalent rank of that Government.

i)

"family" includes a. person, his or her spouse, minor sons, unmarried daughters, minor brothers, unmarried sisters, father, mother and other relatives residing with him or her and dependent on him or her for their livelihood; and includes "nuclear family" consisting of a person, his or her spouse and minor children.

(j)

"Holding" means the total land held by a person as an occupant or tenant or as both.

(k)

"Land acquisition" or "acquisition of land" means acquisition of land under the Land Acquisition Act, 1894 (1 of 1894), as amended from time to time, or any other law of the Union or a State for the time being in force. Notification" means a notification published in the Gazette of India or, as the case may be the Gazette of a State.

(l)

(m)

"Occupiers" means members of the Scheduled Tribes in possession of forest land prior to the 13thday of December, 2005;

(n)

"requiring body" means a company, a body corporate, an institution, or any other organisation for whom land is to be acquired by the appropriate Government, and includes the appropriate Government if the acquisition of land is for such Government either for its own use or for subsequent transfer of such land in public interest to a company, a body corporate, an institution, or any other organization, as the case may be, under lease, license or through any other system of transfer of land; community means the residents of a village as a whole, clan, sub-clan or kindred.
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Jhum Land means jhum land as defined in Section 2(b) of the Balipara/Tirap/Sadiya Frontier Tract Jhum Land Regulation.

5.11.5.1.2 Applicable policies In addition to the rightful compensation related to acquisition of Land (Section 23 of Land Acquisition Act and mentioned in Para 7.2.1 of R & R policy of State Government) whenever applicable, the following Rehabilitation Packages are proposed in the applicable policies under discussion, depending on the situation of each family.

(a)

Any affected family owning houses and whose house has been acquired or lost shall be allotted free of cost house and a plot for the house site to the extent of actual loss of area of the acquired house but not more than 250 square meter of land in rural area or 150 sq. m. in urban area

or The family which opts not to take the house offered at the resettlement site, shall get one time financial assistance for house construction and the amount shall be Rs. 2,00,000/-

(b)

Each BPL family which is without homestead land and which has been residing in the affected zone for a period of not less than 3 years preceding the date declaration of the affected area and which has been involuntary displaced from such area shall be entitled a house of minimum 100 sq. m in rural and 50 sq. m in urban areas

or The BPL family which opts not to take the house offered at the resettlement site, shall get one time financial assistance for house construction and the amount shall be Rs. 75,000. .

(c)

Each affected family owning agricultural land in the affected area and whose entire land has been acquired or lost may be allotted agricultural land or cultivable waste land to the extent of actual lost, subject to a maximum of 1 ha of irrigated land or 2 ha of cultivable unirrigated land

or Family shall be paid as one time grant of Rs. 1,75,000/- per ha. If the family is rendered landless after acquisition, the family shall be paid an extra grant of Rs. 50,000/- for one time.
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Each of the affected families who are left with less than 1 ha of land after acquisition shall be paid an additional grant of Rs. 40,000/- In case of allotment of degraded or cultivable waste land, the adult member in the household shall get an amount of Rs. 25,000/- per ha for land development. In case of allotment of agricultural land, the adult member in the household shall get an amount of Rs. 20,000/- per ha for agricultural production.

(e)

Compensation for trees: compensations for trees standing on the acquired agricultural land would be payable to the owners families as per valuation done by the State horticulture department.

(f)

Livelihood grant: (i) The rendered landless family, who has been not provided employment shall get 1000 day minimum agricultural labour wage or Rs. 1,00,000/(ii) The family is left with less than 1 ha land after acquisition shall get 750 day agricultural wages or Rs. 75,000/Each affected person who is a rural artisan, small trader, or self employed person and has been displaced shall get one time financial assistance of Rs. 25,000/- for construction of shop.

(g)

(h)

Transportation grant: Each displaced family shall get financial assistance of Rs. 20,000/for transportation of the household goods, cattles etc.

(i)

Cattle shed grant: Each displaced family shall get financial assistance of Rs. 15,000/- for construction of cattle shed.

(j)

Recruitment and Award of work /skill development: The companies setting up hydro projects shall reserve the following categories of posts for the local tribal people, subject to the incumbents fulfilling the job requirement and subject to the availability as per the criteria given below (i) Managerial /Professional post (ii) Clerical post (iii) Skilled jobs 25% 50% 25%
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The preferences shall be given to project affected families or local people for jobs and contract etc.

(k)

Subsistence allowances: Each affected family which is involuntary displaced shall get a monthly subsistence allowance equivalent to 25 day agricultural wages or Rs. 2500/- per month for a period of one year.

(l)

Pension for life to vulnerable person: A vulnerable person shall get Rs. 500/- per month for life.

(m)

Compensation against Diversions of Unclassified State Forest and Reserve Forest: Community shall be compensated @ Rs. 1.56 Lakhs/Ha for loss of customary rights and privileges of tribal people to collect and use forest produce (traditional land use) from Unclassified State Forests (USF) and @ Rs 0.78 Lakhs/Ha from Reserved Forest Land. In addition to this, the community will be paid a sum equivalent to 25 percent of Net Present Value (NPV) of the USF, as decided by the government of India from time to time, in case of diversion of USF as compensation towards extinction of their traditional rights over USF land use. Community land without forest cover and land under WRC (Watershed Research Cooperative) will be paid @ Rs 1.75 lakhs/ha. Compensation for crops will be paid @ Rs 1.25 lakhs/ha for land under jhum cultivation and Rs 1.5 lakhs/ha for land under WRC.

(n)

Scheduled Tribe Grant: Each affected family belonging to Scheduled Tribe shall be compensated with a onetime grant @Rs.50,000/- only

5.11.5.1.3 Land Requirement Total land required for the construction of various components of Heo H.E. Project is 55.7 ha. 53.2 ha is surface land and rest is underground land. Out of the total surface land 5.9 ha land accounts for river bed area while other belong to Unclassified State Forest (USF). The total submerged land is 3.1 ha (Table 5.11.1).

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Table 5.11.1 Breakup of the land to be acquired for various components in Heo H.E. Project Purpose wise break-up of total land Required for HEO HEP
S No Project Component Surface Area (Ha) Surface Land 1 A 2 3 4 5 6 7 Submergence area Surface Structures Dam complex area Dam Muck Disposal area Dam storage area, Office and Colony area Dam Quarry site Dam Access Road Power house area (including penstocks and Tail Race) PH muck disposal area PH Storage area, Office and colony PH Quarry site PH Access Road Adit Area Adit Muck Disposal 1 Adit Muck Disposal 2 Adit Access Road Total of surface areas B 15 Under Ground Structures Head Race Tunnel (including adit) Total 2.7 53.2 2.5 2.5 55.7 1.5 2.6 1.2 0.3 3 9.2 0.3 1.8 2.6 1.2 0.3 3 9.2 2.8 River Bed 5.6 Underground Area (Ha) Total Area (Ha) 8.4

8 9 10 11 12 13a 13b 14

3.5 1.3 0.3 15.5 1.1 0.8 1.4 2.6 47.3 5.9

3.5 1.3 0.3 15.5 1.1 0.8 1.4 2.6 53.2

5.11.5.1.4 Eligible Persons The Heo H.E. Project being the middle project of a cascade of 3 H.E.P, the Heo HEP Dam site is also the site of the immediately upstream Pauk HEP Power House, and the Heo Power House site is also the site of the immediately downstream Tato-I intake site. Because of such site sharing between the 3 projects, it is necessary to allocate the different Community villages holdings project
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wise, in order to avoid repetition and wrong double counting, so that one Community and its families is compensated under one H.E. Project.

Therefore, only the families belonging to the Communities of Hiri, Purying, Padusa or Lipusi villages (or from whom individual land is to be acquired under the project land requirement if any) are eligible to the rehabilitation grant under the Heo H.E. Project, as provided under by the definition under 5.11.5.1.1 (b).

The Heo HE Project does not involve any displacement of family, and therefore none of the concerned families is losing its home. In the same way no family is rendered landless. Project authorities have decided to consider all Affected Family a onetime grant of Rs 75,000, such amount being equivalent to 750 days of agricultural minimum wage (equivalent to the livelihood grant under to the provision under 5.11.5.1.2.(f).

In addition, the communities will receive appropriate compensations against the loss of their customary rights on USF land.

The summary of land to be acquired and eligible persons is given below: Total land to be acquired (Community Land) Total No. of households affected Total No. of family affected Total No. of Scheduled Tribe family Total No. of BPL family Total No of vulnerable persons 41.7 ha 43 66 66 6 6

The land requirement has been defined based on the latest project features used for DPR and same land details have been submitted in forest application for diversion of forest land. The legal status is given as per the findings of property survey carried out so far. However, the actual and final location of project components, the land requirement and the final ownership status may change as per various future procedural requirements as the requirements of the Techno-Economic Clearance, the assessment of the State Land Acquisition officer (SLAO) and as per the provision of Forest Conservation Act1980.
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Another property and social survey will be carried out by the State Government during the land acquisition procedure in order to confirm/update the features and status of the Land required for the Project and number of affected families. The final actual compensations shall be paid as per the final procedures of the State Government, using the package per family described below.

5.11.5.1.5 Relief Package Relief and rehabilitation package for the affected families for the project affected families are given in Table 5.11.2. The Heo HE Project does not involve any displacement of family, and therefore none of the concerned families is losing its home and homestead land. In the same way no family is losing its entire agricultural land or is rendered landless or is left with less than one hectare. However, in order to improve the benefits available to the Affected Families, project authorities have decided to grant to each Affected Family a onetime grant of Rs 75,000, such amount being equivalent to 750 days of agricultural minimum wage (like the livelihood grant under to the provision under 5.11.5.1.2.(f)).

Table 5.11.2 Relief package for the affected families of proposed Heo H.E. Project
Particulars i) ii) iii) Total No. of project affected households Total No. of project affected families Eligible person family grant All affected families @ Rs 75,000 v). Scheduled Tribe Grant Total Number @ Rs. 50,000/vi) BPL Family grant Total number @ Rs. 75,000 vii) Pension for vulnerable persons Total number @ Rs. 500 per person for lifetime (lump sum grant) viii) Free Electricity grant 100 units per month for PAFs for 10 year No. of families 5.11 Resettlement &Rehabilitation Plan 66 5-102 6 14,40,000 6 4,50,000 66 33,00,000 66 49,50,000 43 66 Amount (in Rs.)

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@Rs. 5.00/unit (lump sum rate) (100 x 5 x 75 x 12 x 10) Grand Total (One Crore, Forty One Lakhs only) 39,60,000 1,41,00,000

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5.11.5.1.6 Application for Grant and Grant Distribution The Deputy Commissioner/ District magistrate or his/her representative not below the rank of ADM/ SDM from West Siang district will be the sanctioning authority for the rehabilitation grant, which shall be provided by the project authorities. Each family will be eligible for one package only, and will not be entitled to apply for a package under the Heo HEP relief programs if it has already applied for such package under the relief programs of the Tato-I HEP or the Pauk HEP. Affected family/ persons will apply on a general prescribed format, which will furnish the information of the village, details of community land acquired, family and community status, and any other document required by project authorities, etc. The form will be submitted to the project office and evaluated by Land Acquisition Officer and General Manager of the Requiring Body. After receiving the list of PAFs by Deputy Commissioner, the options, if any, will be invited from head of the affected family on stamp paper and this will be rooted through SDM concerned. Deputy Commissioner/District Magistrate shall be the final authority to sort out the disputes between affected families and the project authorities. All stamp duty and fees of registration shall be borne by the project developers. After submitting all necessary document R&R cell would disburse the compensatory amount to the affected persons, upon the completion of the land acquisition. If there is any dispute between affected person and the project, Deputy Commissioner / DM can interfere to sort the disputes out. 5.11.5.2 Rights and Privileges Compensation for USF Community land In addition to relief packages, the concerned Communities will receive appropriate compensations against the loss of their customary rights on USF land. The process of community land procurement required by the project authorities will be dealt between requiring body, affected communities and Government of Arunachal Pradesh. The Affected communities shall be compensated as per the norm of State Government.

In order to compensate against rights and privileges, the tribal communities shall be compensated @ Rs. 1.56 Lakhs/ha for the loss of their customary rights and privileges to collect
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and use forest produce (traditional land use) from unclassified state forests (USF). In addition to this, the community will be paid a sum equivalent to 25 percent of Net Present Value (NPV) of the USF, as decided by the government of India from time to time, in case of diversion of USF as compensation towards extinction of their traditional rights over USF land use. For that purpose, the project developer shall provide a total amount of Rs. 1,71,95,000/-(subject to changes that may occur in NPV rates as per Government of India or in the findings and final results of the application of diversion of Forest under the Forest Conservation Act1980).

5.11.5.3 Peripheral Development Plan 5.11.5.3.1 Scope and principles Peripheral Developmental Plan would play a positive role in the social and economic upliftment of the local inhabitants of the influence area. The effective implementation of the peripheral development ensures the participation of local inhabitants in the developmental activities and maintains a harmonious relationship between project authorities and locals. Taking the Pauk H.E. project and Tato-I H.E. project into consideration, the proposed plan will be implemented in 8 villages as listed under paragraph 5.11.3 of this chapter.

The project authorities directly as well as through their contractors would ensure that local population gets good number of jobs. The jobs, however, would be determined by the qualifications and experience of the persons wanting to be employed. It will also provide an opportunity to many unskilled youth to become skilled. By gaining technical knowledge and experience, their chances of gainful employment will be greatly enhanced. Enhancing the local peoples skills and opportunities for employment the project would result in uplifting the standard of living and the existing quality of life of the local inhabitants. This would go a long way in making the area economically selfsustaining. Besides generating local employment for the skilled and un-skilled labourers, the project would also provide an opportunity for the local people to compete for various contracts related to the project works, depending on their economic status. The participation in this process would, however, be guided by the usual process of tendering. The project authority would ensure as far as possible, to engage local labourers in various skilled/non-skilled jobs depending on a candidates qualifications and experience. In addition, local people would be beneficiaries of the following facilities, established in the periphery.
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The area is poor in education facilities. The project authorities would establish educational institutions in the area for the children/wards of their project employees. At some places, grants would be provided for the maintenance and upgrade of existing educational institutions which would be a great benefit for the local residents. The project authorities would establish healthcare facilities in terms of healthcare centres and primary health centre at a few affected villages and for their employees. These centres shall extend services to the local people. Details of proposed health care facilities are given in Chapter 5.7 of EMP report. Project authorities would provide mobile vans for emergency services in the area.

The project authorities would construct and establish club/playgrounds for the project employees/ sports competitions and sports meets would be organized between the local players and project employees which would ensure the local participation. This will also provide them with the necessary facilities for excelling in sports of their choice. These facilities would go a long way in honing and nurturing the local talent in the field of sports and competitive games. In addition to education, health and sports facilities, the requiring body would play a vital role in strengthening the communication and transportation facilities. The various other programmes like skill up gradation, merit scholarship programme, training programme etc. will be run in the area. Provision of green belt in the periphery of the reservoir, landscaping and establishment of botanic gardens will enhance the scenic beauty and tourist spots of the area and attract the local and outside tourists. The influx of outside labourers would provide fair possibilities of marketing and small scale business in the area. These activities would add surplus income of local inhabitants.

5.11.5.3.2 Grants for Peripheral Development (i) Merit Scholarship Programme As per the clause 7.13.1(c) of NPRR (2007), requiring body shall offer scholarships and other skill development opportunities to the eligible persons from the families of influence area as per the criteria fixed by the appropriate Government. To improve and encourage the literacy and educational standards in the project affected area and to create a pool of potential candidates, Requiring Body is suggested to introduce a Merit Scholarship Scheme for the wards of the inhabitants of influence area. The wards of the project affected families will be given preference. The wards should be studying in school, college or any other educational institute recognized by
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State or Central government or a reputed private institution. The students should not be receiving any other scholarship of State and Central governments.

A total of 10 students (preferable from 39 households of the selected villages, discussed under paragraph 5.11.3) every year will be selected for the scholarship on the merit basis. The scholarship would be divided on the basis of standards and disciplines, viz, senior secondary school (3 students), vocational training (3 students), diploma (2 students) and Degree in science, engineering, medical etc. (2 students). The scholarship for an individual will last for the tenure of course. The scholarship @ Rs.1000/-, Rs.1500/-, Rs.2000/- and Rs.2500/- per month would be provided to the students of secondary school, vocational training, diploma and degree, respectively. The project authorities are suggested to run this scheme at least for 5 successive years. After completion of the scheme, Requiring Body reserves the right to restart or terminate this scheme.

The eligible students may apply for the grant of scholarship as per the format given by the project authorities (Annexure II). The amount of the scholarship shall be released on a half-yearly basis. The submission of application for scholarship shall not guarantee the grant of scholarship. Requiring body management shall reserve the right to accept or reject any or all application without assigning any reasons. Requiring Body also reserves the right to reduce/ increase the number of beneficiaries or change the number of beneficiaries in different standards depending upon availability of the students.

The eligible candidate shall apply on the prescribed form printed by Requiring Body. Duly completed application form should be submitted along with attested copies of marks sheets of previous annual examinations, various certificates as may be required and two passport size photographs attested by the principal/head of the institute. Total budget for the Merit scholarship including increment would be Rs. 30.00 lakhs.

(ii)

Training Programme Following the clause 7.13.2 of NPRR, the affected persons shall be offered the necessary

training facilities for development of entrepreneurship, technical and professional skills for selfemployment. Training on the mushroom cultivation, computer courses, apiculture, vermiculture,

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eco-tourism, poultry farming, dairy farming, knitting, sewing etc. could open new areas of self employment in the region.

Requiring body would invite trainees among the affected families mentioned above for the training on various courses. The requiring body would select 10 trainees every year for the period of 5 years (training period for a batch is one year). If the applicants are not available among the affected families the training programme can be extended to the affected villages and/or villages located in the 10 km radius as described above. The applicants can obtain application form at no cost from the office of requiring body (Annexure III). Applicant would submit application form along with certificate of domicile or certificate of land acquired, as the case may be, from the LAO (Land Acquisition Officer) of Requiring Body, income certificate from DC/SDM/, certificates of educational qualification, caste certificate issued by an officer not below the rank of executive magistrate and verification certificate of the concerned Gram Pradhan/Panchayat member. The scheme is only a welfare measure for the PAFs and inhabitants of the influence area, it does not confer any right on the PAFs for financial assistance. If the requiring body is not able to develop all infrastructural facilities for all the training programmes, it may consult the concerned department of the state to facilitate training to the applicants. The requiring body would bear all expenditure including accommodation, travel etc. of the trainees and charges of the concerned department. Total financial out lay for the training programme would be Rs. 18.00 lakhs (@ Rs. 3000/- per month for a trainee).

(iii)

Income Generation Scheme After the completion of training, project authorities may provide financial assistance to the

trained project affected person to enable him/her to generate his own source of income. In addition, this facility can be extended to those fellows among the affected families, affected villages or influence area which have not come through the scheduled training programmes. The preferences will be given to those belonging to Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribe and vulnerable groups. This programme would cover the influence area of Tato I, Heo and Pauk H.E. Projects. Any family whose member has been provided employment in the company will not be considered for this scheme. The candidate would opt for any vocation and would be paid 80% of the cost of the assets, procured for the vocation (up to a maximum of Rs. 50,000). The amount of the financial assistance would be paid by Requiring Body to supplier(s) of assets. The financial assistance would be a onetime grant and the requiring body
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would not stand guarantee or surety for the loan amount arranged by the applicant. The maximum number of beneficiaries of the scheme will be about 5 for every year, for 5 years.

The applicants are required to submit their application in the enclosed prescribed format. It would be submitted along with required certificate of land acquired from LAO (Land acquisition Officer) of Requiring Body as the case may be, income certificate from DC/SDM/ certificates of educational qualification, caste certificate issued by an officer not below the rank of executive magistrate and verification certificate of concerned Panchayat head. The candidate would also provide a declaration that he has not got any such types of assistance from other developers. The scheme is only a welfare measures for the PAFs and other persons in the influence zone and does not confer any right on the PAFs for financial assistance. The Requiring Bodys decision in implementation of the scheme will be final and the Requiring Body reserves the right to accept or reject any application. Total budget for the Income generation Scheme would be Rs. 12.50 lakhs.

(iv)

Education Facilities The area is poor in having the education facilities. Considering the fact that one primary

school is proposed at one of the 8 villages, the project authorities are advised to select two villages for establishing two primary schools, which are not covered under the same scheme of other projects or and having no existing schools. Also, the selected villages must be as accessible as possible within influence area. The project authorities would provide all the infrastructure, salaries and maintenance grants for the schools for at least five years. The land for the schools buildings would be provided by the State government. After five years, the funding of the schools will be handed over to the State Government, if the requiring body desires. In addition to the establishment of schools, the requiring body would provide the funds for strengthening of existing schools, if required. Total budget for the proposed school including buildings, salaries and maintenance would be Rs. 89.5 lakhs. The breakup of the budget is given below

Components A. Salaries/wages Primary School teacher (No. 06) (Basic pay @ Rs. 11,170/ pm + Annual increment) Sub total A 5.11 Resettlement &Rehabilitation Plan

Amount (In lakhs)

25.00

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B. C. D. E. F. School buildings (2 primary schools) Play grounds Maintenance grant Miscellaneous grant Budget for strengthening the existing schools 20.00 2.00 7.50 10.00 25.00 89.50

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Total (A+B+C+D+E+F)

(v)

Establishment of Electric Sub-station In order to provide free electricity to project affected families and electrification of all

villages in the in influence zone an electric sub-station would be established in the area. The land for the sub-station would be provided by the State Government. The sub-station will be run by the project authorities permanently. The proposed electric substation shall cater to the influence area of Tato I, Heo and Pauk H.E. Projects. Total budget for the electric substation would be Rs. 80.00 Lakhs only. It does not include the cost of free electricity to be provided to project affected families.

(iv)

Community Welfare Centres In order to strengthen the infrastructure in the villages, the community centres are proposed

in the villages wherever they are needed, out of total 8 villages in the periphery. A few of them already have this facility. Therefore, a total of 4 community centres are proposed for Heo H.E. Project. The community centres will be provided with electricity, water supply and furniture. Total cost of community centres including construction cost, electricity, water supply and furniture would be Rs. 14.00 Lakhs only.

(vii)

Transportation Facilities The transportation in the region mainly depends on the light vehicles, which ply generally in

the morning and evening hours. Tato and Mechuka are central places, where inhabitants require access for daily needs, health and education facilities. The project authorities will provide one bus on Tato Mechuka road. The same plan has been suggested in Tato_I HE project for same route, therefore, no separate budget has been earmarked for this plan in this project.

(viii) Establishment of a Model Village In order to establish harmonious relationship between project authorities, State Government and local people, requiring body would adopt a village to develop it as a model village. The selection
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of village will be decided by the project authorities in consultation of the State government, considering the same plan of other upstream and downstream projects. It should be one of the 8 villages, viz. Karte, Lingdungloti, Sekor, Hiri, Purying, Lipusi, Padusa and Pauk. In which Sekor is largest villages with 13 households and 81 people as per Census 2001. The village would have school, health, telecommunication, water supply, sanitation, road or footpath facilities. Also, the activities of landscaping and beautification will be carried out in the adopted village. Total budget for the adopted village would be Rs. 112.00 Lakhs. The breakup of the budget is given below:

Particulars School (already exists or proposed above) Health centre (proposed in Health Delivery System) Sanitation (toilet and bathroom at each households for households) Construction of Pucca houses Construction of footpath (lump sum) Electrification (at each house hold and street light) Water supply (each household will be connected to tap water) Provision of dust bins Community hall Plantation Beautification Miscellaneous budget Total
Maximum 40 households have been considered for the model village

Amount (Rs. in lakhs) 00.00 15.00 50.00 4.00 10.00 15.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 10.00 112.00

(ix)

Construction of Rain shelters and Footpath Requiring body shall provide rain shelters along Tato-Mechuka road for 15 km. The

remaining stretch will be covered under the peripheral developmental plan of Tato I and Pauk H.E. Projects. The area is sparsely populated and there are no other means for the purpose. About 15 rain shelters are proposed along side the road. In addition, to provide easy access to the road, pucca footpaths from village to nearest road are also proposed. The villages like Karte, Lingdungloti, Sekor, Hiri, Purying, Lipusi, Padusa, and Pauk would require footpaths (average 3 km each). Total length of footpath to be constructed is estimated to be 25 km. The cost of footpaths is calculated to be Rs. 28.00 lakhs only. Total budget for rain shelters and footpath is estimated to be Rs. 36.00 lakhs only.
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Each household of the selected villages as under para 5.11.4 above shall be provided with a toilet set and bathroom. Taking the decadal growth rate into consideration, this facility would be facilitated for nearly 71 households (Total households are 57 as per Census 2001). Total budget for the sanitation would be Rs. 26.63 lakhs (@Rs. 37,500/set).

(xi)

Training to Fishermen and Fish Farming After the diversion of water from the main channel of Yarjep river, the scope of fishing by

local fishermen would be restricted in the tributaries and small reservoirs of Heo and Pauk H.E. projects. The local people are not usual of reservoir fishing, therefore, a programme is required to train the local fishermen to restore or improve their livelihood. The training programmes will be organized by the project authorities in consultation with State Fishery Department. The licensed fishermen will be provided with one time grant for boat, fishing gears etc. In addition to the training to fishermen, local farmers would be encouraged for fish farming, which could reduce hunting pressures. The training will be provided by the State Fishery Department. One time grant will be provided to interested farmers. The number of beneficiaries of fish farming will be about 4 to 6 every years. The project affected families will be given preferences. The funds for this plan would be borne by the project authorities. Total financial outlay for the purpose would be Rs. 25.00 lakhs including training, grant for fish farming, travel charges etc.

5.11.5.4 Financial Outlay Total financial outlay for Peripheral Development Plan is Rs. 443.63 Lakhs only (Five hundred Fourty Three lakhs and Sixty Three Thousand only). The breakup of the budget is given below.

S.N. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii)

Head Merit Scholarship Programme Training Programme Income Generation Scheme Education Facilities Establishment of Electric Substation Community Welfare Centres Establishment of a Model Village

Amount (Rs. in Lakhs) 30.00 18.00 12.50 89.50 80.00 14.00 112.00 5-111

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(viii) (ix) (x) Total Construction of Rain shelters and Footpath Provision of Sanitation Facilities Training to Fishermen and Fish Farming 36.00 26.63 25.00 443.63

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5.11.6 MONITORING & EVALUATION In order to sort out the community land acquisition and the various compensation and relief measures issues, an independent committee is required for evaluation and monitoring, especially the Rehabilitation and Resettlement Plan. The State Government shall constitute a standing

Rehabilitation and Resettlement Committee under the chairmanship of the Deputy Commissioner of West Siang district to monitor the progress of Rehabilitation and Resettlement plan. The composition, powers and function and other matters relating to the functioning of Rehabilitation and Resettlement Committee shall be prescribed by the State Government. Any affected person, if aggrieved, for not being offered the benefits admissible, may move a petition for redress of his/her grievances arising out of the matters covered under the policy. Any disputes related to the land compensation will be disposed of as per the provisions of Land Acquisition Act 1984 if applicable or any other applicable regulation of Union or State Government. The proposed R & R committee for Heo H.E. Project would comprises of the following members

i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii). iv. v.

Deputy Commissioner, West Siang District Managing Director, Heo Hydro Power PL General Manager (Project), Heo Hydro Power PL Head of R & R Cell (project), Heo Hydro Power PL A representative from Corporate Finance Deptt. Head, Corporate Social Responsibility Cell Panchayat members of affected villages Woman (social worker) from the affected area Representative of well known NGO in the area

Chairman Member Member Member Secretary Member Member Members Members Member

The financial budget for the day to day expenditure of the committees would be Rs. 30.00 lakhs only.

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For the effective implementation of R & R plan and peripheral development plan project authorities are advised to constitute Rehabilitation & Resettlement Cell (R & R Cell) of the Project and Corporate Social Responsibility Cell (CSRC). R & R Cell will be responsible for the effective implementation of R & R plan and rights and privileges issues while CSRC will take the responsibility of peripheral development. Both will assist Rehabilitation and Resettlement Committee in the monitoring and evaluation.

5.11.7 DEVELOPER MESSAGE The Heo H.E. Project is a midsized Run-Off-the River HEP, which involves only a small pond and a small submergence area (3.1 ha submerged land). The Project does not require any displacement of people. The Heo H.E. Project has been developed right from the beginning with the cooperation of local inhabitants on the field investigations and feasibility studies, and compensations and benefits have been allocated through sponsoring, welfare activities and employment even before the start of Project construction.

Due to a very small submergence area (8.4 ha including 5.9 ha of river bed) and a small land requirement (net surface land impact 47.1 ha), the Heo H.E Project is having a small impact on local inhabitants, and the number of Project Affected Families remain very low (66 estimated families). A total budget of Rs 786.58 Lakhs has been located for Rehabilitation measures, Rights and Privileges, Peripheral Development Plan and Monitoring (do not include the compensations per the Land Acquisition Act, which will be paid in addition whenever applicable).

5.11.8 TOTAL BUDGET Total budget for the Rehabilitation and Resettlement Plan and Peripheral Development Plan would be Rs. 786.58 Lakhs (Seven hundred Eighty Six lakhs and Fifty Eight thousand only). The breakup of budget is given below.
S.No. i). ii). iii). iv) Plan Rehabilitation & Resettlement Plan Rights and Privileges Peripheral Development Plan Monitoring and Evaluation Total 5.11 Resettlement &Rehabilitation Plan Amount (Rs. in lakhs) 141.00 171.95 443.63 30.00 786.58 5-113

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DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN


5.12.1 INTRODUCTION Disaster management plan is prepared in case of worst scenario i.e., in case of dam break failure. The failure of dam poses serious threat to life and property, located downstream from the dam structure. However, failure of dam is a low risk but high impact hazard as they do not occur often but can be extremely catastrophic if occurred. However, over the recent years failure rate has

5.12

fallen below 0.5%, in which most of the failures involve small dams and earthfill dams. The failure of dam is directly related to the type of dam. One of the major cause of dam failure is flooding caused by instantaneous precipitation that result in excess overtopping flow, internal erosion that is triggered by the embankment for earthfill dam and foundation leaking, improper design including the use of improper materials and construction practices, etc. Heo Dam is basically a concrete gravity dam, and failure is an event which is most-unlikely to occur with this type of dam. This type of dam minimizes the risks of failure, compared to the other scheme such as earthfill gravity dams with a high number of large gates. The weakness of such kind of scheme is due to the presence of the gates. Operating the gates to route a coming flood mobilizes human intervention. Human errors may happen and gates may be blocked and may refuse to be operated the D-day. Consequence is dam failure. In the case of concrete gravity dam, that is to say in the case of Heo HEP, the spillway is constituted of an overtopping spillway. It is foreseen that the water overtops the dam. No human intervention is needed to route the flood, and no device is mobilized. In this case, the only possible failure is the failure due to the defect of concrete. The design of Heo dam has been realized to prevent any consequences if such a failure occurs.

Therefore, to save life and property, an integrated disaster management approach is essential. This approach includes preventive measures, mitigation, preparedness, response, recovery and rehabilitation. As is clear that u/s water level plays a significant role in the dam break flood, the following flood conditions may be considered for different levels of alertness.

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5.12.2 HEO DAM & HYDROLOGY Yarjep river is called as Barpu Sikyo in the head water region of the catchment. Barpu Sikyo is joined by numbers of the snow fed, spring fed, glacial fed and seasonal rivers. These streams flow in the region elevated between 4000 to 4430 m. The headwater region of the Yarjep River is snowfed and springfed stream. It originates from the region above 4000 m a.s.l. Yarjep Chu is a spring fed, snow fed and lake fed river. Some of the tributaries on the left bank of Yarjep Chu are Lungkhor Dem, Sheshirong Ishi, Netsrang Gongphu Chu, Nangso Sokang, Gaptse Chu, Endashokong, Nyangapa rang, Teden, Chanajung, Dutangphu Chu, Dohak Sokang and Dasong Siding. Some of the tributaries along the right bank of Yarjep Chu are bum Chu, Segang shuru, Jenrang, Enda Sokang, Shuru Phujo, Tamding Phujo, Tachenpaogo Sokang, Kangdang Sila, Siligomang, Kartesho Kong, Namrangong, Ering Sokang and Sae Chu.

The total annual inflow rate in the HEO H.E Project site during June 1978 to May 1994 and June, 2000-May, 2009 water years is presented in Chapter 3.3 EIA volume. In most of the years, the annual inflow shows above 2000 Mcum. The maximum inflow of 3632.77 Mcum recorded in the year 2007-08, while the minimum of 2169.59 Mcum was recorded in the year 1992-1993. The salient features of barrage and its components of HEO H.E. Project are given in Table 5.12.1.

Table 5.12.1 Salient features of HEO H.E. Project in West Siang district of Arunachal Pradesh
RIVER BASIN CLIMATOLOGY and HYDROLOGY Catchment area at the water intake (km2) River Tributary Average Annual Rainfall (mm) Min-Max temperature (c) Min-Max humidity (%) Standard Project flood (m3/s) Maximum probable flood (m3/s) RESERVOIR Maximum water level (m) Full reservoir level (m) Minimum Drawn Down Level (m) Active storage (Mm3) Dead storage (Mm3) Submergence area (ha) DAM 5.12 Disaster Management Plan 1 065 Yarjep River Siyom River 2 621 1 40 39 - 100 3200 3900 El 1406.5 El 1400 El 1398 0.15 0.15 8.4

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Heo H.E Project - Environment Management Plan Type of dam Crest level (m) Foundation level (m) Length at top (m) Width at top (m) Upstream Slope Downstream Slope Maximum height above deepest foundation level (m) Type of spillway a. Full reservoir level (m) b. Maximum water level (m) c. Length (m) d. Maximum height above the deepest foundation (m) e. Crest level (m) f. Maximum discharging capacity (m3/sec) at MWL Water intake (corresponding to SPF) a. Type c. Size (m) b. Number d. Design discharge (m3/s) Desilting device invert level Concrete Gravity Dam El 1400 El 1385 107 5 1 V : 0.3 H 1V:1H 15 Free Ogee Spillway El 1400 El 1406.5 84 for main spillway and 10m for complementary spillway 15 El 1400 for main spillway and El 1402 for complementary Spillway 3200 Rectangular H7.5 x L9 2 130.2 1386

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5.12.3 OTHER HYDRO PROJECTS ON YARJEP RIVER There are five HE proposed projects upstream and one HE projects downstream of the Heo H.E Project on Yarjep River. HEO H.E. Project envisages a 15 m high dam with a small pondage. Heo Dam is a concrete gravity dam, and failure is an event which is most-unlikely to occur. The standard project flood at dam site is estimated to be 3200 m3/s. The storage capacity of Heo is small, i.e. 0.3 Mm3. This leads to a small increase of the flood peak in case of dam failure.

In case of dam failure the immediate downstream H.E project that will be affected is the proposed Tato-I H.E Project. Tato-I HEP intake comprises a small weir of 9m high. In case of dam failure at Heo or any other upstream project, the flood may exceed the design flood at Tato-I, i.e. 3400 m3/s (SPF).

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The next project is then Tato-II, which is provided with a huge reservoir of 31 Mm3 storage capacity, and designed to route a flood of 7985 m3/s. The storage capacity will smoothen the flood peak, time wise and peak wise. Moreover, the spillway of Tato-II is expected to be sufficient to evacuate the flood of dam failure of Tato I and Heo.

5.12.3 PROPOSED PLAN 5.12.3.1 Prevention Due to the uncertainty always existing about the reliability of hydrological records, the surveillance and monitoring of dam safety measures becomes a major constraint, especially in estimating and formulating the minimum standard of protection. In such a case disaster prevention is needed and therefore following measures are taken for the disaster prevention.

5.12.3.1.1 Surveillance The surveillance and monitoring programs are required to be implemented and incorporated during the design and investigation phases, construction, early operation period and operation and maintenance phases of the life cycle of the dam. In the surveillance system an effective flood forecasting system must be established with hourly gauge reading at suitable upstream locations with real time communication capability. An effective dam safety surveillance, monitoring and observation along with periodic inspection, safety reviews and evaluation must be put in place. This needs to be in optimum functionality during the monsoon season. In order to create such a facility we propose a total financial outlay of Rs. 5.00 lakhs.

5.12.3.1.2 Infrastructural Development The essential infrastructures such as existing network of hydro-meteorological stations and rainfall and stream gauging stations need to be upgraded and modernized. For this purpose a financial allocation for the infrastructure development is kept at Rs. 10.00 lakhs.

5.12.3.1.3 Preventive Action Once the likelihood of an emergency situation is foreseen, action has to be initiated immediately to prevent a failure. The point at which each situation reaches an emergency level shall be specified and at that stage, the vigilance and surveillance shall be upgraded. At this stage, a thorough inspection of the dam shall be carried out to locate any visible signs of distress.
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The anticipated need of equipment shall be evaluated and if these are not available at the dam site, the exact locations and availability of this equipment shall be identified. A plan shall be drawn on priority for the dam inspection. The dam, its sluices and non-overflow sections would be properly illuminated.

5.12.3.2 Preparedness 5.12.3.2.1 Emergency Action Plan An emergency is defined as a condition of serious nature which develops unexpectedly and endangers downstream property and human life and requires immediate attention. Emergency action plan shall include all the potential indicators of likely failure of the dam, since the primary concern is for timely and reliable identification and evaluation of potential emergency. This plan presents warning and notification procedures to be followed in case of potential failure of the dam. The purpose is to provide timely warning to nearby residents and alert key personnel responsible for taking action in case of an emergency.

5.12.3.2.2 Administrative and Procedural Aspects The Administrative and procedural aspects of emergency action plan consists in a flowchart depicting the names, addresses and telephone numbers of the responsible and coordinating officials. In order of hierarchy, the following system will usually be appropriate. In the event of potential emergency, the observer at the site is required to report it to the Engineer-in-charge through a wireless system, if available, or by the fastest communication system available. The Engineer-incharge shall be responsible for contacting the Civil Administration, viz. Deputy Commissioner.

Each person involved with the emergency plan would be made aware of his/her responsibilities/ duties and the importance of work assigned under the Emergency Action Plan. All the villages falling under the flood prone zone or on the margins would be connected through wireless communication system with backup of standby telephone lines. A centralized siren alert system would be installed at all the Village Panchayats so that in the event of a warning all villagers can be alerted through sirens rather than informing everybody through messengers which is not feasible in such emergency situations. A financial allocation of Rs.10.00 lakhs has been made in the project cost for setting up of emergency control room and installation of siren/hooter alert systems at various locations.
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5.12.3.2.3 Communication System An efficient communication system and a downstream warning system are absolutely essential for the success of an emergency plan especially when time is of great essence. The difference between a high flood and a dam break situation shall be made clear to the downstream people in advance through awareness programs. All the villages falling under the flood-prone zone or on the margins are required to be connected through wireless system backed by stand-by telephone lines. A centralized siren system is to be installed at Panchayats so that in the event of a warning, all the villagers will be informed.

i)

Merits of Satellite Communication System Keeping the disaster scenario in mind, any terrestrial system such as land lines or even

cellular towers, etc. are likely to be the first casualty in earthquakes or floods. The restoration of such systems is time consuming. Moreover, the maintenance of such lines becomes a great problem in emergency even for the technical personnel who are required to reach the site of fault, which may be struck by the disaster. The system, therefore, cannot be made operational soon enough. The fault repairs and restoration of communication services are usually not possible for a considerable period of time after the calamity has struck. Moreover, it is critical that the communication systems are restored at the earliest so that relief/medical teams and other personnel can be arranged at the earliest possible time. All the subsidiary help depends solely on the communication system. As this criterion is paramount, existing systems such as telephones and telex, etc. are practically of little use in case of such events and situations. Similarly, microwave links are expected to be down due to the collapse of towers, etc. Restoration of towers and alignment of equipment is again a time consuming activity.

Keeping in view the urgency of services and their dependability during emergency relevant to the disaster conditions, satellite based systems present an ideal solution. The satellite based system usually comprises the following components. i) ii) iii) A small dish of approximately one meter diameter Associated radio equipment A power source

The deployment of the system is not dependent on the restoration of land routes. The existing satellite based communication systems are designed in such a manner that they are able to withstand
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fairly high degree of demanding environmental conditions. Secondly, the restoration of the satellite based system can be undertaken by carrying maintenance personnel and equipment by helicopters at a very short notice. Even the fresh systems could be inducted in a matter of an hour or so because most of these are designed for transportability by air. The deployment takes usually less than an hour. The power requirements are not large and can be met by sources such as UPS/batteries/ generators. Satellite phones are the other option that could prove very useful for such situations and must be considered by the project authorities as critical to their operations.

ii)

Financial Outlay for Installation of a Satellite Communication System The cost of deployment and maintenance of a telecommunication system in disaster prone

areas is not as important as the availability, reliability and quick restoration of the system. The cost of both satellite bandwidth and the ground components of the satellite communication system has been decreasing rapidly like that of V-SAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) based systems supporting a couple of voice and data channels. Some highly superior communication systems in VSAT without time delay are marketed by National agencies like HECL, HFCL and HCL Comet. There are two different types of systems with the above mentioned capabilities available in the market viz. SCPCDAMA and TDMA. However, the first one named SCPCDAMA has been recommended for Heo H.E. Project. In all three projects, such systems would be installed at different sites in the area. The estimated cost of installation of such a communication system has been given in Table 5.12.2.

Table 5.12.2. Estimated cost of satellite communication system.


Sl.No. A. 1. Product Setting up of V-SAT communication system Product Name: SCPCDAMA (2 sites) @ Rs.25.00 lakhs per site a) b) c) 2. 3. 4. Antenna 3 x 2.4 M RF 3 x 2 W Modem 3 x 1No. 6.00 2.00 42.00 50.00 Amount (Rs. in lakhs)

Generators 3 Nos. (2 KVA) UPS 2 Nos. (2 KVA) Installation and maintenance of system, maintenance and running cost of UPS, generators, etc. @ 10% of the total cost for 7 years Total

100.00 5-120

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5.12.3.3 Response and Recovery 5.12.3.3.1 Evacuation Plans Response and recovery includes evacuation plans and procedures for implementation based on local needs. These are: Demarcation / prioritization of areas to be evacuated. Notification procedures and evacuation instructions. Safe routes, transport and traffic control. Shelter areas Functions and responsibilities of members of evacuation team.

The flood-prone zone in the event of dam break of the proposed Heo H.E Project shall be marked properly at the village locations with adequate factor of safety. As the flood wave takes sufficient time in reaching these villages, its populace shall be informed well in time through wireless and sirens, etc. so that people may climb uphill or to some elevated areas beyond the inundation zone which has been marked previously.

The Evacuation team would comprise of: i) D.M/or his nominated officer (To peacefully relocate the people to places at higher elevation with the help of state administration) ii) iii) iv) v) Engineer-in-Charge of the Project (Team Leader) S.P./or his Nominated Police Officer (To maintain law and order) C.M.O. of the area (To tackle morbidity of affected people) Sarpanch/Village Headman/Gram Budha of the affected villages to execute the resettlement operation with the aid of state machinery and project proponents vi) Sub-committees at village level

The entire evacuation team will be well equipped with rescue team, medical team, medicines, emergency vans, boats, and other means of transport. The Engineer-in-Charge will be responsible for the entire operation including prompt determination of the flood situation from time to time. Once the red alert is declared the whole state machinery will come into full swing and will start evacuating people in the inundation areas delineated in the inundation map. For successful execution demo exercise will be carried out, annually. The district magistrate will be the nodal officer to monitor the
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entire operation. Total financial outlay for the recovery, evacuation and rescue operation has been kept at Rs. 20.00 lakhs.

5.12.3.4 Mitigation and Rehabilitation In event of a dam break, project authorities would provide adequate relief and resettlement package to the inhabitants of the flood affected areas against the loss of life (livestock) and property. The package includes the cost of accommodation, sustenance grant, livelihood grant, medical grant and rights and privilege grant on forest resources during the crisis period. Considering the number of villages located in the downstream flood prone areas, an allocation of Rs. 10.00 lakhs has been made in the project cost.

5.12.3.5

Notifications

Notification procedures are an integral part of any emergency action plan. Separate procedures shall be established for slowly and rapidly developing situations and failure. Notifications will include communications of either an alert situation or an alert situation followed by a warning situation. An alert situation will indicate that although failure or flooding is not imminent, a more serious situation can occur unless conditions improve. A warning situation will indicate that flooding is imminent as a result of an impending failure of the dam. It will normally include an order for evacuation of delineated inundation areas. For a regular watch on the flood level situation, it is necessary that two or more people manage the flood cell so that an alternative person is available for notification round the clock.

In addition, a few guidelines to be generally followed by the inhabitants of the flood prone areas, which form part of public awareness for disaster mitigation include: Listen to the radio for advance information and advice. Disconnect all electrical appliances and move all valuable personal and household goods and all clothing out of reach of flood water (in case there is time on hand). Move vehicles, farm animals and movable goods to the highest ground nearby. Move all dangerous pollutants and insecticides out of reach of water. Do not enter flood waters on foot, if it can be avoided.

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Total budget for the notification and publication procedures would be Rs. 20.00 lakhs. In addition, Rs. 10.00 lakhs has been kept for miscellaneous expenditure.

5.12.4 COST ESTIMATES The estimated total cost of execution of disaster management plan including the equipment would be Rs. 195.00 lakhs and it is given in Table 5.12.3.

Table 5.12.3. Cost estimates of disaster management plan of Heo H.E. Project
Particulars Surveillance and monitoring Infrastructure development for prevention Administrative and Procedural Aspects Communication System Recovery, Evacuation and rescue operation Mitigation and Rehabilitation Notification and Public awareness Miscellaneous Total Total cost (Rupees in lakhs) 5.00 10.00 10.00 103.00 20.00 10.00 20.00 10.00 188.00

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5.13
GOOD PRACTICE
Good practice exercise in the environment management is carried out generally for the conservation of environment and to protect the social values. The main emphasis of good practice is given in the sewage treatment, waste disposal, social sector, and conservation of natural resources. Thus, it can result in cost savings. The good practice is a set of safeguard and precautionary measures, which do not require detailed management plan and high financial outlay but are very important measures to manage the environmental and social key issues. These measures are helpful not only in maintaining a sound environment but in maintaining a harmonious relationship between project authorities and local inhabitants.

5.13.1 ENVIRONMENTAL TRAINING FOR THE PROJECT WORKERS Project authorities and contractors would prepare a training plan to their workers emphasizing the work scenario, the importance of environmental conservation and social values of the area, maintaining a good relationship with local inhabitants, waste management, health care, use of explosive, chemicals and other equipment.

5.13.2 AWARENESS PROGRAMME Project authorities would organize awareness programmes regarding the environment and society values and their role in the development of project. The workers of project and local people would participate in the awareness programmes.

5.13.3 RULES AND GUIDELINES The project authorities would issue guidelines related to the environment protection and social relation in the area. There must be provision of penalties on violation of rules and guidelines.

5.13.4 CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES Project authorities and contractors would take the responsibility of their workers not to damage the forest and streams, not to be involved in forest firing, fishing, poaching and hunting. A detailed guideline would be issued by the authorities to the workers. All workers must be provided
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with an identity card, and should not be allowed in the forest areas without permission or/and any valid reason. There should be provision of rules and penalties. 5.13.5 WASTE MANAGEMENT The project authorities would ensure the maintenance of surface water quality and terrestrial ecosystem. Open defecation alongside the roads, river and improper dumping of garbage would be strictly prohibited. Authorities would deploy a few persons among the labourers at various sites to monitor these issues. 5.13.6 HEALTH ASPECTS Project authorities/contractors shall follow a strict quarantine procedure for their labourers coming from outside. Each labourer should pass through a proper check up to avoid any possibility of spread of communicable diseases. In addition, the workers involved in excavation, tunneling, dumping etc. activities should be provided with breathing masks. All safety measures for the workers should be strictly followed. All workers must be registered under the contractor or project authority with their full address. During the appointment in the project, he/she must pass through proper checking.

5.13.7 SOCIAL ASPECTS There is always a possibility of cultural confliction between locals and migrants. To avoid any confliction due to culture, social evils etc. suitable measures will be taken by the project authorities. There should be a clear demarcation of the project construction area. All project workers must be provided with identity cards by contractors or project authorities. The workers should not be allowed access to villages or forest area without permission or/and without valid reason. The permanent addresses of workers must be verified by local police. Project authorities would ensure that none of the worker was involved in any illegal activity.

5.13.8 STORAGE, HANDLING AND EMERGENCY RESPONSE FOR HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS AND EXPLOSIVES There should be a proper management for the storage of hazardous chemicals and explosives. The storage of fuel, oil and chemicals should not be permitted within 100 m of river water. In case of an accidental spill overflow, release of fluid occurs into the stream open surface, emergency
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measures should be followed by the contractors and project authorities. There will be appropriate rules and regulations and penalties towards the misuse of chemicals and explosives.

5.13.9 CULTURAL MEET & RENOVATION OF CULTURAL SITES Project authorities shall organize cultural meet at least once a year. Also, financial help will be provided for the local festivals in the area. Project authorities would take care of cultural sites in the area.

5.13.10 ESTABLISHMENT OF CRECHE It was observed that labourers do have their families, stationed alongside the road. Their infants do not have facilities of nursery and primary education. Therefore, project authorities are suggested to open creches to look after and to educate them.

5.13.11 VIDEOGRAPHY It was observed that people were concerned about the blasting operation in the tunnels, which leads to vibration and cracks in the houses and damage the natural springs lying on the HRT alignment. Though there are not much pucca houses along the HRT alignment, however, project authorities are suggested to conduct videography of all houses and natural springs fall near the HRT prior to the construction works. If such types of adverse impact would occur during the construction phase the project authorities would provide the compensation.

5.13.12 PUBLIC RELATION CELL Project authorities would open a public relation cell to sort out complains of locals towards workers, construction activities, etc. It would be helpful in maintaining the harmony between project authorities and locals.

The project authorities are suggested to establish their Environment Cell and Corporate Social Responsibility Cell as suggested earlier. All the good practices will be executed and monitored by the Environment Cell and Corporate Social Responsibility Cell. There is provision of financial outlay of Rs. 25.00 lakhs to implement the good practice in the area.

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5.14
IMPLEMENTATION & MONITORING PROGRAMMES
5.14.1 INTRODUCTION The management plan is a document of mitigation measures of all adverse impacts addressed in the environmental impact statement. It largely relies on the schedule of implementation programme, fixing the accountability and responsibility of agencies involved in the implementation and monitoring of implementation. Monitoring can improve project management and can be used as an early warning system. Monitoring is an integral part of EIA, baseline data description, impact prediction and mitigation measures must be developed with monitoring the implications in view. A monitoring programme should address the objectives, stages of implementation, practical methodologies, adequate funding, clear responsibilities and regular reporting. Monitoring includes the partnership between the project developers, local authorities and local communities.

5.14.2 ENVIRONMENT CELL & CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY CELL Project developers would constitute an Environment Cell (EC) and a Corporate Social Responsibility Cell (CSRC) for the project. The function of the EC and CSRC would be to monitor and evaluate various sub plans and be a part of action based monitoring committees. EC will be associated to the environmental related activities while CSRC will be associated to the social works.

5.14.3 IMPLEMENTATION Table 5.14.1 gives the details of actions, implementing agencies and monitoring team. Various agencies of State government and project authorities are involved in the implementation of mitigation measures.

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Table 5.14.1 Detailed implementation plan for Heo H.E. Project


Plan 1. Biodiversity Management Plan i. Task Force ii. Documentation on bio resources iii Removal of invasive species iv. Forest Protection plan v. Safeguard Measures i. Construction of Check dams/ Brushwood, etc ii. Terrace Benching iii. Afforestation i. Establishment of PHC ii. Immunization/vaccination/ Distribution of first aid box i. Hatchery ii. Downstream Management Construction of compost pit, Septic tanks, Community toilets, Bathrooms, sewage treatment plant i. Solar Pannel ii. Distribution of LPG iii. Distribution of improved Chullahs, solar cockers, etc. iv. Community Kitchen Actions Agency State Forest Department & Local Panchayat Research Team from a reputed institute/university Research Institute State Forest Department Environment Cell State Forest Department State Forest Department State Forest Department Planning Division, Project/ State Health Department State Health Department Project authority Project authority Planning Division, Project Responsibility/Monitoring State Forest Department/ Environment Cell, project State Forest Department/ Environment Cell, Project State Forest Department State Forest Department Environment Cell State Forest Department State Forest Department State Forest Department State Health Department, CSRC, Project CSRC, Project State Fishery Department State Pollution Control Board State Pollution Control Board GM/Director, Project GM/Director, Project GM/Director, Project GM/Director, Project

2. CAT Plan

3. Public Health Delivery System

4. Fishery Development & Downstream Management 5. Waste Management

6. Energy Conservation

Planning Division, Project CSRC, Project CSRC, Project Planning Division, Project

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7. Management of Air, Water & Noise

i. Precautionary Measures ii. Regular Monitoring

EC, Project State Pollution Control Board Civil Division, Project EC, Project EC, Project Project authorities EC, Project EC & Civil division EC, Project R & R cell, Project/ District Administration R & R Cell, Project R & R Cell, Project Planning Division, Project Planning Division, Project/ District Administration District Administration R & R cell, Project District Administration Various agencies

8. Rehabilitation of Muck

i. Construction of retaining wall ii. Plantation iii. Precautionary measures iv. Transportation of muck i. Rehabilitation of disturbed site i. Rehabilitation of quarry sites i. Biological measures i. Relief package for PAFs ii. Developmental activities in project areas iii. Peripheral development

9. Landscaping & Restoration 10. Restoration of quarry sites 11. Green Belt 12. R & R Plan

13. Disaster Management Plan

i. Telecommunication ii. Emergency Action Plan iii. Rescue Operation iv. Rehabilitation

State Pollution Control Board State Pollution Control Board GM/Director, Project EC, Project GM/Director, Project State Pollution Control Board GM/Director, Project GM/Director, Project GM/Director, Project District Magistrate, West Siang District Chairman, R & R Monitoring Committee Chairman, R &R Monitoring Committee Planning Division, Project District Magistrate District Magistrate District Magistrate Project Level Committee/ Independent Committee

14. Environmental Monitoring

i. Implementation & Monitoring

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As above mentioned, there are many plans and actions to be implemented to mitigate and protect the environment. Various agencies will implement and monitor these measures in the region. However, it would require a proper coordination among these agencies for smooth functioning. For the reason, two committees are suggested for the monitoring and evaluation.

5.14.4.1 Independent Committee The independent committee would be notified by the State Government of Arunachal Pradesh. The committee will be headed by a senior state level officer, not below the rank of Deputy Commissioner. The committee will evaluate and monitor over all progress in the implementation of various plans. All sub committees, suggested for the various plan would submit their reports to the independent committee. The committee would meet once in 6 months. The committee would comprise of following members

State Level Senior Officer (not below the rank of DC) Director of Project Deputy Commissioner Block Head Concerned MLA Renowned Ecologist Member of State Level NGO

Chairman Member Secretary Member Member Member Member Member

5.14.4.2 Project Level Committee Project Level committee will assist the independent committee. The committee will arrange the meetings between various sub committees and independent committee once in three months. The committee would collect the progress reports from various implementing and monitoring agencies mentioned in Table 5.14.1. The progress reports, suggestions and grievance will be conveyed to the Independent committee. After the detailed evaluation and monitoring by the independent committee, all merits and demerits will be communicated to the project level committees to complete them in specified time. The committee would comprise of following members.

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Director, Project Head, Environment Cell, Project General Manager, Project Head, Corporate Social Responsibility Cell Circle Head Heads of Panchayat of Affected Villages Social Activist of Affected Zone Chairman Member Secretary Member Member Member(s) Members Member

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5.1.4.5 MONITORING SCHEDULE Various environmental variables like water, noise, air, etc are critical and would require a regular monitoring to avoid deterioration of quality while others actions as mitigation measure need sound evaluation. Table 5.14.2 gives details of work, schedule and agencies, which will be involved in the monitoring and evaluation.

Table 5.14.2 Detailed plan for evaluation and monitoring of various environmental variables and mitigation measures
S.No. Parameters 1. Monitoring of water quality (pH, temperature, DO, BOD, Alkalinity, Hardness, TDS, Nutrients, Sulphates, Silicates, Heavy metals, coliforms, etc) 2. Monitoring of Air Quality (SOx, NOx, CO, SP) 3. Monitoring of Noise Level 4. Evaluation of Waste Management 5. Monitoring of Afforestation 6. Transportation and Dumping of 7. Distribution of relief package 8. Progress in peripheral development 9. Water level in downstream Time Schedule Quarterly Agency State Pollution Control Board

At an interval of 15 days Randomly Quarterly Quarterly Monthly Board All days during Implementation Randomly Randomly

State Pollution Control Board State Pollution Control Board State Pollution Control Board Environment Cell, Project State Pollution Control Muck District Magistrate or His/her representative Evaluation and Monitoring Committee (R & R) State Pollution Control Board

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The budget would be required for the routine meetings between various committees and project authorities. The project authorities are suggested to provide an office for the scheduled meetings. It would include the financial outlay for furniture, stationeries, travel, etc. Total cost estimates for this purpose would be Rs. 40.00 lakhs only. In addition, various other agencies are involved in the monitoring and evaluation of some of the mitigation measures. For most of the agencies budgets have been allocated, however, a budget of Rs. 20.00 lakhs has been earmarked for a few agencies like State Pollution Control Board to carry out work. Total Financial outlay for the monitoring and evaluation would be Rs. 60.00 lakhs only

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5.15
SUMMARY OF COST ESTIMATES
The environment management plan, proposed for Heo H.E. Project is useful during and after its development. It embodies 14 different management plans viz. biodiversity conservation management plan, catchment area treatment plan, rehabilitation and resettlement plan, muck disposal plan,
fishery development plan, disaster management plan, solid waste management plan and some other

important plans. It is believed that implementation of all these plans would ameliorate the condition of the environment that is likely to be resulted due to negative impacts during and after the development of the proposed project and also bring in socio-economic development of the region. The total financial layout proposed to meet the measures suggested in various management plans is Rs. 2880.43 Lakhs (Two Thousand Eight Hundred Eighty Lakhs and Forty Three Thousand Rupees only) Table 5.15.1 Cost estimates for the implementation of EMP*
S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Plans Catchment Area Treatment Plan Biodiversity Management and Wildlife Conservation Plan Muck Disposal Plan Restoration of Construction Areas and Landscaping Green Belt Development Plan Fishery Development and Downstream Management Plan Public Health Delivery System Waste Management Plan Fuel Wood Energy Management and Conservation Management of Air & Water Quality and Noise Level Rehabilitation and Resettlement Plan Disaster Management Plan Good Practice Implementation & Monitoring Programme Total
* This does not include the cost for Compensatory Afforestation and cost of land to be acquired.

Amount (Rs. in lakhs) 491.08 182.00 248.00 84.56 29.76 212.00 264.40 198.85 70.20 40.00 786.58 188.00 25.00 60.00 2880.43

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Annexure - I Table for Computation of Silt Yield Index Area x weightage 1371,24 1163,82 10656,48 42,02

Sub-watershed Erosion code intensity

Area* (ha)

Weightage

Delivery ratio

Gross silt Sediment yield yield index

Sb1

a b c d

Total Sb2 a b c d

76,18 68,46 666,03 3,82 814,49 19,49 33,22 978,13 41,64 1072,48 170,31 70,97 963,07 19,99 1224,34 7,18 396,28 27,07 44,88 475,41 114,86 43,48 708,38 7,63 874,35 176,02 52,99 1056,35 12,58 1297,94 87,66 4,35 333,86 0,38 426,25

18 17 16 11

0,95 0,85 0,85 0,75

1303 989 9058 32 11381 352 568 14134 531 15585 3074 1026 13098 192 17389 116 5726 325 467 6634 1964 591 9032 79 9703 3177 766 13521 131 17595 1416 59 3739 3 5217

1397,37

19 19 17 15

370,31 631,18 16628,21 624,6

0,95 0,9 0,85 0,85

Total Sb3 a b c d

1453,15

19 17 16 12

3235,89 1206,49 15409,12 239,88

0,95 0,85 0,85 0,8

Total Sb4 a b c d

1420,30

18 17 15 13

129,24 6736,76 406,05 583,44

0,90 0,85 0,8 0,8

Total Sb5 a b c d

1395,46

18 16 15 13

2067,48 695,68 10625,7 99,19

0,95 0,85 0,85 0,8

Total Sb6 a b c d

1109,68

19 17 16 13

3344,38 900,83 16901,6 163,54

0,95 0,85 0,8 0,8

Total Sb7 a b c d

1355,61

19 17 14 11

1665,54 73,95 4674,04 4,18

0,85 0,8 0,8 0,7

Total

1223,94

Sb8

a b c d

Total Sb9 a b c d

187,98 36,27 717,80 2,80 944,85 81,78 68,98 1081,18 10,52 1242,46

16 14 13 11

3007,68 507,78 9331,4 30,8

0,90 0,80 0,8 0,7

2707 406 7465 22 10600 1251 938 12109 88 14387

1121,85

18 17 14 12

1472,04 1172,66 15136,52 126,24

0,85 0,8 0,8 0,7

Total

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ANNEXURE II

HEO HYDROPOWER PRIVATE LIMITED HEO H.E. PROJECT WEST SIANG, A. P. APPLICATION FORM FOR THE MERIT SCHOLARSHIP SCHEME Attested photograph

1. 2. 3 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Name of the applicant ( in block letters): Fathers Name Date of birth Qualification Residential Address Correspondence address Name of head of family From whom land acquired (PAP) Relation of applicant with head of family (PAP) Cast Land details a) Name of the village (S) from where land acquired. b) Area of the land acquired : : : : : : : : : :

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Gen SC OBC ST

(in ha.) and taken possession by requiring body c) Land left (in ha) : d) whether the family has been : declared landless by R&R Officer e) Whether the family member : has got employment in Heo H.E. Project under R&R scheme. f) If Yes Name of employee : g) whether SC/ST/OBC/Gen. :

--------------------------------------------------------------Yes No.

-------------------------------------------------------------

Heo H.E Project - Environment Management Plan 12. a) Present occupation of : -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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13. 14. 15 16.

the applicant. b) Annual income from the : occupation. Name of the school/institute/University: In which applicant studies Name of the class/ course/diploma/degree for which scholarship is applied Tenure of the class/course/diploma/degree Certificates enclosed i) ii) iii) iv)

Declaration: I here by declare that all the particulars furnished in this application are complete are true to the best of my knowledge. I shall abide by the rules and conditions mentioned in this scheme for PAFs. Signature of the applicant Name : Date : Place : Verified that the particulars of the applicant Sh/Smt./Km. ------------------------------ /daughter/wife of -------------------------------------- are true.

Signature of Principal Name with stamp Date

Signature of Gram Pradhan Name with stamp: Date :

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ANNEXURE III

HEO HYDROPOWER PRIVATE LIMITED HEO H.E. PROJECT WEST SIANG, A.P. APPLICATION FORM FOR TRAINING PROGRAMME 1. 2. 3 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Name of the applicant ( in block letters): Fathers Name Date of birth Qualification Residential Address Name of head of family From whom land acquired (PAP) Relation of applicant With head of family (PAP) Cast Land details a) Name of the village (S) from where land acquired. b) Area of the land acquired : (in ha.) and taken possession : : : : : : : :

Attested photograph

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Gen SC OBC ST

by Heo H.E. project c) Land left (in ha) : d) whether the family has been : declared landless by R&R Officer e) Whether the family member : has got employment Heo H.E. HEP under R&R scheme. f) If Yes Name of employee : g) whether SC/ST/OBC/Gen. : a) Present occupation of : the applicant. iii

--------------------------------------------------------------Yes No.

10.

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Heo H.E Project - Environment Management Plan b) Annual income from the occupation. 11. Choice of vocations for For which applied (please put a tick mark i) ii) iii) iv) Food processin Mushroom cultivation Computer course Dairy farming : : -------------------------------

CISMHE

v) Poultry farming vi) Organic farming vii) Sericulture viii) Apiculture ix) Fish culture x) Knitting xi) Sewing xii) Any other please specify 12. Certificates enclosed i) ii) iii) iv) Declaration: I here by declare that all the particulars furnished in this application are complete are true to the best of my knowledge. I shall abide by the rules and conditions mentioned in this scheme for PAFs. Signature of the applicant Name : Date : Place : Verified that the particulars of the applicant Sh/Smt./Km. ------------------------------ /daughter/wife of -------------------------------------- are true. Signature of Gram Pradhan Date : Name with stamp

iv

Heo H.E Project - Environment Management Plan

CISMHE

ANNEXURE III

VELCAN ENERGY LIMITED HEO H.E. PROJECT WEST SIANG, A.P. APPLICATION FORM FOR TRAINING PROGRAMME 1. 2. 3 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Name of the applicant ( in block letters): Fathers Name Date of birth Qualification Residential Address Name of head of family From whom land acquired (PAP) Relation of applicant With head of family (PAP) Cast Land details : : : : : : :

Attested photograph

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Gen SC OBC ST

a) Name of the village (S) : from where land acquired. b) Area of the land acquired : (in ha.) and taken possession by Heo H.E. project c) Land left (in ha) : d) whether the family has been : declared landless by R&R Officer e) Whether the family member : has got employment Heo H.E. HEP under R&R scheme. f) If Yes Name of employee : g) whether SC/ST/OBC/Gen. : a) Present occupation of the applicant. b) Annual income from the occupation.

--------------------------------------------------------------Yes No.

10.

: : i

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Heo H.E Project - Environment Management Plan 11. Choice of vocations for For which applied (please put a tick mark : i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Food processin Mushroom cultivation Computer course Dairy farming Poultry farming Organic farming :

CISMHE

vii) Sericulture viii) Apiculture ix) Fish culture x) Knitting xi) Sewing xii) Any other please specify 12. Certificates enclosed i) ii) iii) iv) Declaration: I here by declare that all the particulars furnished in this application are complete are true to the best of my knowledge. I shall abide by the rules and conditions mentioned in this scheme for PAFs. Signature of the applicant Name : Date : Place : Verified that the particulars of the applicant Sh/Smt./Km. ------------------------------ /daughter/wife of -------------------------------------- are true. Date : Signature of Gram Pradhan Name with stamp

ii